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Sample records for fusion-driven gas core

  1. A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Godfroy, T.

    1998-01-15

    A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle population to go through one end to a direct converter. The energy of these particles is converted into electric power which is recirculated to sustain the steady state operation of the system. The injected power heats the plasma to thermonuclear temperatures where the resulting fusion energy appears a charged particle power, neutron power, and radiated power in the form of bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation. The neutron power can be converted through a thermal converter to electric power that can be combined with the direct converter power before being fed into the injector. The radiated power, on the other hand, can be used to heat a hydrogen propellant introduced into the system at a specified pressure and mass flow rate. This propellant can be pre-heated by regeneratively cooling the (mirror) nozzle or other components of the system if feasible, or by an electrothermal unit powered by portions of the recirculated power. Using a simple heat transfer model that ignores the heat flux to the wall, and assuming total absorption of radiation energy by the propellant it is shown that such a gas core rocket is capable of producing tens of kilonewtons of thrust and several thousands of seconds of specific impulse. It is also shown that the familiar Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which arises from the relative motion of the neutral hydrogen to the ionized fuel is not likely to occur in this system due to the presence of the confining magnetic field.

  2. A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.; Godfroy, T.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle population to go through one end to a direct converter. The energy of these particles is converted into electric power which is recirculated to sustain the steady state operation of the system. The injected power heats the plasma to thermonuclear temperatures where the resulting fusion energy appears a charged particle power, neutron power, and radiated power in the form of bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation. The neutron power can be converted through a thermal converter to electric power that can be combined with the direct converter power before being fed into the injector. The radiated power, on the other hand, can be used to heat a hydrogen propellant introduced into the system at a specified pressure and mass flow rate. This propellant can be pre-heated by regeneratively cooling the (mirror) nozzle or other components of the system if feasible, or by an electrothermal unit powered by portions of the recirculated power. Using a simple heat transfer model that ignores the heat flux to the wall, and assuming total absorption of radiation energy by the propellant it is shown that such a gas core rocket is capable of producing tens of kilonewtons of thrust and several thousands of seconds of specific impulse. It is also shown that the familiar Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which arises from the relative motion of the neutral hydrogen to the ionized fuel is not likely to occur in this system due to the presence of the confining magnetic field.

  3. Nuclear gas core propulsion research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the nuclear gas core propulsion research program are presented. The objectives of this research are to develop models and experiments, systems, and fuel elements for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion rockets. The fuel elements under investigation are suitable for gas/vapor and multiphase fuel reactors. Topics covered include advanced nuclear propulsion studies, nuclear vapor thermal rocket (NVTR) studies, and ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuels and materials studies.

  4. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  5. Gas Core Nuclear Rocket Feasibility Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, S. D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1997-01-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The gas core concept relies on the use of fluid dynamic forces to create and maintain a vortex. The vortex is composed of a fissile material which will achieve criticality and produce high power levels. By radiatively coupling to the surrounding fluids, extremely high temperatures in the propellant and, thus, high specific impulses can be generated. The ship velocities enabled by such performance may allow a 9 month round trip, manned Mars mission to be considered. Alternatively, one might consider slightly longer missions in ships that are heavily shielded against the intense Galactic Cosmic Ray flux to further reduce the radiation dose to the crew. The current status of the research program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory into the gas core nuclear rocket feasibility will be discussed.

  6. Gas core nuclear rocket feasibility project

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1997-09-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The gas core concept relies on the use of fluid dynamic forces to create and maintain a vortex. The vortex is composed of a fissile material which will achieve criticality and produce high power levels. By radiatively coupling to the surrounding fluids, extremely high temperatures in the propellant and, thus, high specific impulses can be generated. The ship velocities enabled by such performance may allow a 9 month round trip, manned Mars mission to be considered. Alternatively, one might consider slightly longer missions in ships that are heavily shielded against the intense Galactic Cosmic Ray flux to further reduce the radiation dose to the crew. The current status of the research program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory into the gas core nuclear rocket feasibility will be discussed.

  7. Gas-core reactor power transient analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear fuel in the gas-core reactor concept is a ball of uranium plasma radiating thermal photons. The photons are met by an inflowing hydrogen stream, which is seeded with submicron size, depleted uranium particles. A 'wall-burnout' condition exists if the thermal photons can reach the cavity liner because of insufficient absorption by the hydrogen. An analysis was conducted in order to determine the time for which the maximum steady state reactor power could be exceeded without damage to the cavity liner due to burnout. Wall-burnout time as a function of the power increase above the initial steady state condition is shown in a graph.

  8. Open cycle gas core nuclear rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The open cycle gas core engine is a nuclear propulsion device. Propulsion is provided by hot hydrogen which is heated directly by thermal radiation from the nuclear fuel. Critical mass is sustained in the uranium plasma in the center. It has typically 30 to 50 kg of fuel. It is a thermal reactor in the sense that fissions are caused by absorption of thermal neutrons. The fast neutrons go out to an external moderator/reflector material and, by collision, slow down to thermal energy levels, and then come back in and cause fission. The hydrogen propellant is stored in a tank. The advantage of the concept is very high specific impulse because you can take the plasma to any temperature desired by increasing the fission level by withdrawing or turning control rods or control drums.

  9. Growth of Gas-giant Cores in Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    The core accretion scenario is the most successful theoretical model for gas-giant formation. However, the initial growth of the core depends on arbitrary assumptions on planetesimal sizes. Growing the solid core before gas dissipation is problematic due to the long time-scale for run-away accretion, especially in the outer distant regions of a protoplanetary disc. We have studied the dynamics of gas-coupled cm-sized pebbles, gravitationally interacting with larger than km-sized cores. The Pencil Code is used to correctly model the gas drag hydrodynamics. Interestingly, the presence of pebbles in the gaseous disc influences both the dynamics (through dynamical friction) and growth rate of the gas-giant core. Under favourable conditions, i.e. unity mid-plane dust-to-gas ratio and particle growth to mm and cm sizes, pebble accretion turns out to be significantly faster than run-away accretion of planetesimals.

  10. Gas Hydrate Research Coring and Downhole Logging Operational Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Riedel, M.; Malone, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent gas hydrate deep coring and downhole logging projects, including ODP Leg 204, IODP Expedition 311, and the India NGHP-01 effort have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate. These projects have also built on the relatively sparse history of gas hydrate drilling experience to collectively develop a unique operational protocol to examine and sample gas hydrate in nature. The ideal gas hydrate research drill site in recent history, consists of at least three drill holes, with the first hole dedicated to LWD/MWD downhole logging in order to identify intervals to be pressurized cored and to collect critical petrophysical data. The second hole is usually dedicated for continuous coring operations. The third hole is used for special downhole tool measurements such as pressure coring and wire line logging. There is a strong scientific need to obtain LWD/MWD data prior to coring. The coring operations are complemented by frequent deployment of the PCS/HYACINTH pressure core systems. It is essential to know what the gas hydrate concentrations and vertical distribution are before deploying the available pressure core systems in order to choose the optimum depths for pressure coring operations. The coring operations are also complemented by frequent sampling for interstitial water, headspace gas, and microbiological analyses. Although those samples will be taken at relatively regular depths, the sampling frequency can be adjusted if gas hydrate concentrations and distribution can be forward predicted through the analysis of the LWD/MWD pre-core logging surveys. After completing the LWD/MWD logging program, usually as a dedicated drilling leg, field efforts will switch to conventional and pressure-controlled coring operations at each of the sites drilled during the LWD/MWD campaign. The standard continuous core hole will usually include APC coring to an expected refusal depth of ~100 mbsf; each hole is usually

  11. Gas-core reactor power transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    The gas core reactor is a proposed device which features high temperatures. It has applications in high specific impulse space missions, and possibly in low thermal pollution MHD power plants. The nuclear fuel is a ball of uranium plasma radiating thermal photons as opposed to gamma rays. This thermal energy is picked up before it reaches the solid cavity liner by an inflowing seeded propellant stream and convected out through a rocket nozzle. A wall-burnout condition will exist if there is not enough flow of propellant to convect the energy back into the cavity. A reactor must therefore operate with a certain amount of excess propellant flow. Due to the thermal inertia of the flowing propellant, the reactor can undergo power transients in excess of the steady-state wall burnout power for short periods of time. The objective of this study was to determine how long the wall burnout power could be exceeded without burning out the cavity liner. The model used in the heat-transfer calculation was one-dimensional, and thermal radiation was assumed to be a diffusion process.

  12. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  13. Feasibility study of full-reactor gas core demonstration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, J. F.; Lofthouse, J. H.; Shaffer, C. J.; Macbeth, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Separate studies of nuclear criticality, flow patterns, and thermodynamics for the gas core reactor concept have all given positive indications of its feasibility. However, before serious design for a full scale gas core application can be made, feasibility must be shown for operation with full interaction of the nuclear, thermal, and hydraulic effects. A minimum sized, and hence minimum expense, test arrangement is considered for a full gas core configuration. It is shown that the hydrogen coolant scattering effects dominate the nuclear considerations at elevated temperatures. A cavity diameter of somewhat larger than 4 ft (122 cm) will be needed if temperatures high enough to vaporize uranium are to be achieved.

  14. Numerical evaluation of gas core length in free surface vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofano, L.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.

    2014-11-01

    The formation and evolution of free surface vortices represent an important topic in many hydraulic intakes, since strong whirlpools introduce swirl flow at the intake, and could cause entrainment of floating matters and gas. In particular, gas entrainment phenomena are an important safety issue for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors, because the introduction of gas bubbles within the core causes dangerous reactivity fluctuation. In this paper, a numerical evaluation of the gas core length in free surface vortices is presented, according to two different approaches. In the first one, a prediction method, developed by the Japanese researcher Sakai and his team, has been applied. This method is based on the Burgers vortex model, and it is able to estimate the gas core length of a free surface vortex starting from two parameters calculated with single-phase CFD simulations. The two parameters are the circulation and the downward velocity gradient. The other approach consists in performing a two-phase CFD simulation of a free surface vortex, in order to numerically reproduce the gas- liquid interface deformation. Mapped convergent mesh is used to reduce numerical error and a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method was selected to track the gas-liquid interface. Two different turbulence models have been tested and analyzed. Experimental measurements of free surface vortices gas core length have been executed, using optical methods, and numerical results have been compared with experimental measurements. The computational domain and the boundary conditions of the CFD simulations were set consistently with the experimental test conditions.

  15. Probing the Physics of Gas in Cool Core Clusters: Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William

    2010-09-01

    We recently detected high temperature gas at 10^5K associated with the low excitation 10^4K line emission filaments of M87. This is a profoundly important observation bearing on the physics of transport processes in cool core clusters. We propose to delve deeper into the physics of cool core clusters. We propose to use ACS to compare the spatial extent and morphology of the low and high temperature gas, to use the timely presence of COS to obtain a sensitive FUV spectrum of the hot gas, and, by introducing the notion of emission line polarimetry, seek a a potentially revolutionary new plasma diagnostic. The spatial distributions will reveal whether the hotter material is more spatially extended than the cooler; the FUV spectrum will permit derivation of the emission measure {essentially amount of gas} at each temperature between the 10^4K Halpha filaments and coronal gas at 10^7K. Together these strongly constrain plausible transport processes relating the hot and cool gas phases in this cool core cluster region, and hence the dominant physical processes at work. A novel ingredient is to obtain the optical images in polarimetric mode to probe emission line polarization levels, a diagnostic used in Solar physics to determine the relevance of collisional excitation processes such as electron impact polarization in thermal conduction or shocks. With this suite of straightforward, uniquely HST observations we may dramatically change the landscape of our understanding of the physics of cool core clusters

  16. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

    1998-04-21

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

  17. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Jr., Fred; Schatzel, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas- a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers, a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container, and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use.

  18. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qun-Ying; Li, Jian-Gang; Chen, Yi-Xue

    2004-12-01

    Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB) to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW.yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  19. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that “at rest” annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas - inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton - to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  20. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry

    2005-02-01

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that "at rest" annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas — inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton — to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  1. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, Terry

    2005-02-06

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that 'at rest' annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas - inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton - to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  2. Energetic closed-cycle gas core reactors for orbit raising

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosa, R. J.; Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Closed-cycle gas core reactor power plants can be of two types. In the 'mixed flow' type, the gaseous nuclear fuel is intimately mixed with the working gas in the cavity. In the 'light bulb' type the fissioning plasma is enclosed in a transparent tube, and energy transfer to the separate working gas occurs by thermal radiation. The potentials of high temperature gas core reactors in terrestrial electric power generator applications have been considered, and a number of civilian power-beaming applications for gaseous fuel nuclear-MHD power plants in space have been suggested. Major conclusions of investigations related to the design of space power systems are discussed. Attention is given to options for conversion cycles, the power system specific mass, and research and technology issues.

  3. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  4. Conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor with ITER physics and engineering constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bong

    2011-10-01

    A conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor was performed based on ITER physics and engineering constraints. A compact reactor concept is desirable from an economic viewpoint. For the optimal design of a reactor, a radial build of reactor components has to be determined by considering the plasma physics and engineering constraints which inter-relate various reactor components. In a transmutation reactor, design of blanket and shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor; the blanket should produce enough tritium for tritium self-sufficiency, the transmutation rate of waste has to be maximized, and the shield should provide sufficient protection for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil. To determine the radial build of the blanket and the shield, not only a radiation transport analysis but also a burnup calculation were coupled with the system analysis and it allowed the self-consistent determination of the design parameters of a transmutation reactor.

  5. Gas core reactor concepts and technology - Issues and baseline strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Kahook, Samer; Maya, Isaac

    1991-01-01

    Results of a research program including phenomenological studies, conceptual design, and systems analysis of a series of gaseous/vapor fissile fuel driven engines for space power platforms and for thermal and electric propulsion are reviewed. It is noted that gas and vapor phase reactors provide the path for minimum mass in orbit and trip times, with a specific impulse from 1020 sec at the lowest technololgical risk to 5200 sec at the highest technological risk. The discussion covers various configurations of gas core reactors and critical technologies and the nuclear vapor thermal rocket engine.

  6. Hollow-core fiber Fabry-Perot photothermal gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Tan, Yanzhen; Jin, Wei; Lin, Yuechuan; Qi, Yun; Ho, Hoi Lut

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, compact, and low-cost trace gas sensor based on photothermal effect in a hollow-core fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is described. The Fabry-Perot sensor is fabricated by splicing a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) to single-mode fiber pigtails at both ends. The absorption of a pump beam in the hollow core results in phase modulation of probe beam, which is detected by the FPI. Experiments with a 2 cm long HC-PBF with femtosecond laser drilled side-holes demonstrated a response time of less than 19 s and noise equivalent concentration (NEC) of 440 parts-per-billion (ppb) using a 1 s lock-in time constant, and the NEC goes down to 117 ppb (2.7×10-7 in absorbance) by using 77 s averaging time. PMID:27367092

  7. Gamma heating in reflector heat shield of gas core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofthouse, J. H.; Kunze, J. F.; Young, T. E.; Young, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Heating rate measurements made in a mock-up of a BeO heat shield for a gas core nuclear rocket engine yields results nominally a factor of two greater than calculated by two different methods. The disparity is thought to be caused by errors in neutron capture cross sections and gamma spectra from the low cross-section elements, D, O, and Be.

  8. Rapid Transmutation of High-Level Nuclear Wastes in a Catalyzed Fusion-Driven System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Nesrin; Genç, Gamze; Altunok, Taner; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the high-level waste (HLW) transmutation potential of fusion-driven transmuter (FDT) based on catalyzed D-D fusion plasma for various fuel fractions. The Minor actinide (MA) (237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm) and long-lived fission product (LLFP) (99Tc, 129I and 135Cs) nuclides discharged from high burn-up pressured water reactor-mixed oxide spent fuel are considered as the HLW. The volume fractions of the MA and LLFP are raised from 10 to 20% stepped by 2% and 10 to 80% stepped by 5%, respectively. The transmutation analyses have been performed for an operation period (OP) of up to 6 years by 75% plant factor ( η) under a first-wall neutron load ( P) of 5 MW/m2 by using two different computer codes, the XSDRNPM/SCALE4.4a neutron transport code and the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code. The numerical results bring out that the considered FDT has a high neutronic performance for an effective and rapid transmutation of MA and LLFP as well as the energy generation along the OP.

  9. Review of coaxial flow gas core nuclear rocket fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    Almost all of the fluid mechanics research associated with the coaxial flow gas core reactor ended abruptly with the interruption of NASA's space nuclear program because of policy and budgetary considerations in 1973. An overview of program accomplishments is presented through a review of the experiments conducted and the analyses performed. Areas are indicated where additional research is required for a fuller understanding of cavity flow and of the factors which influence cold and hot flow containment. A bibliography is included with graphic material.

  10. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation. [uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Wan, P. T.; Chow, S.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a uranium hexafluoride actinide transmutation reactor to convert long-lived actinide wastes to shorter-lived fission product wastes was analyzed. It is shown that externally moderated gas core reactors are ideal radiators. They provide an abundant supply of thermal neutrons and are insensitive to composition changes in the blanket. For the present reactor, an initial load of 6 metric tons of actinides is loaded. This is equivalent to the quantity produced by 300 LWR-years of operation. At the beginning, the core produces 2000 MWt while the blanket generates only 239 MWt. After four years of irradiation, the actinide mass is reduced to 3.9 metric tonnes. During this time, the blanket is becoming more fissile and its power rapidly approaches 1600 MWt. At the end of four years, continuous refueling of actinides is carried out and the actinide mass is held constant. Equilibrium is essentially achieved at the end of eight years. At equilibrium, the core is producing 1400 MWt and the blanket 1600 MWt. At this power level, the actinide destruction rate is equal to the production rate from 32 LWRs.

  11. Microstructure core photonic crystal fiber for gas sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Monir; Imran Hassan, Md; Roy, Tusher Kanti; Uddin, Muhammad Shahin; Abdur Razzak, S M

    2015-10-10

    In this paper, a highly sensitive gas sensor based on the microstructure core and cladding photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is presented over the wavelength range from 1.3 to 2.2 μm, which is advantageous for sensor fabrication. The guiding properties of the proposed structure are dependent on geometrical parameters and wavelengths, which are numerically investigated by using a finite element method (FEM). Introducing the microstructure core makes it possible to obtain higher relative sensitivity and achieves low confinement loss. Moreover, it can be shown that increasing the diameter of the air holes in the microstructure core and decreasing the size of hole to hole space (pitch), the relative sensitivity is enhanced. In addition, the confinement loss is reduced by increasing the value of the diameter of the air holes in the cladding. Simulation results reveal that for the optimum design of the proposed PCF it is possible to obtain the highest relative sensitivity of about 42.27% at the wavelength λ=1.33  μm for the absorption line of methane (CH4) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) gases. In this case, the confinement loss of the fiber is 4.78345×10-6  dB/m. PMID:26479798

  12. Flowing gas, non-nuclear experiments on the gas core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, J. F.; Cooper, C. G.; Macbeth, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Variations in cavity wall and injection configurations of the gas core reactor were aimed at establishing flow patterns that give a maximum of the nuclear criticality eigenvalue. Correlation with the nuclear effect was made using multigroup diffusion theory normalized by previous benchmark critical experiments. Air was used to simulate the hydrogen propellant in the flow tests, and smoked air, argon, or Freon to simulate the central nuclear fuel gas. Tests were run both in the down-firing and upfiring directions. Results showed that acceptable flow patterns with volume fraction for the simulated nuclear fuel gas and high flow rate ratios of propellant to fuel can be obtained. Using a point injector for the fuel, good flow patterns are obtained by directing the outer gas at high velocity long the cavity wall, using louvered injection schemes. Recirculation patterns were needed to stabilize the heavy central gas when different gases are used.

  13. Are You There Gas? It's Me, Planet: The Effects of Gas on Growth of Gas Giant Cores through Planetesimal Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolansky, Natania R.

    2014-04-01

    Before now, models have not been successful in predicting the rapid growth of rocky cores of gas giant planets at large separations from their host stars. Timescales for growth have far outstripped the lifetime of the gaseous disk surrounding the young star, creating a paradox between the need for the core to accrete material and the depleted supply of gas and dust. I present a model for planetary core accretion taking into account the effect of surrounding gas on the dynamics between the core and the accretable material, thus altering the characteristics of the effective cross section of accretion of the planet. By replacing the Hill radius with a wind shearing (WISH) radius, which tracks the point at which a small particle is not sheared away from a core by differential gas drag force, and by imposing additional energy constraints which determine whether a particle will successfully decouple from the gas during its encounter with the core, I recalculate the timescales of growth of a planetary core under a number of varying parameters. I apply the results to the A-type HR8799 star system, including HR8799b, c, and d, roughly 10MJ planets located at a separation of 68, 38, and 24 AU, respectively. Using the model, I reduce the "last doubling" timescales of growth predicted by classical gravitational focusing models by a factor of 1000, from 107 years to 104 years for HR8799b, c, and d, placing timescales of growth in all three cases within acceptable limits to agree with the lifetime of a gaseous disk and the deduced lifetimes of the planets. These results place within the realm of possibility that these 3 planets are formed by core accretion instead of gravitational instability. In exploring the timescales for growth of planetary cores in systems with varying parameters such as star size, disk density, and dust particle size distributions, I provide a model for predicting the possibility of driftless formation of a gas giant given the protoplanetary system

  14. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, S. D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-01-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The authors have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions.

  15. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, S. D.; Devolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-01-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. We have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions.

  16. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-01-15

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. We have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions.

  17. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-12-31

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The authors have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions.

  18. Comments on the feasibility of developing gas core nuclear reactors. [for manned interplanetary spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Recent developments in the fields of gas core hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and neutronics indicate that gas core nuclear rockets may be feasible from the point of view of basic principles. Based on performance predictions using these results, mission analyses indicate that gas core nuclear rockets may have the potential for reducing the initial weight in orbit of manned interplanetary vehicles by a factor of 5 when compared to the best chemical rocket systems. In addition, there is a potential for reducing total trip times from 450 to 500 days for chemical systems to 250 to 300 days for gas core systems. The possibility of demonstrating the feasibility of gas core nuclear rocket engines by means of a logical series of experiments of increasing difficulty that ends with ground tests of full scale gas core reactors is considered.

  19. The Physics Design for a Fusion Driven Sub-critical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Wu

    2002-11-01

    The Fusion Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is a sub-critical nuclear energy system drive by fusion neutron source, which provides a feasible, safe, economic and highly efficient potential of disposing High Level Waste (HLW) and produce fission nuclear fuel as a early application of fusion technology. This paper reviews the past physics reactor design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China, and a low aspect ratio tokamak energy system that has been proposed, which aims at high β, good confinement, and steady-state operation in a compact configuration at modest field. The system includes a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, a radioactivity clean nuclear power system as blanket and novel concept of liquid metal conductor as centre conductor post. Parameters of such kind reactor are the following. Major radius 1.4m, Minor radius 1m, plasma current 9.2MA, Toroidal field 2.5T, Plasma edge q=5, Average density 1.6 10^20m^3, Average temperature 10keV, Plasma volume 50m^3, Bootstrap current fraction 0.72, Fusion power 100MW, Drive power 28MW, Neutron wall loading 1.0MW/m-2. The plasma configuration is an important part in the low-A tokamak. The Eq code has been used to get a equilibrium. From this calculation, we have found a simple set of PF coils that satisfies the requirements of the large elongation plasma configuration and a vertical field with less curve field lines in the low-A tokamak. The natural elongation can be attributed mostly to differences in the current density profile. In order to determine the feasibility of the low-A tokamak operation, a transient simulation has been made which includes the equilibrium, transport and plasma position shape control in the low-A tokamak. A 1-1/2 equilibrium evolution code has been used to make this simulation. The code is two-dimensional time dependent free boundary simulation code that advances the MHD equations describing the transport time-scale evolution of a axisymmetric tokamak plasma.

  20. PLANETARY CORE FORMATION WITH COLLISIONAL FRAGMENTATION AND ATMOSPHERE TO FORM GAS GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Krivov, Alexander V.; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2011-09-01

    Massive planetary cores ({approx}10 Earth masses) trigger rapid gas accretion to form gas giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. We investigate the core growth and the possibilities for cores to reach such a critical core mass. At the late stage, planetary cores grow through collisions with small planetesimals. Collisional fragmentation of planetesimals, which is induced by gravitational interaction with planetary cores, reduces the amount of planetesimals surrounding them, and thus the final core masses. Starting from small planetesimals that the fragmentation rapidly removes, less massive cores are formed. However, planetary cores acquire atmospheres that enlarge their collisional cross section before rapid gas accretion. Once planetary cores exceed about Mars mass, atmospheres significantly accelerate the growth of cores. We show that, taking into account the effects of fragmentation and atmosphere, initially large planetesimals enable formation of sufficiently massive cores. On the other hand, because the growth of cores is slow for large planetesimals, a massive disk is necessary for cores to grow enough within a disk lifetime. If the disk with 100 km sized initial planetesimals is 10 times as massive as the minimum mass solar nebula, planetary cores can exceed 10 Earth masses in the Jovian planet region (>5 AU).

  1. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept.

  2. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for refilling and connectorization of hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas reference cells. Thees hollow-core photonic crystal fiber allow optical propagation in air or vacuum and are for use as gas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to a mechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  3. Comparisons of in situ and core gas measurements in ODP Leg 164 bore holes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dickens, G.; Borowski, W.S.; Ussler, W., III; Kvenvolden, K.

    2000-01-01

    During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164, an unprecedented effort was made to determine the amounts of gas and gas hydrate in the sediments from Sites 994, 995, and 997. For the first time in the history of academic drilling, a pressure core sampler (PCS) worked well enough to generate an independent stratigraphy of in situ gas concentrations and compositions with depth. Here, gas concentrations and composition data produced by routine shipboard gas sampling techniques are compared with PCS data.

  4. EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shulin; Agnor, C.B.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2010-09-10

    Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of Saturn. In order to account for this structural diversity and the super-solar metallicity in the envelope of Jupiter and Saturn, we investigate the possibility that they may have either merged with other gas giants or consumed several Earth-mass protoplanetary embryos during or after the rapid accretion of their envelope. In general, impinging sub-Earth-mass planetesimals disintegrate in gas giants' envelopes, deposit heavy elements well outside the cores, and locally suppress the convection. Consequently, their fragments sediment to promote the growth of cores. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that it is possible for colliding super-Earth-mass embryos to reach the cores of gas giants. Direct parabolic collisions also lead to the coalescence of gas giants and merging of their cores. In these cases, the energy released from the impact leads to vigorous convective motion throughout the envelope and the erosion of the cores. This dichotomy contributes to the observed dispersion in the internal structure and atmospheric composition between Jupiter and Saturn and other gas giant planets and elsewhere.

  5. Effect of Lithium Enrichment on the Tritium Breeding Characteristics of Various Breeders in a Fusion Driven Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    Selection of lithium containing materials is very important in the design of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven hybrid reactor in order to supply its tritium self-sufficiency. Tritium, an artificial isotope of hydrogen, can be produced in the blanket by using the neutron capture reactions of lithium in the coolants and/or blanket materials which consist of lithium. This study presents the effect of lithium-6 enrichment in the coolant of the reactor on the tritium breeding of the hybrid blanket. Various liquid-solid breeder couples were investigated to determine the effective breeders. Numerical results pointed out that the tritium production increased with increasing lithium-6 enrichment for all cases.

  6. Inert gas stratigraphy of Apollo 15 drill core sections 15001 and 15003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W.; Kirsten, T.; Heymann, D.

    1973-01-01

    Rare gase contents were studied in Apollo 15 drill core sections corresponding to 207 to 238 and 125 to 161-cm depths, with respect to layering of the core, turnover on a centimeter scale, and cosmic proton bombardment history. Trapped gas abundance was established in all samples, the mean grain size being a major factor influencing the absolute rare gas contents. Analysis of the results suggests that the regolith materials were exposed to galactic and solar cosmic rays long before their deposition.

  7. CRITICAL CORE MASSES FOR GAS GIANT FORMATION WITH GRAIN-FREE ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasunori; Ikoma, Masahiro

    2010-05-10

    We investigate the critical core mass and the envelope growth timescale, assuming grain-free envelopes, to examine how small cores are allowed to form gas giants in the framework of the core-accretion model. This is motivated by a theoretical dilemma concerning Jupiter formation: modelings of Jupiter's interior suggest that it contains a small core of <10 M{sub +}, while many core-accretion models of Jupiter formation require a large core of >10 M{sub +} to finish its formation by the time of disk dissipation. Reduction of opacity in the accreting envelope is known to hasten gas giant formation. Almost all the previous studies assumed grain-dominated opacity in the envelope. Instead, we examine cases of grain-free envelopes in this study. Our numerical simulations show that an isolated core of as small as 1.7 M{sub +} is able to capture disk gas to form a gas giant on a timescale of million years if the accreting envelope is grain free; that value decreases to 0.75 M{sub +} if the envelope is metal free, namely, composed purely of hydrogen and helium. It is also shown that alkali atoms, which are known to be one of the dominant opacity sources near 1500 K in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters, have little contribution to determine the critical core mass. Our results confirm that sedimentation and coagulation of grains in the accreting envelope is a key to resolve the dilemma about Jupiter formation.

  8. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  9. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  10. Productive Hemifusion Intermediates in Fast Vesicle Fusion Driven by Neuronal SNAREs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Wang, Tingting; Chapman, Edwin R.; Weisshaar, James C.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro fusion assay uses fluorescence microscopy of labeled lipids to monitor single v-SNARE vesicle docking and fusion events on a planar lipid bilayer containing t-SNAREs. For vesicles and bilayer comprising phosphatidylcholine (POPC, 84–85% by mol) and phosphatidylserine (DOPS, 15% by mol), previous work demonstrated prompt, full fusion (τfus = 25 ms). Substitution of 20–60% phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) for phosphatidylcholine in the v-SNARE vesicle with either 0 or 20% DOPE included in the t-SNARE bilayer gives rise to hemifusion events. Labeled lipids diffuse into the planar bilayer as two temporally distinct waves, presumably hemifusion of the outer leaflet followed by inner leaflet (core) fusion. The fusion kinetics with DOPE is markedly heterogeneous. Some vesicle/docking site pairs exhibit prompt, full fusion while others exhibit hemifusion. Hemifusion events are roughly half productive (leading to subsequent core fusion within 20 s) and half dead-end. In qualitative accord with expectations from studies of protein-free vesicle-vesicle fusion, the hemifusion rate khemi is 15–20 times faster than the core fusion rate kcore, and the fraction of hemifusion events increases with increasing percentage of DOPE. This suggests similar underlying molecular pathways for protein-free and neuronal SNARE-driven fusion. Removal of phosphatidylserine from the v-SNARE vesicle has no effect on docking or fusion. PMID:17951297

  11. Performance potential of gas-core and fusion rockets - A mission applications survey.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.; Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of the performance potential of five nuclear rocket engines for four mission classes. These engines are: the regeneratively cooled gas-core nuclear rocket; the light bulb gas-core nuclear rocket; the space-radiator cooled gas-core nuclear rocket; the fusion rocket; and an advanced solid-core nuclear rocket which is included for comparison. The missions considered are: earth-to-orbit launch; near-earth space missions; close interplanetary missions; and distant interplanetary missions. For each of these missions, the capabilities of each rocket engine type are compared in terms of payload ratio for the earth launch mission or by the initial vehicle mass in earth orbit for space missions (a measure of initial cost). Other factors which might determine the engine choice are discussed. It is shown that a 60 day manned round trip to Mars is conceivable.-

  12. The Structure of Gas-accreting Protoplanets and the Condition of the Critical Core Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2013-03-01

    In the core accretion model for the formation of gas giant planets, runaway gas accretion onto a core is the primary requisite, triggered when the core mass reaches a critical value. The recently revealed wide diversity of the extrasolar giant planets suggests the necessity to further the understanding of the conditions resulting in the critical core mass that initiates runaway accretion. We study the internal structure of protoplanets under hydrostatic and thermal equilibria represented in terms of a polytropic equation of state to investigate what factors determine and affect the critical core mass. We find that the protoplanets, embedded in protoplanetary disks, have the same configuration as red giants, characterized by the envelope of the centrally condensed type solution. Applying the theory of stellar structure with homology invariants, we demonstrate that there are three types of criteria for the critical core mass depending on the stiffness of polytrope and the nature of outer boundary condition. For the stiff polytropes of index N <= 3 with the Bondi radius as the outer boundary, the criterion governing the critical core mass occurs at the surface. For stiff polytropes with the Hill outer boundary and for soft polytropes of N > 3, this criterion acts at the bottom of gaseous envelope. Further, we elucidate the roles and effects of coexistent radiative and convective zones in the envelope of critical core mass. Based on the results, we discuss the relevance of Bondi and Hill surface conditions and explore the parameter dependences of critical core mass.

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF GAS-ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS AND THE CONDITION OF THE CRITICAL CORE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2013-03-01

    In the core accretion model for the formation of gas giant planets, runaway gas accretion onto a core is the primary requisite, triggered when the core mass reaches a critical value. The recently revealed wide diversity of the extrasolar giant planets suggests the necessity to further the understanding of the conditions resulting in the critical core mass that initiates runaway accretion. We study the internal structure of protoplanets under hydrostatic and thermal equilibria represented in terms of a polytropic equation of state to investigate what factors determine and affect the critical core mass. We find that the protoplanets, embedded in protoplanetary disks, have the same configuration as red giants, characterized by the envelope of the centrally condensed type solution. Applying the theory of stellar structure with homology invariants, we demonstrate that there are three types of criteria for the critical core mass depending on the stiffness of polytrope and the nature of outer boundary condition. For the stiff polytropes of index N {<=} 3 with the Bondi radius as the outer boundary, the criterion governing the critical core mass occurs at the surface. For stiff polytropes with the Hill outer boundary and for soft polytropes of N > 3, this criterion acts at the bottom of gaseous envelope. Further, we elucidate the roles and effects of coexistent radiative and convective zones in the envelope of critical core mass. Based on the results, we discuss the relevance of Bondi and Hill surface conditions and explore the parameter dependences of critical core mass.

  14. Dynamic analysis of gas-core reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, K. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A heat transfer analysis was incorporated into a previously developed model CODYN to obtain a model of open-cycle gaseous core reactor dynamics which can predict the heat flux at the cavity wall. The resulting model was used to study the sensitivity of the model to the value of the reactivity coefficients and to determine the system response for twenty specified perturbations. In addition, the model was used to study the effectiveness of several control systems in controlling the reactor. It was concluded that control drums located in the moderator region capable of inserting reactivity quickly provided the best control.

  15. Mass estimates for very cold (<8 K) gas in molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, J.; Linz, H.; Beuther, H.; Henning, Th.; Bacmann, A.

    2016-09-01

    Context. The mass of prestellar cores is an essential ingredient to understand the onset of star formation in the core. The low level of emission from cold dust may keep parts of this dust hidden from observation. Aims: We aim to determine the fraction of core mass in the temperature range <8 K that can be expected for typical low- and high-mass star formation regions. Methods: We calculated the dust temperature within standard spherically symmetric prestellar cores for a grid of density power laws in the outer core regions, core masses, and variations in the external multicomponent radiation field. We assume the dust is composed of amorphous silicate and carbon and we discuss variations of its optical properties. As a measure for the distribution of cores and clumps, we used core mass functions derived for various environments. In view of the high densities in very cold central regions, dust and gas temperatures are assumed to be equal. Results: We find that the fraction of mass with temperatures <8 K in typical low- and high-mass cores is <20%. It is possible to obtain higher fractions of very cold gas by placing intermediate- or high-mass cores in a typical low-mass star formation environment. We show that the mass uncertainty arising from far-infrared to mm modeling of very cold dust emission is smaller than the mass uncertainty owing to the unknown dust opacities. Conclusions: Under typical star formation conditions, dust with temperatures <8 K covers a small mass fraction in molecular cloud cores, but may play a more important role for special cases. The major unknown in determining the total core mass from thermal dust emission is the uncertainty in the dust opacity, not in the underestimated very cold dust mass.

  16. Neutronics analysis of an open-cycle high-impulse gas core reactor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure was developed to calculate the critical fuel mass, including the effects of propellant pressure, for coaxial-flow gas-core reactors operating at 196,600 newtons thrust and 4400 seconds specific impulse. Data were generated for a range of cavity diameter, reflector-moderator thickness, and quantity of structural material. Also presented are such core characteristics as upper limits on cavity pressure, spectral hardening in very-high-temperature hydrogen, and reactivity coefficients.

  17. A demonstration of a whole core neutron transport method in a gas cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, K. J.; Rahnema, F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper illustrates a capability of the whole core transport method COMET. Building on previous works which demonstrated the accuracy of the method, this work serves to emphasize the robust capability of the method while also accentuating its efficiency. A set of core configurations is presented based on an operating gas-cooled thermal reactor, Japan's HTTR, and COMET determines the eigenvalue and fission density profile throughout each core configuration. Results for core multiplication factors are compared to MCNP for accuracy and also to compare runtimes. In all cases, the values given by COMET differ by those given by MCNP by less than the uncertainty inherent in the stochastic solution procedure, however, COMET requires runtimes shorter on the order of a few hundred. Figures are provided illustrating the whole core fission density profile, with segments of pins explicitly modeled individually, so that pin-level neutron flux behavior can be seen without any approximation due to simplification strategies such as homogenization. (authors)

  18. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Venturi, T.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.; Athreya, R. M.; Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4 x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass has previously (> or approx.=0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  19. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  20. Experimental Plans for Subsystems of a Shock Wave Driven Gas Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghai, S.

    2008-01-01

    This Contractor Report proposes a number of plans for experiments on subsystems of a shock wave driven pulsed magnetic induction gas core reactor (PMI-GCR, or PMD-GCR pulsed magnet driven gas core reactor). Computer models of shock generation and collision in a large-scale PMI-GCR shock tube have been performed. Based upon the simulation results a number of issues arose that can only be addressed adequately by capturing experimental data on high pressure (approx.1 atmosphere or greater) partial plasma shock wave effects in large bore shock tubes ( 10 cm radius). There are three main subsystems that are of immediate interest (for appraisal of the concept viability). These are (1) the shock generation in a high pressure gas using either a plasma thruster or pulsed high magnetic field, (2) collision of MHD or gas dynamic shocks, their interaction time, and collision pile-up region thickness, and (3) magnetic flux compression power generation (not included here).

  1. SLOSHING GAS IN THE CORE OF THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXY CLUSTER RXJ1347.5-1145

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitch, Maxim E-mail: cjf@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jzuhone@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-06-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms that the core gas is undergoing 'sloshing' resulting from a prior, large-scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M = 4.8 {+-} 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} has previously ({approx}>0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  2. Gas Metal Arc Welding and Flux-Cored Arc Welding. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike

    These instructional materials are designed to improve instruction in Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW). The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and…

  3. Photothermal effect in gas-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Jin, Wei; Cao, Yingchun; Ho, Hoi Lut

    2015-09-01

    We exploit photothermal effect in gas-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers, and demonstrate remarkably sensitive all-fiber (acetylene) gas sensors with noise equivalent concentration of 1-3 parts-per-billion and an unprecedented dynamic range of nearly six orders of magnitude. These results are two to three orders of magnitude better than previous direct absorption-based optical fiber gas sensors. The realization of photothermal spectroscopy in fiber-optic format will allow a new class of sensors with ultra-sensitivity and selectivity, compact size, remote and multiplexed multi-point detection capability.

  4. Kinetic Temperatures of the Dense Gas Clumps in the Orion KL Molecular Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kuo-Song; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Charnley, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    High angular-resolution images of the J = 18(sub K)-17(sub K) emission of CH3CN in the Orion KL molecular core were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our high-resolution observations clearly reveal that CH3CN emission originates mainly from the Orion Hot Core and the Compact Ridge, both within approximately 15 inches of the warm and dense part of Orion KL. The clumpy nature of the molecular gas in Orion KL can also be readily seen from our high-resolution SMA images. In addition, a semi-open cavity-like kinematic structure is evident at the location between the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. We performed excitation analysis with the "population diagram" method toward the Hot Core, IRc7, and the northern part of the Compact Ridge. Our results disclose a non-uniform temperature structure on small scales in Orion KL, with a range of temperatures from 190-620 K in the Hot Core. Near the Compact Ridge, the temperatures are found to be 170-280 K. Comparable CH3CN fractional abundances of 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -7) are found around both in the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. Such high abundances require that a hot gas phase chemistry, probably involving ammonia released from grain mantles, plays an important role in forming these CH3CN molecules.

  5. Long-slit spectroscopy of gas in the cores of X-ray luminous clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Wang, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The results of long-slit spectroscopy obtained for the core regions of 14 clusters of galaxies are reported. The data are presented in detail. It is shown that the presence of optical emission is tied to the properties of the hot gas in the cluster and not to the morphology of the central galaxy or cluster, demonstrating that the optical systems are indeed formed by the cooling of hot gas. Cooling flows occur when the gas density exceeds a critical central value which corresponds to a cooling time scale which, it is argued, weakly favors low values of H(0). The kinematics of the gas flows are discussed. The excitation mechanisms, correlation of optical emission with radio properties, and upper limits on coronal line strengths from the hot gas are discussed.

  6. Role of the interfaces in multiple networked one-dimensional core-shell nanostructured gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; Ko, Hyunsung; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Chongmu

    2014-06-25

    This study examined the gas sensing mechanism of multiple networked core-shell nanowire sensors. The ethanol gas sensing properties of In2O3/ZnO core-shell nanowires synthesized by the thermal evaporation of indium powder in an oxidizing atmosphere followed by the atomic layer deposition of ZnO were examined as an example. The pristine In2O3 nanowires and In2O3-core/ZnO-shell nanowires exhibited responses of ∼30% and ∼196%, respectively, to 1000 ppm ethanol at 300 °C. The response of the core-shell nanostructures to ethanol also showed a strong dependence on the shell layer width. The strongest response to ethanol was obtained with a shell layer thickness of ∼44 nm corresponding to 2λD, where λD is the Debye length of ZnO. The enhanced sensing properties of the core-shell nanowires toward ethanol can be explained based on the potential barrier-controlled carrier transport model combined with the surface depletion model; the former is predominant over the latter. PMID:24850501

  7. Enhanced ethanol gas sensing properties of SnO₂-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tharsika, T; Haseeb, A S M A; Akbar, Sheikh A; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Hoong, Wong Yew

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures. PMID:25116903

  8. Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2-Core/ZnO-Shell Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Tharsika, T.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Akbar, Sheikh A.; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Hoong, Wong Yew

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ∼5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures. PMID:25116903

  9. Dynamic analysis of an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Kieffer, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    Reactivity and flow disturbances were used to investigate the transient response of a conceptual open cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine. The disturbances were made with the system initially operating at its steady state design point. Results of the study show that the feedbacks associated with the propellant density and propellant temperature have a dominant effect on the response of the system. Furthermore, there appears to be a rather limited range of values of these propellant feedback coefficients for which the gas core nuclear rocket has a stable response. The system was rather insensitive to a fuel flow rate disturbance, whereas a similar disturbance in the propellant flow rate caused large changes in reactor power. For a similar disturbance in the propellant flow rate caused large changes in reactor power. For most reactivity and flow rate disturbances, the response showed oscillations of various intensity.

  10. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  11. Formation of TiC-core, Graphitic-mantle Grains from CO Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new formation route for TiC-core, graphitic-mantle spherules that does not require c-atom addition and the very long timescales associated with such growth (Bernatowicz et al. 1996). Carbonaceous materials can also be formed from C2H2 and its derivatives, as well as from CO gas. In this paper, we will demonstrate that large cage structure carbon particles can be produced from CO gas by the Boudouard reaction. Since the sublimation temperature for such fullerenes is low, the large cages can be deposited onto previously-nucleated TiC and produce TiC-core, graphitic-mantle spherules. New constraints for the formation conditions and the timescale for the formation of TiC-core, graphitic-mantle spherules are suggested by the results of this study. In particular, TiC-core, graphitic-mantle grains found in primitive meteorites that have never experienced hydration could be mantled by fullerenes or carbon nanotubes rather than by graphite. In situ observations of these grains in primitive anhydrous meteoritic matrix could confirm or refute this prediction and would demonstrate that the graphitic mantle on such grains is a metamorphic feature due to interaction of the pre-solar fullerenes with water within the meteorite matrix.

  12. Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabid, F.; Couny, F.; Knight, J. C.; Birks, T. A.; Russell, P. St J.

    2005-03-01

    Gas-phase materials are used in a variety of laser-based applications-for example, in high-precision frequency measurement, quantum optics and nonlinear optics. Their full potential has however not been realized because of the lack of a suitable technology for creating gas cells that can guide light over long lengths in a single transverse mode while still offering a high level of integration in a practical and compact set-up or device. As a result, solid-phase materials are still often favoured, even when their performance compares unfavourably with gas-phase systems. Here we report the development of all-fibre gas cells that meet these challenges. Our structures are based on gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, in which we have recently demonstrated substantially enhanced stimulated Raman scattering, and which exhibit high performance, excellent long-term pressure stability and ease of use. To illustrate the practical potential of these structures, we report two different devices: a hydrogen-filled cell for efficient generation of rotational Raman scattering using only quasi-continuous-wave laser pulses; and acetylene-filled cells, which we use for absolute frequency-locking of diode lasers with very high signal-to-noise ratios. The stable performance of these compact gas-phase devices could permit, for example, gas-phase laser devices incorporated in a `credit card' or even in a laser pointer.

  13. Analysis of core samples from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: Insights into core disturbance and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Lu, Hailong; Winters, William; Boswell, Ray; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.

    2009-09-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  14. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  15. Film stability in a vertical rotating tube with a core-gas flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, G. S. R.; Lu, P. C.; Ostrach, S.

    1971-01-01

    The linear hydrodynamic stability of a thin-liquid layer flowing along the inside wall of a vertical tube rotating about its axis in the presence of a core-gas flow is examined. The stability problem is formulated under the conditions that the liquid film is thin, the density and viscosity ratios of gas to liquid are small and the relative (axial) pressure gradient in the gas is of the same order as gravity. The resulting eigenvalue problem is first solved by a perturbation method appropriate to axisymmetric long-wave disturbances. The damped nature (to within the thin-film and other approximations made) of the nonaxisymmetric and short-wave disturbances is noted. In view of the limitations on a truncated perturbation solution when the disturbance wavenumber is not small, an initial value method using digital computer is presented. Stability characteristics of neutral, growing, and damped modes are presented showing the influences of rotation, surface tension, and the core-gas flow. Energy balance in a neutral mode is also illustrated.

  16. Numerical simulation of the electrical properties of shale gas reservoir rock based on digital core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xin; Zou, Changchun; Li, Zhenhua; Meng, Xiaohong; Qi, Xinghua

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study the electrical properties of shale gas reservoir rock by applying the finite element method to digital cores which are built based on an advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and a combination workflow. Study shows that the shale gas reservoir rock has strong anisotropic electrical conductivity because the conductivity is significantly different in both horizontal and vertical directions. The Archie formula is not suitable for application in shale reservoirs. The formation resistivity decreases in two cases; namely (a) with the increase of clay mineral content and the cation exchange capacity of clay, and (b) with the increase of pyrite content. The formation resistivity is not sensitive to the solid organic matter but to the clay and gas in the pores.

  17. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lee, M.W.; Rose, K.K.; Boswell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole-logging program to determine the occurrence of gas hydrates and the in-situ physical properties of the sediments. In support of this effort, well-log and core data montages have been compiled which include downhole log and core-data obtained from the gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in the Mount Elbert well. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces calculated from available downhole well log and core data. ?? 2010.

  18. Gas Core Reactor with Magnetohydrodynamic Power System and Cascading Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Blair M.; Anghaie, Samim

    2004-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy initiative Generation IV aim is to produce an entire nuclear energy production system with next-generation features for certification before 2030. A Generation IV-capable system must have superior sustainability, safety and reliability, and economic cost advantages in comparison with third generation light water reactors (LWRs). A gas core reactor (GCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power converter and cascading power cycle forms the basis for a Generation IV concept that is expected to set the upper performance limits in sustainability and power conversion efficiency among all existing and proposed fission powered systems. A gaseous core reactor delivering thousands of megawatt fission power acts as the heat source for a high-temperature MHD power converter. A uranium tetrafluoride fuel mix, with {approx}95% mol fraction helium gas, provides a stable working fluid for the primary MHD Brayton cycle. The hot working fluid exiting a topping cycle MHD generator has sufficient heat to drive a conventional helium Brayton cycle with 35% thermal efficiency as well as a superheated steam Rankine cycle, with up to 40% efficiency, which recovers the waste heat from the intermediate Brayton cycle. A combined cycle efficiency of close to 70% can be achieved with only a modest MHD topping cycle efficiency. The high-temperature direct-energy conversion capability of an MHD dynamo combined with an already sophisticated steam-powered turbine industry knowledge base allows the cascading cycle design to achieve breakthrough first-law energy efficiencies previously unheard of in the nuclear power industry. Although simple in concept, the gas core reactor design has not achieved the state of technological maturity that established high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and high-temperature molten salt core reactors have pioneered. However, the GCR-MHD concept has considerable promise; for example, like molten salt reactors the fuel is continuously cycled

  19. Gas Sloshing and Radio Galaxy Dynamics in the Core of the 3C 449 Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Dharam V.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Randall, Scott W.; Forman, William R.; Nulsen, Paul E.; Roediger, Elke; ZuHone, John A.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Jones, Christine; Croston, Judith H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a "sloshing" cold front due to a merger within the last 1.3-1.6 Gyr. Both the northern and southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge.We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. and are confirmed in our deep observation.

  20. GAS SLOSHING AND RADIO GALAXY DYNAMICS IN THE CORE OF THE 3C 449 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Lal, Dharam V.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Randall, Scott W.; Forman, William R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Roediger, Elke; ZuHone, John A.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Croston, Judith H.

    2013-02-10

    We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a 'sloshing' cold front due to a merger within the last {approx}<1.3-1.6 Gyr. Both the northern and southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge. We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. and are confirmed in our deep observation.

  1. The gas phase origin of complex organic molecules precursors in prestellar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmann, A.; Faure, A.

    2016-05-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have long been observed in the warm regions surrounding nascent protostars. The recent discovery of oxygen-bearing COMs like methyl formate or dimethyl ether in prestellar cores (Bacmann et al. [2]), where gas and dust temperatures rarely exceed 10-15 K, has challenged the previously accepted models according to which COM formation relied on the diffusion of heavy radicals on warm (˜30 K) grains. Following these detections, new questions have arisen: do non-thermal processes play a role in increasing radical mobility or should new gas-phase routes be explored? The radicals involved in the formation of the aforementioned COMs, HCO and CH3O represent intermediate species in the grain-surface synthesis of methanol which proceeds via successive hydrogenations of CO molecules in the ice. We present here observations of methanol and its grain-surface precursors HCO, H2CO, CH3O in a sample of prestellar cores and derive their relative abundances. We find that the relative abundances HCO:H2CO:CH3O:CH3OH are constant across the core sample, close to 10:100:1:100. Our results also show that the amounts of HCO and CH3O are consistent with a gas-phase synthesis of these species from H2CO and CH3OH via radical-neutral or ion-molecule reactions followed by dissociative recombinations. Thus, while grain chemistry is necessary to explain the abundances of the parent volatile CH3OH, and possibly H2CO, the reactive species HCO and CH3O might be daughter molecules directly produced in the gas-phase.

  2. Operability test report for core sample truck {number_sign}1 flammable gas modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-09-15

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA.

  3. Absorbance characteristics of a liquid-phase gas sensor based on gas-permeable liquid core waveguides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Su, Shiguang; Wang, Jiahui

    2013-12-01

    The absorbance characteristics and influential factors on these characteristics for a liquid-phase gas sensor, which is based on gas-permeable liquid core waveguides (LCWs), are studied from theoretical and experimental viewpoints in this paper. According to theory, it is predicted that absorbance is proportional to the analyte concentration, sampling time, analyte diffusion coefficient, and geometric factor of this device when the depletion layer of the analyte is ignored. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical hypothesis. According to the experimental results, absorbance is time-dependent and increasing linearly over time after the requisite response time with a linear correlation coefficient r(2)>0.999. In the linear region, the rate of absorbance change (RAC) indicates improved linearity with sample concentration and a relative higher sensitivity than instantaneous absorbance does. By using a core liquid that is more affinitive to the analyte, reducing wall thickness and the inner diameter of the tubing, or increasing sample flow rate limitedly, the response time can be decreased and the sensitivity can be increased. However, increasing the LCW length can only enhance sensitivity and has no effect on response time. For liquid phase detection, there is a maximum flow rate, and the absorbance will decrease beyond the stated limit. Under experimental conditions, hexane as the LCW core solvent, a tubing wall thickness of 0.1 mm, a length of 10 cm, and a flow rate of 12 mL min(-1), the detection results for the aqueous benzene sample demonstrate a response time of 4 min. Additionally, the standard curve for the RAC versus concentration is RAC=0.0267c+0.0351 (AU min(-1)), with r(2)=0.9922 within concentrations of 0.5-3.0 mg L(-1). The relative error for 0.5 mg L(-1) benzene (n=6) is 7.4±3.7%, and the LOD is 0.04 mg L(-1). This research can provide theoretical and practical guides for liquid-phase gas sensor design and development based on a

  4. Gas-phase CO depletion and N2H+ abundances in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippok, N.; Launhardt, R.; Semenov, D.; Stutz, A. M.; Balog, Z.; Henning, Th.; Krause, O.; Linz, H.; Nielbock, M.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya. N.; Schmalzl, M.; Schmiedeke, A.; Bieging, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    +. Chemical modeling indirectly suggests that the gas and dust temperatures decouple in the envelopes and that the dust grains are not yet significantly coagulated. Conclusions: We observationally confirm chemical models of CO-freezeout and nitrogen chemistry. We find clear correlations between the hydrogen density and CO depletion and the emergence of N2H+. The chemical ages indicate a core lifetime of less than 1 Myr. This work is partially based on observations by the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Research of the DC discharge of He-Ne gas mixture in hollow core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian

    2013-09-01

    Since the first waveguide 0.633 μm He-Ne laser from a 20 cm length of 430 μm glass capillary was reported in 1971, no smaller waveguide gas laser has ever been constructed. Recently as the development of low loss hollow core PBG fiber, it is possible to constract a He-Ne lasers based on hollow-core PBG fibers. For the small diameter of the air hole, it is necessary to do some research to obtain glow discharge in hollow core fibers. In this paper, the experimental research of DC discharge in 200 μm bore diameter hollow core fibers was reported. Stable glow discharge was obained at varioue He-Ne mixtures from 4 Torr to 18 Torr. In order to obtain the plasma parameter of the discharge, the trace gasses of N2 and H2 were added to the He-Ne mixtures, the optical emission spectroscopy of the discharge was recorded by a PI 2750 spectroscopy with a CCD camera. The gas temperature (Tg) could be obtained by matching the simulated rovibronic band of the N2 emission with the observed spectrum in the ultraviolet region. The spectral method was also used to obtained the electron density, which is based on the analysis of the wavelength profile of the 486.13 nm Hβ line, and the electron temperature was obtain by Boltzmann plot methods. Experimental results show that it is very difficult to achieve DC discharge in bore diameter less than 50 μm, and a RF discharge method was proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61078033).

  6. Sloshing of the Magnetized Cool Gas in the Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Lee, D.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations of many clusters of galaxies reveal the presence of edges in surface brightness and temperature, known as "cold fronts". In relaxed clusters with cool cores, these edges have been interpreted as evidence for the "sloshing" of the core gas in the cluster's gravitational potential. The smoothness of these edges has been interpreted as evidence for the stabilizing effect of magnetic fields "draped" around the front surfaces. To check this hypothesis, we perform high-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetized gas sloshing in galaxy clusters initiated by encounters with subclusters. We go beyond previous works on the simulation of cold fronts in a magnetized intracluster medium by simulating their formation in realistic, idealized mergers with high resolution ((Delta)x approx. 2 kpc). Our simulations sample a parameter space of plausible initial magnetic field strengths and field configurations. In the simulations, we observe strong velocity shears associated with the cold fronts amplifying the magnetic field along the cold front surfaces, increasing the magnetic field strength in these layers by up to an order of magnitude, and boosting the magnetic pressure up to near-equipartition with thermal pressure in some cases. In these layers, the magnetic field becomes strong enough to stabilize the cold fronts against Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, resulting in sharp, smooth fronts as those seen in observations of real clusters. These magnetic fields also result in strong suppression of mixing of high and low-entropy gas in the cluster, seen in our simulations of mergers in the absence of a magnetic field. As a result, the heating of the core due to sloshing is very modest and is unable to stave off a cooling catastrophe.

  7. Cavity temperature and flow characteristics in a gas-core test reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putre, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    A test reactor concept for conducting basic studies on a fissioning uranium plasma and for testing various gas-core reactor concepts is analyzed. The test reactor consists of a conventional fuel-element region surrounding a 61-cm-(2-ft-) diameter cavity region which contains the plasma experiment. The fuel elements provide the neutron flux for the cavity region. The design operating conditions include 60-MW reactor power, 2.7-MW cavity power, 200-atm cavity pressure, and an average uranium plasma temperature of 15,000 K. The analytical results are given for cavity radiant heat transfer, hydrogen transpiration cooling, and uranium wire or powder injection.

  8. Fuel performance models for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.; Simon, W.A.; Baxter, A.M.

    1983-09-01

    Mechanistic fuel performance models are used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design and licensing to predict failure and fission product release. Fuel particles manufactured with defective or missing SiC, IPyC, or fuel dispersion in the buffer fail at a level of less than 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction. These failed particles primarily release metallic fission products because the OPyC remains intact on 90% of the particles and retains gaseous isotopes. The predicted failure of particles using performance models appears to be conservative relative to operating reactor experience.

  9. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA–DOE–USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5 m to 760.1 m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9 m and 661.0 m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70–75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20–120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas.

  10. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5. m to 760.1. m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9. m and 661.0. m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70-75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20-120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas. ?? 2009.

  11. Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.

  12. Fuel/propellant mixing in an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Wehrmeyer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the mixing of gaseous uranium and hydrogen inside an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine (spherical geometry) is presented. The gaseous uranium fuel is injected near the centerline of the spherical engine cavity at a constant mass flow rate, and the hydrogen propellant is injected around the periphery of the engine at a five degree angle to the wall, at a constant mass flow rate. The main objective is to seek ways to minimize the mixing of uranium and hydrogen by choosing a suitable injector geometry for the mixing of light and heavy gas streams. Three different uranium inlet areas are presented, and also three different turbulent models (k-{var_epsilon} model, RNG k-{var_epsilon} model, and RSM model) are investigated. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to model the flow field. Uranium mole fraction, axial mass flux, and radial mass flux contours are obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Fuel/propellant mixing in an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xu; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the mixing of gaseous uranium and hydrogen inside an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine (spherical geometry) is presented. The gaseous uranium fuel is injected near the centerline of the spherical engine cavity at a constant mass flow rate, and the hydrogen propellant is injected around the periphery of the engine at a five degree angle to the wall, at a constant mass flow rate. The main objective is to seek ways to minimize the mixing of uranium and hydrogen by choosing a suitable injector geometry for the mixing of light and heavy gas streams. Three different uranium inlet areas are presented, and also three different turbulent models (k-ɛ model, RNG k-V model, and RSM model) are investigated. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to model the flow field. Uranium mole fraction, axial mass flux, and radial mass flux contours are obtained.

  14. Gas Core Reactor-MHD Power System with Cascading Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Blair M.; Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis W.

    2002-07-01

    The US Department of Energy initiative Gen-IV aim is to produce an entire nuclear energy production system with next generation features for certification before 2030. A Generation 4 capable system must have superior sustainability, safety and reliability, and economic cost advantages in comparison with third generation light water reactors. A gas core reactor (GCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power converter and cascading power cycle forms the basis for a Generation IV concept that is expected to set the upper performance limits in sustainability and power conversion efficiency among all existing and proposed fission powered systems. A gaseous core reactor delivering 1000's MW fission power acts as the heat source for a high temperature magnetohydrodynamic power converter. A uranium tetrafluoride fuel mix, with {approx}95% mole fraction helium gas, provides a stable working fluid for the primary MHD-Brayton cycle. A helium Brayton cycle extracts waste heat from the MHD generator with about 20% energy efficiency, but the low temperature side is still hot enough ({approx}1600 K) to drive a second conventional helium Brayton cycle with about 35% efficiency. There is enough heat at the low temperature side of the He-Brayton cycle to generate steam, and so another heat recovery cycle can be added, this time a Rankine steam cycle with up to 40% efficiency. The proof of concept does not require a tremendously efficient (first law) MHD cycle, the high temperature direct energy conversion capability of an MHD dynamo, combined with already sophisticated steam powered turbine industry knowledge base allows the cascading cycle design to achieve break-through first law energy efficiencies previously unheard of in the nuclear power industry. Although simple in concept, the gas core reactor design has not achieved the state of technological maturity that, say, molten salt or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors have pioneered. However, even on paper the GCR-MHD concept holds

  15. Gas and grain chemical composition in cold cores as predicted by the Nautilus 3-phase model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruaud, Maxime; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck

    2016-04-01

    We present an extended version of the 2-phase gas-grain code NAUTILUS to the 3-phase modelling of gas and grain chemistry of cold cores. In this model, both the mantle and the surface are considered as chemically active. We also take into account the competition among reaction, diffusion and evaporation. The model predictions are confronted to ice observations in the envelope of low-mass and massive young stellar objects as well as toward background stars. Modelled gas-phase abundances are compared to species observed toward TMC-1 (CP) and L134N dark clouds. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed ice species. It is found that the reaction-diffusion competition strongly enhances reactions with barriers and more specifically reactions with H2, which is abundant on grains. This finding highlights the importance to have a good approach to determine the abundance of H2 on grains. Consequently, it is found that the major N-bearing species on grains go from NH3 to N2 and HCN when the reaction-diffusion competition is accounted. In the gas-phase and before few 105 yrs, we find that the 3-phase model does not have a strong impact on the observed species compared to the 2-phase model. After this time, the computed abundances dramatically decrease due to the strong accretion on dust, which is not counterbalanced by the desorption less efficient than in the 2-phase model. This strongly constrains the chemical-age of cold cores to be of the order of few 105 yrs.

  16. Suspended core-shell Pt-PtOx nanostructure for ultrasensitive hydrogen gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Palash Kr.; Kallatt, Sangeeth; Anumol, Erumpukuthickal A.; Bhat, Navakanta

    2015-06-01

    High sensitivity gas sensors are typically realized using metal catalysts and nanostructured materials, utilizing non-conventional synthesis and processing techniques, incompatible with on-chip integration of sensor arrays. In this work, we report a new device architecture, suspended core-shell Pt-PtOx nanostructure that is fully CMOS-compatible. The device consists of a metal gate core, embedded within a partially suspended semiconductor shell with source and drain contacts in the anchored region. The reduced work function in suspended region, coupled with built-in electric field of metal-semiconductor junction, enables the modulation of drain current, due to room temperature Redox reactions on exposure to gas. The device architecture is validated using Pt-PtO2 suspended nanostructure for sensing H2 down to 200 ppb under room temperature. By exploiting catalytic activity of PtO2, in conjunction with its p-type semiconducting behavior, we demonstrate about two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and limit of detection, compared to the sensors reported in recent literature. Pt thin film, deposited on SiO2, is lithographically patterned and converted into suspended Pt-PtO2 sensor, in a single step isotropic SiO2 etching. An optimum design space for the sensor is elucidated with the initial Pt film thickness ranging between 10 nm and 30 nm, for low power (<5 μW), room temperature operation.

  17. Towards the development of rapid screening techniques for shale gas core properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, Mark R.; Vane, Christopher; Kemp, Simon; Harrington, Jon; Cuss, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas has been produced for many years in the U.S.A. and forms around 8% of total their natural gas production. Recent testing for gas on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire UK suggests there are potentially large reserves which could be exploited. The increasing significance of shale gas has lead to the need for deeper understanding of shale behaviour. There are many factors which govern whether a particular shale will become a shale gas resource and these include: i) Organic matter abundance, type and thermal maturity; ii) Porosity-permeability relationships and pore size distribution; iii) Brittleness and its relationship to mineralogy and rock fabric. Measurements of these properties require sophisticated and time consuming laboratory techniques (Josh et al 2012), whereas rapid screening techniques could provide timely results which could improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of exploration. In this study, techniques which are portable and provide rapid on-site measurements (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy) have been calibrated against standard laboratory techniques (Rock-Eval 6 analyser-Vinci Technologies) and Powder whole-rock XRD analysis was carried out using a PANalytical X'Pert Pro series diffractometer equipped with a cobalt-target tube, X'Celerator detector and operated at 45kV and 40mA, to predict properties of potential shale gas material from core material from the Bowland shale Roosecote, south Cumbria. Preliminary work showed that, amongst various mineralogical and organic matter properties of the core, regression models could be used so that the total organic carbon content could be predicted from the IR spectra with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 0.6% organic carbon, the free hydrocarbons could be predicted with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 0.6 mgHC/g rock, the bound hydrocarbons could be predicted with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 2.4 mgHC/g rock, mica content

  18. Germanium-silicon alloy and core-shell nanocrystals by gas phase synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehringer, Christian; Kloner, Christian; Butz, Benjamin; Winter, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a novel route to synthesize well defined germanium-silicon alloy (GexSi1-x) and core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) employing monosilane (SiH4) and monogermane (GeH4) as precursors in a continuously operated two-stage hot-wall aerosol reactor setup. The first hot-wall reactor stage (HWR I) is used to produce silicon (Si) seed particles from SiH4 pyrolysis in Argon (Ar). The resulting seeding aerosol is fed into the second reactor stage (HWR II) and a mixture of SiH4 and GeH4 is added. The ratio of the precursors in the feed, their partial pressures, the synthesis temperature in HWR II and the overall pressure are varied depending on the desired morphology and composition. Alloy particle production is achieved in the heterogeneous surface reaction regime, meaning that germanium (Ge) and Si are deposited on the seed surface simultaneously. The NCs can be synthesized with any desired composition, whilst maintaining a mean diameter around 30 nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) around 1.25. The absorption behavior and the related fundamental optical band gap energy in dependence on the alloy composition are exemplarily presented. They prove the possibility to tailor NC properties for electronical and opto-electronical applications. In the homogeneous gas phase reaction regime facetted Ge-Si core-shell structures are accessible. The Ge deposition on the seeds precedes the Si deposition due to different gas phase reaction kinetics of the precursors. The Si layer grows epitaxially on the Ge core and is around 5 nm thick.In this work we present a novel route to synthesize well defined germanium-silicon alloy (GexSi1-x) and core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) employing monosilane (SiH4) and monogermane (GeH4) as precursors in a continuously operated two-stage hot-wall aerosol reactor setup. The first hot-wall reactor stage (HWR I) is used to produce silicon (Si) seed particles from SiH4 pyrolysis in Argon (Ar). The resulting seeding aerosol is fed into

  19. Melting and metallization of silica in the cores of gas giants, ice giants, and super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazevet, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Taniuchi, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Guyot, F.

    2015-07-01

    The physical state and properties of silicates at conditions encountered in the cores of gas giants, ice giants, and of Earth-like exoplanets now discovered with masses up to several times the mass of the Earth remain mostly unknown. Here, we report on theoretical predictions of the properties of silica, SiO2, up to 4 TPa and about 20 000 K by using first principles molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. For conditions found in the super Earths and in ice giants, we show that silica remains a poor electrical conductor up to 10 Mbar due to an increase in the Si-O coordination with pressure. For Jupiter and Saturn cores, we find that MgSiO3 silicate has not only dissociated into MgO and SiO2, as shown in previous studies, but that these two phases have likely differentiated to lead to a core made of liquid SiO2 and solid (Mg,Fe)O.

  20. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  1. THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

  2. Effect of multilayer ice chemistry on gas-phase deuteration in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Taquet, V.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Astrochemical models commonly used to study the deuterium chemistry in starless cores consider a two-phase approach in which the ice on the dust grains is assumed to be entirely reactive. Recent experimental studies suggest that cold interstellar ices are mostly inert, and a multilayer model distinguishing the chemical processes at the surface and in the ice bulk would be more appropriate. Aims: We investigate whether the multilayer model can be as successful as the bulk model in reproducing the observed abundances of various deuterated gas-phase species toward starless cores. Methods: We calculated abundances for various deuterated species as functions of time using a pseudo-time-dependent chemical model adopting fixed physical conditions. We also estimated abundance gradients in starless cores by adopting a modified Bonnor-Ebert sphere as a core model. In the multilayer ice scenario, we consider desorption from one or several monolayers on the surface. Results: We find that the multilayer model predicts abundances of DCO+ and N2D+ that are about an order of magnitude lower than observed; the difference is caused by the trapping of CO and N2 within the grain mantle. As a result of the mantle trapping, deuteration efficiency in the gas phase increases and we find stronger deuterium fractionation in ammonia than has been observed. Another distinguishing feature of the multilayer model is that becomes the main deuterated ion at high density. The bulk ice model is generally easily reconciled with observations. Conclusions: Our results underline that more theoretical and experimental work is needed to understand the composition and morphology of interstellar ices, and the desorption processes that can act on them. With the current constraints, the bulk ice model appears to reproduce the observations more accurately than the multilayer ice model. According to our results, the abundance ratio of H2D+ to N2D+ is higher than 100 in the multilayer model, while only

  3. Germanium-silicon alloy and core-shell nanocrystals by gas phase synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mehringer, Christian; Kloner, Christian; Butz, Benjamin; Winter, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-03-12

    In this work we present a novel route to synthesize well defined germanium-silicon alloy (GexSi1-x) and core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) employing monosilane (SiH4) and monogermane (GeH4) as precursors in a continuously operated two-stage hot-wall aerosol reactor setup. The first hot-wall reactor stage (HWR I) is used to produce silicon (Si) seed particles from SiH4 pyrolysis in Argon (Ar). The resulting seeding aerosol is fed into the second reactor stage (HWR II) and a mixture of SiH4 and GeH4 is added. The ratio of the precursors in the feed, their partial pressures, the synthesis temperature in HWR II and the overall pressure are varied depending on the desired morphology and composition. Alloy particle production is achieved in the heterogeneous surface reaction regime, meaning that germanium (Ge) and Si are deposited on the seed surface simultaneously. The NCs can be synthesized with any desired composition, whilst maintaining a mean diameter around 30 nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) around 1.25. The absorption behavior and the related fundamental optical band gap energy in dependence on the alloy composition are exemplarily presented. They prove the possibility to tailor NC properties for electronical and opto-electronical applications. In the homogeneous gas phase reaction regime facetted Ge-Si core-shell structures are accessible. The Ge deposition on the seeds precedes the Si deposition due to different gas phase reaction kinetics of the precursors. The Si layer grows epitaxially on the Ge core and is around 5 nm thick. PMID:25700152

  4. DUST AND HCO{sup +} GAS IN THE STAR-FORMING CORE W3-SE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Lei; Zhao Junhui; Wright, M. C. H.; Wu Yuefang

    2010-03-20

    line profile suggest that other kinematics such as outflows within the central 6'' of the core likely dominate the resulting spectrum. The kinematics of the substructures of B and C suggest that the molecular gas outside the main component A appears to be dominated by the bipolar outflow originated from the dust core with a dynamical age of >3 x 10{sup 4} yr. Our analysis, based on the observations at wavelengths from millimeter, submillimeter, to mid-IR, suggest that the molecular core W3-SE hosts a group of newly formed young stars and protostars.

  5. Solid-Core, Gas-Cooled Reactor for Space and Surface Power

    SciTech Connect

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-20

    The solid-core, gas-cooled, Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) reactor is developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures. The Mo-14%Re reactor core is loaded with uranium nitride fuel in enclosed cavities, cooled by He-30%Xe, and sized to provide 550 kWth for seven years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector disassembles upon impact on water or soil. In addition to decreasing the reactor and shadow shield mass, Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials added to the reactor core ensure that it remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident. With a 0.1 mm thick boron carbide coating on the outside surface of the core block and 0.25 mm thick iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks, the reflector outer diameter is 43.5 cm and the combined reactor and shadow shield mass is 935.1 kg. With 12.5 atom% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide intersititial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating, the S and 4 reactor has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, and a total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 atom% europium-151 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter europium-151 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick europium-151 sesquioxide coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respect0011ive.

  6. Using Animations to Study the Formation of Gas Giant Planets via the Core Accretion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, O.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodemheimer, P.; D'Angelo, G.

    2009-12-01

    With the ever increasing number of extrasolar planets being discovered (373 as of 8/13/09 quoted by The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia: exoplanet.eu) and the recognition of their diverse nature it is very important to understand the formation processes of the gas giant planets. The core accretion model has successfully explained many features of the formation of gas giant planets in the Solar System (Pollack et al. 1996, Hubickyj et al. 2005) and it has provided an explanation of the characteristics of exoplanets. One example is the observed frequency of planets around stars with a high metal content (e.g. Kornet et al. 2005, Valenti and Fischer 2008). Improvements to the input physics to our computer model have resulted in the very important result that gas giant planets (i.e. Jupiter) can form via the core accretion model on a timescale that agrees with observations of protoplanetary disks (Hillenbrand 2008). These observations set the formation time to about 3 to 5 million years. We will present our recent results (Hubickyj et al. 2005,Lissauer et al. 2009) in the form of animations. Our models generate a substantial amount of data. Having published plots of the important values of our study: mass and radius growth, luminosity, and accretion rates as a function of time, we are now ready to study the second tier of information from our recorded data. We examine the energy profiles within the envelope as it evolves, the location and changes of the convective layers, and the location of the mass deposited by the planetesimals in the envelope as the protoplanet evolves. We find that by animating the data we can study the internal processes in the growing envelope of the protoplanet. The qualitative nature of the processes in the protoplanetary envelope is easily discerned in these animations and a deeper insight to the core accretion processes in the gas giant planets is gained. Hillenbrand, L. A. 2008. Disk-dispersal and planet-formation timescales. Physica

  7. Bleed cycle propellant pumping in a gas-core nuclear rocket engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Easley, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of ideal and real staged primary propellant pumps and bleed-powered turbines was calculated for gas-core nuclear rocket engines over a range of operating pressures from 500 to 5000 atm. This study showed that for a required engine operating pressure of 1000 atm the pump work was about 0.8 hp/(lb/sec), the specific impulse penalty resulting from the turbine propellant bleed flow as about 10 percent; and the heat required to preheat the propellant was about 7.8 MN/(lb/sec). For a specific impulse above 2400 sec, there is an excess of energy available in the moderator due to the gamma and neutron heating that occurs there. Possible alternative pumping cycles are the Rankine or Brayton cycles.

  8. Herschel observations of extended atomic gas in the core of the Perseus cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Rupal; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Ferland, Gary J.; Edge, Alastair C.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Whelan, John T.; Johnstone, Roderick M.; Combes, Francoise; Salomé, Philippe; Fabian, Andy C.; Tremblay, Grant R.; Donahue, Megan; Russell, Helen

    2012-11-01

    We present Herschel observations of the core of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. Especially intriguing is the network of filaments that surround the brightest cluster galaxy, NGC 1275, previously imaged extensively in Hα and CO. In this work, we report detections of far-infrared (FIR) lines, in particular, [C II] 158, [O I] 63, [N II] 122, [O IB] 145 and [O III] 88 μm, with Herschel. All lines are spatially extended, except [O III], with the [C II] line emission extending up to 25 kpc from the core. [C II] emission is found to be co-spatial with Hα and CO. Furthermore, [C II] shows a similar velocity distribution to CO, which has been shown in previous studies to display a close association with the Hα kinematics. The spatial and kinematical correlation among [C II], Hα and CO gives us confidence to model the different components of the gas with a common heating model. With the help of FIR continuum Herschel measurements, together with a suite of coeval radio, sub-millimetre and IR data from other observatories, we performed a spectral energy distribution fitting of NGC 1275 using a model that contains contributions from dust emission as well as synchrotron active galactic nucleus emission. This has allowed us to accurately estimate the dust parameters. The data indicate a low dust emissivity index, β ≈ 1, a total dust mass close to 107 M⊙, a cold dust component with temperature 38 ± 2 K and a warm dust component with temperature 116 ± 9 K. The FIR-derived star formation rate is 24 ± 1 M⊙ yr-1, which is in agreement with the far-ultraviolet-derived star formation rate in the core, determined after applying corrections for both Galactic and internal reddening. The total IR luminosity in the range 8-1000 μm is inferred to be 1.5 × 1011 L⊙, making NGC 1275 a luminous IR galaxy. We investigated in detail the source of the Herschel FIR and Hα emissions emerging from a core region 4 kpc in radius. Based on simulations conducted using the radiative

  9. The high density phase of the k-NN hard core lattice gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Trisha; Rajesh, R.

    2016-07-01

    The k-NN hard core lattice gas model on a square lattice, in which the first k next nearest neighbor sites of a particle are excluded from being occupied by another particle, is the lattice version of the hard disc model in two dimensional continuum. It has been conjectured that the lattice model, like its continuum counterpart, will show multiple entropy-driven transitions with increasing density if the high density phase has columnar or striped order. Here, we determine the nature of the phase at full packing for k up to 820 302 . We show that there are only eighteen values of k, all less than k  =  4134, that show columnar order, while the others show solid-like sublattice order.

  10. Supercontinuum up-conversion via molecular modulation in gas-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmidt, S T; Novoa, D; Trabold, B M; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J

    2014-08-25

    We report on the efficient, tunable, and selective frequency up-conversion of a supercontinuum spectrum via molecular modulation in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The vibrational Q(1) Raman transition of hydrogen is excited in the fiber by a pump pre-pulse, enabling the excitation of a synchronous, collective oscillation of the molecules. This coherence wave is then used to up-shift the frequency of an arbitrarily weak, delayed probe pulse. Perfect phase-matching for this process is achieved by using higher order fiber modes and adjusting the pressure of the filling gas. Conversion efficiencies of ~50% are obtained within a tuning range of 25 THz. PMID:25321261

  11. Instabilities in uranium plasma and the gas-core nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of unstable sound waves in a uranium plasma has been calculated using a multiple time-scale asymptotic expansion scheme. The fluid equations used include the fission power density, radiation diffusion, and the effects of the changing degree of ionization of the uranium atoms. The nonlinear growth of unstable waves is shown to be limited by mode coupling to shorter wavelength waves which are damped by radiation diffusion. This mechanism limits the wave pressure fluctuations to values of order delta P/P approximates 0.00001 in the plasma of a typical gas-core nuclear rocket engine. The instability is thus not expected to present a control problem for this engine.

  12. Characterization of gas hydrate reservoirs by integration of core and log data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahk, J.-J.; Kim, G.-Y.; Chun, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, J.Y.; Ryu, B.-J.; Lee, J.-H.; Son, B.-K.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of core and well-log data from the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) drill sites suggest that Sites UBGH2-2_2 and UBGH2-6 have relatively good gas hydrate reservoir quality in terms of individual and total cumulative thicknesses of gas-hydrate-bearing sand (HYBS) beds. In both of the sites, core sediments are generally dominated by hemipelagic muds which are intercalated with turbidite sands. The turbidite sands are usually thin-to-medium bedded and mainly consist of well sorted coarse silt to fine sand. Anomalies in infrared core temperatures and porewater chlorinity data and pressure core measurements indicate that “gas hydrate occurrence zones” (GHOZ) are present about 68–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-2_2 and 110–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-6. In both the GHOZ, gas hydrates are preferentially associated with many of the turbidite sands as “pore-filling” type hydrates. The HYBS identified in the cores from Site UBGH2-6 are medium-to-thick bedded particularly in the lower part of the GHOZ and well coincident with significant high excursions in all of the resistivity, density, and velocity logs. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 12% to 79% with an average of 52% based on pore-water chlorinity. In contrast, the HYBS from Site UBGH2-2_2 are usually thin-bedded and show poor correlations with both of the resistivity and velocity logs owing to volume averaging effects of the logging tools on the thin HYBS beds. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 15% to 65% with an average of 37% based on pore-water chlorinity. In both of the sites, large fluctuations in biogenic opal contents have significant effects on the sediment physical properties, resulting in limited usage of gamma ray and density logs in discriminating sand reservoirs.

  13. Size-controlled, magnetic, and core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by inert-gas condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, Mark A.

    Interest in nanoparticles (2 to 100 nm in diameter) and clusters of atoms (0.5 to 2 nm in diameter) has heightened over the past two and a half decades on both fundamental and functional levels. Nanoparticles and clusters of atoms are an exciting branch of materials science because they do not behave like normal bulk matter, nor do they act like molecules. They can have shockingly different physical, chemical, optical, or magnetic properties from the same material at a larger scale. In the case of nanoparticles, the surface-to-volume ratio can change fundamental properties like melting temperature, binding energy, or electron affinity. The definitions of markers used to distinguish between metallic, semiconducting, and insulating bulk condensed matter, such as the band gap and polarizability, can even be blurred or confused on the nanoscale. Similarly, clusters of atoms can form in structures that are only stable at finite sizes, and do not translate to bulk condensed matter. Thermodynamics of finite systems changes dramatically in nanovolumes such as wires, rods, cubes, and spheres, which can lead to complex core-shell and onion-like nanostructures. Consequently, these changes in properties and structure have led to many new possibilities in the field of materials engineering. Inert-gas condensation (IGC) is a well-established method of producing nanoparticles that condense from the gas phase. Its first use dates back to the early 1990s, and it has been used to fabricate nanoparticles both commercially and in research and development for applications in magnetism, biomedicine, and catalysts. In this dissertation, IGC was used to produce a wide variety of nanoparticles. First, control over the size distributions of Cu nanoparticles and how it relates to the plasma properties inside the nucleation chamber was investigated. Next, the formation of phase pure WFe2 nanoparticles revealed that this Laves phase is ferromagnetic instead of non-magnetic. Finally, core

  14. [Raman Signal Enhancement for Gas Detection Using a Hollow Core Optical Fiber].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-jia; Yang, De-wang; Liu, Chun-hao

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used for gas detection due to the advantages of simultaneous multiple species recognition, rapid analysis, and no sample preparation, etc. Low sensitivity is still a great limitation for Raman application. In this work a Raman system based on a hollow core optical fiber (HCOF) was built and the detection sensitivity for the gas was significantly improved. Also a comparison was carried out between the HCOF Raman system and back-scattering Raman system. The obtained results indicated that the HCOF Raman system could well enhance the signal while also for the background and noise. Using HCOF system, 60 folds signal enhancement was achieved with SNR improvement of 6 times for the N2 and O2 in air when comparing to the back-scattering system. While for the same signal intensity, with HCOF system the exposure time was well shortened to 1/60 and the noise was decreased to 1/2 than the back-scattering system. PMID:27228748

  15. Geochemistry of drill core headspace gases and its significance in gas hydrate drilling in Qilian Mountain permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhengquan; Rao, Zhu; He, Jiaxiong; Zhu, Youhai; Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ting; Xue, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Headspace gases from cores are sampled in the gas hydrate drilling well DK-8 in the Qilian Mountain permafrost. Gas components and carbon isotopes of methane from headspace gas samples are analyzed. The geochemical features of the headspace gases along the well profile are compared with occurrences of gas hydrate, and with the distribution of faults or fractures. Their geochemical significance is finally pointed out in gas hydrate occurrences and hydrocarbon migration. Results show high levels of hydrocarbon concentrations in the headspace gases at depths of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m and 360-380 m. Visible gas hydrate and its associated anomalies occur at 149-167 m and 228-299 m; the occurrence of high gas concentrations in core headspace gases was correlated to gas hydrate occurrences and their associated anomalies, especially in the shallow layers. Gas compositions, gas ratios of C1/ΣC1-5, C1/(C2 + C3), iC4/nC4, and iC5/nC5, and carbon isotopic compositions of methane (δ13C1, PDB‰) indicate that the headspace gases are mainly thermogenic, partly mixed with biodegraded thermogenic sources with small amounts derived from microbial sources. Faults or fracture zones are identified at intervals of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m, and near 360-380 m; significantly higher gas concentrations and lower dryness ratio were found in the headspace gases within the fault or fracture zones compared with areas above these zones. In the shallow zones, low dryness ratios were observed in headspace gases in zones where gas hydrate and faults or fracture zones were found, suggesting that faults or fracture zones serve as migration paths for gases in the deep layers and provide accumulation space for gas hydrate in the shallow layers of the Qilian Mountain permafrost.

  16. Casting core for a cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-01-20

    A ceramic casting core, including: a plurality of rows (162, 166, 168) of gaps (164), each gap (164) defining an airfoil shape; interstitial core material (172) that defines and separates adjacent gaps (164) in each row (162, 166, 168); and connecting core material (178) that connects adjacent rows (170, 174, 176) of interstitial core material (172). Ends of interstitial core material (172) in one row (170, 174, 176) align with ends of interstitial core material (172) in an adjacent row (170, 174, 176) to form a plurality of continuous and serpentine shaped structures each including interstitial core material (172) from at least two adjacent rows (170, 174, 176) and connecting core material (178).

  17. The relationship between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity of pressure cores obtained in the Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Fujii, T.; Nagao, J.

    2014-12-01

    P-wave velocity is an important parameter to estimate gas hydrate saturation in sediments. In this study, the relationship between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity have been analyzed using natural hydrate-bearing-sediments obtained in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The sediment samples were collected by the Hybrid Pressure Coring System developed by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology during June-July 2012, aboard the deep sea drilling vessel CHIKYU. P-wave velocity was measured on board by the Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System developed by Geotek Ltd. The samples were maintained at a near in-situ pressure condition during coring and measurement. After the measurement, the samples were stored core storage chambers and transported to MHRC under pressure. The samples were manipulated and cut by the Pressure-core Non-destructive Analysis Tools or PNATs developed by MHRC. The cutting sections were determined on the basis of P-wave velocity and visual observations through an acrylic window equipped in the PNATs. The cut samples were depressurized to measure gas volume for saturation calculations. It was found that P-wave velocity correlates well with hydrate saturation and can be reproduced by the hydrate frame component model. Using pressure cores and pressure core analysis technology, nondestructive and near in-situ correlation between gas hydrate saturation and P-wave velocity can be obtained. This study was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan.

  18. MIGRATION AND GROWTH OF PROTOPLANETARY EMBRYOS. II. EMERGENCE OF PROTO-GAS-GIANT CORES VERSUS SUPER EARTH PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 15%-20% of solar type stars contain one or more gas giant planets. According to the core-accretion scenario, the acquisition of their gaseous envelope must be preceded by the formation of super-critical cores with masses 10 times or larger than that of the Earth. It is natural to link the formation probability of gas giant planets with the supply of gases and solids in their natal disks. However, a much richer population of super Earths suggests that (1) there is no shortage of planetary building block material, (2) a gas giant's growth barrier is probably associated with whether it can merge into super-critical cores, and (3) super Earths are probably failed cores that did not attain sufficient mass to initiate efficient accretion of gas before it is severely depleted. Here we construct a model based on the hypothesis that protoplanetary embryos migrated extensively before they were assembled into bona fide planets. We construct a Hermite-Embryo code based on a unified viscous-irradiation disk model and a prescription for the embryo-disk tidal interaction. This code is used to simulate the convergent migration of embryos, and their close encounters and coagulation. Around the progenitors of solar-type stars, the progenitor super-critical-mass cores of gas giant planets primarily form in protostellar disks with relatively high (≳ 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) mass accretion rates, whereas systems of super Earths (failed cores) are more likely to emerge out of natal disks with modest mass accretion rates, due to the mean motion resonance barrier and retention efficiency.

  19. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos. II. Emergence of Proto-Gas-Giant Cores versus Super Earth Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 15%-20% of solar type stars contain one or more gas giant planets. According to the core-accretion scenario, the acquisition of their gaseous envelope must be preceded by the formation of super-critical cores with masses 10 times or larger than that of the Earth. It is natural to link the formation probability of gas giant planets with the supply of gases and solids in their natal disks. However, a much richer population of super Earths suggests that (1) there is no shortage of planetary building block material, (2) a gas giant's growth barrier is probably associated with whether it can merge into super-critical cores, and (3) super Earths are probably failed cores that did not attain sufficient mass to initiate efficient accretion of gas before it is severely depleted. Here we construct a model based on the hypothesis that protoplanetary embryos migrated extensively before they were assembled into bona fide planets. We construct a Hermite-Embryo code based on a unified viscous-irradiation disk model and a prescription for the embryo-disk tidal interaction. This code is used to simulate the convergent migration of embryos, and their close encounters and coagulation. Around the progenitors of solar-type stars, the progenitor super-critical-mass cores of gas giant planets primarily form in protostellar disks with relatively high (gsim 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1) mass accretion rates, whereas systems of super Earths (failed cores) are more likely to emerge out of natal disks with modest mass accretion rates, due to the mean motion resonance barrier and retention efficiency.

  20. The origin of gas-phase HCO and CH3O radicals in prestellar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmann, A.; Faure, A.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The recent unexpected detection of terrestrial complex organic molecules in the cold (~10 K) gas has cast doubts on the commonly accepted formation mechanisms of these species. Standard gas-phase mechanisms are inefficient and tend to underproduce these molecules, and many of the key reactions involved are unconstrained. Grain-surface mechanisms, which were presented as a viable alternative, suffer from the fact that they rely on grain surface diffusion of heavy radicals, which is not possible thermally at very low temperatures. Aims: One of the simplest terrestrial complex organic molecules, methanol is believed to form on cold grain surfaces following from successive H atom additions on CO. Unlike heavier species, H atoms are very mobile on grain surfaces even at 10 K. Intermediate species involved in grain surface methanol formation by CO hydrogenation are the radicals HCO and CH3O, as well as the stable species formaldehyde H2CO. These radicals are thought to be precursors of complex organic molecules on grain surfaces. Methods: We present new observations of the HCO and CH3O radicals in a sample of prestellar cores and carry out an analysis of the abundances of the species HCO, H2CO, CH3O, and CH3OH, which represent the various stages of grain-surface hydrogenation of CO to CH3OH. Results: The abundance ratios between the various intermediate species in the hydrogenation reaction of CO on grains are similar in all sources of our sample, HCO:H2CO:CH3O:CH3OH ~10:100:1:100. We argue that these ratios may not be representative of the primordial abundances on the grains but, rather, suggest that the radicals HCO and CH3O are gas-phase products of the precursors H2CO and CH3OH, respectively. Various gas-phase pathways are considered, including neutral-neutral and ion-molecule reactions, and simple estimates of HCO and CH3O abundances are compared to the observations. Critical reaction rate constants, branching ratios, and intermediate species are finally

  1. Grain-scale imaging and compositional characterization of cryo-preserved India NGHP 01 gas-hydrate-bearing cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on grain-scale characteristics and gas analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing samples retrieved by NGHP Expedition 01 as part of a large-scale effort to study gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern-Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography, we investigated gas hydrate grain morphology and distribution within sediments, gas hydrate composition, and methane isotopic composition of samples from Krishna–Godavari (KG) basin and Andaman back-arc basin borehole sites from depths ranging 26 to 525 mbsf. Gas hydrate in KG-basin samples commonly occurs as nodules or coarse veins with typical hydrate grain size of 30–80 μm, as small pods or thin veins 50 to several hundred microns in width, or disseminated in sediment. Nodules contain abundant and commonly isolated macropores, in some places suggesting the original presence of a free gas phase. Gas hydrate also occurs as faceted crystals lining the interiors of cavities. While these vug-like structures constitute a relatively minor mode of gas hydrate occurrence, they were observed in near-seafloor KG-basin samples as well as in those of deeper origin (>100 mbsf) and may be original formation features. Other samples exhibit gas hydrate grains rimmed by NaCl-bearing material, presumably produced by salt exclusion during original hydrate formation. Well-preserved microfossil and other biogenic detritus are also found within several samples, most abundantly in Andaman core material where gas hydrate fills microfossil crevices. The range of gas hydrate modes of occurrence observed in the full suite of samples suggests a range of formation processes were involved, as influenced by local in situconditions. The hydrate-forming gas is predominantly methane with trace quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons of primarily microbial origin. The composition indicates the gas hydrate is Structure I.

  2. Observation of the core of the Perseus cluster with the Einstein solid state spectrometer: Cooling gas and elemental abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Solid State Spectrometer observations of the core of the Perseus cluster have resulted in the detection of X-ray emission lines due to Si, S, and Fe. Analysis of the spectrum indicates that the X-ray emission has at least two characteristic temperatures. This is interpreted in the framework of radiative accretion in the core of the cluster. The derived parameters are a cooling time tc less than 2 x 109 yrs for the low temperature gas, a mass accretion rate of approximately 300 Mo/yr and a characteristic size of 10 to 20 Kpc for the cool gas. The Fe abundance in the core, approximately 0.4, is similar to the Fe abundance averaged over the whole cluster indicating that Fe emission is not strongly concentrated about NGC 1275. The Si and S abundances are consistent with solar values.

  3. Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Chang, Wonkeun; Hölzer, Philipp; Nazarkin, Alexander; Travers, John C; Joly, Nicolas Y; Russell, Philip St J; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-11-11

    We show theoretically that the photoionization process in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with a Raman-inactive noble gas leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous shift to higher frequencies, limited only by ionization loss. This phenomenon is opposite to the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers. We also predict the existence of unconventional long-range nonlocal soliton interactions leading to spectral and temporal soliton clustering. Furthermore, if the core is filled with a Raman-active molecular gas, spectral transformations between redshifted, blueshifted, and stabilized solitons can take place in the same fiber. PMID:22181733

  4. MHTGR [modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor] core physics validation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, A.; Hackney, R.

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the verification and validation (V&V) plan for analytical methods utilized in the nuclear design for normal and off-normal conditions within the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). Regulations, regulatory guides, and industry standards have been reviewed and the approach for V&V has been developed. MHTGR core physics methods are described and the status of previous V&V is summarized within this document. Additional work required to verify and validate these methods is identified. The additional validation work includes comparison of calculations with available experimental data, benchmark comparison of calculations with available experimental data, benchmark comparisons with other validated codes, results from a cooperative program now underway at the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchs-Reaktor GmbH (AVR) facility in Germany, results from a planned series of experiments on the Compact Nuclear Power Source (CNPS) facility at Los Alamos, and detailed documentation of all V&V studies. In addition, information will be obtained from planned international cooperative agreements to provide supplemental data for V&V. The regulatory technology development plan will be revised to include these additional experiments. A work schedule and cost estimate for completing this plan is also provided. This work schedule indicates the timeframe in which major milestones must be performed in order to complete V&V tasks prior to the issuance of preliminary design approval from the NRC. The cost to complete V&V tasks for core physics computational methods is estimated to be $2.2M. 41 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Detection of a turbulent gas component associated with a starless core with subthermal turbulence in the Orion A cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Hirota, Tomoya; Choi, Minho; Mizuno, Norikazu

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of a wing component in NH3 emission towards the starless core TUKH122 with subthermal turbulence in the Orion A cloud. This NH3 core is suggested to be on the verge of star formation because the turbulence inside the NH3 core is almost completely dissipated, and also because it is surrounded by CCS, which resembles the prestellar core L1544 in Taurus showing infall motions. Observations were carried out with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope at 0.05 km s-1 velocity resolution. We find that the NH3 line profile consists of two components. The quiescent main component has a small linewidth of 0.3 km s-1 dominated by thermal motion, and the red-shifted wing component has a large linewidth of 1.36 km s-1 representing turbulent motion. These components show kinetic temperatures of 11 and <30 K, respectively. Furthermore, there is a clear velocity offset between the NH3 quiescent gas (Local Standard of Rest velocity = 3.7 km s-1) and the turbulent gas (4.4 km s-1). The centroid velocity of the turbulent gas corresponds to that of the surrounding gas traced by the 13CO (J = 1-0) and CS (J = 2-1) lines. Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model calculations for CS and CO show that the turbulent gas has a temperature of 8-13 K and an H2 density of ˜104 cm-3, suggesting that the temperature of the turbulent component is also ˜10 K. The detections of both NH3 quiescent and wing components may indicate a sharp transition from the turbulent parent cloud to the quiescent dense core.

  6. Detection of a turbulent gas component associated with a starless core with subthermal turbulence in the Orion A cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyen Luong, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya; Choi, Minho; Mizuno, Norikazu

    2016-04-01

    We report the detection of a wing component in NH3 emission toward the starless core TUKH122 with subthermal turbulence in the Orion A cloud. This NH3 core is suggested to be on the verge of star formation because the turbulence inside the NH3 core is almost completely dissipated, and also because it is surrounded by CCS, which resembles the prestellar core L1544 in Taurus showing infall motions. Observations were carried out with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope at 0.05 km s-1 velocity resolution. We find that the NH3 line profile consists of two components. The quiescent main component has a small linewidth of 0.3 km s-1 dominated by thermal motions, and the red-shifted wing component has a large linewidth of 1.36 km s-1 representing turbulent motions. These components show kinetic temperatures of 11 K and < 30 K, respectively. Furthermore, there is a clear velocity offset between the NH3 quiescent gas (VLSR = 3.7 km s-1) and the turbulent gas (VLSR = 4.4 km s-1). The centroid velocity of the turbulent gas corresponds to that of the surrounding gas traced by the 13CO (J = 1 - 0) and CS (J = 2 - 1) lines. LVG model calculations for CS and CO show that the turbulent gas has a temperature of 8 - 13 K and an H2 density of ∼ 104 cm-3, suggesting that the temperature of the turbulent component is also ∼ 10 K. The detections of both NH3 quiescent and wing components may indicate a sharp transition from the turbulent parent cloud to the quiescent dense core.

  7. An analytical study of volatile metallic fission product release from very high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel and core

    SciTech Connect

    Mitake, S.; Okamoto, F.

    1988-04-01

    Release characteristics of volatile metallic fission products from the coated fuel particle and the reactor core for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor during its power operation has been studied using numerical analysis. A computer code FORNAX, based on Fick's diffusion law and the evaporation mass transfer relation, has been developed, which considers, in particular, distribution and time histories of power density, fuel temperature, and failed and degraded fuel particle fractions in the core. Applicability of the code to evaluate the core design has been shown and the following have been indicated on the release of cesium from the reactor: 1. The release from the intact fuel particles by diffusion through their intact coatings shows larger contribution in the total core release at higher temperature. 2. The diffusion release from the intact particle is governed not only by the diffusion in the silicon carbide layer but also by that in the fuel kernel.

  8. Buoyancy-driven inflow to a relic cold core: the gas belt in radio galaxy 3C 386

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, R. T.; Worrall, D. M.; Birkinshaw, M.; Kraft, R. P.

    2016-07-01

    We report measurements from an XMM-Newton observation of the low-excitation radio galaxy 3C 386. The study focusses on an X-ray-emitting gas belt, which lies between and orthogonal to the radio lobes of 3C 386 and has a mean temperature of 0.94 ± 0.05 keV, cooler than the extended group atmosphere. The gas in the belt shows temperature structure with material closer to the surrounding medium being hotter than gas closer to the host galaxy. We suggest that this gas belt involves a `buoyancy-driven inflow' of part of the group-gas atmosphere where the buoyant rise of the radio lobes through the ambient medium has directed an inflow towards the relic cold core of the group. Inverse-Compton emission from the radio lobes is detected at a level consistent with a slight suppression of the magnetic field below the equipartition value.

  9. Buoyancy-driven inflow to a relic cold core: the gas belt in radio galaxy 3C 386

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, R. T.; Worrall, D. M.; Birkinshaw, M.; Kraft, R. P.

    2016-04-01

    We report measurements from an XMM-Newton observation of the low-excitation radio galaxy 3C 386. The study focusses on an X-ray-emitting gas belt, which lies between and orthogonal to the radio lobes of 3C 386 and has a mean temperature of 0.94 ± 0.05 keV, cooler than the extended group atmosphere. The gas in the belt shows temperature structure with material closer to the surrounding medium being hotter than gas closer to the host galaxy. We suggest that this gas belt involves a `buoyancy-driven inflow' of part of the group-gas atmosphere where the buoyant rise of the radio lobes through the ambient medium has directed an inflow towards the relic cold core of the group. Inverse-Compton emission from the radio lobes is detected at a level consistent with a slight suppression of the magnetic field below the equipartition value.

  10. Multiple phase transitions in extended hard-core lattice gas models in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Nath, Trisha; Rajesh, R

    2014-07-01

    We study the k-NN hard-core lattice gas model in which the first k next-nearest-neighbor sites of a particle are excluded from occupation by other particles on a two-dimensional square lattice. This model is the lattice version of the hard-disk system with increasing k corresponding to decreasing lattice spacing. While the hard-disk system is known to undergo a two-step freezing process with increasing density, the lattice model has been known to show only one transition. Here, based on Monte Carlo simulations and high-density expansions of the free energy and density, we argue that for k = 4,10,11,14,⋯, the lattice model undergoes multiple transitions with increasing density. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm the same for k = 4,...,11. This, in turn, resolves an existing puzzle as to why the 4-NN model has a continuous transition against the expectation of a first-order transition. PMID:25122264

  11. Raman-free nonlinear optical effects in high pressure gas-filled hollow core PCF.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Wong, G K L; Chang, W; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J

    2013-02-25

    The effective Kerr nonlinearity of hollow-core kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber (PCF) filled with argon gas increases to ~15% of that of bulk silica glass when the pressure is increased from 1 to 150 bar, while the zero dispersion wavelength shifts from 300 to 900 nm. The group velocity dispersion of the system is uniquely pressure-tunable over a wide range while avoiding Raman scattering-absent in noble gases-and having an extremely high optical damage threshold. As a result, detailed and well-controlled studies of nonlinear effects can be performed, in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, using only a fixed-frequency pump laser. For example, the absence of Raman scattering permits clean observation, at high powers, of the interaction between a modulational instability side-band and a soliton-created dispersive wave. Excellent agreement is obtained between numerical simulations and experimental results. The system has great potential for the realization of reconfigurable supercontinuum sources, wavelength convertors and short-pulse laser systems. PMID:23481974

  12. Georgia Institute of Technology research on the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Schneider, A.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The program reviewed is a study of the feasibility, design, and optimization of the GCATR. The program is designed to take advantage of initial results and to continue work carried out on the Gas Core Breeder Reactor. The program complements NASA's program of developing UF6 fueled cavity reactors for power, nuclear pumped lasers, and other advanced technology applications. The program comprises: (1) General Studies--Parametric survey calculations performed to examine the effects of reactor spectrum and flux level on the actinide transmutation for GCATR conditions. The sensitivity of the results to neutron cross sections are to be assessed. Specifically, the parametric calculations of the actinide transmutation are to include the mass, isotope composition, fission and capture rates, reactivity effects, and neutron activity of recycled actinides. (2) GCATR Design Studies--This task is a major thrust of the proposed research program. Several subtasks are considered: optimization criteria studies of the blanket and fuel reprocessing, the actinide insertion and recirculation system, and the system integration. A brief review of the background of the GCATR and ongoing research is presented.

  13. Do radio mini-halos and gas heating in cool-core clusters have a common origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravi, L.; Gitti, M.; Brunetti, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a study of the central regions of cool-core clusters hosting radio mini-halos, which are diffuse synchrotron sources extended on cluster-scales surrounding the radio-loud brightest cluster galaxy. We aim to investigate the interplay between the thermal and non-thermal components in the intracluster medium in order to get more insights into these radio sources, whose nature is still unclear. It has recently been proposed that turbulence plays a role for heating the gas in cool cores. By assuming that mini-halos are powered by the same turbulence, we expect that the integrated radio luminosity of mini-halos, νPν, depends on the cooling flow power, PCF, which in turn constrains the energy available for the non-thermal components and emission in the cool-core region. We carried out a homogeneous re-analysis of X-ray Chandra data of the largest sample of cool-core clusters hosting radio mini-halos currently available (˜20 objects), finding a quasi-linear correlation, ν P_{ν } ∝ P_CF^{0.8}. We show that the scenario of a common origin of radio mini-halos and gas heating in cool-core clusters is energetically viable, provided that mini-halos trace regions where the magnetic field strength is B ≫ 0.5 μG.

  14. A Computational Fluid Dynamic and Heat Transfer Model for Gaseous Core and Gas Cooled Space Power and Propulsion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, S.; Chen, G.

    1996-01-01

    A computational model based on the axisymmetric, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is developed to predict the convective, radiation and conductive heat transfer in high temperature space nuclear reactors. An implicit-explicit, finite volume, MacCormack method in conjunction with the Gauss-Seidel line iteration procedure is utilized to solve the thermal and fluid governing equations. Simulation of coolant and propellant flows in these reactors involves the subsonic and supersonic flows of hydrogen, helium and uranium tetrafluoride under variable boundary conditions. An enthalpy-rebalancing scheme is developed and implemented to enhance and accelerate the rate of convergence when a wall heat flux boundary condition is used. The model also incorporated the Baldwin and Lomax two-layer algebraic turbulence scheme for the calculation of the turbulent kinetic energy and eddy diffusivity of energy. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to simulate the radiative energy transfer in the optically thick environment of gas core reactors. The computational model is benchmarked with experimental data on flow separation angle and drag force acting on a suspended sphere in a cylindrical tube. The heat transfer is validated by comparing the computed results with the standard heat transfer correlations predictions. The model is used to simulate flow and heat transfer under a variety of design conditions. The effect of internal heat generation on the heat transfer in the gas core reactors is examined for a variety of power densities, 100 W/cc, 500 W/cc and 1000 W/cc. The maximum temperature, corresponding with the heat generation rates, are 2150 K, 2750 K and 3550 K, respectively. This analysis shows that the maximum temperature is strongly dependent on the value of heat generation rate. It also indicates that a heat generation rate higher than 1000 W/cc is necessary to maintain the gas temperature at about 3500 K, which is typical design temperature required to achieve high

  15. High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, O. H.; Baer, C. R. E.; Kränkel, C.; Marchese, S. V.; Schapper, F.; Holler, M.; Südmeyer, T.; Robinson, J. S.; Tisch, J. W. G.; Couny, F.; Light, P.; Benabid, F.; Keller, U.

    2009-10-01

    :270, 2007). The interaction between the laser pulses and the gas occurs in a Kagome-type Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) (Benabid et al., Science 298:399, 2002), which reduces the detection threshold for HHG to only 200 nJ. This novel type of fiber guides nearly all of the light in the hollow core (Couny et al., Science 318:1118, 2007), preventing damage even at intensities required for HHG. Our fiber guided 30-fs pulses with a pulse energy of more than 10 μJ, which is more than five times higher than for any other photonic crystal fiber (Hensley et al., Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), IEEE Press, New York, 2008).

  16. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Pin core subassembly designfor the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Hoffman, E. A.; Pfeiffer, P. F.; Therios, I. U.

    2006-07-31

    The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of six systems selected for viability assessment in the Generation IV program. It features a closed nuclear fuel cycle, consisting of a high-temperature helium-cooled fast spectrum reactor, coupled to a direct-cycle helium turbine for electricity production. The GFR combines the advances of fast spectrum systems with those of high-temperature systems. It was clear from the very beginning that GFR design should be driven by the objective to offer a complementary approach to liquid metal cooling. On this basis, CEA and the US DOE decided to collaborate on the pre-conceptual design of a GFR. This reactor design will provide a high level of safety and full recycling of the actinides, and will also be highly proliferation resistant and economically attractive. The status of this collaborative project is that two unit sizes, 600 MWt and 2400 MWt were selected as the focus of the design and safety studies. Researchers studied fuel forms, fuel assembly/element designs, core configurations, primary and balance-of-plant layouts, and safety approaches for both of these unit sizes. Results regarding the feasibility of this GFR design are encouraging. For example, sustainability and non-proliferation goals can be met and the proposed concept has attractive safety features. These features take advantage of the helium in terms of its neutronic quasi-transparency as well as the enhanced Doppler effect in connection with candidate fuel and structural materials. The current design trend is to consider high unit power for the GFR (2400 MWt), an attractive level for the power density (100 MW/m{sup 3}), and the implementation of an innovative plate type fuel or pin type sub-assembly with carbide-based actinide compounds and SiC-based structural materials. Work is still needed to refine the safety approach, to select the main system options, and to more definitively establish economic parameters.

  17. Enhanced performance of core-shell structured polyaniline at helical carbon nanotube hybrids for ammonia gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Xiangnan; Yang, Weiqing; Xu, Xiaoling E-mail: bihan-2001@163.com; Jiang, Man; Zhou, Zuowan E-mail: bihan-2001@163.com; Wu, Zuquan

    2014-11-17

    A core-shell structured hybrid of polyaniline at helical carbon nanotubes was synthesized using in situ polymerization, which the helical carbon nanotubes were uniformly surrounded by a layer of polyaniline nanorods array. More interestingly, repeatable responses were experimentally observed that the sensitivity to ammonia gas of the as-prepared helical shaped core-shell hybrid displays an enhancement of more than two times compared to those of only polyaniline or helical carbon nanotubes sensors because of the peculiar structures with high surface area. This kind of hybrid comprising nanorod arrays of conductive polymers covering carbon nanotubes and related structures provide a potential in sensors of trace gas detection for environmental monitoring and safety forecasting.

  18. MORECA: A computer code for simulating modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core heatup accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The design features of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) have the potential to make it essentially invulnerable to damage from postulated core heatup accidents. This report describes the ORNL MORECA code, which was developed for analyzing postulated long-term core heatup scenarios for which active cooling systems used to remove afterheat following the accidents can be assumed to the unavailable. Simulations of long-term loss-of-forced-convection accidents, both with and without depressurization of the primary coolant, have shown that maximum core temperatures stay below the point at which any significant fuel failures and fission product releases are expected. Sensitivity studies also have been done to determine the effects of errors in the predictions due both to uncertainties in the modeling and to the assumptions about operational parameters. MORECA models the US Department of Energy reference design of a standard MHTGR.

  19. Engineering high-performance Pd core-MgO porous shell nanocatalysts via heterogeneous gas-phase synthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vidyadhar; Cassidy, Cathal; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Aranishi, Kengo; Kumar, Sushant; Lal, Chhagan; Gspan, Christian; Grogger, Werner; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2015-08-28

    We report on the design and synthesis of high performance catalytic nanoparticles with a robust geometry via magnetron-sputter inert-gas condensation. Sputtering of Pd and Mg from two independent neighbouring targets enabled heterogeneous condensation and growth of nanoparticles with controlled Pd core-MgO porous shell structure. The thickness of the shell and the number of cores within each nanoparticle could be tailored by adjusting the respective sputtering powers. The nanoparticles were directly deposited on glassy carbon electrodes, and their catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation was examined by cyclic voltammetry. The measurements indicated that the catalytic activity was superior to conventional bare Pd nanoparticles. As confirmed by electron microscopy imaging and supported by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we attribute the improved catalytic performance primarily to inhibition of Pd core sintering during the catalytic process by the metal-oxide shell. PMID:26203627

  20. Reactor moderator, pressure vessel, and heat rejection system of an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyke, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-megawatt open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 196,600 newtons (44,200 lb) and a specific impulse of 4400 seconds. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel, and waste heat rejection system) were considered conceptually and were sized.

  1. Density fluctuations of a hard-core Bose gas in a one-dimensional lattice near the Mott insulating phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ates, C.; Moseley, Ch.; Ziegler, K.

    2005-06-15

    The characteristic oscillations of the density-density correlation function and the resulting structure factor are studied for a hard-core Bose gas in a one-dimensional lattice. Their wavelength diverges as the system undergoes a continuous transition from an incommensurate to a Mott insulating phase. The transition is associated with a unit static structure factor and a vanishing sound velocity. The qualitative picture is unchanged when a weak confining potential is applied to the system.

  2. SOLUBILITY OF WATER ICE IN METALLIC HYDROGEN: CONSEQUENCES FOR CORE EROSION IN GAS GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, H. F.; Militzer, B.

    2012-01-20

    Using ab initio simulations we investigate whether water ice is stable in the cores of giant planets, or whether it dissolves into the layer of metallic hydrogen above. By Gibbs free energy calculations we find that for pressures between 10 and 40 Mbar the ice-hydrogen interface is thermodynamically unstable at temperatures above approximately 3000 K, far below the temperature of the core-mantle boundaries in Jupiter and Saturn. This implies that the dissolution of core material into the fluid layers of giant planets is thermodynamically favored, and that further modeling of the extent of core erosion is warranted.

  3. Engineering high-performance Pd core-MgO porous shell nanocatalysts via heterogeneous gas-phase synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vidyadhar; Cassidy, Cathal; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Aranishi, Kengo; Kumar, Sushant; Lal, Chhagan; Gspan, Christian; Grogger, Werner; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2015-08-01

    We report on the design and synthesis of high performance catalytic nanoparticles with a robust geometry via magnetron-sputter inert-gas condensation. Sputtering of Pd and Mg from two independent neighbouring targets enabled heterogeneous condensation and growth of nanoparticles with controlled Pd core-MgO porous shell structure. The thickness of the shell and the number of cores within each nanoparticle could be tailored by adjusting the respective sputtering powers. The nanoparticles were directly deposited on glassy carbon electrodes, and their catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation was examined by cyclic voltammetry. The measurements indicated that the catalytic activity was superior to conventional bare Pd nanoparticles. As confirmed by electron microscopy imaging and supported by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we attribute the improved catalytic performance primarily to inhibition of Pd core sintering during the catalytic process by the metal-oxide shell.We report on the design and synthesis of high performance catalytic nanoparticles with a robust geometry via magnetron-sputter inert-gas condensation. Sputtering of Pd and Mg from two independent neighbouring targets enabled heterogeneous condensation and growth of nanoparticles with controlled Pd core-MgO porous shell structure. The thickness of the shell and the number of cores within each nanoparticle could be tailored by adjusting the respective sputtering powers. The nanoparticles were directly deposited on glassy carbon electrodes, and their catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation was examined by cyclic voltammetry. The measurements indicated that the catalytic activity was superior to conventional bare Pd nanoparticles. As confirmed by electron microscopy imaging and supported by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we attribute the improved catalytic performance primarily to inhibition of Pd core sintering during the catalytic process by the metal-oxide shell

  4. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for evacuating, refilling and connectorizing hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for use asgas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to amechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  5. Gas composition and isotopic geochemistry of cuttings, core, and gas hydrate from the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular and isotopic composition of gases from the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well demonstrate that the in situ gases can be divided into three zones composed of mixtures of microbial and thermogenic gases. Sediments penetrated by the well are thermally immature; thus the sediments are probably not a source of thermogenic gas. Thermogenic gas likely migrated from depths below 5000 m. Higher concentrations of gas within and beneath the gas hydrate zone suggest that gas hydrate is a partial barrier to gas migration. Gas hydrate accumulations occur wholly within zone 3, below the base of permafrost. The gas in gas hydrate resembles, in part, the thermogenic gas in surrounding sediments and gas desorbed from lignite. Gas hydrate composition implies that the primary gas hydrate form is Structure I. However, Structure II stabilizing gases are more concentrated and isotopically partitioned in gas hydrate relative to the sediment hosting the gas hydrate, implying that Structure II gas hydrate may be present in small quantities.

  6. Geological controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate from core, downhole log, and seismic data in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xiujuan Wang; Xiujuan Wang; Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection data, well logs, and recovered sediment cores have been used in this study to characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea. The concept of the "gas hydrate petroleum system" has allowed for the systematic analysis of the impact of gas source, geologic controls on gas migration, and the role of the host sediment in the formation and stability of gas hydrates as encountered during the 2007 Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Expedition (GMGS-1) in the Shenhu area. Analysis of seismic and bathymetric data identified seventeen sub-linear, near-parallel submarine canyons in this area. These canyons, formed in the Miocene, migrated in a northeasterly direction, and resulted in the burial and abandonment of canyons partially filled by coarse-grained sediments. Downhole wireline log (DWL) data were acquired from eight drill sites and sediment coring was conducted at five of these sites, which revealed the presence of suitable reservoirs for the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations. Gas hydrate-bearing sediment layers were identified from well log and core data at three sites mainly within silt and silt clay sediments. Gas hydrate was also discovered in a sand reservoir at one site as inferred from the analysis of the DWL data. Seismic anomalies attributed to the presence of gas below the base of gas hydrate stability zone, provided direct evidence for the migration of gas into the overlying gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary sections. Geochemical analyses of gas samples collected from cores confirmed that the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area is controlled by the presence thermogenic methane gas that has migrated into the gas hydrate stability zone from a more deeply buried source.

  7. Integral manifolding structure for fuel cell core having parallel gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Herceg, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    Disclosed herein are manifolding means for directing the fuel and oxidant gases to parallel flow passageways in a fuel cell core. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte and interconnect wall consists respectively of anode and cathode materials layered on the opposite sides of electrolyte material, or on the opposite sides of interconnect material. A core wall projects beyond the open ends of the defined core passageways and is disposed approximately midway between and parallel to the adjacent overlaying and underlying interconnect walls to define manifold chambers therebetween on opposite sides of the wall. Each electrolyte wall defining the flow passageways is shaped to blend into and be connected to this wall in order to redirect the corresponding fuel and oxidant passageways to the respective manifold chambers either above or below this intermediate wall. Inlet and outlet connections are made to these separate manifold chambers respectively, for carrying the fuel and oxidant gases to the core, and for carrying their reaction products away from the core.

  8. Integral manifolding structure for fuel cell core having parallel gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Herceg, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed herein are manifolding means for directing the fuel and oxidant gases to parallel flow passageways in a fuel cell core. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte and interconnect wall consists respectively of anode and cathode materials layered on the opposite sides of electrolyte material, or on the opposite sides of interconnect material. A core wall projects beyond the open ends of the defined core passageways and is disposed approximately midway between and parallel to the adjacent overlaying and underlying interconnect walls to define manifold chambers therebetween on opposite sides of the wall. Each electrolyte wall defining the flow passageways is shaped to blend into and be connected to this wall in order to redirect the corresponding fuel and oxidant passageways to the respective manifold chambers either above or below this intermediate wall. Inlet and outlet connections are made to these separate manifold chambers respectively, for carrying the fuel and oxidant gases to the core, and for carrying their reaction products away from the core.

  9. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lijuan; Ten Brink, Gert H; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2016-05-27

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction analysis. The core-shell structure, which is composed of an Fe core surrounded by a maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and/or magnetite (Fe3O4) shell, was confirmed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis combined with EELS. It was found that the particle size and shape strongly depend on the gas environment. Moreover, extensive analysis showed that NPs with a size between 10-20 nm possess a truncated cubic morphology, which is confined by the 6 {100} planes that are truncated by the 12 {110} planes at different degrees. For NPs larger than 20 nm, the rhombic dodecahedron defined by the 12 {110} planes is the predominant crystal shape, while truncated rhombic dodecahedrons, as well as non-truncated and truncated cubic NPs, were also observed. The NPs without truncation showed a characteristic inward relaxation indicating that besides thermodynamics kinetics also plays a crucial role during particle growth. PMID:27089553

  10. Design of Gas-phase Synthesis of Core-Shell Particles by Computational Fluid - Aerosol Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Buesser, B; Pratsinis, S E

    2011-11-01

    Core-shell particles preserve the bulk properties (e.g. magnetic, optical) of the core while its surface is modified by a shell material. Continuous aerosol coating of core TiO2 nanoparticles with nanothin silicon dioxide shells by jet injection of hexamethyldisiloxane precursor vapor downstream of titania particle formation is elucidated by combining computational fluid and aerosol dynamics. The effect of inlet coating vapor concentration and mixing intensity on product shell thickness distribution is presented. Rapid mixing of the core aerosol with the shell precursor vapor facilitates efficient synthesis of hermetically coated core-shell nanoparticles. The predicted extent of hermetic coating shells is compared to the measured photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol by such particles as hermetic SiO2 shells prevent the photocatalytic activity of titania. Finally the performance of a simpler, plug-flow coating model is assessed by comparisons to the present detailed CFD model in terms of coating efficiency and silica average shell thickness and texture. PMID:23729817

  11. Neutron flux measurements in the side-core region of Hunterston B advanced gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.A.; Shaw, S.E.; Huggon, A.P.; Steadman, R.J.; Thornton, D.A.; Whiley, G.S.

    2011-07-01

    The core restraints of advanced gas-cooled reactors are important structural components that are required to maintain the geometric integrity of the cores. A review of neutron dosimetry for the sister stations Hunterston B and Hinkley Point B identified that earlier conservative assessments predicted high thermal neutron dose rates to key components of the restraint structure (the restraint rod welds), with the implication that some of them may be predicted to fail during a seismic event. A revised assessment was therefore undertaken [Thornton, D. A., Allen, D. A., Tyrrell, R. J., Meese, T. C., Huggon, A.P., Whiley, G. S., and Mossop, J. R., 'A Dosimetry Assessment for the Core Restraint of an Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor,' Proceedings of the 13. International Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry (ISRD-13, May 2008), World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, 2009, W. Voorbraak, L. Debarberis, and P. D'hondt, Eds., pp. 679-687] using a detailed 3D model and a Monte Carlo radiation transport program, MCBEND. This reassessment resulted in more realistic fast and thermal neutron dose recommendations, the latter in particular being much lower than had been thought previously. It is now desirable to improve confidence in these predictions by providing direct validation of the MCBEND model through the use of neutron flux measurements. This paper describes the programme of work being undertaken to deploy two neutron flux measurement 'stringers' within the side-core region of one of the Hunterston B reactors for the purpose of validating the MCBEND model. The design of the stringers and the determination of the preferred deployment locations have been informed by the use of detailed MCBEND flux calculations. These computational studies represent a rare opportunity to design a flux measurement beforehand, with the clear intention of minimising the anticipated uncertainties and obtaining measurements that are known to be representative of the neutron fields to which the vulnerable steel

  12. Perforated hollow-core optical waveguides for on-chip atomic spectroscopy and gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud-Carrier, M.; Hill, C.; Decker, T.; Black, J. A.; Schmidt, H.; Hawkins, A.

    2016-03-01

    A hollow-core waveguide structure for on-chip atomic spectroscopy is presented. The devices are based on Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguides and may be used for a wide variety of applications which rely on the interaction of light with gases and vapors. The designs presented here feature short delivery paths of the atomic vapor into the hollow waveguide. They also have excellent environmental stability by incorporating buried solid-core waveguides to deliver light to the hollow cores. Completed chips were packaged with an Rb source and the F = 3 ≥ F' = 2, 3, 4 transitions of the D2 line in 85Rb were monitored for optical absorption. Maximum absorption peak depths of 9% were measured.

  13. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  14. Effect of pressure and shielding gas on the microstructure of hyperbaric metal cored GMAW welds down to 111 bar

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge, J.C.F.; Santos, V.R. dos

    1995-12-31

    The microstructural evolution of hyperbaric C-Mn weld metals was studied by means of bead-on-plate welds deposit with GMAW process using a commercial metal cored wire. The welding was carried out in the flat position in the range of 51 bar to 111 bar with He+ CO{sub 2} as shielding gas, which CO{sub 2} content varied from 0.1% to 0.8 %. The microstructures were quantitatively analyzed by optical microscopy to evaluate the amount of constituents according to the IIW/IIS terminology. The results showed that all weld metals presented great amounts of acicular ferrite and a stronger influence of pressure on microstructure compared to the influence of the shielding gas.

  15. Ionized gas kinematics at high resolution. IV. Star formation and a rotating core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-05-20

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features. We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0.''18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 μm [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution ∼4 km s{sup –1}: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  16. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution. IV. Star Formation and a Rotating Core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Neff, Susan Gale; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features.We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0".18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 micron [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution approx. 4 km/s: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  17. Subwatt threshold cw Raman fiber-gas laser based on H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Couny, F; Benabid, F; Light, P S

    2007-10-01

    We report on what is, to our knowledge, the first cw pumped Raman fiber-gas laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with hydrogen. The high efficiency of the gas-laser interaction inside the fiber allows operation in a single-pass configuration. The transmitted spectrum exhibits 99.99% of the output light at the Stokes wavelength and a pump power threshold as low as 2.25 W. The study of the Stokes emission evolution with pressure shows that highly efficient Raman amplification is still possible even at atmospheric pressure. The addition of fiber Bragg gratings to the system, creating a cavity at the Stokes wavelength, reduces the Raman threshold power below 600 mW. PMID:17930673

  18. The Formation of Glycine in Hot Cores: New Gas-grain Chemical Simulations of Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin

    2012-07-01

    Organic molecules of increasing complexity have been detected in the warm envelopes of star-forming cores, commonly referred to as "hot cores". Spectroscopic searches at mm/sub-mm wavelengths have uncovered both amines and carboxylic acids in these regions, as well as a range of other compounds including alcohols, ethers, esters, and nitriles. However, the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has not yet been reliably detected in the ISM. There has been much interest in this molecule, due to its importance to the formation of proteins, and to life, while the positive identification of interstellar molecules of similar or greater complexity suggests that its existence in star-forming regions is plausible. I will present the results of recent models of hot-core chemistry that simulate the formation of both simple and complex molecules on the surfaces or within the ice mantles of dust grains. I will also present results from the first gas-grain astrochemical model to approach the question of amino-acid formation in hot cores. The formation of glycine in moderate abundance is found to be as efficient as that for similarly complex species, while its sublimation from the grains occurs at somewhat higher temperatures. However, simulated emission spectra based on the model results show that the degree of compactness of high-abundance regions, and the density and temperature profiles of the cores may be the key variables affecting the future detection of glycine, as well as other amino acids, and may explain its non-detection to date.

  19. Gas and grain chemical composition in cold cores as predicted by the Nautilus three-phase model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruaud, Maxime; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We present an extended version of the two-phase gas-grain code NAUTILUS to the three-phase modelling of gas and grain chemistry of cold cores. In this model, both the mantle and the surface are considered as chemically active. We also take into account the competition among reaction, diffusion and evaporation. The model predictions are confronted to ice observations in the envelope of low-mass and massive young stellar objects as well as towards background stars. Modelled gas-phase abundances are compared to species observed towards TMC-1 (CP) and L134N dark clouds. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed ice species. It is found that the reaction-diffusion competition strongly enhances reactions with barriers and more specifically reactions with H2, which is abundant on grains. This finding highlights the importance having a good approach to determine the abundance of H2 on grains. Consequently, it is found that the major N-bearing species on grains go from NH3 to N2 and HCN when the reaction-diffusion competition is taken into account. In the gas phase and before a few 105 yr, we find that the three-phase model does not have a strong impact on the observed species compared to the two-phase model. After this time, the computed abundances dramatically decrease due to the strong accretion on dust, which is not counterbalanced by the desorption less efficient than in the two-phase model. This strongly constrains the chemical age of cold cores to be of the order of few 105 yr.

  20. Ex-Core CFD Analysis Results for the Prometheus Gas Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lorentz, Donald G.

    2007-01-30

    This paper presents the initial nozzle-to-nozzle (N2N) reactor vessel model scoping studies using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis methods. The N2N model has been solved under a variety of different boundary conditions. This paper presents some of the basic hydraulic results from the N2N CFD analysis effort. It also demonstrates how designers were going to apply the analysis results to modify a number of the design features. The initial goals for developing a preliminary CFD N2N model were to establish baseline expectations for pressure drops and flow fields around the reactor core. Analysis results indicated that the averaged reactor vessel pressure drop for all analyzed cases was 46.9 kPa ({approx}6.8 psid). In addition, mass flow distributions to the three core fuel channel regions exhibited a nearly inverted profile to those specified for the in-core thermal/hydraulic design. During subsequent design iterations, the goal would have been to modify or add design features that would have minimized reactor vessel pressure drop and improved flow distribution to the inlet of the core.

  1. Cold gas in cluster cores: global stability analysis and non-linear simulations of thermal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Prakriti Pal; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-04-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis and idealized numerical simulations in global thermal balance to understand the condensation of cold gas from hot/virial atmospheres (coronae), in particular the intracluster medium (ICM). We pay particular attention to geometry (e.g. spherical versus plane-parallel) and the nature of the gravitational potential. Global linear analysis gives a similar value for the fastest growing thermal instability modes in spherical and Cartesian geometries. Simulations and observations suggest that cooling in haloes critically depends on the ratio of the cooling time to the free-fall time (tcool/tff). Extended cold gas condenses out of the ICM only if this ratio is smaller than a threshold value close to 10. Previous works highlighted the difference between the nature of cold gas condensation in spherical and plane-parallel atmospheres; namely, cold gas condensation appeared easier in spherical atmospheres. This apparent difference due to geometry arises because the previous plane-parallel simulations focused on in situ condensation of multiphase gas but spherical simulations studied condensation anywhere in the box. Unlike previous claims, our non-linear simulations show that there are only minor differences in cold gas condensation, either in situ or anywhere, for different geometries. The amount of cold gas depends on the shape of tcool/tff; gas has more time to condense if gravitational acceleration decreases towards the centre. In our idealized plane-parallel simulations with heating balancing cooling in each layer, there can be significant mass/energy/momentum transfer across layers that can trigger condensation and drive tcool/tff far beyond the critical value close to 10.

  2. Wettability modification of rock cores by fluorinated copolymer emulsion for the enhancement of gas and oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chunyan; Kong, Ying; Jiang, Guancheng; Yang, Jinrong; Pu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2012-07-01

    The fluorine-containing acrylate copolymer emulsion was prepared with butyl acrylate, methacrylic acid and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl acrylate as monomers. Moreover, the structure of the copolymer was verified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 19F NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The results showed that all the monomers had been copolymerized and the presence of fluorine moieties. The contact angle (CA) analyses, capillary rise and imbibition spontaneous tests were used to estimate the influence of the copolymer emulsion on the wettability of gas reservoirs. It was observed that the rock surface was of large contact angles of water, oilfield sewage, hexadecane and crude oil after treatment with the emulsion. The capillary rise results indicated that the contact angles of water/air and oil/air systems increased from 60° and 32° to 121° and 80°, respectively, due to the emulsion treatment. Similarly, because of wettability alteration by the fluoropolymer, the imbibition of water and oil in rock core decreased significantly. Experimental results demonstrated that the copolymer emulsion can alter the wettability of porous media from strong liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This work provides a cost-effective method to prepare the fluoropolymer which can increase gas deliverability by altering the wettability of gas-condensate reservoirs and mitigating the water block effect.

  3. Fuel efficient hydrodynamic containment for gas core fission reactor rocket propulsion. Final report, September 30, 1992--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sforza, P.M.; Cresci, R.J.

    1997-05-31

    Gas core reactors can form the basis for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems capable of providing specific impulse levels of more than 2,000 sec., but containment of the hot uranium plasma is a major problem. The initial phase of an experimental study of hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel cloud in a gas core fission reactor by means of an innovative application of a base injection stabilized recirculation bubble is presented. The development of the experimental facility, a simulated thrust chamber approximately 0.4 m in diameter and 1 m long, is described. The flow rate of propellant simulant (air) can be varied up to about 2 kg/sec and that of fuel simulant (air, air-sulfur hexafluoride) up to about 0.2 kg/sec. This scale leads to chamber Reynolds numbers on the same order of magnitude as those anticipated in a full-scale nuclear rocket engine. The experimental program introduced here is focused on determining the size, geometry, and stability of the recirculation region as a function of the bleed ratio, i.e. the ratio of the injected mass flux to the free stream mass flux. A concurrent CFD study is being carried out to aid in demonstrating that the proposed technique is practical.

  4. In-flight gas phase growth of metal/multi layer graphene core shell nanoparticles with controllable sizes.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Saurabh K; Mehta, B R; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present a general method for a continuous gas-phase synthesis of size-selected metal/multi layer graphene (MLG) core shell nanoparticles having a narrow size distribution of metal core and MLG shell for direct deposition onto any desired substrate kept under clean vacuum conditions. Evolution of MLG signature is clearly observed as the metal-carbon agglomerates get transformed to well defined metal/MLG core shell nanoparticles during their flight through the sintering zone. The growth takes place via an intermediate state of alloy nanoparticle (Pd-carbon) or composite nanoparticle (Cu-carbon), depending upon the carbon solubility in the metal and relative surface energy values. It has been also shown that metal/MLG nanoparticles can be converted to graphene shells. This study will have a large impact on how graphene or graphene based composite nanostructures can be grown and deposited in applications requiring controllable dimensions, varied substrate choice, large area and large scale depositions. PMID:24100702

  5. Fuel containment and stability in the gas core nuclear rocket. Final report, April 15, 1993--April 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.

    1996-02-01

    One of the most promising approaches to advanced propulsion that could meet the objectives of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the open cycle gas core nuclear rocket (GCR). The energy in this device is generated by a fissioning uranium plasma which heats, through radiation, a propellant that flows around the core and exits through a nozzle, thereby converting thermal energy into thrust. Although such a scheme can produce very attractive propulsion parameters in the form of high specific impulse and high thrust, it does suffer from serious physics and engineering problems that must be addressed if it is to become a viable propulsion system. Among the major problems that must be solved are the confinement of the uranium plasma, potential instabilities and control problems associated with the dynamics of the uranium core, and the question of startup and fueling of such a reactor. In this paper, the authors focus their attention on the problems of equilibria and stability of the uranium care, and examine the potential use of an externally applied magnetic field for these purposes. They find that steady state operation of the reactor is possible only for certain care profiles that may not be compatible with the radiative aspect of the system. The authors also find that the system is susceptible to hydrodynamic and acoustic instabilities that could deplete the uranium fuel in a short time if not properly suppressed.

  6. In-flight gas phase growth of metal/multi layer graphene core shell nanoparticles with controllable sizes

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present a general method for a continuous gas-phase synthesis of size-selected metal/multi layer graphene (MLG) core shell nanoparticles having a narrow size distribution of metal core and MLG shell for direct deposition onto any desired substrate kept under clean vacuum conditions. Evolution of MLG signature is clearly observed as the metal-carbon agglomerates get transformed to well defined metal/MLG core shell nanoparticles during their flight through the sintering zone. The growth takes place via an intermediate state of alloy nanoparticle (Pd-carbon) or composite nanoparticle (Cu-carbon), depending upon the carbon solubility in the metal and relative surface energy values. It has been also shown that metal/MLG nanoparticles can be converted to graphene shells. This study will have a large impact on how graphene or graphene based composite nanostructures can be grown and deposited in applications requiring controllable dimensions, varied substrate choice, large area and large scale depositions. PMID:24100702

  7. Volcanic controls on ash iron solubility: thermodynamic modeling of gas-ash interaction in the hot core of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recently it has been shown that volcanic ash can act as a fertilizer for phytoplankton bloom by injecting bio-available iron into the surface ocean. However, it is also well known that iron in volcanic ash at least at its generation point (i.e. magma) is mostly in insoluble form, i.e. not bio-available. Although different volcanic and atmospheric processes are assumed to contribute to the transformation of insoluble iron into soluble salts, the causes of iron mobilization in volcanic ash are poorly constrained. Here we explore the volcanic control on the mobilization of iron in volcanic ash in the hot core of volcanic plumes (T>600° C) based on thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. A conceptual box model is considered for the hot core in which 1000° C magmatic gas, ash and 25° C ambient air are mixed. The initial composition of volcanic gas and ash are parameterized based on three types of tectonic settings (convergent plate, divergent plate, and hot spot) and basaltic to rhyolitic magmas. The effect of the initial oxidation state is also considered by changing the oxygen fugacity. First, magmatic oxides (i.e. SiO2, FeO, MgO etc) are titrated into the magmatic gas at constant temperature and fugacity in order to generate the initial iron carrying minerals. Since the alteration of ash composition is mainly diffusion controlled, we assume that inside the hot core of the volcanic plume the Fe speciation is only affected at or near to the ash surface. Results show that the main initial iron carrying minerals are usually ilmenite and fayalite with some addition of pyhrrotite at reduced conditions in divergent plate and hot spot settings. Then the 1000° C magmatic gas-ash mixture is mixed with the 25° C air (N2 79%, O2 21%) until a temperature of 600° C is reached. Results demonstrate that the hot core functions as an oxidizing reactor for the ash surface transforming the whole Fe2+ minerals to Fe3+ species while being cooled to 600° C. However, in reduced

  8. Picosecond pulses compression at 1053-nm center wavelength by using a gas-filled hollow-core fiber compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Ding; Leng, Yu-Xin; Dai, Ye

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the nonlinear compression of picosecond pulses with 10-mJ of input energy at the 1053-nm center wavelength by using a one-meter-long gas-filled hollow-core fiber (HCF) compressor and considering the third-order dispersion (TOD) effect. It is found that when the input pulse is about 1 ps/10 mJ, it can be compressed down to less than 20 fs with a high transmission efficiency. The gas for optimal compression is krypton gas which is filled in a HCF with a 400-μm inner diameter. When the input pulse duration is increased to 5 ps, it can also be compressed down to less than 100 fs efficiently under proper conditions. The results show that the TOD effect has little impact on picosecond pulse compression and the HCF compressor can be applied on compressing picosecond pulses efficiently with a high compression ratio, which will benefit the research of high-field laser physics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204328, 61221064, 61078037, 11127901, and 11134010), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808101), the Commission of Science and Technology of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 12dz1100700), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 13ZR1414800), and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2011DFA11300).

  9. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Liu, T.J. H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-06-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  10. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Lu, H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  11. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 1: Push-mode sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Stroh, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1997-08-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site is routinely being sampled for waste characterization purposes. The push- and rotary-mode core sampling is one of the sampling methods employed. The waste includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds that can produce violent exothermic reactions if heated above 160 C during core sampling. A self-propagating waste reaction would produce very high temperatures that eventually result in failure of the tank and radioactive material releases to environment. A two-dimensional thermal model based on a lumped finite volume analysis method is developed. The enthalpy of each node is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics. A flash temperature and effective contact area concept were introduced to account the interface temperature rise. No maximum temperature rise exceeding the critical value of 60 C was found in the cases studied for normal operating conditions. Several accident conditions are also examined. In these cases it was found that the maximum drill bit temperature remained below the critical reaction temperature as long as a 30 scfm purge flow is provided the push-mode drill bit during sampling in rotary mode. The failure to provide purge flow resulted in exceeding the limiting temperatures in a relatively short time.

  12. Direct fiber comb stabilization to a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun; Wang, Chenchen; Fourcade-Dutin, Coralie; Washburn, Brian R; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L

    2014-09-22

    We have isolated a single tooth from a fiber laser-based optical frequency comb for nonlinear spectroscopy and thereby directly referenced the comb. An 89 MHz erbium fiber laser frequency comb is directly stabilized to the P(23) (1539.43 nm) overtone transition of (12)C(2)H(2) inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. To do this, a single comb tooth is isolated and amplified from 20 nW to 40 mW with sufficient fidelity to perform saturated absorption spectroscopy. The fractional stability of the comb, ~7 nm away from the stabilized tooth, is shown to be 6 × 10(-12) at 100 ms gate time, which is over an order of magnitude better than that of a comb referenced to a GPS-disciplined Rb oscillator. PMID:25321837

  13. A SEARCH FOR CO-EVOLVING ION AND NEUTRAL GAS SPECIES IN PRESTELLAR MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Hezareh, Talayeh; Willacy, Karen

    2012-11-20

    A comparison between the widths of ion and neutral molecule spectral lines has been recently used to estimate the strength of the magnetic field in turbulent star-forming regions. However, the ion (HCO{sup +}) and neutral (HCN) species used in such studies may not be necessarily co-evolving at every scale and density, and thus, may not trace the same regions. Here, we use coupled chemical/dynamical models of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores including non-equilibrium chemistry, with and without magnetic fields, to study the spatial distribution of HCO{sup +} and HCN, which have been used in observations of spectral line width differences to date. In addition, we seek new ion-neutral pairs that are good candidates for such observations, because they have similar evolution and are approximately co-spatial in our models. We identify three such good candidate pairs: HCO{sup +}/NO, HCO{sup +}/CO, and NO{sup +}/NO.

  14. Plasmon response of a quantum-confined electron gas probed by core-level photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, Mustafa M; Moon, Eun Ju; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Weitering, Harm H

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of quantized 'bulk' plasmons in ultrathin magnesium films on Si(111) by analyzing plasmon-loss satellites in core-level photoemission spectra, recorded as a function of the film thickness d. Remarkably, the plasmon energy is shown to vary as 1/d{sup 2} all the way down to three atomic layers. The loss spectra are dominated by the n=1 and n=2 normal modes, consistent with the excitation of plasmons involving quantized electronic subbands. With decreasing film thickness, spectral weight is gradually transferred from the plasmon modes to the low-energy single-particle excitations. These results represent striking manifestations of the role of quantum confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely controlled nanostructures.

  15. THE NATURE OF FILAMENTARY COLD GAS IN THE CORE OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, N.; Canning, R. E. A.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Von der Linden, A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Kos, J.; Van Weeren, R. J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ruszkowski, M.

    2013-04-20

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the emission-line nebulae located {approx}38'' (3 kpc in projection) southeast of the nucleus of M87, the central dominant galaxy of the Virgo Cluster. We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) [C II] line emission at 158 {mu}m from the nebulae using observations made with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The infrared line emission is extended and co-spatial with optical H{alpha}+ [N II], far-ultraviolet C IV lines, and soft X-ray emission. The filamentary nebulae evidently contain multi-phase material spanning a temperature range of at least five orders of magnitude, from {approx}100 K to {approx}10{sup 7} K. This material has most likely been uplifted by the active galactic nucleus from the center of M87. The thermal pressure of the 10{sup 4} K phase appears to be significantly lower than that of the surrounding hot intracluster medium (ICM), indicating the presence of additional turbulent and magnetic pressure in the filaments. If the turbulence in the filaments is subsonic then the magnetic field strength required to balance the pressure of the surrounding ICM is B {approx} 30-70 {mu}G. The spectral properties of the soft X-ray emission from the filaments indicate that it is due to thermal plasma with kT {approx} 0.5-1 keV, which is cooling by mixing with the cold gas and/or radiatively. Charge exchange can be ruled out as a significant source of soft X-rays. Both cooling and mixing scenarios predict gas with a range of temperatures. This is at first glance inconsistent with the apparent lack of X-ray emitting gas with kT < 0.5 keV. However, we show that the missing very soft X-ray emission could be absorbed by the cold gas in the filaments with an integrated hydrogen column density of N{sub H} {approx} 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, providing a natural explanation for the apparent temperature floor to the X-ray emission at kT {approx} 0.5 keV. The FIR through ultraviolet

  16. Crew radiation dose from the plume of a high impulse gas-core nuclear rocket during a Mars mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masser, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Analytical calculations are performed to determine the radiation dose rate and total dose to the crew of a gas-core nuclear rocket from the fission fragments located throughout the plume volume. The radiation dose from the plume fission fragments to two crew locations of 100 and 200 meters from the nozzle exit are calculated. It is found that, in the case of the most probable fission fragment retention time of 100 seconds, the crew must be protected from the radiation dose. Five centimeters of lead shielding would reduce the radiation dose by two orders of magnitude thereby protecting the crew. The increase in vehicle weight would be insignificant (7150 kg to a vehicle gross weight of 0.94 million kg).

  17. Two techniques for temporal pulse compression in gas-filled hollow-core kagomé photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Mak, K F; Travers, J C; Joly, N Y; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate temporal pulse compression in gas-filled kagomé hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using two different approaches: fiber-mirror compression based on self-phase modulation under normal dispersion, and soliton effect self-compression under anomalous dispersion with a decreasing pressure gradient. In the first, efficient compression to near-transform-limited pulses from 103 to 10.6 fs was achieved at output energies of 10.3 μJ. In the second, compression from 24 to 6.8 fs was achieved at output energies of 6.6 μJ, also with near-transform-limited pulse shapes. The results illustrate the potential of kagomé-PCF for postprocessing the output of fiber lasers. We also show that, using a negative pressure gradient, ultrashort pulses can be delivered directly into vacuum. PMID:24104822

  18. Efficient anti-Stokes generation via intermodal stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Trabold, B M; Abdolvand, A; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J

    2013-12-01

    A strong anti-Stokes Raman signal, from the vibrational Q(1) transition of hydrogen, is generated in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. To be efficient, this process requires phase-matching, which is not automatically provided since the group velocity dispersion is typically non-zero and--inside a fiber--cannot be compensated for using a crossed-beam geometry. Phase-matching can however be arranged by exploiting the different dispersion profiles of higher-order modes. We demonstrate the generation of first and second anti-Stokes signals in higher-order modes by pumping with an appropriate mixture of fundamental and a higher-order modes, synthesized using a spatial light modulator. Conversion efficiencies as high as 5.3% are achieved from the pump to the first anti-Stokes band. PMID:24514522

  19. Simulating Astro-H Observations of Sloshing Gas Motions in the Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Miller, E. D.; Simionescu, A.; Bautz, M. W.

    2016-04-01

    Astro-H will be the first X-ray observatory to employ a high-resolution microcalorimeter, capable of measuring the shift and width of individual spectral lines to the precision necessary for estimating the velocity of the diffuse plasma in galaxy clusters. This new capability is expected to bring significant progress in understanding the dynamics, and therefore the physics, of the intracluster medium. However, because this plasma is optically thin, projection effects will be an important complicating factor in interpreting future Astro-H measurements. To study these effects in detail, we performed an analysis of the velocity field from simulations of a galaxy cluster experiencing gas sloshing and generated synthetic X-ray spectra, convolved with model Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) responses. We find that the sloshing motions produce velocity signatures that will be observable by Astro-H in nearby clusters: the shifting of the line centroid produced by the fast-moving cold gas underneath the front surface, and line broadening produced by the smooth variation of this motion along the line of sight. The line shapes arising from inviscid or strongly viscous simulations are very similar, indicating that placing constraints on the gas viscosity from these measurements will be difficult. Our spectroscopic analysis demonstrates that, for adequate exposures, Astro-H will be able to recover the first two moments of the velocity distribution of these motions accurately, and in some cases multiple velocity components may be discerned. The simulations also confirm the importance of accurate treatment of point-spread function scattering in the interpretation of Astro-H/SXS spectra of cluster plasmas.

  20. Gas turbine ceramic-coated-vane concept with convection-cooled porous metal core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Liebert, C. H.; Handschuh, R. F.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis and flow experiments on a ceramic-coated-porous-metal vane concept indicated the feasibility, from a heat transfer standpoint, of operating in a high-temperature (2500 F) gas turbine cascade facility. The heat transfer and pressure drop calculations provided a basis for selecting the ceramic layer thickness (to 0.08 in.), which was found to be the dominant factor in the overall heat transfer coefficient. Also an approximate analysis of the heat transfer in the vane trailing edge revealed that with trailing-edge ejection the ceramic thickness could be reduced to (0.01 in.) in this portion of the vane.

  1. Tunable frequency-up/down conversion in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    Based on the interplay between photoionization and Raman effects in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers, we propose a new optical device to control frequency conversion of ultrashort pulses. By tuning the input-pulse energy, the output spectrum can be either down-converted, up-converted, or even frequency-shift compensated. For low input energies, the Raman effect is dominant and leads to a redshift that increases linearly during propagation. For larger pulse energies, photoionization starts to take over the frequency-conversion process and induces a strong blueshift. The fiber-output pressure can be used as an additional degree of freedom to control the spectrum shift. PMID:26371900

  2. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  3. Fuel Summary for Peach Bottom Unit 1 High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Karel I. Kingrey

    2003-04-01

    This fuel summary report contains background and summary information for the Peach Bottom Unit 1, High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2. This report contains detailed information about the fuel in the two cores, the Peach Bottom Unit 1 operating history, nuclear parameters, physical and chemical characteristics, and shipping and storage canister related data. The data in this document have been compiled from a large number of sources and are not qualified beyond the qualification of the source documents. This report is intended to provide an overview of the existing data pertaining to spent fuel management and point to pertinent reference source documents. For design applications, the original source documentation must be used. While all referenced sources are available as records or controlled documents at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), some of the sources were marked as informal or draft reports. This is noted where applicable. In some instances, source documents are not consistent. Where they are known, this document identifies those instances and provides clarification where possible. However, as stated above, this document has not been independently qualified and such clarifications are only included for information purposes. Some of the information in this summary is available in multiple source documents. An effort has been made to clearly identify at least one record document as the source for the information included in this report.

  4. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-12-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the ^{13}{C}_2{H}_2 P(16) (ν _1 + ν _3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal the hollow-core fiber with easy light coupling, showing negligible pressure increase over two months. The locked laser shows a fractional frequency instability below 8 × 10^{-12} for an averaging time up to 104 s. The lock-point repeatability over one month is 2.6 × 10^{-11}, corresponding to a standard deviation of 5.3 kHz. The system is also assembled in a more compact and easy-to-use configuration ( Plug&Play), showing comparable performance with previously published work. The real portability of this technology is proved by shipping the system to a collaborating laboratory, showing unchanged performance after the return.

  5. Sedimentary facies and petrophysical characteristics of cores from the lower Vicksburg gas reservoirs, McAllen Ranch field, Hidalgo County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, R.P.; Maguregui, J. ); Howard, W.E.; Hall, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    As part of an effort funded by the Gas Research Institute, the Department of Energy, and the State of Texas, and with the cooperation of Shell Oil Co., sandstones in the Vicksburg S (Oligocene) reservoir were cored in the McAllen Ranch gas field in the A. A. McAllen B- 17 and B- 18 wells. Detailed correlation of the cores with petrophysical data illustrates the controls of deposition and diagenesis on reservoir quality. The cores were drilled using oil-based mud, and special care in handling minimized evaporation. Core-derived water saturations were compared with log-calculated water saturations. Special core analyses of cementation factor, saturation exponent, and relative permeability were performed. Thin-section petrography and X-ray diffraction were used to determine mineralogy. The cores consist of prodelta and delta-front facies. Permeability and porosity generally increase with increasing grain size and are greatest in 1 to 2 ft thick zones within massive and laminated beds in the uppermost delta front. Porous intervals increase in abundance upward within the delta-front sandstones. Permeability variation over two orders of magnitude within the reservoir sands corresponds to diagenetic facies within the core. High permeability occurs only within thin bands. Trough cross-stratified sandstone is commonly porous only near the tops of the foresets. Differences in the character of the microresistivity curve of the high-resolution dipmeter log correlate with differences in cementation and with different depositional facies within the cores. Comparison of microresistivity logs and cores allows extrapolation of facies and cement characteristics and resulting reservoir properties to uncored intervals with the objective of maximizing recovery of natural gas.

  6. Successful field evaluation of the efficiency of a gas gravity drainage process by applying recent developments in Sponge coring technique in a major oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Durandeau, M.; El-Emam, M.; Anis, A.H.; Fanti, G.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the application and integration of new technologies and recent developments in Sponge coring and presents the methodology used to carry out successfully the various phases of well designed Sponge coring project, including the coring phase, the on-site measurements and the full evaluation of the Sponge core samples. A field case is presented where a Sponge coring project was accomplished to obtain accurate fluids distribution and evaluate the gas gravity drainage efficiency in one of the Arab D sub-reservoirs of a major oil field offshore Abu Dhabi. A Sponge coring technology team was created to optimize the methodology used during Sponge coring an minimize the uncertainties which persisted on some of the previous operations. The effectiveness of the technique is discussed, with comparison to open hole logs and SCAL data. Realistic petrophysical parameters were obtained from non-invaded, native-state core samples. The effective oil saturation obtained from the Sponge core analysis results showed that the gravity segregation mechanism has been very active and efficient to recover the oil in the reservoir.

  7. Core Level Spectroscopy and Tautomerism of Key Biomolecules in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyer, V.; Plekan, O.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.; Coreno, M.; Giuliano, B. M.; Evangelisti, L.; Melandri, S.; Caminati, W.; Trofimov, A. B.; Zaytseva, I. L.; Moskovskaya, T. E.; Gromov, E. V.; Schirmer, J.

    2010-06-01

    The nucleobases cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidine derivatives. They pair with their complementary purines, guanine and adenine, through hydrogen bonding to form DNA and RNA chains. The tautomeric forms of DNA bases are capable of unusual base pairing like thymine-guanine and cytosine-adenine and create mutations, which are the precursors of some molecular-based diseases. Low energy spectroscopies such as microwave, laser and infrared techniques are commonly used as methods to investigate the conformatonal and tautomeric equilibria of biomolecules, while the high energy technique of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) has yielded a smaller amount of significant structural information about biomolecules in the gas phase. In the present studies we successfully apply XPS to the study of five nucleic acid base tautomers, as well as the prototypical system 2-hydroxypyridimine and the related molecules S-methyl-2-thiouracil and 2-thiouracil in the vapor phase. XPS is a quantitative technique, allowing the experimental determination of the populations of keto and enol tautomers at known equilibrium temperatures: it is difficult to obtain this information otherwise. The effect of different substituents on stability of tautomers has been revealed. Quantum chemistry calculations have been carried out in order to obtain information about the structure, relative stability and difference in populations of the tautomers and conformers under study.

  8. Noble Gas and Mineralogical Tracers of Interplanetary Dust Particles and Impact Debris in a Central Pacific Sediment Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrah, T. H.; Poreda, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-five deep ocean sediment samples from the Central Pacific sediment core LL-44 GPC-3 were examined for their noble gas composition and mineralogy. The samples spanned from 30 to 71 Ma in age, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T), Paleocene/Eocene (P/E), and Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) boundaries. From each bulk sediment sample, magnetic grains (5-200 μg/g; 1-20 μm diameter) were isolated and analyzed. Noble gas measurements determined the helium and neon isotopic compositions and the abundance of extra-terrestrial (ET) noble gases for the bulk and magnetic fractions. 3He/4He ratios of 3.1x10-4 and 20Ne/22Ne ratios of 9.96-12.62 are consistent with the SEP (solar energetic particle) signature seen in both zero-age magnetic grains (Z-MAG) from the central Pacific sediments and stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). The isolated magnetic fraction typically consisted of less than 1% of the bulk sample while accounting for 3 to 10% of the bulk sediment 3He with a maximum of 40% at K/T boundary. The magnetic isolates revealed no significant differences of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne, or (3He/20Ne)solar from the bulk GPC-3 sediments or Z-MAG grains. No temporal variation in He or Ne or anomalous gas signatures associated with the boundaries present within this time interval was observed. Scanning electron microscope analysis was utilized to determine the mineralogy of the magnetic isolates in an effort to distinguish between the continuous flux of interplanetary dust particles and the flux associated with major impact events. This information may also assist in determining the carrier phase of ET noble gases. Anomalously high Ni, Mg, Al, and Cr compositions combined with low or nonexistent abundances of titanium can distinguish extraterrestrial spinel grains from terrestrial spinel. The SEM analysis revealed stark contrasts in composition and morphology in the samples associated with the boundaries included in this study. A survey of ``background'' samples

  9. Comparison between Borehole Geophysical Observations and Sedimentary Facies for Three Long Cores Recovered from the Ulleung Basin, Korea: Insights into the Distribution of Gas Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Lee, S.; Bahk, J.

    2010-12-01

    In late 2007, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) operation was performed as part of gas hydrate study at five sites in the Ulleung Basin, east of Korea. Of those five sites, long sediment cores were also recovered at three sites (UBGH-4, 9, and 10), allowing us to compare borehole observation results with characteristics of sediment in the cores. In this study, we analyzed the resistivity log and resistivity image recorded using GVR-SONIC-ADN MD200 to see if there exists any meaningful relationship between the borehole data and sedimentary facies described in the cores. The presence of fracture zones and their orientation were also estimated from the resistivity images. Site UBGH-4 shows little evidence of disintegrated mud (DITM), an important source of gas hydrate. No notable changes could be seen in the resistivity log or image at this site. On the other hand, at Site UBGH-9, several peaks in resistivity values and numerous fractures are found at 70-150 mbsf. This depth interval matches with DITM found in the cores. At UBGH-10, DITM facies are found below 175 mbsf, but unfortunately due to error in resistivity and image data, it is unclear as to whether this depth coincides with the location of abundant gas hydrate or not. In summary, the argument that massive gas hydrates generally occur in the mud sections with ample fractures could not be thoroughly tested except for Site UBGH-9 where the two features do correlate.

  10. Flammable gas tank safety program: Data requirements for core sample analysis developed through the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, N.G.; LeClair, M.D.

    1995-04-28

    This document represents the application of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. The product of this effort is a list of data required from tank core sample analysis to support resolution of this issue.

  11. Hybrid Co3O4/SnO2 Core-Shell Nanospheres as Real-Time Rapid-Response Sensors for Ammonia Gas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Lou, Zheng; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Tingting; Deng, Jianan; Zhang, Tong

    2016-03-16

    Novel hybrid Co3O4/SnO2 core-shell nanospheres have been effectively realized by a one-step hydrothermal, template-free preparation method. Our strategy involves a simple fabrication scheme that entails the coating of natural cross-link agents followed by electrostatic interaction between the positive charges of Sn and Co ions and the negative charge of glutamic acid. The core-shell architecture enables novel flexibility of gas sensor surfaces compared to commonly used bulk materials. The highly efficient charge transfer and unique structure are key to ensuring the availability of high response and rapid-response speed. It demonstrates how hybrid core-shell nanospheres can be used as an advance function material to fabricate electrical sensing devices that may be useful as gas sensors. PMID:26943006

  12. Metal-organic framework-immobilized polyhedral metal nanocrystals: reduction at solid-gas interface, metal segregation, core-shell structure, and high catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Aijaz, Arshad; Akita, Tomoki; Tsumori, Nobuko; Xu, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, this work presents surfactant-free monometallic and bimetallic polyhedral metal nanocrystals (MNCs) immobilized to a metal-organic framework (MIL-101) by CO-directed reduction of metal precursors at the solid-gas interface. With this novel method, Pt cubes and Pd tetrahedra were formed by CO preferential bindings on their (100) and (111) facets, respectively. PtPd bimetallic nanocrystals showed metal segregation, leading to Pd-rich core and Pt-rich shell. Core-shell Pt@Pd nanocrystals were immobilized to MIL-101 by seed-mediated two-step reduction, representing the first example of core-shell MNCs formed using only gas-phase reducing agents. These MOF-supported MNCs exhibited high catalytic activities for CO oxidation. PMID:24138338

  13. Method and apparatus utilizing ionizing and microwave radiation for saturation determination of water, oil and a gas in a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Maerefat, Nicida L.; Parmeswar, Ravi; Brinkmeyer, Alan D.; Honarpour, Mehdi

    1994-01-01

    A system for determining the relative permeabilities of gas, water and oil in a core sample has a microwave emitter/detector subsystem and an X-ray emitter/detector subsystem. A core holder positions the core sample between microwave absorbers which prevent diffracted microwaves from reaching a microwave detector where they would reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the microwave measurements. The microwave emitter/detector subsystem and the X-ray emitter/detector subsystem each have linear calibration characteristics, allowing one subsystem to be calibrated with respect to the other subsystem. The dynamic range of microwave measurements is extended through the use of adjustable attenuators. This also facilitates the use of core samples with wide diameters. The stratification characteristics of the fluids may be observed with a windowed cell separator at the outlet of the core sample. The condensation of heavy hydrocarbon gas and the dynamic characteristics of the fluids are observed with a sight glass at the outlet of the core sample.

  14. Method and apparatus utilizing ionizing and microwave radiation for saturation determination of water, oil and a gas in a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Maerefat, N.L.; Parmeswar, R.; Brinkmeyer, A.D.; Honarpour, M.

    1994-08-23

    A system is described for determining the relative permeabilities of gas, water and oil in a core sample has a microwave emitter/detector subsystem and an X-ray emitter/detector subsystem. A core holder positions the core sample between microwave absorbers which prevent diffracted microwaves from reaching a microwave detector where they would reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the microwave measurements. The microwave emitter/detector subsystem and the X-ray emitter/detector subsystem each have linear calibration characteristics, allowing one subsystem to be calibrated with respect to the other subsystem. The dynamic range of microwave measurements is extended through the use of adjustable attenuators. This also facilitates the use of core samples with wide diameters. The stratification characteristics of the fluids may be observed with a windowed cell separator at the outlet of the core sample. The condensation of heavy hydrocarbon gas and the dynamic characteristics of the fluids are observed with a sight glass at the outlet of the core sample. 11 figs.

  15. Particle image velocimetry measurements in a representative gas-cooled prismatic reactor core model for the estimation of bypass flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conder, Thomas E.

    Core bypass flow is considered one of the largest contributors to uncertainty in fuel temperature within the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). It refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial regions between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. These flows are of concern because they reduce the desired flow rates in the coolant channels, and thereby have significant influence on the maximum fuel element and coolant exit temperatures. Thus, accurate prediction of the bypass flow is important because it directly impacts core temperature, influencing the life and efficiency of the reactor. An experiment was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to quantify the flow in the coolant channels in relation to the interstitial gaps between fuel blocks in a representative MHTGR core. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the flow fields within a simplified model, which comprised of a stacked junction of six partial fuel blocks with nine coolant tubes, separated by a 6mm gap width. The model had three sections: The upper plenum, upper block, and lower block. Model components were fabricated from clear, fused quartz where optical access was needed for the PIV measurements. Measurements were taken in three streamwise locations: in the upper plenum and in the midsection of the large and small fuel blocks. A laser light sheet was oriented parallel to the flow, while velocity fields were measured at millimeter intervals across the width of the model, totaling 3,276 PIV measurement locations. Inlet conditions were varied to incorporate laminar, transition, and turbulent flows in the coolant channels---all which produced laminar flow in the gap and non-uniform, turbulent flow in the upper plenum. The images were analyzed to create vector maps, and the data was exported for processing and compilation. The bypass flow was estimated by calculating the flow rates through the coolant

  16. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Large GFR core subassemblydesign for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E. A.; Kulak, R. F.; Therios, I. U.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2006-07-31

    Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) designs are being developed to meet Gen IV goals of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection as part of an International Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Research Initiative effort. Different organizations are involved in the development of a variety of GFR design concepts. The current analysis has focused on the evaluation of low-pressure drop, pin-core designs with favorable passive cooling properties. Initial evaluation of the passive cooling safety case for the GFR during depressurized decay heat removal accidents with concurrent loss of electric power have resulted in requirements for a reduction of core power density to the 100 w/cc level and a low core pressure drop of 0.5 bars. Additional design constraints and the implementation of their constraints are evaluated in this study to enhance and passive cooling properties of the reactor. Passive cooling is made easier by a flat radial distribution of the decay heat. One goal of this study was to evaluate the radial power distribution and determine to what extent it can be flattened, since the decay heat is nearly proportional to the fission power at shutdown. In line with this investigation of the radial power profile, an assessment was also made of the control rod configuration. The layout provided a large number of control rod locations with a fixed area provided for control rods. The number of control rods was consistent with other fast reactor designs. The adequacy of the available control rod locations was evaluated. Future studies will be needed to optimize the control rod designs and evaluate the shutdown system. The case for low pressure drop core can be improved by the minimization of pressure drop sources such as the number of required fuel spacers in the subassembly design and by the details of the fuel pin design. The fuel pin design is determined by a number of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic (gas dynamics

  17. Orbital Circularization of a Planet Accreting Disk Gas: The Formation of Distant Jupiters in Circular Orbits Based on a Core Accretion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Arika; Ida, Shigeru

    2014-12-01

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ~ 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at <~ 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ~10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  18. Orbital circularization of a planet accreting disk gas: the formation of distant jupiters in circular orbits based on a core accretion model

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Arika; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: higuchia@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2014-12-10

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ∼ 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at ≲ 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ∼10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  19. Thermohydraulics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor primary loop during early phases of unrestricted core-heatup accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.; Colman, J.; Hsu, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    In High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) siting considerations, the Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) are considered as accidents of highest consequence, corresponding to core meltdown accidents in light water reactors. Initiation of such accidents can be, for instance, due to station blackout, resulting in scram and loss of all main loop forced circulation, with none of the core auxiliary cooling system loops being started. The result is a slow but continuing core heatup, extending over days. During the initial phases of such UCHA scenarios, the primary loop remains pressurized, with the system pressure slowly increasing until the relief valve setpoint is reached. The major objectives of the work described here were to determine times to depressurization as well as approximate loop component temperatures up to depressurization.

  20. Oriented core application in texture analysis of J1 formation in Kazan oil-gas condensate field (Tomsk Oblast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoshekova, L.; Cherdansteva, D.; Yurkova, M.; Abramova, R.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the results of the characteristic structure features of oil-bearing rocks via paleomagnetic oriented cores. Volume core model is plotted on the basis of circular panoramic images. In applying scanned panoramic core it is possible to determine the azimuth of terrigenous material transportation and its course and to describe its sedimentation environment in details.

  1. MAKE SUPER-EARTHS, NOT JUPITERS: ACCRETING NEBULAR GAS ONTO SOLID CORES AT 0.1 AU AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene; Ormel, Chris W. E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu

    2014-12-20

    Close-in super-Earths having radii 1-4 R {sub ⊕} may possess hydrogen atmospheres comprising a few percent by mass of their rocky cores. We determine the conditions under which such atmospheres can be accreted by cores from their parent circumstellar disks. Accretion from the nebula is problematic because it is too efficient: we find that 10 M {sub ⊕} cores embedded in solar metallicity disks tend to undergo runaway gas accretion and explode into Jupiters, irrespective of orbital location. The threat of runaway is especially dire at ∼0.1 AU, where solids may coagulate on timescales orders of magnitude shorter than gas clearing times; thus nascent atmospheres on close-in orbits are unlikely to be supported against collapse by planetesimal accretion. The time to runaway accretion is well approximated by the cooling time of the atmosphere's innermost convective zone, whose extent is controlled by where H{sub 2} dissociates. Insofar as the temperatures characterizing H{sub 2} dissociation are universal, timescales for core instability tend not to vary with orbital distance—and to be alarmingly short for 10 M {sub ⊕} cores. Nevertheless, in the thicket of parameter space, we identify two scenarios, not mutually exclusive, that can reproduce the preponderance of percent-by-mass atmospheres for super-Earths at ∼0.1 AU, while still ensuring the formation of Jupiters at ≳ 1 AU. Scenario (a): planets form in disks with dust-to-gas ratios that range from ∼20× solar at 0.1 AU to ∼2× solar at 5 AU. Scenario (b): the final assembly of super-Earth cores from mergers of proto-cores—a process that completes quickly at ∼0.1 AU once begun—is delayed by gas dynamical friction until just before disk gas dissipates completely. Both scenarios predict that the occurrence rate for super-Earths versus orbital distance, and the corresponding rate for Jupiters, should trend in opposite directions, as the former population is transformed into the latter: as gas

  2. Evidence for in-situ metabolic activity in ice sheets based on anomalous trace gas records from the Vostok and other ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of trace gas species in ice cores are the primary means for reconstructing the composition of the atmosphere. The longest such record comes from the Vostok core taken from the central portion of the East Antarctic ice sheet [Petit et al., 1999]. In general, the trace gas records from Vostok are utilized as the reference signal when correlating trace gas measurements from other ice cores. The underlying assumption implicit in such endeavors is that the bubbles recovered from the ice cores record the composition of the atmosphere at the time the bubbles were formed. Another implicit assumption is that the composition of the bubbles has not been compromised by the extremely long storage periods within the ice sheet. While there is ample evidence that certain trace gas records (e.g. CO2 and CH4) have probably not been compromised, anomalous nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements from the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok are consistent with in-situ (N2O) production [Sowers, 2001]. In general, trace gas measurements from high altitude tropical/temperate glaciers are higher than expected based on contemporaneous measurements from polar cores. Measurements spanning the last 25kyr from the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. While other physical factors (like temperature/melting) may contribute to the elevated trace gas levels at these sites, the most likely explanation involves the accumulation of in-situ metabolic trace gas byproducts. Stable isotope measurements provide independent information for assessing the origin of the elevated trace gas levels in select samples. For the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok, the anomalous (N2O) values carry high δ15Nbulk and low δ18Obulk values that would be predicted if the added (N2O) was associated with in-situ nitrification. At Sajama, low δ13CH4 values observed during

  3. In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for gas refractive index measurements based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nicholas L P; Ross, Rachel; Munzke, Dorit; van Hoorn, Camiel; Brzezinski, Andrew; Barnes, Jack A; Reich, Oliver; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2016-06-27

    We describe an in-fiber interferometer based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Expressions for the sensitivity, figure of merit and refractive index resolution are derived, and values are experimentally measured and theoretically validated using mode field calculations. The refractive indices of nine monoatomic and molecular gases are measured with a resolution of δns < 10-6. PMID:27410569

  4. Rapid synthesis and characterization of hybrid ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods for high performance, low temperature NO2 gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnuvelu, Dinesh Veeran; Pullithadathil, Biji; Prasad, Arun K.; Dhara, Sandip; Ashok, Anuradha; Mohamed, Kamruddin; Tyagi, Ashok Kumar; Raj, Baldev

    2015-11-01

    A rapid synthesis route for hybrid ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods has been realized for ultrasensitive, trace-level NO2 gas sensor applications. ZnO nanorods and hybrid ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods are structurally analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Optical characterization using UV-visible (UV-vis), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies elucidate alteration in the percentage of defect and charge transport properties of ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods. The study reveals the accumulation of electrons at metal-semiconductor junctions leading to upward band bending for ZnO and thus favors direct electron transfer from ZnO to Au nanoclusters, which mitigates charge carrier recombination process. The operating temperature of ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods based sensor significantly decreased to 150 °C compared to alternate NO2 sensors (300 °C). Moreover, a linear sensor response in the range of 0.5-5 ppm of NO2 concentration was observed with a lowest detection limit of 500 ppb using conventional electrodes. The defects with deep level, observed in ZnO nanorods and hybrid ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods influences local electron density, which in-turn indirectly influence the gas sensing properties. The ZnO@Au core-shell nanorods based sensor exhibited good selectivity toward NO2 and was found to be very stable.

  5. Depletion and low gas temperature in the L183 (=L134N) prestellar core: the N2H^+-N2D+ tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Bacmann, A.; Cabrit, S.; Vastel, C.

    2007-05-01

    Context: The study of pre-stellar cores (PSCs) suffers from a lack of undepleted species to trace the physical properties of the gas in their very dense inner parts. Aims: We carry out detailed modelling of N2H+ and N2D+ cuts across the L183 main core to evaluate the depletion of these species and their usefulness as a probe of physical conditions in PSCs. Methods: We have developed a non-LTE (NLTE) Monte-Carlo code treating the 1D radiative transfer of both N2H+ and N2D^+, making use of recently published collisional coefficients with He between individual hyperfine levels. The code includes line overlap between hyperfine transitions. An extensive set of core models is calculated and compared with observations. Special attention is paid to the issue of source coupling to the antenna beam. Results: The best-fitting models indicate that i) gas in the core center is very cold (7 ± 1 K) and thermalized with dust; ii) depletion of N2H+ does occur, starting at densities 5-7×105 cm-3 and reaching a factor of 6^+13-3 in abundance; iii) deuterium fractionation reaches ~70% at the core center; and iv) the density profile is proportional to r-1 out to ~4000 AU, and to r-2 beyond. Conclusions: Our NLTE code could be used to (re-)interpret recent and upcoming observations of N2H+ and N2D+ in many pre-stellar cores of interest, to obtain better temperature and abundance profiles. Based on observations made with the IRAM 30-m and the CSO 10-m. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). Table 1, Figs. 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF A HIGH-DENSITY CORE IN TAURUS: DYNAMICAL GAS INTERACTION AT THE POSSIBLE SITE OF A MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo

    2014-07-01

    Starless dense cores eventually collapse dynamically, forming protostars inside them, and the physical properties of the cores determine the nature of the forming protostars. We report ALMA observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward MC27 or L1521F, which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase. We found a few starless high-density cores, one of which has a very high density of ∼10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, within a region of several hundred AU around a very low-luminosity protostar detected by Spitzer. A very compact bipolar outflow with a dynamical timescale of a few hundred years was found toward the protostar. The molecular line observation shows several cores with an arc-like structure, possibly due to the dynamical gas interaction. These complex structures revealed in the present observations suggest that the initial condition of star formation is highly dynamical in nature, which is considered to be a key factor in understanding fundamental issues of star formation such as the formation of multiple stars and the origin of the initial mass function of stars.

  7. Demonstration of Confined Electron Gas and Steep-Slope Behavior in Delta-Doped GaAs-AlGaAs Core-Shell Nanowire Transistors.

    PubMed

    Morkötter, S; Jeon, N; Rudolph, D; Loitsch, B; Spirkoska, D; Hoffmann, E; Döblinger, M; Matich, S; Finley, J J; Lauhon, L J; Abstreiter, G; Koblmüller, G

    2015-05-13

    Strong surface and impurity scattering in III-V semiconductor-based nanowires (NW) degrade the performance of electronic devices, requiring refined concepts for controlling charge carrier conductivity. Here, we demonstrate remote Si delta (δ)-doping of radial GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NWs that unambiguously exhibit a strongly confined electron gas with enhanced low-temperature field-effect mobilities up to 5 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The spatial separation between the high-mobility free electron gas at the NW core-shell interface and the Si dopants in the shell is directly verified by atom probe tomographic (APT) analysis, band-profile calculations, and transport characterization in advanced field-effect transistor (FET) geometries, demonstrating powerful control over the free electron gas density and conductivity. Multigated NW-FETs allow us to spatially resolve channel width- and crystal phase-dependent variations in electron gas density and mobility along single NW-FETs. Notably, dc output and transfer characteristics of these n-type depletion mode NW-FETs reveal excellent drain current saturation and record low subthreshold slopes of 70 mV/dec at on/off ratios >10(4)-10(5) at room temperature. PMID:25923841

  8. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberger, H. Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  9. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-08-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  10. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF A2199: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN MERGER-INDUCED GAS MOTIONS AND NUCLEAR OUTBURSTS IN A COOL CORE CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Li, Zhiyuan; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Lal, Dharam V.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Johnson, Ryan E.

    2013-10-01

    We present new Chandra observations of A2199 that show evidence of gas sloshing due to a minor merger, as well as impacts of the radio source, 3C 338, hosted by the central galaxy, NGC 6166, on the intracluster gas. The new data are consistent with previous evidence of a Mach ≅ 1.46 shock 100'' from the cluster center, although there is still no convincing evidence for the expected temperature jump. Other interpretations of this feature are possible, but none is fully satisfactory. Large scale asymmetries, including enhanced X-ray emission 200'' southwest of the cluster center and a plume of low entropy, enriched gas reaching 50'' to the north of the center, are signatures of gas sloshing induced by core passage of a merging subcluster about 400 Myr ago. An association between the unusual radio ridge and low entropy gas are consistent with this feature being the remnant of a former radio jet that was swept away from the active galactic nucleus by gas sloshing. A large discrepancy between the energy required to produce the 100'' shock and the enthalpy of the outer radio lobes of 3C 338 suggests that the lobes were formed by a more recent, less powerful radio outburst. The lack of evidence for shocks in the central 10'' indicates that the power of the jet now is some two orders of magnitude smaller than when the 100'' shock was formed.

  11. A poroplastic model of mature fault cores with biphasic pore fluids to investigate the role of gas on the onset of fault failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, V.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Piau, J.

    2011-12-01

    A poroplastic model of mature fault cores with biphasic pore fluids to investigate the role of gas on the onset of fault failure The effects of a rapid access of a fault to a source of overpressured fluids on effective stress and failure criterion have been recognized for a long time (Quattrocchi 1999), resulting in a decrease of the effective stress. We concentrate here on the case of the appearance/disappearance of gas in the pore fluid, and its effects on the loading path (Maury et al., 2011). Indeed, gas can appear continuously in a fault zone through dilatant deformation of the zones adjacent to the core fault (Kuo, 2006 ), due to fluid depressurization and degassing. Other source of gas e.g., mantle degasing (Miller et al, 2004), devolitization of coal or other organic matter during frictional sliding (O'Hara et al, 2006), may be remote, and diffuse through a fracture network, or local. Gas in a fault core reduces the Skempton's coefficient to almost 0, the total stress increase during tectonic loading induces a larger increase in effective stress than when pore fluid is fully liquid saturated, thus changing dramatically the loading path for that fault. Not only is failure delayed, but the shear stress at failure increases significantly. Before gas disappearance, the fault might not be critically stressed. However, a subsequent disappearance of gas may lead to failure for small increments of normal and shear stress: apparently strong faults can fail in response to small stress changes. Dilatant failure envelopes are often assumed for localized faults, whereas end-cap envelopes are usually used in association with compaction bands. Here we investigate a poroplastic model for mature fault cores acknowledging that these can be dilatant/contractant according to the state of stress at the plasticity criterion contact. We therefore use a Cam-Clay model as a first approximation. This model enables us to monitor the stability behavior and compute the jumps in stress

  12. Understanding the dynamics of photoionization-induced nonlinear effects and solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Mohammed F.; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-12-15

    We present the details of our previously formulated model [Saleh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011)] that governs pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by an ionizable gas. By using perturbative methods, we find that the photoionization process induces the opposite phenomenon of the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers, as was recently experimentally demonstrated [Hoelzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011)]. This process is only limited by ionization losses, and leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous blueshift in the frequency domain. By applying the Gagnon-Belanger gauge transformation, multipeak ''inverted gravitylike'' solitary waves are predicted. We also demonstrate that the pulse dynamics shows the ejection of solitons during propagation in such fibers, analogous to what happens in conventional solid-core fibers. Moreover, unconventional long-range nonlocal interactions between temporally distant solitons, unique of gas plasma systems, are predicted and studied. Finally, the effects of higher-order dispersion coefficients and the shock operator on the pulse dynamics are investigated, showing that the conversion efficiency of resonant radiation into the deep UV can be improved via plasma formation.

  13. Fabrication and NO2 gas sensing performance of TeO2-core/CuO-shell heterostructure nanorod sensors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TeO2-nanostructured sensors are seldom reported compared to other metal oxide semiconductor materials such as ZnO, In2O3, TiO2, Ga2O3, etc. TeO2/CuO core-shell nanorods were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Te powder followed by sputter deposition of CuO. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that each nanorod consisted of a single crystal TeO2 core and a polycrystalline CuO shell with a thickness of approximately 7 nm. The TeO2/CuO core-shell one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures exhibited a bamboo leaf-like morphology. The core-shell nanorods were 100 to 300 nm in diameter and up to 30 μm in length. The multiple networked TeO2/CuO core-shell nanorod sensor showed responses of 142% to 425% to 0.5- to 10-ppm NO2 at 150°C. These responses were stronger than or comparable to those of many other metal oxide nanostructures, suggesting that TeO2 is also a promising sensor material. The responses of the core-shell nanorods were 1.2 to 2.1 times higher than those of pristine TeO2 nanorods over the same NO2 concentration range. The underlying mechanism for the enhanced NO2 sensing properties of the core-shell nanorod sensor can be explained by the potential barrier-controlled carrier transport mechanism. PACS 61.46. + w; 07.07.Df; 73.22.-f PMID:25489289

  14. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Daddy; Rohman, Budi

    2014-09-30

    Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

  15. Design of Gas-phase Synthesis of Core-Shell Particles by Computational Fluid – Aerosol Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, B.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell particles preserve the bulk properties (e.g. magnetic, optical) of the core while its surface is modified by a shell material. Continuous aerosol coating of core TiO2 nanoparticles with nanothin silicon dioxide shells by jet injection of hexamethyldisiloxane precursor vapor downstream of titania particle formation is elucidated by combining computational fluid and aerosol dynamics. The effect of inlet coating vapor concentration and mixing intensity on product shell thickness distribution is presented. Rapid mixing of the core aerosol with the shell precursor vapor facilitates efficient synthesis of hermetically coated core-shell nanoparticles. The predicted extent of hermetic coating shells is compared to the measured photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol by such particles as hermetic SiO2 shells prevent the photocatalytic activity of titania. Finally the performance of a simpler, plug-flow coating model is assessed by comparisons to the present detailed CFD model in terms of coating efficiency and silica average shell thickness and texture. PMID:23729817

  16. ALMA Observations of a High-density Core in Taurus: Dynamical Gas Interaction at the Possible Site of a Multiple Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo; Tachihara, Kengo

    2015-08-01

    It is crucially important to observe dense cores in order to investigate the initial condition of star formation since protostars are formed via dynamical collapse of dense cores, inhering the physical properties from their natal dense cores. Here we present the results of ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward a dense core, MC27 (aka L1521F), which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase.The Cycle 0 observations revealed complex structures at the center. We found a few starless high-density cores, one of which (MMS2) has a very high density of ~107 cm-3, around the very low-luminousity protostar detected by Spitzer. A very compact bipolar outflow with a dynamical timescale of a few hundred years was found toward the protostar. The HCO+ (3-2) observation shows several cores associated with an arc-like structure whose length is ~2000 AU, possibly due to the dynamical gas interaction. These complex structures suggest that the initial condition of star formation is highly dynamical in nature, which is considered to be a key factor in understanding fundamental issues of star formation such as origins of the stellar multiplicity and the initial mass function. These initial Cycle 0 results were published by Tokuda et al. (2014). Matsumoto et al. (2015) investigated the arc-like structures by performing numerical simulations.Detailed column density distribution with the size from ~100 to ~10000 AU scale are revealed by combining the 12m array data with the 7m array data of the ALMA Compact Array as well as with the single dish MAMBO data. Our preliminary analysis shows that the averaged radial column density distribution of the inner part (r < 2000 AU) is N(H2)~r-0.4, clearly flatter than that of the outer part, ~r-1.3. We detected the above-mentioned complex structure inside the inner flatter region, which may reflect the dynamical status of the dense core. The Cycle 1

  17. Finite Element Based Stress Analysis of Graphite Component in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Core Using Linear and Nonlinear Irradiation Creep Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Majumdar, Saurindranath

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation creep plays a major role in the structural integrity of the graphite components in high temperature gas cooled reactors. Finite element procedures combined with a suitable irradiation creep model can be used to simulate the time-integrated structural integrity of complex shapes, such as the reactor core graphite reflector and fuel bricks. In the present work a comparative study was undertaken to understand the effect of linear and nonlinear irradiation creep on results of finite element based stress analysis. Numerical results were generated through finite element simulations of a typical graphite reflector.

  18. Plasma-induced asymmetric self-phase modulation and modulational instability in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Chang, Wonkeun; Travers, John C; Russell, Philip St J; Biancalana, Fabio

    2012-09-14

    We study theoretically the propagation of relatively long pulses with ionizing intensities in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with a Raman-inactive noble gas. Because of photoionization, an extremely asymmetric self-phase modulation and a new kind of "universal" plasma-induced modulational instability appear in both normal and anomalous dispersion regions. We also show that it is possible to spontaneously generate a plasma-induced continuum of blueshifting solitons, opening up new possibilities for pushing supercontinuum generation towards shorter and shorter wavelengths. PMID:23005629

  19. Photoionization-Induced Emission of Tunable Few-Cycle Midinfrared Dispersive Waves in Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers.

    PubMed

    Novoa, D; Cassataro, M; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-07-17

    We propose a scheme for the emission of few-cycle dispersive waves in the midinfrared using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with noble gas. The underlying mechanism is the formation of a plasma cloud by a self-compressed, subcycle pump pulse. The resulting free-electron population modifies the fiber dispersion, allowing phase-matched access to dispersive waves at otherwise inaccessible frequencies, well into the midinfrared. Remarkably, the pulses generated turn out to have durations of the order of two optical cycles. In addition, this ultrafast emission, which occurs even in the absence of a zero dispersion point between pump and midinfrared wavelengths, is tunable over a wide frequency range simply by adjusting the gas pressure. These theoretical results pave the way to a new generation of compact, fiber-based sources of few-cycle midinfrared radiation. PMID:26230794

  20. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an emerging, relatively unexplored approach to fusion for electrical power and propulsion application. The physical principles of the concept are founded upon both inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). It attempts to combine the favorable attributes of both these orthogonal approaches to fusion, but at the same time, avoiding the extreme technical challenges of both by exploiting a fusion regime intermediate between them. It uses a material liner to compress, heat and contain the fusion reacting plasma (the target plasma) mentally. By doing so, the fusion burn could be made to occur at plasma densities as high as six orders of magnitude higher than conventional MCF such as tokamak, thus leading to an approximately three orders of magnitude reduction in the plasma energy required for ignition. It also uses a transient magnetic field, compressed to extremely high intensity (100's T to 1000T) in the target plasma, to slow down the heat transport to the liner and to increase the energy deposition of charged-particle fusion products. This has several compounding beneficial effects. It leads to longer energy confinement time compared with conventional ICF without magnetized target, and thus permits the use of much lower plasma density to produce reasonable burn-up fraction. The compounding effects of lower plasma density and the magneto-insulation of the target lead to greatly reduced compressional heating power on the target. The increased energy deposition rate of charged-particle fusion products also helps to lower the energy threshold required for ignition and increasing the burn-up fraction. The reduction in ignition energy and the compressional power compound to lead to reduced system size, mass and R&D cost. It is a fusion approach that has an affordable R&D pathway, and appears attractive for propulsion application in the nearer term.

  1. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Richeson, Jeff; Schmidt, George; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Turchi, Peter J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). For the successful implementation of the scheme, plasma jets of the requisite momentum flux density need to be produced. Their transport over sufficiently large distances (a few meters) needs to be assured. When they collide and merge into a liner, relative differences in velocity, density and temperature of the jets could give rise to instabilities in the development of the liner. Variation in the jet properties must be controlled to ensure that the growth rate of the instabilities are not significant over the time scale of the liner formation before engaging with the target plasma. On impact with the target plasma, some plasma interpenetration might occur between the liner and the target. The operating parameter space needs to be identified to ensure that a reasonably robust and conducting contact surface is formed between the liner and the target. A mismatch in the "impedance" between the liner and the target plasma could give rise to undesirable shock heating of the liner leading to increased entropy (thermal losses) in the liner. Any irregularities in the liner will accentuate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the compression of the target plasma by the liner.

  2. Environmental Health Research Recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Patrick N.; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Objectives: Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. Discussion: The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Conclusions: Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies. Citation: Penning TM, Breysse PN, Gray K, Howarth M, Yan B. 2014. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations. Environ Health Perspect 122:1155–1159; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408207 PMID:25036093

  3. Effects of non-local exchange on core level shifts for gas-phase and adsorbed molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bossche, M.; Grönbeck, H.; Martin, N. M.; Gustafson, J.; Lundgren, E.; Hakanoglu, C.; Weaver, J. F.

    2014-07-21

    Density functional theory calculations are often used to interpret experimental shifts in core level binding energies. Calculations based on gradient-corrected (GC) exchange-correlation functionals are known to reproduce measured core level shifts (CLS) of isolated molecules and metal surfaces with reasonable accuracy. In the present study, we discuss a series of examples where the shifts calculated within a GC-functional significantly deviate from the experimental values, namely the CLS of C 1s in ethyl trifluoroacetate, Pd 3d in PdO and the O 1s shift for CO adsorbed on PdO(101). The deviations are traced to effects of the electronic self-interaction error with GC-functionals and substantially better agreements between calculated and measured CLS are obtained when a fraction of exact exchange is used in the exchange-correlation functional.

  4. Manipulation of coherent Stokes light by transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Chugreev, Alexey; Nazarkin, Alexander; Abdolvand, Amir; Nold, Johannes; Podlipensky, Alexander; Russell, Philip St J

    2009-05-25

    Transient stimulated Raman scattering is investigated in methane-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Using frequency-chirped ps-pulses at 1.06 microm as pump and tunable CW-radiation as Stokes seed, the vibrational excitation of the CH(4) molecules can be controlled on the sub T(2) time-scale. In this way the generated Stokes pulse can be phase-locked to the pump pulse and its spectrum manipulated. PMID:19466132

  5. Zero-Headspace Coal-Core Gas Desorption Canister, Revised Desorption Data Analysis Spreadsheets and a Dry Canister Heating System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Charles E.; Dallegge, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal desorption techniques typically use the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) canister-desorption method as described by Diamond and Levine (1981), Close and Erwin (1989), Ryan and Dawson (1993), McLennan and others (1994), Mavor and Nelson (1997) and Diamond and Schatzel (1998). However, the coal desorption canister designs historically used with this method have an inherent flaw that allows a significant gas-filled headspace bubble to remain in the canister that later has to be compensated for by correcting the measured desorbed gas volume with a mathematical headspace volume correction (McLennan and others, 1994; Mavor and Nelson, 1997).

  6. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF AVIATION GASOLINE AND JP-4 JET FUEL IN SUBSURFACE CORE SAMPLES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new gas chromatographic procedure for quantifying levels of aviation gasoline (avgas) and JP-4 jet fuel contamination in soils is described. The fuel is extracted from a small quantity of soil or subsurface material, typically about 6 g, using 3 mL of methylene chloride. The ex...

  7. Generation of a phase-locked Raman frequency comb in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Abdolvand, A; Walser, A M; Ziemienczuk, M; Nguyen, T; Russell, P St J

    2012-11-01

    In a relatively simple setup consisting of a microchip laser as pump source and two hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, a broad, phase-locked, purely rotational frequency comb is generated. This is achieved by producing a clean first Stokes seed pulse in a narrowband guiding photonic bandgap fiber via stimulated Raman scattering and then driving the same Raman transition resonantly with a pump and Stokes fields in a second broadband guiding kagomé-style fiber. Using a spectral interferometric technique based on sum frequency generation, we show that the comb components are phase locked. PMID:23114296

  8. Toward Generation of High Power Ultrafast White Light Laser Using Femtosecond Terawatt Laser in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Walid

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we could experimentally achieved the generation of white-light laser pulses of few-cycle fs pulses using a neon-filled hollow-core fiber. The observed pulses reached 6-fs at at repetition rate of 1 kHz using 2.5 mJ of 31 fs femtosecond pulses. The pulse compressing achieved by the supercontinuum produced in static neon-filled hollow fibers while the dispersion compensation is achieved by five pairs of chirped mirrors. We showed that gas pressure can be used to continuously vary the bandwidth from 350 nm to 900 nm. Furthermore, the applied technique allows for a straightforward tuning of the pulse duration via the gas pressure whilst maintaining near-transform-limited pulses with constant output energy, thereby reducing the complications introduced by chirped pulses. Through measurements of the transmission through the fiber as a function of gas pressure, a high throughput exceeding 60% was achieved. Adaptive pulse compression is achieved by using the spectral phase obtained from a spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) measurement as feedback for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The spectral phase of these supercontinua is found to be extremely stable over several hours. This allowed us to demonstrate successful compression to pulses as short as 5.2 fs with controlled wide spectral bandwidth, which could be used to excite different states in complicated molecules at once.

  9. 3C28 in Abell 115- A Radio Source With a Twist: Tracing Gas Vortices in a Merging Subcluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Churazov, Eugene

    2014-08-01

    Abell 115 is one of the “bimodal” clusters, first identified from Einstein Observatory X-ray images. The X-ray image is dominated by emission from two subclusters, separated by about 900 kpc, that are in the process of merging. The northern subcluster (A115-N) contains a bright central galaxy that hosts the radio source 3C28. 3C28 has a remarkable morphology. Although there is no evidence of a presently active nucleus, there are two prominent jets connected to a pair of radio lobes, each of which exhibits a radio tail. A115-N shows a classic cold front, the remarkable phenomenon first studied from Chandra cluster observations. We describe the overall structure of the cluster from detailed Chandra observations. We review the gravitational lensing observations and radio observations of the relic and discuss the overall state of the cluster merger. In addition, we exploit the Chandra data and the cold front phenomenon to study the gas motions in and around A115-N that hosts 3C28. The subcluster motion of A115-N through the cluster induces counter-rotating vortices in the subcluster gas that give rise to the unique radio morphology of 3C28 with its two radio tails pointing in the direction of motion of A115-N. Thus, the radio emitting plasma acts as a dye in a fluid tracing the vortices in the X-ray emitting gas, resembling text book pictures of fluid motions.

  10. 3C28 in Abell 115- A Radio Source With a Twist: Tracing Gas Vortices in a Merging Subcluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Heinz, Sebastian; Giacintucci, Simona; Jones, Christine; Bogdan, Akos; David, Laurence P; Kraft, Ralph P.; Murgia, Matteo; Markevitch, Maxim L.; Randall, Scott W.; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2014-06-01

    Abell 115 is one of the “bimodal” clusters, first identified from Einstein Observatory X-ray images. The X-ray image is dominated by emission from two subclusters, separated by about 900 kpc, that are in the process of merging. The northern subcluster (A115-N) contains a bright central galaxy that hosts the radio source 3C28. 3C28 has a remarkable morphology. Although there is no evidence of a presently active nucleus, there are two prominent jets connected to a pair of radio lobes, each of which exhibits a radio tail. A115-N shows a classic cold front, the remarkable phenomenon first studied from Chandra cluster observations. We describe the overall structure of the cluster from detailed Chandra obserations. In addition, we exploit the Chandra data and the cold front phenomenon to study the gas motions in and around A115-N that hosts 3C28. The subcluster motion of A115-N through the cluster induces counter-rotating vortices in the subcluster gas that give rise to the unique radio morphology of 3C28 with its two radio tails pointing in the direction of motion of A115-N. Thus, the radio emitting plasma acts as a dye in a fluid tracing the vortices in the X-ray emitting gas, resembling text book pictures of fluid motions.

  11. Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Benabid, F; Bouwmans, G; Knight, J C; Russell, P St J; Couny, F

    2004-09-17

    We report on the generation of pure rotational stimulated Raman scattering in a hydrogen gas hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Using the special properties of this low-loss fiber, the normally dominant vibrational stimulated Raman scattering is suppressed, permitting pure conversion to the rotational Stokes frequency in a single-pass configuration pumped by a microchip laser. We report 92% quantum conversion efficiency (40 nJ pulses in 2.9 m fiber) and threshold energies (3 nJ in 35 m) more than 1 x 10(6) times lower than previously reported. The control of the output spectral components by varying only the pump polarization is also shown. The results point to a new generation of highly engineerable and compact laser sources. PMID:15447265

  12. PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY MEASUREMENTS IN A REPRESENTATIVE GAS-COOLED PRISMATIC REACTOR CORE MODEL: FLOW IN THE COOLANT CHANNELS AND INTERSTITIAL BYPASS GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Conder; Richard Skifton; Ralph Budwig

    2012-11-01

    Core bypass flow is one of the key issues with the prismatic Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor, and it refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial, non-cooling passages between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. To determine the bypass flow, a double scale representative model was manufactured and installed in the Matched Index-of-Refraction flow facility; after which, stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the flow field within. PIV images were analyzed to produce vector maps, and flow rates were calculated by numerically integrating over the velocity field. It was found that the bypass flow varied between 6.9-15.8% for channel Reynolds numbers of 1,746 and 4,618. The results were compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) pre-test simulations. When compared to these pretest calculations, the CFD analysis appeared to under predict the flow through the gap.

  13. Searching for 300, 000 Degree Gas in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster with HST-COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The high central density of the intracluster medium in some galaxy clusters suggests that the hot 10,000,000K gas should cool completely in less than a Hubble time. In these clusters, simple cooling models predict 100-1000 solar masses per year of cooling gas should fuel massive starbursts in the central galaxy. The fact that the typical central cluster galaxy is a massive, "red and dead" elliptical galaxy, with little evidence for a cool ISM, has led to the realization of the "cooling flow problem". It is now thought that mechanical feedback from the central supermassive blackhole, in the form of radio-blown bubbles, is offsetting cooling, leading to an exceptionally precise {residuals of less than 10 percent} balance between cooling and feedback in nearly every galaxy cluster in the local Universe. In the recently-discovered Phoenix cluster, where z=0.596, we observe an 800 solar mass per year starburst within the central galaxy which accounts for about 30 percent of the classical cooling prediction for this system. We speculate that this may represent the first "true" cooling flow, with the factor of 3 difference between cooling and star formation being attributed to star formation efficiency, rather than a problem with cooling. In order to test these predictions, we propose far-UV spectroscopic observations of the OVI 1032A emission line, which probes 10^5.5K gas, in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. If detected at the expected levels, this would provide compelling evidence that the starburst is, indeed, fueled by runaway cooling of the intracluster medium, confirming the presence of the first, bonafide cooling flow.

  14. Automated online measurement of N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4 emissions based on a gas-flow-soil-core technique.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tingting; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Xunhua; Sun, Yang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Chen, Nuo

    2013-11-01

    The gas-flow-soil-core (GFSC) technique allows to directly measure emission rates of denitrification gases of incubated soil cores. However, the technique was still suffering some drawbacks such as inadequate accuracy due to asynchronous detection of dinitrogen (N2) and other gases and low measurement frequency. Furthermore, its application was limited due to intensive manual operation. To overcome these drawbacks, we updated the GFSC system as described by Wang et al. (2011) by (a) using both a chemiluminescent detector and a gas chromatograph detector to measure nitric oxide (NO), (b) synchronizing the measurements of N2, NO, nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and (c) fully automating the sampling/analysis of all the gases. These technical modifications significantly reduced labor demands by at least a factor of two, increased the measurement frequency from 3 to 6 times per day and resulted in remarkable improvements in measurement accuracy (with detection limits of 0.5, 0.01, 0.05, 2.3 and 0.2μgN or Ch(-1)kg(-1)ds, or 17, 0.3, 1.8, 82, and 6μgN or Cm(-2)h(-1), for N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4, respectively). In some circumstances, the modified system measured significantly more N2 and CO2 and less N2O and NO because of the enhanced measurement frequency. The modified system distinguished the differences in emissions of the denitrification gases and CO2 due to a 20% change in initial carbon supplies. It also remarkably recovered approximately 90% of consumed nitrate during incubation. These performances validate the technical improvement, and indicate that the improved GFSC system may provide a powerful research tool for obtaining deeper insights into the processes of soil carbon and nitrogen transformation during denitrification. PMID:24184044

  15. An experimental NEXAFS and computational TDDFT and ΔDFT study of the gas-phase core excitation spectra of nitroxide free radical TEMPO and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Ljubić, Ivan; Kivimäki, Antti; Coreno, Marcello

    2016-04-21

    Core-hole spectroscopy adds to the fundamental understanding of the electronic structure of stable nitroxide free radicals thus paving way for a sensible design of new analogues with desired functionalities. We study the gas-phase C 1s, N 1s and O 1s excitation spectra of three nitroxide free radicals - TEMPO and two of its amide-substituted analogues - using the experimental NEXAFS technique and the theoretical TDDFT and ΔDFT methods in the unrestricted setting. The short-range corrected SRC1-BLYP and SRC2-BLYP exchange-correlation functionals are used with TDDFT, and the standard B3LYP functional with ΔDFT. The TDDFT-based detailed spectral assignment includes the valence, mixed valence-Rydberg and Rydberg portions of the spectra from the onset of absorptions to the vicinity of the core-ionization thresholds. The relative overlaps between the experimental and TDDFT-modelled spectra are reasonably good, in the range of 0.7-0.8, 0.6-0.8, and 0.7-0.8 for the C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s spectra, respectively. The extent of spin contamination within the unrestricted framework and its effect on the accuracy of the calculated excitation energies and dipole intensities are discussed in detail. It is concluded that, despite the sizeable spin contamination, the presently used methods are capable of predicting the core-excitation spectra of comparatively large free radical species fairly reliably over a wide spectral range. PMID:27020039

  16. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Novoa, D.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-12-01

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers.

  17. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmidt, S T; Novoa, D; Russell, P St J

    2015-12-11

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers. PMID:26705636

  18. An integrated profile of natural fractures in gas-bearing shale complex (Pomerania, Poland): based on structural profiling of oriented core and borehole logging data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Stadtmuller, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir; Lis-Śledziona, Anita

    2016-04-01

    Natural fractures in gas-bearing shales has significant impact on reservoir stimulation and increase of exploitation. Density of natural fractures and their orientation in respect to the maximum horizontal stress are crucial for propagation of technological hydraulic fractures. Having access to continuous borehole core profile and modern geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Early Paleozoic Baltic Basin (Poland) we were able to compare the consistency of structural interpretation of several data sets. Although, final aim of our research is to optimize the method of fracture network reconstruction on a reservoir scale, at a recent stage we were focused on quantitative characterization of tectonic structures in a direct vicinity of boreholes. The data we have, cover several hundred meters long profiles of boreholes from the Ordovician and Silurian shale complexes. Combining different sets of data we broaden the scale of observation from borehole core (5 cm radius), through XRMI scan of a borehole wall (10 cm radius), up to penetration of a signal of an acoustic dipole logging (several tens of cm range). At the borehole core we examined the natural tectonic structures and mechanically significant features, like: mineral veins, fractured veins, bare fractures, slickensides, fault zones, stylolites, bedding plane and mechanically contrasting layers. We have also noticed drilling-induced features like centerline fractures and core disking, controlled by a recent tectonic stress. We have measured the orientation of fractures, their size, aperture and spacing and also describe the character of veins and tried to determine the stress regime responsible for fault slippage and fracture propagation. Wide range of analyzed features allowed us to discriminate fracture sets and reconstruct tectonic evolution of the complex. The most typical for analyzed shale complexes are steep and vertical strata-bound fractures that create an orthogonal joint

  19. The State of the Warm and Cold Gas in the Extreme Starburst at the Core of the Phoenix Galaxy Cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Wilner, David J.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Hogan, Michael T.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bautz, Marshall W.

    2014-03-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (~800 M ⊙ yr-1) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×1043 erg s-1, making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM gsim 500 km s-1), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M_{H_2} = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 1010 M ⊙, which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ~30 Myr if it is not

  20. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-03-20

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L {sub Hα} = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}, making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s{sup –1}), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M{sub H{sub 2}} = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, which implies that

  1. Facile synthesis of core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers by electrospinning and gas-phase sulfidation for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Korczyc, Anna; Sobczak, Kamil; Dłużewski, Piotr; Reszka, Anna; Kowalski, Bogdan J; Kłopotowski, Łukasz; Elbaum, Danek; Fronc, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    This study describes a new method of passivating ZnO nanofiber-based devices with a ZnS layer. This one-step process was carried out in H2S gas at room temperature, and resulted in the formation of core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers. This study presents the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO/ZnS nanofibers formed by a 2 nm ZnS sphalerite crystal shell covering a 5 nm ZnO wurtzite crystal core. The passivation process prevented free carriers from capture by oxygen molecules and significantly reduced the impact of O2 on nanostructure conductivity. The conductivity of the nanofibers was increased by three orders of magnitude after the sulfidation, the photoresponse time was reduced from 1500 s to 30 s, and the cathodoluminescence intensity increased with the sulfidation time thanks to the removal of ZnO surface defects by passivation. The ZnO/ZnS nanofibers were stable in water for over 30 days, and in phosphate buffers of acidic, neutral and alkaline pH for over 3 days. The by-products of the passivation process did not affect the conductivity of the devices. The potential of ZnO/ZnS nanofibers for protein biosensing is demonstrated using biotin and streptavidin as a model system. The presented ZnS shell preparation method can facilitate the construction of future sensors and protects the ZnO surface from dissolving in a biological environment. PMID:26313635

  2. Parameters controlling mechanical stratification of gas-bearing shale complexes: integration of wellbore logging and core profiling (Peri-Baltic Basin, Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga; Roszkowska-Remin, Joanna; Roman, Michał

    2016-04-01

    In our study of mechanical properties of gas-bearing shale complexes from exploration wells in Pomerania, we take advantage from having access to continuous, several hundred meters long core profiles which are supplemented with complete sets of geophysical logging from the same shale intervals. We are focused on different approaches to discriminate the Consistent Mechanical Units (CMUs). Such units are essential for mechanical modeling of stress and strain in shales and their scale is highly dependent on the purpose of analyses. We have done a precise lithological and structural core profiling, which results in distinguishing Consistent Lithological Units (CLUs) at a centimeter scale. The geophysical logs, essential for mechanical studies, exhibit resolution from tens of centimeters to a meter. The meter resolution we have found appropriate for consideration of mechanics of hydraulic fracture propagation and therefore we have used it in CMUs analysis. The first challenge we have faced is to switch between scales of analyses without significant losses of information coming from the lower level of observation. The next challenge, is to find the mechanical parameter which is able to discriminate CMUs most efficiently. Brittleness Indexes (BIs) are commonly used parameters in order to characterize mechanical shale units, but at the same time these indexes are arbitrary defined to match individual requirements of the users. In our study, we have determined the BIs in several ways, based either on mineral composition or on elastic modules, both supplemented with pore volume. The gamma ray (GR), Young modulus (YM), Poisson Ratio (ν) interpretation from acoustic logging, bulk density (RHOB), porosity interpretation (ø) and mineralogical profile (ULTRA, GEM) from spectral logging were computed. Detailed comparison of lithological profile and discriminated CLUs with above logs led us to conclusions about geophysical representation of dolomite and silica lithified shale

  3. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mit Basol; John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

    2007-05-02

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  4. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H2S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H2 32S, H2 34S, and H2 33S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H2S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T rot = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H2S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E up >~ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N tot(H2 32S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 1017 cm-2, gas kinetic temperature, T kin = 120+/- ^{13}_{10} K, and constrain the H2 volume density, n_H_2 >~ 9 × 10 7 cm-3, for the H2S emitting gas. These results point to an H2S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H2S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H2S of <4.9 × 10 -3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. Herschel observations of extra-ordinary sources: H{sub 2}S as a probe of dense gas and possibly hidden luminosity toward the Orion KL hot core

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H{sub 2}S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H{sub 2} {sup 32}S, H{sub 2} {sup 34}S, and H{sub 2} {sup 33}S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H{sub 2}S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T {sub rot} = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H{sub 2}S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E {sub up} ≳ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N {sub tot}(H{sub 2} {sup 32}S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –2}, gas kinetic temperature, T {sub kin} = 120±{sub 10}{sup 13} K, and constrain the H{sub 2} volume density, n{sub H{sub 2}} ≳ 9 × 10 {sup 7} cm{sup –3}, for the H{sub 2}S emitting gas. These results point to an H{sub 2}S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H{sub 2}S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H{sub 2}S of <4.9 × 10 {sup –3}.

  6. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  7. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  8. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  9. Gelcasting Alumina Cores for Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M A; Klug, F J

    2001-01-01

    General Electric currently uses silica investment casting cores for making superalloy turbine blades. The silica core technology does not provide the degree of dimensional control needed for advanced turbine system manufacture. The sum of the various process variables in silica core manufacturing produces cores that have more variability than is allowed for in advanced, power-generation gas turbine airfoils.

  10. Pressure Core Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamarina, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates form under high fluid pressure and low temperature, and are found in permafrost, deep lakes or ocean sediments. Hydrate dissociation by depressurization and/or heating is accompanied by a multifold hydrate volume expansion and host sediments with low permeability experience massive destructuration. Proper characterization requires coring, recovery, manipulation and testing under P-T conditions within the stability field. Pressure core technology allows for the reliable characterization of hydrate bearing sediments within the stability field in order to address scientific and engineering needs, including the measurement of parameters used in hydro-thermo-mechanical analyses, and the monitoring of hydrate dissociation under controlled pressure, temperature, effective stress and chemical conditions. Inherent sampling effects remain and need to be addressed in test protocols and data interpretation. Pressure core technology has been deployed to study hydrate bearing sediments at several locations around the world. In addition to pressure core testing, a comprehensive characterization program should include sediment analysis, testing of reconstituted specimens (with and without synthetic hydrate), and in situ testing. Pressure core characterization technology can be used to study other gas-charged formations such as deep sea sediments, coal bed methane and gas shales.

  11. Effect of Au nanorods on potential barrier modulation in morphologically controlled Au@Cu2O core-shell nanoreactors for gas sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Sanjit Manohar; Rai, Prabhakar; Raj, Sudarsan; Chon, Bum-Soo; Park, Kyung-Kuen; Yu, Yeon-Tae

    2014-05-28

    In this work, Au@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple solution route and applied for CO sensing applications. Au@Cu2O core-shell NPs were formed by the deposition of 30-60 nm Cu2O shell layer on Au nanorods (NRs) having 10-15 nm width and 40-60 nm length. The morphology of Au@Cu2O core-shell NPs was tuned from brick to spherical shape by tuning the pH of the solution. In the absence of Au NRs, cubelike Cu2O NPs having ∼200 nm diameters were formed. The sensor having Au@Cu2O core-shell layer exhibited higher CO sensitivity compared to bare Cu2O NPs layer. Tuning of morphology of Au@Cu2O core-shell NPs from brick to spherical shape significantly lowered the air resistance. Transition from p- to n-type response was observed for all devices below 150 °C. It was demonstrated that performance of sensor depends not only on the electronic sensitization of Au NRs but also on the morphology of the Au@Cu2O core-shell NPs. PMID:24779525

  12. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The

  13. DUBLIN CORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dublin Core is a metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. It was originally conceived for author-generated descriptions of Web resources, and the Dublin Core has attracted broad ranging international and interdisciplinary support. The cha...

  14. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  15. Depositional and irradiational history and noble gas contents of orange-black droplets in the 74002/1 core from Shorty Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Hirsch, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    Isotopic concentrations of noble gases were assessed in grain size separates of 14 soils from a 67-cm section of lunar regolith taken on the rim of Shorty Crater. The orange-black droplets in this section were probably formed from pyroclastic eruptions about 3.6 billion years ago; they give little indication of surface exposure. The isotopic concentrations suggest that cosmic ray irradiation of the core occurred in two stages and that the core stratigraphy was inverted between stages. The first irradiation stage may have taken place immediately after pyroclastic deposition of the droplets and could have lasted about 20 million years.

  16. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production

  17. Combustion and core noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, J. Robert; Karchmer, Allen

    1991-08-01

    Two types of aircraft power plant are considered: the gas turbine and the reciprocating engine. The engine types considered are: the reciprocating engine, the turbojet engine, the turboprop engine, and the turbofan engine. Combustion noise in gas turbine engines is discussed, and reciprocating-engine combustion noise is also briefly described. The following subject areas are covered: configuration variables, operational variables, characteristics of combustion and core noise, sources of combustion noise, combustion noise theory and comparison with experiment, available prediction methods, diagnostic techniques, measurement techniques, data interpretation, and example applications.

  18. Generator stator core vent duct spacer posts

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, John Wesley; Tong, Wei

    2003-06-24

    Generator stator cores are constructed by stacking many layers of magnetic laminations. Ventilation ducts may be inserted between these layers by inserting spacers into the core stack. The ventilation ducts allow for the passage of cooling gas through the core during operation. The spacers or spacer posts are positioned between groups of the magnetic laminations to define the ventilation ducts. The spacer posts are secured with longitudinal axes thereof substantially parallel to the core axis. With this structure, core tightness can be assured while maximizing ventilation duct cross section for gas flow and minimizing magnetic loss in the spacers.

  19. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Generation of 4.3 fs, 1 mJ laser pulses via compression of circularly polarized pulses in a gas-filled hollow-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurélie; Malvache, Arnaud; Canova, Lorenzo; Borot, Antonin; Trisorio, Alexandre; Durfee, Charles G; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2009-05-15

    We report the generation of 4.3 fs, 1 mJ pulses at 1 kHz using a hollow-core fiber compressor seeded with circularly polarized laser pulses. We observe up to 30% more energy throughput compared to the case of linearly polarized laser input, together with significantly improved output spectral stability. Seeding with circularly polarized pulses proves to be an effective approach for high-energy operation of the hollow-fiber compression technique. PMID:19448830

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, W.B.; Corbin, A. Jr.

    1961-07-18

    An improved core for a gas-cooled power reactor which admits gas coolant at high temperatures while affording strong integral supporting structure and efficient moderation of neutrons is described. The multiplicities of fuel elements constituting the critical amassment of fissionable material are supported and confined by a matrix of metallic structure which is interspersed therebetween. Thermal insulation is interposed between substantially all of the metallic matrix and the fuel elements; the insulation then defines the principal conduit system for conducting the coolant gas in heat-transfer relationship with the fuel elements. The metallic matrix itseif comprises a system of ducts through which an externally-cooled hydrogeneous liquid, such as water, is circulated to serve as the principal neutron moderant for the core and conjointly as the principal coolant for the insulated metallic structure. In this way, use of substantially neutron transparent metals, such as aluminum, becomes possible for the supporting structure, despite the high temperatures of the proximate gas. The Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program's "R-1" reactor design is a preferred embodiment.

  2. Core strengthening.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have evaluated interventional techniques designed to reduce the risk of serious knee injuries, particularly noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. Maintenance of rotational control of the limb underneath the pelvis, especially in response to cutting and jumping activities, is a common goal in many training programs. Rotational control of the limb underneath the pelvis is mediated by a complex set of factors including the strength of the trunk muscles and the relationship between the core muscles. It is important to examine the interrelationship between lower extremity function and core stability. PMID:17472321

  3. Violent interaction between the active galactic nucleus and the hot gas in the core of the galaxy cluster Sérsic 159-03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, N.; Sun, M.; Bagchi, J.; Allen, S. W.; Taylor, G. B.; Sirothia, S. K.; Simionescu, A.; Million, E. T.; Jacob, J.; Donahue, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the energetic interaction between the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), the intracluster medium (ICM) and the optical emission-line nebula in the galaxy cluster Sérsic 159-03. We use X-ray data from Chandra, high-resolution X-ray spectra and ultraviolet (UV) images from XMM-Newton, Hα images from the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Very Large Array and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope radio data. The cluster centre displays signs of powerful AGN feedback, which has cleared the central regions (r < 7.5 kpc) of a dense, X-ray-emitting ICM. X-ray spectral maps reveal a high-pressure ring surrounding the central AGN at a radius of r˜ 15 kpc, indicating an AGN-driven weak shock. The cluster harbours a bright, 44 kpc long Hα+[N II] filament extending from the centre of the cD galaxy to the north. Along the filament, we see low-entropy, high-metallicity, cooling X-ray gas. The gas in the filament has most likely been uplifted by 'radio mode' AGN activity and subsequently stripped from the galaxy due to its relative southward motion. Because this X-ray gas has been removed from the direct influence of the AGN jets, part of it cools and forms stars as indicated by the observed dust lanes, molecular and ionized emission-line nebulae and the excess UV emission.

  4. Supercontinuum generation in the vacuum ultraviolet through dispersive-wave and soliton-plasma interaction in a noble-gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Frosz, M. H.; Travers, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the generation of a three-octave-wide supercontinuum extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to the near infrared, spanning at least 113-1000 nm (i.e., 11 -1.2 eV ), in He-filled hollow-core kagome-style photonic crystal fiber. Numerical simulations confirm that the main mechanism is an interaction between dispersive-wave emission and plasma-induced blue-shifted soliton recompression around the fiber zero dispersion frequency. The VUV part of the supercontinuum, the modeling of which proves to be coherent and possesses a simple phase structure, has sufficient bandwidth to support single-cycle pulses of 500 asec duration. We also demonstrate, in the same system, the generation of narrower-band VUV pulses through dispersive-wave emission, tunable from 120 to 200 nm with efficiencies exceeding 1 % and VUV pulse energies in excess of 50 nJ.

  5. X-ray CT Observations of Methane Hydrate Distribution Changes over Time in a Natural Sediment Core from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2010-03-01

    When maintained under hydrate-stable conditions, methane hydrate in laboratory samples is often considered a stable and immobile solid material. Currently, there do not appear to be any studies in which the long-term redistribution of hydrates in sediments has been investigated in the laboratory. These observations are important because if the location of hydrate in a sample were to change over time (e.g. by dissociating at one location and reforming at another), the properties of the sample that depend on hydrate saturation and pore space occupancy would also change. Observations of hydrate redistribution under stable conditions are also important in understanding natural hydrate deposits, as these may also change over time. The processes by which solid hydrate can move include dissociation, hydrate-former and water migration in the gas and liquid phases, and hydrate formation. Chemical potential gradients induced by temperature, pressure, and pore water or host sediment chemistry can drive these processes. A series of tests were performed on a formerly natural methane-hydrate-bearing core sample from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, in order to observe hydrate formation and morphology within this natural sediment, and changes over time using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Long-term observations (over several weeks) of methane hydrate in natural sediments were made to investigate spatial changes in hydrate saturation in the core. During the test sequence, mild buffered thermal and pressure oscillations occurred within the sample in response to laboratory temperature changes. These oscillations were small in magnitude, and conditions were maintained well within the hydrate stability zone.

  6. Fusion-Driven Space Plane for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.; Cassenti, B.

    A fusion hybrid reactor where the fusion component is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) is proposed as the driver of a rocket that would allow a space vehicle of the size of Boeing 747 to travel to the moon in about one day. The energy produced by the reactor is induced by fusion neutrons that impinge on a thorium-232 blanket where they breed uranium-233 and simultane- ously burn it to produce power. For a vehicle of mass 500 metric tons (mT), the thrust required to accelerate it at 1 g is 5 MN, and the specific impulse, Isp, necessary to accelerate 90% of the launch mass to the escape velocity of 11,200 m/sec is found to be 10,182 seconds. For these propulsion parameters, the coolant mass flow rate would be 49 kg/sec. We note that the time it takes the launch mass, initially at rest and accelerated at 1g, to reach the escape velocity is 1,020 seconds. At the above noted rate, the total propellant mass is approximately 50 mT, which is about 10% of the launch mass, validating the Isp needed to accelerate the remainder to the escape velocity. If we assume that the trajectory to the moon is linear, and we account for the deceleration of the vehicle by the earth's gravitational force, and its acceleration by the moon's gravitational force, we can calculate the average velocity and the time it takes to reach the moon. We find that the travel time is about 1.66 days, which in this model is effectively the time for a fly-by. A more rigorous calculation using the restricted three body approach with the third body being the spacecraft, and allowing for a coordinate system that rotates at the circular frequency of the larger masses, shows that the transit time is about 0.65 days, which is comparable to the flight time between New York and Sidney, Australia.

  7. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.

    1980-12-01

    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  8. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  9. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  10. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, B; Gimzewski, J K; Putterman, S

    2005-04-28

    While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic and inertial confinement, alternative approaches--such as Coulomb explosions of deuterium clusters and ultrafast laser-plasma interactions--also provide insight into basic processes and technological applications. However, attempts to produce fusion in a room temperature solid-state setting, including 'cold' fusion and 'bubble' fusion, have met with deep scepticism. Here we report that gently heating a pyroelectric crystal in a deuterated atmosphere can generate fusion under desktop conditions. The electrostatic field of the crystal is used to generate and accelerate a deuteron beam (> 100 keV and >4 nA), which, upon striking a deuterated target, produces a neutron flux over 400 times the background level. The presence of neutrons from the reaction D + D --> 3He (820 keV) + n (2.45 MeV) within the target is confirmed by pulse shape analysis and proton recoil spectroscopy. As further evidence for this fusion reaction, we use a novel time-of-flight technique to demonstrate the delayed coincidence between the outgoing alpha-particle and the neutron. Although the reported fusion is not useful in the power-producing sense, we anticipate that the system will find application as a simple palm-sized neutron generator. PMID:15858570

  11. RNase H2 catalytic core Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related mutant invokes cGAS-STING innate immune-sensing pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Pokatayev, Vladislav; Hasin, Naushaba; Chon, Hyongi; Cerritelli, Susana M; Sakhuja, Kiran; Ward, Jerrold M; Morris, H Douglas; Yan, Nan; Crouch, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    The neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) develops from mutations in genes encoding several nucleotide-processing proteins, including RNase H2. Defective RNase H2 may induce accumulation of self-nucleic acid species that trigger chronic type I interferon and inflammatory responses, leading to AGS pathology. We created a knock-in mouse model with an RNase H2 AGS mutation in a highly conserved residue of the catalytic subunit, Rnaseh2a(G37S/G37S) (G37S), to understand disease pathology. G37S homozygotes are perinatal lethal, in contrast to the early embryonic lethality previously reported for Rnaseh2b- or Rnaseh2c-null mice. Importantly, we found that the G37S mutation led to increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes dependent on the cGAS-STING signaling pathway. Ablation of STING in the G37S mice results in partial rescue of the perinatal lethality, with viable mice exhibiting white spotting on their ventral surface. We believe that the G37S knock-in mouse provides an excellent animal model for studying RNASEH2-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26880576

  12. GEOS-CORE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-06-24

    GEOS-CORE is a code that integrates open source Libraries for linear algebra and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physical behaviors both implicitly and explicitly, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone formore » linearly elastic and quasistatic damage problems; problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GEOS-CORE also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations fo state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models, beyond the aforementioned linear elastic and quasi-static damage models, will not be part of the current release. GEOS-CORE's secondary applications include granular materials behavior under different load paths.« less

  13. GEOS-CORE

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-24

    GEOS-CORE is a code that integrates open source Libraries for linear algebra and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physical behaviors both implicitly and explicitly, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic and quasistatic damage problems; problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GEOS-CORE also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations fo state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models, beyond the aforementioned linear elastic and quasi-static damage models, will not be part of the current release. GEOS-CORE's secondary applications include granular materials behavior under different load paths.

  14. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  15. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  16. QCL - Optical-Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy For The Analysis Of Atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 In Ice-Core Gas Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrotxategi Carbajo, Paula; Romanini, Daniele; Maisons, Gregory; Carras, Mathieu; Chappellaz, Jerome; Kerstel, Erik

    2013-04-01

    In the context of a globally warming climate it is crucial to study the climate variability in the past and to understand the underlying mechanisms. The composition of gas stored in bubbles in polar ice presents a paleo-climate archive that provides a powerful means to study the exact mechanisms involved in the ~40% increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration between glacial and interglacial climates. It is particularly important to understand such natural coupling between climate and the carbon cycle, as it will partly determine what natural feedback can be expected on the atmospheric CO2 concentration in a future warmer world. The source of the CO2 released into the atmosphere during previous deglaciations can be constrained from isotopic measurements by the fact that the different CO2 reservoirs (terrestrial biosphere, oceans) and associated mechanisms (biological or physical) have different isotopic signatures. Unfortunately, such isotope studies have been seriously hampered by the experimental difficulty of extracting the CO2 without contamination or fractionation, and measuring the isotope signal off-line on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Here we present an alternative method that leverages the extreme sensitivity afforded by Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) in the Mid-Infrared [1]. This region of the spectrum is accessed by a custom-developed Quantum Cascade Laser operating near 4.35 µm. The feedback to the laser of light that has been spectrally filtered by a high-finesse, V-shaped enhancement cavity has the effect of spectrally narrowing the laser emission and to auto-lock the laser frequency to one of the cavity's longitudinal modes, with clear advantages in terms of acquisition time and signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement. The line strengths in this region are about 5 orders of magnitude higher than in the more easily accessible NIR region near 1.6 µm and about 1000 times higher than at 2 µm. The

  17. Retrospective analysis by data processing tools for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a challenge for matrix-rich sediment core sample from Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Shunji; Tamada, Masafumi; Masunaga, Shigeki; Kanai, Yutaka; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-18

    Data processing tools for non-target analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS) were developed and applied to a sediment core in Tokyo Bay, focusing on chlorinated compounds in this study. The processing tools were classified in two different methods: (1) the consecutive use of mass defect filter followed by artificial neutral loss scan (MDF/artificial NLS) as a qualitative non-target screening method and (2) Entire Domain Combined Spectra Extraction and Integration Program (ComSpec) and two-dimensional peak sentinel (T-SEN) as a semi-quantitative target screening method. MDF/artificial NLS as a non-target screening approach revealed that PCBs, followed by octachlorodibenzo dioxin (OCDD), were the main chlorinated compounds present in all sediment layers. Furthermore, unknown peaks thought to be chlorinated compounds were found in increasing numbers, some in increasing amounts. T-SEN and ComSpec as a target screening approach were adapted for automatic semi-quantitative analysis showed that, in decreasing concentration order, PCBs, OCDD, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDEs, DDDs) were the main chlorinated pollutants in the sediments. The complementary use of both techniques allows us to extract significant chlorinated pollutants, including non-targeted compounds. This retrospective analysis by this approach performed well even on matrix-rich sediment samples and provided us an interesting insight of historical trends of pollution in Tokyo Bay. PMID:24630979

  18. The sulfur depletion problem: upper limits on the H2S2, HS·2, and S2 gas-phase abundances toward the low-mass warm core IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Occhiogrosso, A.; Testi, L.; Woods, P. M.; Viti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. A fraction of the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar regions could be in the form of three species not yet detected in the interstellar medium: H2S2, HS.2, and S2 according to experimental simulations performed under astrophysically relevant conditions. These S-S bonded molecules can be formed by the energetic processing of H2S-bearing ice mantles on dust grains, and subsequently desorb to the gas phase. Aims: The detection of these species could partially solve the sulfur depletion problem, and would help to improve our knowledge of the poorly known chemistry of sulfur in the interstellar medium. To this purpose we calculated the frequencies and expected intensities of the rotational transitions not previously reported, and performed dedicated ground-based observations toward the low-mass warm core IRAS 16293-2422, a region with one of the highest measured gas-phase H2S abundances. Methods: Observations in the submillimeter regime were obtained with the APEX 12 m telescope during 15 h of observation. A total of ~16 GHz were covered in a range of about 100 GHz, targeting a wide selection of the predicted rotational transitions of the three molecules. Results: The 1σ noise rms values were extracted in the spectral regions where the targeted species should have been detected. These values were a factor of 2-7 lower than those reached by previous observations toward the same source, and allowed us to estimate a 1σ upper limit to their molecular abundances of ≤8.1 × 10-9, ≤ 1.1 × 10-8, and ≤ 2.9 × 10-7 relative to H2, for H2S 2 , HS.2, and S2, respectively. Conclusions: The upper limit abundances of the three molecules containing the S2 unit are up to two orders of magnitude lower than the H2S abundance in the source, and one order of magnitude lower than the expected abundances from the experimental simulations using ice analogs. Subsequent gas-phase chemistry after desorption could lower the abundances of the three species to

  19. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  20. Chemical Models of Star-Forming Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We review chemical models of low-mass star forming cores including our own work. Chemistry in molecular clouds are not in equilibrium. Molecular abundances in star forming cores change not only with physical conditions in cores but also with time. In prestellar cores, temperature stays almost constant ˜ 10 K, while the gas density increases as the core collapses. Three chemical phenomena are observed in this cold phase: molecular depletion, chemical fractionation, and deuterium enrichment. They are reproduced by chemical models combined with isothermal gravitational collapse. The collapse timescale of prestellar cores depends on the initial ratios of thermal, turbulent and magnetic pressure to gravitational energy. Since the chemical timescales, such as adsorption timescale of gas particle onto grains, are comparable to the collapse timescale, molecular abundances in cores should vary depending on the collapse timescale. Observations found that molecular abundances in some cores deviate from those in other cores, in spite of their similar central densities; it could originate in the pressure to gravity ratio in the cores. As the core contraction proceeds, compressional heating eventually overwhelms radiative cooling, and the core starts to warm up. Temperature of the infalling gas rises, as it approaches the central region. Grain-surface reactions of adsorbed molecules occur in this warm-up phase, as well as in prestellar phase. Hydrogenation is efficient at T ≤ 20 K, whereas radicals can migrate on grain surface and react with each other to form complex organic molecules (COMs) at T ≥ 30 K. Grain-surface species are sublimated to the gas phase and re-start gas-phase reactions; e.g. unsaturated carbon chains are formed from sublimated methane. Our model calculation predicts that COMs increases as the warm region extends outwards and the abundances of unsaturated carbon chains depend on the gas density in the CH4 sublimation zone. Recent detection of COMs in

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR OPERATIONAL METHOD AND CORE SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Winters, C.E.; Graham, C.B.; Culver, J.S.; Wilson, R.H.

    1960-07-19

    Homogeneous neutronic reactor systems are described wherein an aqueous fuel solution is continuously circulated through a spherical core tank. The pumped fuel solution-is injected tangentially into the hollow spherical interior, thereby maintaining vigorous rotation of the solution within the tank in the form of a vortex; gaseous radiolytic decomposition products concentrate within the axial vortex cavity. The evolved gas is continuously discharged through a gas- outlet port registering with an extremity of the vortex cavity. and the solution stream is discharged through an annular liquid outlet port concentrically encircling the gas outlet by virtue of which the vortex and its cavity are maintained precisely axially aligned with the gas outlet. A primary heat exchanger extracts useful heat from the hot effluent fuel solution before its recirculation into the core tank. Hollow cylinders and other alternative core- tank configurations defining geometric volumes of revolution about a principal axis are also covered. AEC's Homogeneous Reactor Experiment No. 1 is a preferred embodiment.

  2. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters. PMID:27464191

  3. The Cores of Elliptical Galaxies in Coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, John

    1995-07-01

    The cores of galaxies are astrophysically unique. They canhost high energy nuclei, star formation and perhaps even blackholes. HST observations have established that the cores ofellipticals are related to their global properties, and so canbe used as diagnostics of the physical processes occurring atthe time of formation. HST images of galaxy cores havedistinguished two different types of core luminosity profiles:`soft' and `hard' types. It is suggested that luminous, slowlyrotating galaxies have `soft' cores and the less luminousdisky galaxies have `hard' cores. This can be interpreted interms of a formation scenario based on a merger hierarchy inwhich the low luminosity systems experience highly dissipativemergers, but as the luminous systems are assembled the mergersbecome increasingly stellar. In this picture, the type of corea galaxy generates is intimately related to its evolutionaryhistory, i.e. the degree of interaction/merging experiencedand the availability of cold gas. In turn, this should notonly depend on luminosity but also on the galaxy's localenvironment. Here we propose to test the gaseous/stellarmerger picture by imaging a set of Coma cluster ellipticalsfrom a wide range of cluster radii. In the gas poorenvironment of the cluster core there may be insufficent coldgas for the low luminosity galaxies to form `hard' cores.Similarly, at the cluster turnround radius even luminousgalaxies may have experienced a dissipative core formation andpossess

  4. Fossil Cores In The Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian

    Most gas giant exoplanets with orbital periods < few days are unstable against tidal decay and may be tidally disrupted before their host stars leave the main sequence. These gas giants probably contain rocky/icy cores, and so their cores will be stranded near their progenitor's Roche limit (few hours orbital period). These fossil cores will evade the Kepler mission's transit search because it is focused on periods > 0.5 days, but finding these fossil cores would provide unprecedented insights into planetary interiors and formation ? e.g., they would be a smoking gun favoring formation of gas giants via core accretion. We propose to search for and characterize fossil cores in the Kepler dataset. We will vet candidates using the Kepler photometry and auxiliary data, collect ground-based spectra of the host stars and radial-velocity (RV) and adaptive optics (AO) data to corroborate candidates. We will also constrain stellar tidal dissipation efficiencies (parameterized by Q) by determining our survey's completeness, elucidating dynamical origins and evolution of exoplanets even if we find no fossil cores. Our preliminary search has already found several dozen candidates, so the proposed survey has a high likelihood of success.

  5. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  6. Gas-cooled flameholder assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Abreau, M.E.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a gas turbine engine. It comprises an air compressor; an outer casing extending downstream from the compressor; a core engine including a turbine joined to the compressor, the core engine being disposed in the casing and defining therewith a bypass duct for channeling a first portion of air from the compressor around the core engine and for receiving a second portion of air from the compressor for mixing with fuel and generating combustion gases for driving the turbine and the compressor, the gases being dischargeable from an aft end of the core engine; an afterburner disposed downstream of the core engine and including: a combustor liner, a flameholder assembly disposed upstream of the liner and downstream of the core engine, the assembly including a flameholder, and means for cooling the flameholder by channeling only noncombustible gas to the flameholder, the noncombustible gas being a first portion of the combustion gases.

  7. Imaging of High-Z doped, Imploded Capsule Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Edwards, M. John; Suter, Larry J.

    2006-10-01

    The ability to correctly ascertain the shape of imploded fusion capsules is critical to be able to achieve the spherical symmetry needed to maximize the energy yield of proposed fusion experiments for the National Ignition Facility. Implosion of the capsule creates a hot, dense core. The introduction of a high-Z dopant into the gas-filled core of the capsule increases the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation produced in the core and should make the imaging of the imploded core easier. Images of the imploded core can then be analyzed to ascertain the symmetry of the implosion. We calculate that the addition of Ne gas into a deuterium gas core will increase the amount of radiation emission while preserving the surrogacy of the radiation and hydrodynamics in the indirect drive NIF hohlraum in the proposed cryogenic hohlraums. The increased emission will more easily enable measurement of asymmetries and tuning of the implosion.

  8. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  9. ABELL 1201: A MINOR MERGER AT SECOND CORE PASSAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Chengjiun; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Owers, Matt; Couch, Warrick J.

    2012-06-20

    We present an analysis of the structures and dynamics of the merging cluster Abell 1201, which has two sloshing cold fronts around a cooling core, and an offset gas core approximately 500 kpc northwest of the center. New Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal a region of enhanced brightness east of the offset core, with breaks in surface brightness along its boundary to the north and east. This is interpreted as a tail of gas stripped from the offset core. Gas in the offset core and the tail is distinguished from other gas at the same distance from the cluster center chiefly by having higher density, hence lower entropy. In addition, the offset core shows marginally lower temperature and metallicity than the surrounding area. The metallicity in the cool core is high and there is an abrupt drop in metallicity across the southern cold front. We interpret the observed properties of the system, including the placement of the cold fronts, the offset core, and its tail in terms of a simple merger scenario. The offset core is the remnant of a merging subcluster, which first passed pericenter southeast of the center of the primary cluster and is now close to its second pericenter passage, moving at {approx_equal} 1000 km s{sup -1}. Sloshing excited by the merger gave rise to the two cold fronts and the disposition of the cold fronts reveals that we view the merger from close to the plane of the orbit of the offset core.

  10. Sponge coring apparatus with reinforced sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Park, A.; Wilson, B. T.

    1985-03-05

    A well coring apparatus includes an outer barrel and an inner barrel. A hollow sponge is disposed along a liner for insertion into the inner barrel. The sponge is operable to absorb subterranean fluid from a well core. A plurality of reinforcing members are disposed on the inner surface of the liner to prevent movement of the sponge with respect thereto. A plurality of orifices are disposed in the surface of the liner to allow gas and/or fluid to escape from the interior thereof when the subterranean fluid contained within the core bleeds into the sponge.

  11. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  12. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peinado, Charles O.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  13. Model For Dense Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Steven D.; Neufeld, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical model for the thermal balance, chemistry, and radiative transfer within quiescent dense molecular cloud cores that contain a central protostar. In the interior of such cores, we expect the dust and gas temperatures to be well coupled, while in the outer regions CO rotational emissions dominate the gas cooling and the predicted gas temperature lies significantly below the dust temperature. Large spatial variations in the gas temperature are expected to affect the gas phase chemistry dramatically; in particular, the predicted water abundance varies by more than a factor of 1000 within cloud cores that contain luminous protostars. Based upon our predictions for the thermal and chemical structure of cloud cores, we have constructed self-consistent radiative transfer models to compute the line strengths and line profiles for transitions of (12)CO, (13)CO, C(18)O, ortho- and para-H2(16)O, ortho- and para-H2(18)O, and O I. We carried out a general parameter study to determine the dependence of the model predictions upon the parameters assumed for the source. We expect many of the far-infrared and submillimeter rotational transitions of water to be detectable either in emission or absorption with the use of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. Quiescent, radiatively heated hot cores are expected to show low-gain maser emission in the 183 GHz 3(sub 13)-2(sub 20) water line, such as has been observed toward several hot core regions using ground-based telescopes. We predict the (3)P(sub l) - (3)P(sub 2) fine-structure transition of atomic oxygen near 63 micron to be in strong absorption against the continuum for many sources. Our model can also account successfully for recent ISO observations of absorption in rovibrational transitions of water toward the source AFGL 2591.

  14. Core-shell nanostructured catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Lee, Ilkeun; Joo, Ji Bong; Zaera, Francisco; Yin, Yadong

    2013-08-20

    excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of organic compounds under UV, visible, and direct sunlight. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of this nanostructure resulted from an added interfacial nonmetal doping, which improved visible light absorption, and from plasmonic metal decoration that enhanced light harvesting and charge separation. In addition to our synthetic efforts, we have developed ways to evaluate the accessibility of reactants to the metal cores and to characterize the catalytic properties of the core-shell samples we have synthesized. We have adapted infrared absorption spectroscopy and titration experiments using carbon monoxide and other molecules as probes to study adsorption on the surface of metal cores in metal oxide-shell structures in situ in both gas and liquid phases. In particular, the experiments in solution have provided insights into the ease of diffusion of molecules of different sizes in and out of the shells in these catalysts. PMID:23268644

  15. Infrared images of core sediments offshore southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H. T.; Chuang, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The core sediments may retain the negative thermal anomaly caused by the gas hydrate dissociation on the way uploading from sea floor. To identify the signal of negative thermal anomaly, fifteen infrared images of core sediments with tens of meter in length have been analyzed the temperature distribution off southwestern Taiwan. This study results show that most of the core sediments were found lots of gaps with spiking pattern recognition of high temperature on the lower portions. The geochemistry study suggested that the gas in gaps and the sediments were mainly composed of methane which may be the indicators of gas hydrate dissociation in the higher temperature and lower pressure environment. The thermal gradients 0.044-0.114 ℃/m of core sediments are close to the observations in situ by the measurements of temperature probes that thermal gradient are 0.06-0.09 ℃/m. The temperature of all core sediments are greater than 20 ℃. It is obvious that the temperature of core sediments were increased tremendously by the heating of sea water. We found eight out of fifteen core sediments with significant negative thermal anomaly 0.4-1.0 ℃ in different depth between 2 and 10 meters below sea floor. Compare to the experiment in lab that the temperature could be decreased 1.1-1.5 ℃ due to the gas hydrate dissociation, the quantity of the negative thermal anomaly of the core sediments are possible related to the gas hydrate dissociation.

  16. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  17. The Core Skills Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A British initiative that aims to identify, develop, and assess core skills in post-16 courses and qualifications is summarized in this bulletin. The first section discusses expectations regarding what core skills can achieve. The following section focuses on other purposes to which core skills could contribute, such as broadening the post-16…

  18. Core Competence and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gary; Hooper, Nick

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the concept of core competence and applies it to postcompulsory education in the United Kingdom. Adopts an educational perspective that suggests accreditation as the core competence of universities. This economic approach suggests that the market trend toward lifetime learning might best be met by institutions developing a core competence…

  19. Core Design Applications

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    CORD-2 is intended for core desigh applications of pressurized water reactors. The main objective was to assemble a core design system which could be used for simple calculations (such as frequently required for fuel management) as well as for accurate calculations (for example, core design after refueling).

  20. The core to regulatory reform

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-06-15

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges.

  1. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  2. Chemistry of Star-Forming Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical effects arising from the exchange of molecules between dust and gas in dense clumps are described. Selective desorption of CO and N2 from grains in cool cores can account for the presence of ammonia in several cores in the NGC 2024 cloud. Evaporation of ices containing methanol and ethanol can lead to detectable abundances of (C2H5)(sub 2)O and CH3OC2H5. Results are presented for the hot core chemistries of sulphur and phosphorus which are initiated by evaporated hydrogen sulphide and phosphine. The implications of these studies for understanding the nature of molecular mantles, the evolution of molecular complexity in the gas phase, and the presence of small-scale abundance gradients in star-forming regions, are briefly discussed.

  3. Coring Methane Hydrate by using Hybrid Pressure Coring System of D/V Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Y.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Inagaki, F.; Eguchi, N.; Yamamoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    Pressure coring is a technique to keep in-situ conditions in recovering sub-seafloor sediment samples, which are potentially rich in soluble or hydrated gas. In regular core sampling, gas fractions are easily lost through the changes in the pressure and temperature during core recovery, and it has significant impact on the chemical components of the sample. Rapid degassing may also cause critical damages of original structures. To study original characteristics of gaseous sub-seafloor sediment, a new Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) was developed for the D/V Chikyu operation by adapting some of the existing pressure sampling technologies. Hybrid PCS is composed of three main parts: top section for the wireline operation, middle section for the accumulator and pressure controlling system, and the bottom section for the autoclave chamber. The design concept is based on that of Pressure Core Sampler used in Ocean Drilling Program, and of Pressure Temperature Core Sampler (PTCS) and Non-cooled PTCS of Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC). Several modifications were made including that on the ball valve, which operates to close the autoclave after coring. The core samples are 51 mm in diameter and up to 3.5 m in length. The system is combined with the Extented Shoe Coring System on the Chikyu and best suited for coring of semi-consolidated formation up to about 3400 m from the sea level. Sample autoclave is compatible with Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) of Geotek Ltd for sub-sampling and analysis under in-situ pressure. The analysis in PCATS includes X-ray CT scan and core logging with P-wave velocity and gamma density. Depressurization provides accurate volume of gas and its sub-sampling. Hybrid PCS was first tested during the Chikyu Exp. 906 at a submarine mud-volcano in the Nankai Trough. A 0.9 m of hydrate rich material was recovered from the summit (water depth: 2000 m) and the intact hydrate structure was observed

  4. "Snowing" Core in Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Chen, B.; Cormier, V.; Gao, L.; Gubbins, D.; Kharlamova, S. A.; He, K.; Yang, H.

    2008-12-01

    As a planet cools, an initially molten core gradually solidifies. Solidification occurs at shallow depths in the form of "snow", if the liquidus temperature gradient of the core composition is smaller than the adiabatic temperature gradient in the core. Experimental data on the melting behavior of iron-sulfur binary system suggest that the cores of Mercury and Ganymede are probably snowing at the present time. The Martian core is predicted to snow in the future, provided that the sulfur content falls into the range of 10 to 14 weight percent. Is the Earth's core snowing? If so, what are the surface manifestations? If the Earth's core snowed in the past, how did it affect the formation of the solid inner core and the geodynamo? Here, we evaluate the likelihood and consequences of a snowing core throughout the Earth's history, on the basis of mineral physics data describing the melting behavior, equation-of-state, and thermodynamic properties of iron-rich alloys at high pressures. We discuss if snowing in the present-day Earth can reproduce the shallow gradients of compressional wave velocity above the inner-core boundary, and whether or not snowing in the early Earth may reconcile the apparent young age of the solid inner core with a long-lived geodynamo.

  5. Continuous coring drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.A.

    1987-09-22

    A continuous coring drill bit is described comprising: (a) body means defining a vertical axis and adapted for connection to drill pipe and forming an internal body cavity disposed in eccentric relation with the vertical axis and a generally circular throat in communication with the body cavity for conducting drilling fluid. The throat defining a throat axis coincident with the vertical axis and being of a configuration permitting passage of a formation core into the body cavity; (b) a generally cylindrical tubular core breaker being rotatably mounted within the body cavity and defining a vertical axis of rotation of generally parallel and offset relation with the vertical axis of the body means; and (c) a buttress element extending inwardly from the core breaker and adapted to contact the formation core. Upon each rotation of the drill bit the buttress element applying transverse force to the core for fracturing of the core into sections sufficiently small for transport by the drilling fluid.

  6. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Core-Cutoff Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gheen, Darrell

    2007-01-01

    A tool makes a cut perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of a core hole at a predetermined depth to free the core at that depth. The tool does not damage the surrounding material from which the core was cut, and it operates within the core-hole kerf. Coring usually begins with use of a hole saw or a hollow cylindrical abrasive cutting tool to make an annular hole that leaves the core (sometimes called the plug ) in place. In this approach to coring as practiced heretofore, the core is removed forcibly in a manner chosen to shear the core, preferably at or near the greatest depth of the core hole. Unfortunately, such forcible removal often damages both the core and the surrounding material (see Figure 1). In an alternative prior approach, especially applicable to toxic or fragile material, a core is formed and freed by means of milling operations that generate much material waste. In contrast, the present tool eliminates the damage associated with the hole-saw approach and reduces the extent of milling operations (and, hence, reduces the waste) associated with the milling approach. The present tool (see Figure 2) includes an inner sleeve and an outer sleeve and resembles the hollow cylindrical tool used to cut the core hole. The sleeves are thin enough that this tool fits within the kerf of the core hole. The inner sleeve is attached to a shaft that, in turn, can be attached to a drill motor or handle for turning the tool. This tool also includes a cutting wire attached to the distal ends of both sleeves. The cutting wire is long enough that with sufficient relative rotation of the inner and outer sleeves, the wire can cut all the way to the center of the core. The tool is inserted in the kerf until its distal end is seated at the full depth. The inner sleeve is then turned. During turning, frictional drag on the outer core pulls the cutting wire into contact with the core. The cutting force of the wire against the core increases with the tension in the wire and

  8. MODULAR CORE UNITS FOR A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Gage, J.F. Jr.; Sherer, D.B.

    1964-04-01

    A modular core unit for use in a nuclear reactor is described. Many identical core modules can be placed next to each other to make up a complete core. Such a module includes a cylinder of moderator material surrounding a fuel- containing re-entrant coolant channel. The re-entrant channel provides for the circulation of coolant such as liquid sodium from one end of the core unit, through the fuel region, and back out through the same end as it entered. Thermal insulation surrounds the moderator exterior wall inducing heat to travel inwardly to the coolant channel. Spaces between units may be used to accommodate control rods and support structure, which may be cooled by a secondary gas coolant, independently of the main coolant. (AEC)

  9. Lunar core: occam's razor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Whether or not the earth's moon has a core is a much bandied question. Like many notions about the properties of the moon, ideas of a lunar core changed drastically after the Apollo studies. A review of the development of these ideas was given a scholarly treatment by S.K. Runcorn recently (Nature, 304, 589-596, 1983). In contrast, L.L. Hood, C.P. Sonett, and L.J. Srnka have questioned the concept in serious detail (Nature, 307, 661-662, 1984).Whether or not the moon actually has or has had a fluid metallic core is of great consequence for a number of geophysical theories about the solar system. Most investigators concede that the possible existence of a lunar core remains one of the major unanswered, and yet most critical, questions about the moon. A lot rides on the answer: Can a lunar-sized body have a core? Is the core metallic? How is the core related to lunar magnetism and its paleomagnetism? Is or was a lunar core related to lunar volcanism? If the moon can have a core, is planetary core formation in the solar system a simple matter of gravitationally segregating metallic fragments that were formed elsewhere? Implications of the questions are without limit. There is, perhaps, no more valid issue about the moon to explore scientifically.

  10. Counterrotating core in IC 1459

    SciTech Connect

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.D.

    1988-04-01

    The radio elliptical IC 1459 is shown to have a massive rapidly counterrotating stellar core. Along the major axis a strong peak in the rotational velocity is observed at a distance of 2 arcsec (0.3 kpc) from the center. The velocity reaches 170 + or - 20 km/s. The rotational velocity in the outer parts rises to 45 + or - 8 km/s, but in the opposite sense to the rotation of the center. Along the minor axis, no significant rotation is measured, neither in the center nor in the outer parts. Line profiles derived from cross-correlated spectra along the major axis in the core show a clear asymmetry. Ionized gas rotates around the minor axis in the same sense as the outer part of the galaxy. The other properties are typical of normal ellipticals. The galaxy has a regular color gradient and line strength gradient. The mass of the counterrotating component is estimated to be about 10 to the 10th solar masses. It is postulated that such a core could form, following the merger of two galaxies, either by the tidal disruption of the victim or through a starburst-like event. 27 references.

  11. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  12. Chemical Evolution of Infrared Dark Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Susanna C.; Jackson, J. M.; Chambers, E. T.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2009-05-01

    Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are molecular clouds seen as extinction features against the mid-infrared Galactic background. Studies of IRDCs have shown them to be cold (< 25 K), dense (> 10^5 cm^-3), and have very high column densities ( 10^23-10^25 cm^-2, e.g., Egan et al. 1998; Carey et al. 1998, 2000). IRDCs host the earliest stages of high-mass star and cluster formation (Rathborne et al. 2005, 2006, 2007). We have mapped 59 IRDC protostellar cores in the fourth Galactic quadrant using the ATNF Mopra telescope simultaneously in HCN (1-0), HC3N (10-9), HCO+ (1-0), HNC (1-0), N2H+ (1-0), and SiO (2-1). We found that the ratios of intensities of the different molecular tracers vary greatly from cloud to cloud, and from core to core within clouds. These different line ratios probably correspond to chemical differences which arise in different evolutionary sequences. We show that specific line ratios distinguish cold pre-stellar cores from warm star-forming cores. N2H+ was found to be a good tracer of active star-forming cores, correlating well with cores containing "green fuzzies,” i.e., extended 4.5 micron emission due to shocked gas (Chambers et al., in press). This work was funded by NSF grant AST-0808001.

  13. Coring technologies for scientific drilling projects: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1985-08-01

    This report outlines the well-developed continuous diamond-coring technology of the minerals industry and the deep-spot-coring procedures that have been optimized for petroleum exploration. The coring hardware, procedures, and technology developed for the sea floor sampling by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) are presented as an example of a hybrid core drilling system adopted for scientific coring purposes. The important features and limitations of conventional coring technologies are set forth, and the alternate approaches that will optimize core quality and reduce time and costs are illustrated. Surface rotary drives and downhole motor drives are contrasted and compared. The most significant factors of long core bit life and continuous wireline core retrieval are stressed, and their influence on reduction of operating time and costs is indicated. Several types of core bits are illustrated, both those for slim hole mining and those for oil and gas applications, as well as several core bit designs that have been developed for scientific coring projects. Finally, after concepts, applications, and hardware have been considered, drilling strategies are recommended for deep, scientific coring in hard crustal rocks.

  14. The core paradox.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  15. AN Core Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarino, Andrea; Tomatis, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    Several alternative approximations of neutron transport have been proposed in years to move around the known limitations imposed by neutron diffusion in the modeling of nuclear cores. However, only a few complied with the industrial requirements of fast numerical computation, concentrating more on physical accuracy. In this work, the AN transport methodology is discussed with particular interest in core performance calculations. The implementation of the methodology in full core codes is discussed with particular attention to numerical issues and to the integration within the entire simulation process. Finally, first results from core studies in AN transport are analyzed in detail and compared to standard results of neutron diffusion.

  16. Helicopter engine core noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1982-07-01

    Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and ICAO helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made for level flyover and approach procedures. The measured noise levels are generally significantly greater than those predicted for the core noise levels, except for the Sikorsky S-61 and S-64 helicopters. However, the predicted engine core noise levels are generally at or within 3 dB of the ICAO noise rules. Consequently, helicopter engine core noise can be a significant contributor to the overall helicopter noise signature.

  17. Helicopter engine core noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1982-01-01

    Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and ICAO helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made for level flyover and approach procedures. The measured noise levels are generally significantly greater than those predicted for the core noise levels, except for the Sikorsky S-61 and S-64 helicopters. However, the predicted engine core noise levels are generally at or within 3 dB of the ICAO noise rules. Consequently, helicopter engine core noise can be a significant contributor to the overall helicopter noise signature.

  18. Core Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, Joshua; Adrian, Betty

    2009-01-01

    The Core Research Center (CRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), located at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood, Colo., currently houses rock core from more than 8,500 boreholes representing about 1.7 million feet of rock core from 35 States and cuttings from 54,000 boreholes representing 238 million feet of drilling in 28 States. Although most of the boreholes are located in the Rocky Mountain region, the geologic and geographic diversity of samples have helped the CRC become one of the largest and most heavily used public core repositories in the United States. Many of the boreholes represented in the collection were drilled for energy and mineral exploration, and many of the cores and cuttings were donated to the CRC by private companies in these industries. Some cores and cuttings were collected by the USGS along with other government agencies. Approximately one-half of the cores are slabbed and photographed. More than 18,000 thin sections and a large volume of analytical data from the cores and cuttings are also accessible. A growing collection of digital images of the cores are also becoming available on the CRC Web site Internet http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/crc/.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, Charles C.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1988-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  1. Ice Chemistry in Starless Molecular Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, J.

    2015-06-01

    Starless molecular cores are natural laboratories for interstellar molecular chemistry research. The chemistry of ices in such objects was investigated with a three-phase (gas, surface, and mantle) model. We considered the center part of five starless cores, with their physical conditions derived from observations. The ice chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and complex organic molecules (COMs) was analyzed. We found that an ice-depth dimension, measured, e.g., in monolayers, is essential for modeling of chemistry in interstellar ices. Particularly, the H2O:CO:CO2:N2:NH3 ice abundance ratio regulates the production and destruction of minor species. It is suggested that photodesorption during the core-collapse period is responsible for the high abundance of interstellar H2O2 and O2H and other species synthesized on the surface. The calculated abundances of COMs in ice were compared to observed gas-phase values. Smaller activation barriers for CO and H2CO hydrogenation may help explain the production of a number of COMs. The observed abundance of methyl formate HCOOCH3 could be reproduced with a 1 kyr, 20 K temperature spike. Possible desorption mechanisms, relevant for COMs, are gas turbulence (ice exposure to interstellar photons) or a weak shock within the cloud core (grain collisions). To reproduce the observed COM abundances with the present 0D model, 1%-10% of ice mass needs to be sublimated. We estimate that the lifetime for starless cores likely does not exceed 1 Myr. Taurus cores are likely to be younger than their counterparts in most other clouds.

  2. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} nanowires and GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1−y} core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, S.; Kuang, Y. J.; Dobrovolsky, A.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.; Kang, Won-Mo; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jang, Ja-Soon; Tu, C. W.

    2014-08-18

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} and GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1−y} core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1−y} core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaN{sub x}P{sub 1−x} core.

  3. Ignitability testing for core drilling system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Furno, A.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A.; Witwer, K.S.

    1995-06-15

    As part of a study of the hazards of the inspection of nuclear waste material stored at the Hanford, WA site, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) have developed a core drilling system to sample the material in large waste storage tanks. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while core drilling into simulated salt cake that was permeated with a flammable gas mixture. No ignitions were observed while core drilling into the saltcake with or without a purge gas and no ignitions were observed while drilling into a steel plate.

  4. Reconceptualising Core Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides an analysis of Core Skill policy and practice in the UK. The author presents a conceptual basis for re-thinking generic Core Skills within educational approaches in teaching and learning. The discussion looks at whether universal notions of generic skills are appropriate when considering post-compulsory pedagogic approaches to…

  5. The Common Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Current curricula in institutions of higher education are criticized in this speech for their lack of a common core of education. Several possibilities for developing such a common core include education centered around our common heritage and the challenges of the present. It is suggested that all students must be introduced to the events,…

  6. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  7. Iowa Core Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  8. CORE - Performance Feedback System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-10-02

    CORE is an architecture to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization. The CORE Technology Program includes a suite of tools and user-centered staff that can facilitate rapid delivery of a deployable integrated information to users.

  9. Core Skills in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin provides an update on current developments in core skills in further education. Section 1 contains information about the Further Education Unit's (FEU's) Core Skills Post-16 project, in which colleges are testing principles that underpin all good quality learning programs. Important findings and examples are outlined under the five…

  10. NFE Core Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. for International Studies in Education.

    This collection of core bibliographies, which expands on an initial bibliography published in 1979 of the core resources housed in the Non-Formal Education Information Center at Michigan State University, comprises a basic stock of materials on nonformal education and women in development that have been contributed by development planners,…

  11. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  12. Observations of Pre-Stellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the physical and chemical structure of pre-stellar cores, the simplest star-forming sites, has significantly improved since the last IAU Symposium on Astrochemistry (South Korea, 1999). Research done over these years has revealed that major molecular species like CO and CS systematically deplete onto dust grains in the interior of pre-stellar cores, while species like N2H+ and NH3 survive in the gas phase and can usually be detected toward the core centers. Such a selective behavior of molecular species gives rise to a differentiated (onion-like) chemical composition, and manifests itself in molecular maps as a dichotomy between centrally peaked and ring-shaped distributions. From the point of view of star-formation studies, the identification of molecular inhomogeneities in cores helps to resolve past discrepancies between observations made using different tracers, and brings the possibility of self-consistent modelling of the core internal structure. Here I present recent work on determining the physical and chemical structure of two pre-stellar cores, L1498 and L1517B, using observations in a large number of molecules and Monte Carlo radiative transfer analysis. These two cores are typical examples of the pre-stellar core population, and their chemical composition is characterized by the presence of large `freeze out holes' in most molecular species. In contrast with these chemically processed objects, a new population of chemically young cores has begun to emerge. The characteristics of its most extreme representative, L1521E, are briefly reviewed.

  13. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  14. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  15. Development of the Pressure-core Nondestructive Analysis Tools (PNATs) for Methane Hydrate Sedimentary Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Yoneda, Jun; Konno, Yoshihiro; Jin, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    Potential of methane hydrate reservoir as a methane gas resource depends on the physical and chemical properties of geological structure. Seismic, logging and coring are very important information and data to understand these properties. Pressure core analysis is an advanced way to characterize reservoir properties such as the porosity, methane hydrate saturation, permeability, mechanical properties and so on. However, the quality of core samples should be guaranteed, which will be confirmed from the seismic and logging data in advance. Pressure core can be minimalized the dissociation of methane hydrate. The AIST introduced the Pressure-core Nondestructive Analysis Tools (PNATs), in which pressure core is handled without depressurizing the pore pressure until setting up core samples into the tools. The PNATs can evaluate the permeability, hydrate saturation, X-ray CT image, p-wave response, mechanical properties and so on, under the full pressurized operation and provide essential reservoir parameters. In this presentation, we will introduce the details of developed PNATs and several results for pressured cores obtained in the eastern Nankai Trough off Japan. This study is financially supported by METI and Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (the MH21 Research Consortium).

  16. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  18. Helium in Earth's Early Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jephcoat, A. P.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Heber, V.; Kelley, S. P.

    2006-12-01

    The high 3He/4He ratios for some ocean-island basalts, and more recent observations for solar components of the other rare gases (Ne, Ar and possibly Xe), continue to raise questions on primordial source reservoirs as well as on accretionary and incorporation processes of rare gases. A number of geochemical mantle models have been made to explain the observed 3He/4He ratios, the most popular of which has been an undegassed primordial reservoir. Isotope systematics of other radiogenic elements do not support such an isolated source and changes in the accepted models of mantle convection style have made it harder to rely on the deep mantle as a reservoir. The core has remained a particularly unfavourable location either because of difficulty in constructing a retention mechanism during planetary accretion or simply because of a lack of data: Partitioning studies at pressure are rare and complicated by the difficulty in reproducing not only absolute concentrations, but confinement of gas in high-pressure apparatus and post-run analysis. We present experiments on helium solubility and partitioning between molten silicates and Fe-rich metal liquids up to 16 GPa and 3000 K, with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, and the quenched run products analysed by ultra-violet laser ablation mass spectrometry (UVLAMP). Our results indicate a significantly higher partition coefficient for He between molten silicates and Fe-rich alloy liquids of about 10-2 at 16 GPa and 3000~K -- two orders of magnitude more helium is measured in the metal phase compared to the only previous data of Matsuda et al., (1993). The solubility mechanism is varied and involves a distinguishable bulk component and an apparent surface signature (that may be the result of the quench process). Whether surface effects are included or not, the early Earth's core would have incorporated non-negligible amounts of primordial helium if its segregation took place under mid-depth, magma-ocean conditions. The process

  19. Boson core compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorramzadeh, Y.; Lin, Fei; Scarola, V. W.

    2012-04-01

    Strongly interacting atoms trapped in optical lattices can be used to explore phase diagrams of Hubbard models. Spatial inhomogeneity due to trapping typically obscures distinguishing observables. We propose that measures using boson double occupancy avoid trapping effects to reveal two key correlation functions. We define a boson core compressibility and core superfluid stiffness in terms of double occupancy. We use quantum Monte Carlo on the Bose-Hubbard model to empirically show that these quantities intrinsically eliminate edge effects to reveal correlations near the trap center. The boson core compressibility offers a generally applicable tool that can be used to experimentally map out phase transitions between compressible and incompressible states.

  20. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  1. Core shroud corner joints

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  2. Interstellar Alcohols and the Chemistry of Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, M. E.; Charnley, S. B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1994-12-01

    Gas-phase methanol and ethanol have been observed in hot cores, the warm remnants of a molecular cloud in which massive star formation has recently occurred. The newborn stars heat the surrounding gas and dust, evaporating ice mantles containing alcohols which can then participate in gas-phase reactions. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry which can form several esters and ethers; our models show that methyl ethyl ether and diethyl ether should form in detectable quantities in cores rich in methanol and ethanol. These reactions can also explain the low observed abundance of gas-phase ethanol in some hot core sources. Possible grain surface mechanisms for the formation of these alcohols will also be presented. We acknowledge support via a DOE fellowship (MEK), a NAS/NRC research associateship at NASA Ames (SBC), a SERC grant to the UMIST Astrophysics Group (TJM), and a grant from NASA's Astrophysics Theory Program (AGGMT).

  3. Elastic properties of low density core (LDC) Ti-6Al-4V sandwich cores

    SciTech Connect

    Queheillalt, D.T.; Wadley, H.N.G.; Schwartz, D.S.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight, structurally efficient low density core (LDC) sandwich structures can be produced by entrapping argon gas within a finely dispersed distribution of pores in a microstructure and using a high temperature anneal to cause pore growth by gas expansion. This results in a porous microstructure with a relative density as low as {approximately}0.70. Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to measure the longitudinal and shear wave velocities and hence the elastic properties of LDC Ti-6Al-4V cores prior to, and after gas expansion treatments of up to 48 hr at 920 C. The data were compared with several analytical models for predicting the volume fraction of porosity dependent elastic properties of porous materials.

  4. Research on plasma core reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, G. A.; Barton, D. M.; Helmick, H. H.; Bernard, W.; White, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with one-meter diameter by one-meter long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17 cm thick by 89 cm diameter beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF6 container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials were measured. Finally, an 85,000 cu cm aluminum canister in the central region was fueled with UF6 gas and fission density distributions determined. These results are to be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

  5. Ammonia observations of cold cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Winnewisser, G.; Walmsley, C. M.

    1982-07-01

    The NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines have been observed towards the cores of seven dark dust clouds, mostly in the Taurus region. From these measurements the gas kinetic temperature is estimated to be close to 10 K. The cloud cores have sizes of about 0.05-0.3 pc, and densities of about 10,000-100,000/cu cm. No evidence is found for local heating by embedded protostellar objects. These cloud cores may be close to a stable state of hydrostatic equilibrium in which the gravitational forces are balanced by thermal pressure. In three cases, however, prima facie evidence is found for rotation, and the centrifugal force may be of importance for the dynamics.

  6. Magnetorotational iron core collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    1984-01-01

    During its final evolutionary stages, a massive star, as considered in current astrophysical theory, undergoes rapid collapse, thereby triggering a sequence of a catastrophic event which results in a Type II supernova explosion. A remnant neutron star or a black hole is left after the explosion. Stellar collapse occurs, when thermonuclear fusion has consumed the lighter elements present. At this stage, the core consists of iron. Difficulties arise regarding an appropriate model with respect to the core collapse. The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a Type II supernova core including the effects of rotation and magnetic fields. A simple neutrino model is developed which reproduced the spherically symmetric results of Bowers and Wilson (1982). Several two-dimensional computational models of stellar collapse are studied, taking into account a case in which a 15 solar masses iron core was artificially given rotational and magnetic energy.

  7. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  8. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  9. Geophysics: Earth's core problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, David

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistance and thermal conductivity of iron at extreme pressures and temperatures cast fresh light on controversial numerical simulations of the properties of Earth's outer core. See Letters p.95 & 99

  10. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  11. Micro coring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

    1989-01-01

    A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

  12. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  13. Core bounce supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gravitational collapse mechanism for Type II supernovae is considered, concentrating on the direct implosion - core bounce - hydrodynamic explosion picture. We examine the influence of the stiffness of the dense matter equation of state and discuss how the shock wave is formed. Its chances of success are determined by the equation of state, general relativistic effects, neutrino transport, and the size of presupernova iron core. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  15. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Noah A.

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  16. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster`s operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently {approximately}4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased.

  17. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  18. CONSTRAINT ON THE GIANT PLANET PRODUCTION BY CORE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2011-02-01

    The issue of giant planet formation by core accretion (CA) far from the central star is rather controversial because the growth of a massive solid core necessary for triggering the gas runaway can take longer than the lifetime of the protoplanetary disk. In this work, we assess the range of separations at which CA may operate by (1) allowing for an arbitrary (physically meaningful) rate of planetesimal accretion by the core and (2) properly taking into account the dependence of the critical mass for the gas runaway on the planetesimal accretion luminosity. This self-consistent approach distinguishes our work from similar studies in which only a specific planetesimal accretion regime was explored and/or the critical core mass was fixed at some arbitrary level. We demonstrate that the largest separation at which the gas runaway can occur within 3 Myr corresponds to the surface density of solids in the disk {approx}>0.1 g cm{sup -2} and is 40-50 AU in the minimum mass solar nebula. This limiting separation is achieved when the planetesimal accretion proceeds at the fastest possible rate, even though the high associated accretion luminosity increases the critical core mass, delaying the onset of gas runaway. Our constraints are independent of the mass of the central star and vary only weakly with the core density and its atmospheric opacity. We also discuss various factors that can strengthen or weaken our limits on the operation of CA.

  19. Comparing Cool Cores in the Planck SZ Selected Samples of Clusters of Galaxies with Cool Cores in X-ray Selected Cluster Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Santos, Felipe A.; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Arnaud, Monique; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Churazov, Eugene; Ferrari, Chiara; Borgani, Stefano; Chandra-Planck Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Planck mission provided a representative sample of clusters of galaxies over the entire sky. With completed Chandra observations of 165 Planck ESZ and cosmology sample clusters at z<0.35, we can now characterize each cluster in terms of its X-ray luminosity, gas temperature, gas mass, total mass, gas entropy, gas central cooling time, presence of active AGN, gas cavities, radio emission, and cluster morphology. In this presentation we compare the percentages of cool core and non-cool core clusters in the Planck-selected clusters with the percentages in X-ray selected cluster samples. We find a significantly smaller percentage of cool core clusters in the Planck sample than in X-ray selected cluster samples. We will discuss the primary reasons for this smaller percentage of cool-core clusters in the Planck-selected cluster sample than in X-ray-selected samples.

  20. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  1. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  2. Earth's core iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysicist J. Michael Brown of Texas A & M University noted recently at the Spring AGU Meeting in Baltimore that the structure and phase of metallic iron at pressures of the earth's inner core (approximately 3.3 Mbar) could have great significance in defining geometrical aspects of the core itself. Brown worked at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with R.B. McQueen to redetermine the phase relations of metallic iron in a series of new shock-wave experiments. They found the melting point of iron at conditions equal to those at the boundary of the earth's outer (liquid) and inner (solid) cores to be 6000°±500°C (Geophysical Research Letters, 7, 533-536, 1980).

  3. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  4. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  6. Compressing μJ-level pulses from 250  fs to sub-10  fs at 38-MHz repetition rate using two gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber stages.

    PubMed

    Mak, K F; Seidel, M; Pronin, O; Frosz, M H; Abdolvand, A; Pervak, V; Apolonski, A; Krausz, F; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-04-01

    Compression of 250-fs, 1-μJ pulses from a KLM Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator down to 9.1 fs is demonstrated. A kagomé-PCF with a 36-μm core-diameter is used with a pressure gradient from 0 to 40 bar of krypton. Compression to 22 fs is achieved by 1200  fs2 group-delay-dispersion provided by chirped mirrors. By coupling the output into a second kagomé-PCF with a pressure gradient from 0 to 25 bar of argon, octave spanning spectral broadening via the soliton-effect is observed at 18-W average output power. Self-compression to 9.1 fs is measured, with compressibility to 5 fs predicted. Also observed is strong emission in the visible via dispersive wave generation, amounting to 4% of the total output power. PMID:25831302

  7. Ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhiogrosso, A.; Vasyunin, A.; Herbst, E.; Viti, S.; Ward, M. D.; Price, S. D.; Brown, W. A.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O), and its isomer acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. The discovery of ethylene oxide in hot cores suggests the presence of ring-shaped molecules with more than 3 carbon atoms such as furan (c-C4H4O), to which ribose, the sugar found in DNA, is closely related. Aims: Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. Methods: We introduce a complete chemical network for ethylene oxide using a revised gas-grain chemical model. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. Results: The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde towards high-mass star-forming regions. In addition, our results show that ethylene oxide may be present in outer and cooler regions of hot cores where its isomer has already been detected. Our new results are compared with previous results, which focused on the formation of ethylene oxide only. Conclusions: Despite their different chemical structures, the chemistry of ethylene oxide is coupled to that of acetaldehyde, suggesting that acetaldehyde may be used as a tracer for ethylene oxide towards cold cores.

  8. SMA millimeter observations of hot molecular cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Hernández, Vicente; Zapata, Luis; Kurtz, Stan; Garay, Guido

    2014-05-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and the CH{sub 3}CN (12 {sub K}-11 {sub K}) line of 17 hot molecular cores associated with young high-mass stars. The angular resolution of the observations ranges from 1.''0 to 4.''0. The continuum observations reveal large (>3500 AU) dusty structures with gas masses from 7 to 375 M {sub ☉}, which probably surround multiple young stars. The CH{sub 3}CN line emission is detected toward all the molecular cores at least up to the K = 6 component and is mostly associated with the emission peaks of the dusty objects. We used the multiple K-components of the CH{sub 3}CN and both the rotational diagram method and a simultaneous synthetic local thermodynamic equilibrium model with the XCLASS program to estimate the temperatures and column densities of the cores. For all sources, we obtained reasonable fits from XCLASS by using a model that combines two components: an extended and warm envelope and a compact hot core of molecular gas, suggesting internal heating by recently formed massive stars. The rotational temperatures lie in the range of 40-132 K and 122-485 K for the extended and compact components, respectively. From the continuum and CH{sub 3}CN results, we infer fractional abundances from 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –7} toward the compact inner components, which increase with the rotational temperature. Our results agree with a chemical scenario in which the CH{sub 3}CN molecule is efficiently formed in the gas phase above 100-300 K, and its abundance increases with temperature.

  9. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, T. S.; Biancardi, F. R.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrial applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times.-

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  11. Theory of core excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, J. D.; Hjalmarson, H. P.; Sankey, O. F.; Allen, R. E.; Buettner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The observation of core excitons with binding energies much larger than those of the valence excitons in the same material has posed a long-standing theoretical problem. A proposed solution to this problem is presented, and Frenkel excitons and Wannier excitons are shown to coexist naturally in a single material. (GHT)

  12. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  13. Authentic to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukral, Nicole; Spector, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    When educators think about what makes learning relevant to students, often they narrow their thinking to electives or career technical education. While these provide powerful opportunities for students to make relevant connections to their learning, they can also create authentic experiences in the core curriculum. In the San Juan Unified School…

  14. From Context to Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    At Campus Technology 2008, Arizona State University Technology Officer Adrian Sannier mesmerized audiences with his mandate to become more efficient by doing only the "core" tech stuff--and getting someone else to slog through the context. This article presents an excerpt from Sannier's hour-long keynote address at Campus Technology '08. Sannier…

  15. Core Directions in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on core directions in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Verna Willis at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Reengineering the Organizational HRD Function: Two Case Studies" (Neal Chalofsky) reports an action research study in which the…

  16. A Multidisciplinary Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Trace

    2002-01-01

    Describes New York University's commitment to general mathematics and science education for undergraduate students, embodied in the College of Arts and Science's core curriculum, the Morse Academic Plan, which includes a three-course sequence, Foundations of Scientific Inquiry, specifically designed for non-majors. (EV)

  17. The Tom Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahting, Uwe; Thun, Clemens; Hegerl, Reiner; Typke, Dieter; Nargang, Frank E.; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of ∼2.1 nm and a height of ∼7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  18. The Uncommon Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that the United States neglects creativity in its education system. To see this, he states, one may look at the Common Core State Standards. If one searches the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words "creative," "innovative," and "original"--and any associated terms, one will find scant mention of the words…

  19. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FACILITY CORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Assessment Facility Core will continue to collect environmental measures including personal and indoor air monitoring and repeat collection of dust samples from the home and biologic measures including urine and blood samples collected from the mother during pregn...

  20. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  1. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  2. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  3. Life from the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo; Coleman, Max; Pignatti, Johannes; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2010-05-01

    Life on Earth is the result of the chaotic combination of several independent chemical and physical parameters. One of them is the shield from ionizing radiation exerted by the atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field. We hypothesise that the first few billion years of the Earth's history, dominated by bacteria, were characterized by stronger ionizing radiation. Bacteria can survive under such conditions better than any other organism. During the Archean and early Proterozoic the shield could have been weaker, allowing the development of only a limited number of species, more resistant to the external radiation. The Cambrian explosion of life could have been enhanced by the gradual growth of the solid inner core, which was not existent possibly before 1 Ga. The cooling of the Earth generated the solidification of the iron alloy in the center of the planet. As an hypothesis, before the crystallization of the core, the turbulence in the liquid core could have resulted in a lower or different magnetic field from the one we know today, being absent the relative rotation between inner and external core.

  4. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  5. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  6. Resolving Supercritical Orion Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Chapman, N.; Goldsmith, P.; Velusamy, T.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical framework for high mass star formation (HMSF) is unclear. Observations reveal a seeming dichotomy between high- and low-mass star formation, with HMSF occurring only in Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), mostly in clusters, and with higher star formation efficiencies than low-mass star formation. One crucial constraint to any theoretical model is the dynamical state of massive cores, in particular, whether a massive core is in supercritical collapse. Based on the mass-size relation of dust emission, we select likely unstable targets from a sample of massive cores (Li et al. 2007 ApJ 655, 351) in the nearest GMC, Orion. We have obtained N2H+ (1-0) maps using CARMA with resolution ( 2.5", 0.006 pc) significantly better than existing observations. We present observational and modeling results for ORI22. By revealing the dynamic structure down to Jeans scale, CARMA data confirms the dominance of gravity over turbulence in this cores. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Nucleosome Core Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Nucleosome Core Particle grown on STS-81. The fundamental structural unit of chromatin and is the basis for organization within the genome by compaction of DNA within the nucleus of the cell and by making selected regions of chromosomes available for transcription and replication. Principal Investigator's are Dr. Dan Carter and Dr. Gerard Bunick of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  8. Renewing the Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2007-01-01

    The core curriculum accompanied the development of the academic discipline with multiple names such as Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science, and Health and Human Performance. It provides commonalties for undergraduate majors. It is timely to renew this curriculum. Renewal involves strategic reappraisals. It may stimulate change or reaffirm the…

  9. A World Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Robert Muller's "World Core Curriculum" is designed to give children: a good picture of planet Earth and the universe; a correct picture of the commonalities and diversity of the human family; an accurate picture of the time period into which they are born; and a sense of their own importance and the role that they can play in society. (MDM)

  10. Core Competencies. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Beth, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to investigate the status of core competencies (i.e., the skills, knowledge, abilities, and attributes that employees across an organization are expected to have to contribute successfully…

  11. Stellar dynamics in gas: the role of gas damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Böker, Torsten

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we consider how gas damping affects the dynamical evolution of gas-embedded star clusters. Using a simple three-component (i.e. one gas and two stellar components) model, we compare the rates of mass segregation due to two-body relaxation, accretion from the interstellar medium, and gas dynamical friction in both the supersonic and subsonic regimes. Using observational data in the literature, we apply our analytic predictions to two different astrophysical environments, namely galactic nuclei and young open star clusters. Our analytic results are then tested using numerical simulations performed with the NBSymple code, modified by an additional deceleration term to model the damping effects of the gas. The results of our simulations are in reasonable agreement with our analytic predictions, and demonstrate that gas damping can significantly accelerate the rate of mass segregation. A stable state of approximate energy equilibrium cannot be achieved in our model if gas damping is present, even if Spitzer's Criterion is satisfied. This instability drives the continued dynamical decoupling and subsequent ejection (and/or collisions) of the more massive population. Unlike two-body relaxation, gas damping causes overall cluster contraction, reducing both the core and half-mass radii. If the cluster is mass segregated (and/or the gas density is highest at the cluster centre), the latter contracts faster than the former, accelerating the rate of core collapse.

  12. From Prestellar to Protostellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Yuri; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck; Garrod, Robin; Herbst, Eric

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from dense cloud cores to protostellar cores. We solve a gas-grain reaction network, which is extended to include multi-deuterated species, using a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels to derive molecular distribution in assorted evolutionary stages. We find that the abundances of large organic species in the central region increase with time. The duration of the warm-up phase, in which large organic species are efficiently formed, is longer in infalling fluid parcels at later stages. Formation of unsaturated carbon chains in the CH4 sublimation zone (warm carbon chain chemistry) is more effective in later stage. The carbon ion, which reacts with CH4 to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are both heavily deuterated, mainly because their mother molecules have high D/H ratios, which are set in the cold phase. The observed CH2DOH/CH3OH ratio towards protostars is reproduced if we assume that the grain-surface exchange and abstraction reactions of CH3OH + D occurs efficiently. In our 1-D collapse model, the fluid parcels directly fall into the protostar, and the warm-up phase in the fluid parcels is rather short. But, in reality, a circumstellar disk is formed, and fluid parcels will stay there for a longer timescale than a free-fall time. We investigate the molecular evolution in such a disk by assuming that a fluid parcel stays at a constant temperature (i.e. a fixed disk radius) after the infall. The species CH3OCH3 and HCOOCH3 become more abundant in the disk than in the envelope. Both have high D/H abundance ratios as well.

  13. The ADNI PET Core

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Foster, Norman L.; Landau, Susan M.; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.; Reiman, Eric M.; Skovronsky, Daniel; Koeppe, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background This is a progress report of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) PET Core. Methods The Core has supervised the acquisition, quality control, and analysis of longitudinal [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) data in approximately half of the ADNI cohort. In an “add on” study, approximately 100 subjects also underwent scanning with [11C]PIB-PET for amyloid imaging. The Core developed quality control procedures and standardized image acquisition by developing an imaging protocol that has been widely adopted in academic and pharmaceutical industry studies. Data processing provides users with scans that have identical orientation and resolution characteristics despite acquisition on multiple scanner models. The Core labs have used a number of different approaches to characterize differences between subject groups (AD, MCI, controls), to examine longitudinal change over time in glucose metabolism and amyloid deposition, and to assess the use of FDG-PET as a potential outcome measure in clinical trials. Results ADNI data indicate that FDG-PET increases statistical power over traditional cognitive measures, might aid subject selection, and could substantially reduce the sample size in a clinical trial. PIB-PET data showed expected group differences, and identified subjects with significant annual increases in amyloid load across the subject groups. The next activities of the PET core in ADNI will entail developing standardized protocols for amyloid imaging using the [18F]-labeled amyloid imaging agent AV45, which can be delivered to virtually all ADNI sites. Conclusions ADNI has demonstrated the feasibility and utility of multicenter PET studies and is helping to clarify the role of biomarkers in the study of aging and dementia. PMID:20451870

  14. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  15. Dark matter cores all the way down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Agertz, O.; Collins, M. L. M.

    2016-07-01

    We use high-resolution simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to study the physics of dark matter cusp-core transformations at the edge of galaxy formation: M200 = 107-109 M⊙. We work at a resolution (˜4 pc minimum cell size; ˜250 M⊙ per particle) at which the impact from individual supernovae explosions can be resolved, becoming insensitive to even large changes in our numerical `sub-grid' parameters. We find that our dwarf galaxies give a remarkable match to the stellar light profile; star formation history; metallicity distribution function; and star/gas kinematics of isolated dwarf irregular galaxies. Our key result is that dark matter cores of size comparable to the stellar half-mass radius r1/2 always form if star formation proceeds for long enough. Cores fully form in less than 4 Gyr for the M200 = 108 M⊙ and ˜14 Gyr for the 109 M⊙ dwarf. We provide a convenient two parameter `CORENFW' fitting function that captures this dark matter core growth as a function of star formation time and the projected stellar half-mass radius. Our results have several implications: (i) we make a strong prediction that if Λcold dark matter is correct, then `pristine' dark matter cusps will be found either in systems that have truncated star formation and/or at radii r > r1/2; (ii) complete core formation lowers the projected velocity dispersion at r1/2 by a factor of ˜2, which is sufficient to fully explain the `too-big-to-fail problem'; and (iii) cored dwarfs will be much more susceptible to tides, leading to a dramatic scouring of the sub-halo mass function inside galaxies and groups.

  16. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  17. Massive quiescent cores in Orion. V. The internal structures and physical and chemical properties of two extremely dense cores

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Li, Di; Chapman, N. E-mail: dili@nao.cas.cn

    2014-06-20

    We present a high-resolution (∼ 1.''5) observational study of two massive dust-gas cores, ORI8nw{sub 2} and ORI2{sub 6}, in the Orion molecular cloud using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. In each region the 3.2 mm continuum emission exhibits a dense and compact dust core at the center with 1-3 solar masses. The cores have number densities exceeding 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}, which are among the highest volume densities observed in star-forming cores. In both regions the N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows clumpy structures that are spatially displaced from the densest gas. In OIR8nw{sub 2} in particular, the N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows a noticeable filament structure with a central cavity shell. The calculation for the dynamical state shows that this core can be potentially supported by the magnetic field against its gravitational instability, but the fragmentation might still occur and produce the observed N{sub 2}H{sup +} clumps if the gas density exceeds 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3} and this value is available within the observed density range. Also, the extremely high density at the core center suggests super-Jeans condition and the possibility for further fragmentation. For the chemical properties, the N{sub 2}H{sup +}-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratios are shown to be different than those observed in infrared dark clouds. A combined analysis with the other Orion cores and the chemical model suggests that the different abundance ratios can be explained by the low CO abundances in our cores. To further reveal the evolution of such dense cores, higher resolution and sensitivity are required.

  18. Application of Core Dynamics Modeling to Core-Mantle Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia

    2003-01-01

    Observations have demonstrated that length of day (LOD) variation on decadal time scales results from exchange of axial angular momentum between the solid mantle and the core. There are in general four core-mantle interaction mechanisms that couple the core and the mantle. Of which, three have been suggested likely the dominant coupling mechanism for the decadal core-mantle angular momentum exchange, namely, gravitational core-mantle coupling arising from density anomalies in the mantle and in the core (including the inner core), the electromagnetic coupling arising from Lorentz force in the electrically conducting lower mantle (e.g. D-layer), and the topographic coupling arising from non-hydrostatic pressure acting on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) topography. In the past decades, most effort has been on estimating the coupling torques from surface geomagnetic observations (kinematic approach), which has provided insights on the core dynamical processes. In the meantime, it also creates questions and concerns on approximations in the studies that may invalidate the corresponding conclusions. The most serious problem is perhaps the approximations that are inconsistent with dynamical processes in the core, such as inconsistencies between the core surface flow beneath the CMB and the CMB topography, and that between the D-layer electric conductivity and the approximations on toroidal field at the CMB. These inconsistencies can only be addressed with numerical core dynamics modeling. In the past few years, we applied our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent and Three-dimensional) core dynamics model to study core-mantle interactions together with geodynamo simulation, aiming at assessing the effect of the dynamical inconsistencies in the kinematic studies on core-mantle coupling torques. We focus on topographic and electromagnetic core-mantle couplings and find that, for the topographic coupling, the consistency between the core flow and the CMB topography is

  19. Cores, Filaments, and Bundles: Hierarchical core formation in the B213 filament in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, Alvaro; Tafalla, Mario; Kauffmann, Jens; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the dense core formation in filaments is a critical step for our understanding of the star formation process within molecular clouds. Using different molecular tracers to study the gas kinematics at different scales and density regimes, we have investigated the dense core formation in the B213/L1495 filament in Taurus, one of the most prominent structures identified in nearby clouds (see Hacar et al 2013, A&A, 554, A55). Our analysis of its internal kinematics demonstrates that this filament is actually a bundle of 35 velocity-coherent filaments, typically with lengths of ˜ 0.5 pc and oscillatory-like and sonic velocity field, each of them exhibiting linear masses close to the expected mass for a filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. Among them, only a small fraction of these filaments (˜1/4) are "fertile" and efficiently fragment forming all the cores identified within this region, while most of them (˜3/4) do not form cores and remain "sterile". Our observations then suggest that core formation in Taurus occurs in two steps. First, 0.5 pc-long velocity-coherent filaments condense out of the cloud gas, probably as a result of the turbulent cascade. After that, the dense cores condense quasi-statically in only those "fertile" filaments that have accumulated enough mass to became gravitational unstable, inheriting their kinematic properties. The formation of these velocity-coherent filaments appears therefore as a critical step on the star formation process being the first subsonic structures formed out of the turbulent regime that dominates the cloud dynamics at large scales.

  20. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  1. Silica aerogel core waveguide.

    PubMed

    Grogan, M D W; Leon-Saval, S G; England, R; Birks, T A

    2010-10-11

    We have selectively filled the core of hollow photonic crystal fibre with silica aerogel. Light is guided in the aerogel core, with a measured attenuation of 0.2 dB/cm at 1540 nm comparable to that of bulk aerogel. The structure guides light by different mechanisms depending on the wavelength. At long wavelengths the effective index of the microstructured cladding is below the aerogel index of 1.045 and guidance is by total internal reflection. At short wavelengths, where the effective cladding index exceeds 1.045, a photonic bandgap can guide the light instead. There is a small region of crossover, where both index- and bandgap-guided modes were simultaneously observed. PMID:20941148

  2. Geomagnetism of earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation, analytical methods, and research goals for understanding the behavior and source of geophysical magnetism are reviewed. Magsat, launched in 1979, collected global magnetometer data and identified the main terrestrial magnetic fields. The data has been treated by representing the curl-free field in terms of a scalar potential which is decomposed into a truncated series of spherical harmonics. Solutions to the Laplace equation then extend the field upward or downward from the measurement level through intervening spaces with no source. Further research is necessary on the interaction between harmonics of various spatial scales. Attempts are also being made to analytically model the main field and its secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Work is also being done on characterizing the core structure, composition, thermodynamics, energetics, and formation, as well as designing a new Magsat or a tethered satellite to be flown on the Shuttle.

  3. Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

    2005-01-01

    Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

  4. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  5. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  6. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  7. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  8. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  9. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  10. Toroidal core winder

    DOEpatents

    Potthoff, Clifford M.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for placing wire windings on a toroidal body, such as a transformer core, having an orifice in its center. The apparatus comprises a wire storage spool, a wire loop holding continuous belt maintained in a C-shaped loop by a belt supporting structure and provision for turning the belt to place and tighten loops of wire on a toroidal body, which is disposed within the gap of the C-shaped belt loop.

  11. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  12. Electromagnetic pump stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Olich, E.E.; Dahl, L.R.

    1995-01-17

    A stator core for supporting an electrical coil includes a plurality of groups of circumferentially abutting flat laminations which collectively form a bore and perimeter. A plurality of wedges are interposed between the groups, with each wedge having an inner edge and a thicker outer edge. The wedge outer edges abut adjacent ones of the groups to provide a continuous path around the perimeter. 21 figures.

  13. Core-collapse Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, Mark L; Chertkow, Merek A; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Blondin, J. M.; Bruenn, S. W.; Messer, Bronson; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Marking the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae bring together physics at a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer scale nuclear reactions. Carrying 10$^{51}$ ergs of kinetic energy and a rich-mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up ourselves and our solar system. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  14. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  15. New ice core record of atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of methane, an important greenhouse gas, have varied in the past on time scales ranging from seasons to hundreds of thousands of years. Understanding past variations is important to interpreting current natural and anthropogenic changes. Mitchell et al. present a new high-precision, high-resolution atmospheric methane record covering 1000-1800 C.E. from an ice core from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide project that has confirmed the existence of multidecadal-scale variability during this time period. The new record, which complements other existing ice core methane records, shows that multidecadal-scale methane variability is only weakly correlated or uncorrelated with reconstructed temperature and precipitation variations. The authors also found that time periods when war or plague resulted in population declines are coincident with global atmospheric methane decreases. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, doi:10.1029/ 2010JG001441, 2011)

  16. Nutrient Composition of the "Core of the Core" Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples from the Core Collection designated as the Core of the Core Collection were analyzed from the 2005 crop year. Samples were analyzed for individual amino acids, folic acid and total oil content. Oil mechanically expressed from the seed was analyzed for individual tocopherols and fatty acids...

  17. 33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE CORE MOLDS WERE HAND FILLED AND OFTEN PNEUMATICALLY COMPRESSED WITH A HAND-HELD RAMMER BEFORE THEY WERE BAKED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Nutrient Composition of the Peanut Core of the Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts from the Core Collection designated as the Core of the Core Collection were grown in Tifton, GA in 2005. Amino acids, folic acid and total oil content were determined on the whole seed. Amino acid concentrations were generally close to commonly reported values. Folic acid concentration var...

  19. Critical pressure and multiphase flow in Blake Ridge gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flemings, P.B.; Liu, Xiuying; Winters, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    We use core porosity, consolidation experiments, pressure core sampler data, and capillary pressure measurements to predict water pressures that are 70% of the lithostatic stress, and gas pressures that equal the lithostatic stress beneath the methane hydrate layer at Ocean Drilling Program Site 997, Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina. A 29-m-thick interconnected free-gas column is trapped beneath the low-permeability hydrate layer. We propose that lithostatic gas pressure is dilating fractures and gas is migrating through the methane hydrate layer. Overpressured gas and water within methane hydrate reservoirs limit the amount of free gas trapped and may rapidly export methane to the seafloor.

  20. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective

  1. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, G. W.; Qian, Q. Peng, K. L.; Wen, X.; Zhou, G. X.; Sun, M.; Chen, X. D.; Yang, Z. M.

    2015-02-15

    Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se) semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  2. Measurement of delta13C and delta18O Isotopic Ratios of CaCO3 by a Thermoquest Finnigan GasBench II Delta Plus XL Continous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer with Application to Devils Hole Core DH-11 Calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, Kinga M.; Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas; Keybl, Jaroslav Edward

    2001-01-01

    A new method was developed to analyze the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400?20 ?g) of calcium carbonate. This new method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid - calcium carbonate (H3PO4 - CaCO3) reaction method by making use of a Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II preparation device and a Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, optimal conditions for the H3PO4 - CaCO3 reaction had to be determined. At the acid-carbonate reaction temperature suggested by the equipment manufacturer, the oxygen isotope ratio results were unsatisfactory (standard deviation () greater than 1.5 per mill), probably because of a secondary reaction. When the acid-carbonate reaction temperature was lowered to 26?C and the reaction time was increased to 24 hours, the precision of the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for duplicate analyses improved to 0.1 and 0.2 per mill, respectively. The method was tested by analyzing calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, which was formed by precipitation from ground water onto the walls of a sub-aqueous cavern during the last 500,000 years. Isotope-ratio values previously had been obtained by the classical method for Devils Hole core DH-11. The DH-11 core had been recently re-sampled, and isotope-ratio values were obtained using this new method. The results were comparable to those obtained by the classical method. The consistency of the isotopic results is such that an alignment offset could be identified in the re-sampled core material, a cutting error that was then independently confirmed. The reproducibility of the isotopic values is demonstrated by a correlation of approximately 0.96 for both isotopes, after correcting for an alignment offset. This result indicates that the new method is a viable alternative to the classical method. In particular, the new method requires less sample material permitting finer resolution and allows automation of some processes

  3. Optimizing performance by improving core stability and core strength.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Angela E; Thompson, Kevin G; French, Duncan; Wrigley, Allan; Spears, Iain

    2008-01-01

    Core stability and core strength have been subject to research since the early 1980s. Research has highlighted benefits of training these processes for people with back pain and for carrying out everyday activities. However, less research has been performed on the benefits of core training for elite athletes and how this training should be carried out to optimize sporting performance. Many elite athletes undertake core stability and core strength training as part of their training programme, despite contradictory findings and conclusions as to their efficacy. This is mainly due to the lack of a gold standard method for measuring core stability and strength when performing everyday tasks and sporting movements. A further confounding factor is that because of the differing demands on the core musculature during everyday activities (low load, slow movements) and sporting activities (high load, resisted, dynamic movements), research performed in the rehabilitation sector cannot be applied to the sporting environment and, subsequently, data regarding core training programmes and their effectiveness on sporting performance are lacking. There are many articles in the literature that promote core training programmes and exercises for performance enhancement without providing a strong scientific rationale of their effectiveness, especially in the sporting sector. In the rehabilitation sector, improvements in lower back injuries have been reported by improving core stability. Few studies have observed any performance enhancement in sporting activities despite observing improvements in core stability and core strength following a core training programme. A clearer understanding of the roles that specific muscles have during core stability and core strength exercises would enable more functional training programmes to be implemented, which may result in a more effective transfer of these skills to actual sporting activities. PMID:19026017

  4. Core Formation Process and Light Elements in the Planetary Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Sakairi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Kamada, S.; Sakamaki, T.; Hirao, N.

    2015-12-01

    Si, O, and S are major candidates for light elements in the planetary core. In the early stage of the planetary formation, the core formation started by percolation of the metallic liquid though silicate matrix because Fe-S-O and Fe-S-Si eutectic temperatures are significantly lower than the solidus of the silicates. Therefore, in the early stage of accretion of the planets, the eutectic liquid with S enrichment was formed and separated into the core by percolation. The major light element in the core at this stage will be sulfur. The internal pressure and temperature increased with the growth of the planets, and the metal component depleted in S was molten. The metallic melt contained both Si and O at high pressure in the deep magma ocean in the later stage. Thus, the core contains S, Si, and O in this stage of core formation. Partitioning experiments between solid and liquid metals indicate that S is partitioned into the liquid metal, whereas O is weakly into the liquid. Partitioning of Si changes with the metallic iron phases, i.e., fcc iron-alloy coexisting with the metallic liquid below 30 GPa is depleted in Si. Whereas hcp-Fe alloy above 30 GPa coexisting with the liquid favors Si. This contrast of Si partitioning provides remarkable difference in compositions of the solid inner core and liquid outer core among different terrestrial planets. Our melting experiments of the Fe-S-Si and Fe-O-S systems at high pressure indicate the core-adiabats in small planets, Mercury and Mars, are greater than the slope of the solidus and liquidus curves of these systems. Thus, in these planets, the core crystallized at the top of the liquid core and 'snowing core' formation occurred during crystallization. The solid inner core is depleted in both Si and S whereas the liquid outer core is relatively enriched in Si and S in these planets. On the other hand, the core adiabats in large planets, Earth and Venus, are smaller than the solidus and liquidus curves of the systems. The

  5. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  6. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  7. A dynamically collapsing core and a precursor of a core in a filament supported by turbulent and magnetic pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Shinnaga, Hiroko E-mail: kitamura@isas.jaxa.jp

    2014-10-01

    To study physical properties of the natal filament gas around the cloud core harboring an exceptionally young low-mass protostar GF 9-2, we carried out J = 1-0 line observations of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O molecules using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The mapping area covers ∼ one-fifth of the whole filament. Our {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O maps clearly demonstrate that the core formed at the local density maxima of the filament, and the internal motions of the filament gas are totally governed by turbulence with Mach number of ∼2. We estimated the scale height of the filament to be H = 0.3-0.7 pc, yielding the central density of n {sub c} = 800-4200 cm{sup –3}. Our analysis adopting an isothermal cylinder model shows that the filament is supported by the turbulent and magnetic pressures against the radial and axial collapse due to self-gravity. Since both the dissipation timescales of the turbulence and the transverse magnetic fields can be comparable to the free-fall time of the filament gas of 10{sup 6} yr, we conclude that the local decay of the supersonic turbulence and magnetic fields made the filament gas locally unstable, hence making the core collapse. Furthermore, we newly detected a gas condensation with velocity width enhancement to ∼0.3 pc southwest of the GF 9-2 core. The condensation has a radius of ∼0.15 pc and an LTE mass of ∼5 M {sub ☉}. Its internal motion is turbulent with Mach number of ∼3, suggesting a gravitationally unbound state. Considering the uncertainties in our estimates, however, we propose that the condensation is a precursor of a cloud core, which would have been produced by the collision of the two gas components identified in the filament.

  8. A Dynamically Collapsing Core and a Precursor of a Core in a Filament Supported by Turbulent and Magnetic Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2014-10-01

    To study physical properties of the natal filament gas around the cloud core harboring an exceptionally young low-mass protostar GF 9-2, we carried out J = 1-0 line observations of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The mapping area covers ~ one-fifth of the whole filament. Our 13CO and C18O maps clearly demonstrate that the core formed at the local density maxima of the filament, and the internal motions of the filament gas are totally governed by turbulence with Mach number of ~2. We estimated the scale height of the filament to be H = 0.3-0.7 pc, yielding the central density of n c = 800-4200 cm-3. Our analysis adopting an isothermal cylinder model shows that the filament is supported by the turbulent and magnetic pressures against the radial and axial collapse due to self-gravity. Since both the dissipation timescales of the turbulence and the transverse magnetic fields can be comparable to the free-fall time of the filament gas of 106 yr, we conclude that the local decay of the supersonic turbulence and magnetic fields made the filament gas locally unstable, hence making the core collapse. Furthermore, we newly detected a gas condensation with velocity width enhancement to ~0.3 pc southwest of the GF 9-2 core. The condensation has a radius of ~0.15 pc and an LTE mass of ~5 M ⊙. Its internal motion is turbulent with Mach number of ~3, suggesting a gravitationally unbound state. Considering the uncertainties in our estimates, however, we propose that the condensation is a precursor of a cloud core, which would have been produced by the collision of the two gas components identified in the filament.

  9. Probing Pre-Protostellar Cores with Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Lee, J.-E.; Evans, N. J., II; Goldsmith, P. F.; Doty, S. D.

    2004-05-01

    We present maps of the 6 cm and 1.3 mm transitions of H2CO toward three cold, dense pre-protostellar cores: L1498, L1512, and L1544. The 6 cm transition is uniquely suited to probe high density gas at low temperature. Our models indicate that H2CO is depleted in the interiors of PPCs. Depletion significantly affects how H2CO probes the earliest stages of star formation. Multi-stage, self-consistent models, including gas--dust energetics, of both H2CO transitions are presented, and the implications of the results discussed. This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Research Corporation.

  10. CANOPEN Controller IP Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramia, Maurizio; Montagna, Mario; Furano, Gianluca; Winton, Alistair

    2010-08-01

    This paper will describe the activities performed by Thales Alenia Space Italia supported by the European Space Agency in the definition of a CAN bus interface to be used on Exomars. The final goal of this activity is the development of an IP core, to be used in a slave node, able to manage both the CAN bus Data Link and Application Layer totally in hardware. The activity has been focused on the needs of the EXOMARS mission where devices with different computational performances are all managed by the onboard computer through the CAN bus.

  11. Automated Core Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-07-15

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process.

  12. PROCESS FOR JACKETING A CORE

    DOEpatents

    Last, G.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for enclosing the uranium core of a nuclear fuel element by placing the core in an aluminum cup and closing the open end of the cup over the core. As the metal of the cup is brought together in a weld over the center of the end of the core, it is extruded inwardly as internal projection into a central recess in the core and outwardly as an external projection. Thus oxide inclusions in the weld of the cup are spread out into the internal and external projections and do not interfere with the integrity of the weld.

  13. Variable cycle gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Foster, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A technique, method, and apparatus were designed for varying the bypass ratio and modulating the flow of a gas turbine engine in order to achieve improved mixed mission performance. Embodiments include gas flow control system for management of core and bypass stream pressure comprising diverter valve means downstream of the core engine to selectively mix or separate the core and bypass exhaust streams. The flow control system may also include variable geometry means for maintaining the engine inlet airflow at a matched design level at all flight velocities. Earth preferred embodiment thus may be converted from a high specific thrust mixed flow cycle at supersonic velocities to a lower specific thrust separated flow turbofan system at subsonic velocities with a high degree of flow variability in each mode of operation.

  14. Models of the Earth's Core.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    1981-11-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with the following properties. Core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and laboratory data. PMID:17839632

  15. Models of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  16. Formation of Cool Cores in Galaxy Clusters via Hierarchical Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Bryan, Greg

    2004-05-01

    We present a new scenario for the formation of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters, based on results from recent high spatial dynamic range, adaptive mesh Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations of large-scale structure formation. We find that cores of cool gas, material that would be identified as a classical cooling flow on the basis of its X-ray luminosity excess and temperature profile, are built from the accretion of discrete stable subclusters. Any ``cooling flow'' present is overwhelmed by the velocity field within the cluster; the bulk flow of gas through the cluster typically has speeds up to about 2000 km s-1, and significant rotation is frequently present in the cluster core. The inclusion of consistent initial cosmological conditions for the cluster within its surrounding supercluster environment is crucial when the evolution of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters is simulated. This new model for the hierarchical assembly of cool gas naturally explains the high frequency of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters, despite the fact that a majority of these clusters show evidence of substructure that is believed to arise from recent merger activity. Furthermore, our simulations generate complex cluster cores in concordance with recent X-ray observations of cool fronts, cool ``bullets,'' and filaments in a number of galaxy clusters. Our simulations were computed with a coupled N-body, Eulerian, adaptive mesh refinement, hydrodynamics cosmology code that properly treats the effects of shocks and radiative cooling by the gas. We employ up to seven levels of refinement to attain a peak resolution of 15.6 kpc within a volume 256 Mpc on a side and assume a standard ΛCDM cosmology.

  17. Measurements of ethane in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Fosse, E. K.; Aydin, K. M.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    Ethane is one of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The major ethane sources are fossil fuel production and use, biofuel combustion, and biomass-burning emissions and the primary loss pathway is via reaction with OH. A paleoatmospheric ethane record would be useful as a tracer of biomass-burning emissions, providing a constraint on past changes in atmospheric methane and methane isotopes. An independent biomass-burning tracer would improve our understanding of the relationship between biomass burning and climate. The mean annual atmospheric ethane level at high southern latitudes is about 230 parts per trillion (ppt), and Antarctic firn air measurements suggest that atmospheric ethane levels in the early 20th century were considerably lower (Aydin et al., 2011). In this study, we present preliminary measurements of ethane (C2H6) in Antarctic ice core samples with gas ages ranging from 0-1900 C.E. Samples were obtained from dry-drilled ice cores from South Pole and Vostok in East Antarctica, and from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS-D). Gases were extracted from the ice by melting under vacuum in a glass vessel sealed by indium wire and were analyzed using high resolution GC/MS with isotope dilution. Ethane levels measured in ice core samples were in the range 100-220 ppt, with a mean of 157 ± 45 ppt (n=12). System blanks contribute roughly half the amount of ethane extracted from a 300 g ice core sample. These preliminary data exhibit a temporal trend, with higher ethane levels from 0-900 C.E., followed by a decline, reaching a minimum between 1600-1700 C.E. These trends are consistent with variations in ice core methane isotopes and carbon monoxide isotopes (Ferretti et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2010), which indicate changes in biomass burning emissions over this time period. These preliminary data suggest that Antarctic ice core bubbles contain paleoatmospheric ethane levels. With further improvement of laboratory techniques it appears

  18. Effect of Rotation in Cloud Core Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuribe, T.

    stage by rapid growth of a nonspherical first core. Second, to mimic fragmentation processes of primordial clouds, the equation of state is approximated by a simple polytropic relation with γ ˜ 1.1. A series of numerical and semianalytical calculations of the rotating collapse of an initially spherical cloud shows a criterion for fragmentation of rotating polytropic cloud cores with γ=1.1. Fragmentation during core collapse is not expected to take place if the cloud thermal energy is greater than 0.3 times its gravitational energy at the initial stage of runaway collapse. The collapse of the central small core will not be halted by centrifugal force since a nonaxisymmetric waves will appear and the flow will converge to a self-similar flow until γ exceeds 4/3. Finally, we take into account the detailed non-equilibrium chemical reactions for primordial gas that consists of pure hydrogen. The parameters of the collapse and the condition of the fragmentation are compared with those of isothermal clouds. It is shown that the geometrical flatness of the central region of the disc is a good indicator for predicting whether the clouds fragment or not. If the flatness is greater than the critical value, ˜ 4π, a cloud fragments into filaments and blobs. On the other hand, if the flatness is smaller than the critical value, fragmentation is not expected before the central core formation even if the cooling is efficient and the total mass becomes much greater than the local Jeans mass at the center.

  19. A quantification of the non-spherical geometry and accretion of collapsing cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Clark, Paul C.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first detailed classification of the structures of Class 0 cores in a high-resolution simulation of a giant molecular cloud. The simulated cloud contains 104 M⊙ and produces over 350 cores which allows for meaningful statistics. Cores are classified into three types according to how much they depart from spherical symmetry. We find that three-quarters of the cores are better described as irregular filaments than as spheres. Recent Herschel results have shown that cores are formed within a network of filaments, which we find has had a significant impact on the resulting core geometries. We show that the column densities and ram pressure seen by the protostar are not uniform and generally peak along the axes of the filament. The angular momentum vector of the material in the cores varies both in magnitude and direction, which will cause the rotation vector of the central source to fluctuate during the collapse of the core. In the case of the more massive stars, accretion from the environment outside the original core volume is even more important than that from the core itself. This additional gas is primarily accreted on to the cores along the dense filaments in which the cores are embedded, and the sections of the surfaces of the cores which do not coincide with a filament have very little additional material passing through them. The assumption of spherical symmetry cannot be applied to the majority of collapsing cores, and is never a good description of how stars accrete gas from outside the original core radius. This has ramifications for our understanding of collapsing cores, in particular their line profiles, the effect of radiation upon them and their ability to fragment.

  20. Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, M.; Boswell, R.; Presley, J.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.; Sethi, A.; Lall, M.; NGHP Expedition Scientists

    2015-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 was designed to study the gas-hydrate occurrences off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. During Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01, dedicated gas-hydrate coring, drilling, and downhole logging operations were conducted from 28 April 2006 to 19 August 2006.

  1. Regenerator for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lewakowski, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotary disc-type counterflow regenerator for a gas turbine engine includes a disc-shaped ceramic core surrounded by a metal rim which carries a coaxial annular ring gear. Bonding of the metal rim to the ceramic core is accomplished by constructing the metal rim in three integral portions: a driving portion disposed adjacent the ceramic core which carries the ring gear, a bonding portion disposed further away from the ceramic core and which is bonded thereto by elastomeric pads, and a connecting portion connecting the bonding portion to the driving portion. The elastomeric pads are bonded to radially flexible mounts formed as part of the metal rim by circumferential slots in the transition portion and lateral slots extending from one end of the circumferential slots across the bonding portion of the rim.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  3. HTTF Core Stress Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D. Hawkes; Richard Schultz

    2012-07-01

    In accordance with the need to determine whether cracking of the ceramic core disks which will be constructed and used in the High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) for heatup and cooldown experiments, a set of calculation were performed using Abaqus to investigate the thermal stresses levels and likelihood for cracking. The calculations showed that using the material properties provided for the Greencast 94F ceramic, cracking is predicted to occur. However, this modeling does not predict the size or length of the actual cracks. It is quite likely that cracks will be narrow with rough walls which would impede the flow of coolant gases entering the cracks. Based on data recorded at Oregon State University using Greencast 94F samples that were heated and cooled at prescribed rates, it was concluded that the likelihood that the cracks would be detrimental to the experimental objectives is small.

  4. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    PubMed

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized. PMID:19038373

  5. Growth outside the core.

    PubMed

    Zook, Chris; Allen, James

    2003-12-01

    Growth in an adjacent market is tougher than it looks; three-quarters of the time, the effort fails. But companies can change those odds dramatically. Results from a five-year study of corporate growth conducted by Bain & Company reveal that adjacency expansion succeeds only when built around strong core businesses that have the potential to become market leaders. And the best place to look for adjacency opportunities is inside a company's strongest customers. The study also found that the most successful companies were able to consistently, profitably outgrow their rivals by developing a formula for pushing out the boundaries of their core businesses in predictable, repeatable ways. Companies use their repeatability formulas to expand into any number of adjacencies. Some companies make repeated geographic moves, as Vodafone has done in expanding from one geographic market to another over the past 13 years, building revenues from $1 billion in 1990 to $48 billion in 2003. Others apply a superior business model to new segments. Dell, for example, has repeatedly adapted its direct-to-customer model to new customer segments and new product categories. In other cases, companies develop hybrid approaches. Nike executed a series of different types of adjacency moves: it expanded into adjacent customer segments, introduced new products, developed new distribution channels, and then moved into adjacent geographic markets. The successful repeaters in the study had two common characteristics. First, they were extraordinarily disciplined, applying rigorous screens before they made an adjacency move. This discipline paid off in the form of learning curve benefits, increased speed, and lower complexity. And second, in almost all cases, they developed their repeatable formulas by studying their customers and their customers' economics very, very carefully. PMID:14712545

  6. Deep Extinction Mapping in Molecular Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, Klaus; Urban, Laurie; Rieke, Marcia

    2014-12-01

    This proposal is for preparatory observations of the targets selected for a future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) guaranteed time project, as well as for a more general preparation for the science of this project. Our JWST project with NIRCam, NIRSpec, and MIRI is aimed at obtaining the deepest, and therefore best sampled, extinction maps of a sample of molecular cores, selected to contain quiescent, collapsing, and star-forming cores. We will also obtain spectroscopy of suitable, selected background stars for a detailed study of both the continuum extinction law and the ice feature absorption. The proposed Spitzer IRAC observations are aimed at identifying specific background stars for these future spectroscopic observations with JWST NIRSpec or NIRCam (grism), and with MIRI. For detailed planning of the JWST observations, we need to know how many suitable background stars are available, how many NIRSpec multi-slit pointing will be required, or whether slitless NIRCam grism spectroscopy is feasible. In addition to their role in preparing future JWST observations, the proposed Spitzer observations will immediately be used, together with UKIRT data we have already obtained and together with archival imaging data from other ground-based telescopes, to compute column density maps of the target objects and compare those with JCMT continuum and CO line emission maps to study the temperature distribution and gas freeze-out effects in those dense molecular cores. This work will form the main part of L. Urban's Ph.D. thesis project.

  7. Computed microtomography of reservoir core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, M.E.; Muegge, E.L.; Spanne, P.; Jones, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is often utilized to evaluate and characterize structural characteristics within reservoir core material systems. Generally, medical CT scanners have been employed because of their availability and ease of use. Of interest lately has been the acquisition of three-dimensional, high resolution descriptions of rock and pore structures for characterization of the porous media and for modeling of single and multiphase transport processes. The spatial resolution of current medical CT scanners is too coarse for pore level imaging of most core samples. Recently developed high resolution computed microtomography (CMT) using synchrotron X-ray sources is analogous to conventional medical CT scanning and provides the ability to obtain three-dimensional images of specimens with a spatial resolution on the order of micrometers. Application of this technique to the study of core samples provides two- and three-dimensional high resolution description of pore structure and mineral distributions. Pore space and interconnectivity is accurately characterized and visualized. Computed microtomography data can serve as input into pore-level simulation techniques. A generalized explanation of the technique is provided, with comparison to conventional CT scanning techniques and results. Computed microtomographic results of several sandstone samples are presented and discussed. Bulk porosity values and mineralogical identification were obtained from the microtomograms and compared with gas porosity and scanning electron microscope results on tandem samples.

  8. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  9. Gas gangrene

    MedlinePlus

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues; Necrotizing soft tissue infection ... Gas gangrene is most often caused by bacteria called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by ...

  10. Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maya, Isaac; Anghaie, Samim; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at 4000 K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to 2200 K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials. The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed.

  11. Core analyses for selected samples from the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, V.A.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Two groups of core samples from the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were analyzed to provide estimates of hydrologic parameters for use in flow-and-transport modeling. Whole-core and core-plug samples were analyzed by helium porosimetry, resaturation and porosimetry, mercury-intrusion porosimetry, electrical-resistivity techniques, and gas-permeability methods. 33 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. From cusps to cores: a stochastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zant, Amr A.; Freundlich, Jonathan; Combes, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    The cold dark matter model of structure formation faces apparent problems on galactic scales. Several threads point to excessive halo concentration, including central densities that rise too steeply with decreasing radius. Yet, random fluctuations in the gaseous component can `heat' the centres of haloes, decreasing their densities. We present a theoretical model deriving this effect from first principles: stochastic variations in the gas density are converted into potential fluctuations that act on the dark matter; the associated force correlation function is calculated and the corresponding stochastic equation solved. Assuming a power-law spectrum of fluctuations with maximal and minimal cutoff scales, we derive the velocity dispersion imparted to the halo particles and the relevant relaxation time. We further perform numerical simulations, with fluctuations realized as a Gaussian random field, which confirm the formation of a core within a time-scale comparable to that derived analytically. Non-radial collective modes enhance the energy transport process that erases the cusp, though the parametrizations of the analytical model persist. In our model, the dominant contribution to the dynamical coupling driving the cusp-core transformation comes from the largest scale fluctuations. Yet, the efficiency of the transformation is independent of the value of the largest scale and depends weakly (linearly) on the power-law exponent; it effectively depends on two parameters: the gas mass fraction and the normalization of the power spectrum. This suggests that cusp-core transformations observed in hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation may be understood and parametrized in simple terms, the physical and numerical complexities of the various implementations notwithstanding.

  13. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  14. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  15. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  16. Development of micro-pocket fission detectors (MPFD) for near-core and in-core neutron flux monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmes, Martin F.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, J. Kenneth; Whaley, P. Michael; Ahmed, A. S. M. Sabbir; Bolinger, Clayton C.; Pinsent, Tracy C.

    2004-01-01

    Miniaturized Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFD) are under investigation as real-time neutron flux monitors. The devices are capable of performing near-core and in-core reactor power measurements. The basic design utilizes neutron reactive material confined within a miniaturized gas pocket, similar to that of a fission chamber. Device size ranges from 500 microns to a few millimeters thick, thereby allowing them to be inserted directly between fuel elements of a reactor core. Fabricated from inexpensive ceramic materials, the detectors can be fashioned into a linear array to facilitate 3-D mapping of a reactor core neutron flux profile in "real-time". Initial tests have shown these devices to be extremely radiation hard and potentially capable of operating in a neutron fluence exceeding 1016 n cm-2 without noticeable degradation.

  17. Rotationally induced fragmentation in the prestellar core L1544

    SciTech Connect

    Klapp, Jaime; Zavala, Miguel; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Troconis, Jorge

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations indicate that there is no correlation between the level of turbulence and fragmentation in detected protostellar cores, suggesting that turbulence works mainly before gravitationally bound prestellar cores form and that their inner parts are likely to be velocity coherent. Based on this evidence, we simulate the collapse and fragmentation of an isolated, initially centrally condensed, uniformly rotating core of total mass M = 5.4 M {sub ☉}, using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-2 modified with the inclusion of sink particles, in order to compare the statistical properties of the resulting stellar ensembles with previous gravoturbulent fragmentation models. The initial conditions are intended to fit the observed properties of the prestellar core L1544. We find that for ratios of the rotational to the gravitational energy β ≥ 0.05, a massive disk is formed at the core center from which a central primary condenses after ∼50 kyr. Soon thereafter the disk fragments into secondary protostars, consistent with an intermediate mode of star formation in which groups of 10-100 stars form from a single core. The models predict peak accretion rates between ∼10{sup –5} and 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for all stars and reproduce many of the statistical properties predicted from gravoturbulent fragmentation, suggesting that on the small scales of low-mass, dense cores these are independent of whether the contracting gas is turbulent or purely rotating.

  18. Characterization of sediment cores containing methane hydrate recovered from the Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, J.; Jin, Y.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Kida, M.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    On the March 2013, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) has conducted the first gas production test from methane hydrate deposits in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan. In the Eastern Nankai Trough area off the Pacific coast of Japan, highly concentrated methane hydrate deposits were discovered in Pleistocene turbidite sediments.. Along with geological information, structure and physical properties of the sediments are essential information to understand the nature and origin of the deposits, and preserving those in-situ values in core samples for laboratory testing on surface is a quite important scientific challenge. To solve the problem, JOGMEC and JAMSTEC have developed a pressure coring device and utilized it on D/V Chikyu for our coring operation before the production test. In this operation, we obtained two types of cores; one is the dissociation preserved core by rapidly cooled by emerging into liquid nitrogen (LN2 core), the other is stored in special pressure vessels without depressurizing and kept under original pressure and temperature (pressure core). Here the summary of LN2 core sample analyses, such as X-ray CT, p-wave velocity, particle analysis, permeability, mechanical properties, and gas composition, is presented. Also future analysis plan for pressure core is explained. This work was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by METI.

  19. On the minimum core mass for giant planet formation at wide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Youdin, Andrew N.

    2014-05-01

    In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M {sub ⊕}. The actual value depends on several factors: the location in the protoplanetary disk, atmospheric opacity, and the accretion rate of solids. Motivated by ongoing direct imaging searches for giant planets, this study investigates core mass requirements in the outer disk. To determine the fastest allowed rates of gas accretion, we consider solid cores that no longer accrete planetesimals, as this would heat the gaseous envelope. Our spherical, two-layer atmospheric cooling model includes an inner convective region and an outer radiative zone that matches onto the disk. We determine the minimum core mass for a giant planet to form within a typical disk lifetime of 3 Myr. The minimum core mass declines with disk radius, from ∼8.5 M {sub ⊕} at 5 AU to ∼3.5 M {sub ⊕} at 100 AU, with standard interstellar grain opacities. Lower temperatures in the outer disk explain this trend, while variations in disk density are less influential. At all distances, a lower dust opacity or higher mean molecular weight reduces the critical core mass. Our non-self-gravitating, analytic cooling model reveals that self-gravity significantly affects early atmospheric evolution, starting when the atmosphere is only ∼10% as massive as the core.

  20. Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of resonant coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset using the fully vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. Our study revealed that the resonant couplings to lower order cladding modes predicted by perturbative methods and observed experimentally in fibers with small core offsets are in fact prohibited for larger core offsets. This effect is related to the lack of phase matching caused by elongation of the optical path of the fundamental modes in the helical core. Moreover, strong couplings to the cladding modes of the azimuthal modal number much higher than predicted by perturbative methods may be observed for large core offsets, as the core offset introduces higher order angular harmonics in the field distribution of the fundamental modes. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate the existence of spectrally broad polarization sensitive couplings to the cladding modes suggesting that helical core fibers with large core offsets may be used as broadband circular polarizers.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of a Streaming Gas Core Liquid Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, Ahmed E.; Elazab, Samia S.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic instability of a streaming fluid jet (radius R0) ambient with streaming liquid is studied to the axisymmetric (m{=}0) and the non-axisymmetric (m{≥slant}1) disturbances (m is the azimuthal wavenumber). When the surface tension effect is suppressed; the jet is stable to all m{≥slant}0 for all wavelengths. In the absence of the magnetic field; the model is stable to all m{≥slant}1 for all wavelengths and also stable to m{=}0 if the perturbed wavelength is equal to or shorter than 2π R0. While it is unstable only to m{=}0 if the perturbed wavelength is longer than 2π R0. The streaming has a destabilizing effect. If the magnetic fields are sufficiently high, so that the Alfvén wave velocities are greater than the streaming velocities of the two fluids; the jet is stable against all disturbances and vice versa.

  2. Uranium plasma emission at gas-core reaction conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Jalufka, N. W.; Hohl, F.; Lee, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The results of uranium plasma emission produced by two methods are reported. For the first method a ruby laser was focused on the surface of a pure U-238 sample to create a plasma plume with a peak plasma density of about 10 to the 20th power/cu cm and a temperature of about 38,600 K. The absolute intensity of the emitted radiation, covering the range from 300 to 7000 A was measured. For the second method, the uranium plasma was produced in a 20 kilovolt, 25 kilojoule plasma-focus device. The 2.5 MeV neutrons from the D-D reaction in the plasma focus are moderated by polyethylene and induce fissions in the U-235. Spectra of both uranium plasmas were obtained over the range from 30 to 9000 A. Because of the low fission yield the energy input due to fissions is very small compared to the total energy in the plasma.

  3. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  4. Core percolation on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Csóka, Endre; Zhou, Haijun; Pósfai, Márton

    2012-11-16

    We analytically solve the core percolation problem for complex networks with arbitrary degree distributions. We find that purely scale-free networks have no core for any degree exponents. We show that for undirected networks if core percolation occurs then it is continuous while for directed networks it is discontinuous (and hybrid) if the in- and out-degree distributions differ. We also find that core percolations on undirected and directed networks have completely different critical exponents associated with their critical singularities. PMID:23215509

  5. Modelling CO depletion in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the observational detection of molecular depletion in star-forming dark clouds. In many cases the data is of very high quality and what was once considered a rather hypothetical process is now almost universally accepted as a (the) major cause of the presence of emission 'holes' in molecular maps of dense cores. However, the interpretation of the data can be severely undermined by uncertainties in the physics and chemistry. This is particularly true in the case of general molecular studies of active star-forming regions. For these objects there exist strong degeneracies between various chemical effects (gas-phase time-dependencies, desorption processes and efficiencies, ionization rates etc.) and poorly constrained physics (most particularly in the assumed kinematics and evolutionary history). Whilst these problems result in unacceptable ambiguities in the case of evolved sources, we can make significant progress for young, near-static cores and using molecular species with simple chemistries. A considerable set of constraints on the free parameters is now provided by the extensive sub-millimetre continuum and infra-red absorption studies of starless cores. These observations give us good descriptions of the temperature and density profiles in these sources. Moreover CO is to a large extent chemically inert, so that any decline of abundance at high densities can (primarily) be interpreted as being a consequence of freeze-out. Thus there are only two major free parameters:- the net depletion/desorption rate and the chemical age of the source. In this study CO abundance profiles are calculated as a function of time for cores whose temperature and density profiles have already been determined. The results are corrected for excitation effects and converted to synthetic maps, assuming typical single-dish beam parameters and source characteristics. A strong correlation with existing depletion maps is found and strong

  6. Spatial Distribution of Small Organics in Prestellar and Protostellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waalkes, William; Guzman, Viviana; Oberg, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    In the interstellar medium, formaldehyde (H2CO) has efficient formation pathways in both the gas-phase and on the surfaces of dust grains. Methanol (CH3OH), on the other hand, is believed to form exclusively on grains as there are no efficient gas-phase reactions leading to CH3OH. We present observations taken with the IRAM 30m telescope of several H2CO and CH3OH lines in a prestellar and protostellar core. We investigated the formation pathways of H2CO and CH3OH by comparing their spatial distributions. We find that in the prestellar core, the two species are anti-correlated in the densest region, while their emission is correlated in the low-density region. In contrast, for the protostellar core we find a correlation in the distribution of both species. We conclude that in the protostellar source, H2CO and CH3OH form together on grains and have been thermally desorbed due to the central newly formed star. In the prestellar core, however, CH3OH forms on the ices and remains depleted in the coldest regions, while H2CO can form efficiently in the gas-phase. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  7. IN-CORE FUEL MANAGEMENT: PWR Core Calculations Using MCRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PetroviĆ, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * IN-CORE FUEL MANAGEMENT CALCULATIONS * In-Core Fuel Management * Methodological Problems of In-Core Fuel Management * In-Core Fuel Management Analytical Tools * PENN STATE FUEL MANAGEMENT PACKAGE * Penn State Fuel Management Package (PFMP) * Assembly Data Description (ADD) * Linking PSU-LEOPARD and MCRAC: An Example * MULTICYCLE REACTOR ANALYSIS CODE (MCRAC) * Main Features and Options of MCRAC code * Core geometry * Diffusion equations * 1.5-group model * Multicycle neutronic analysis * Multicycle cost analysis * Criticality search * Power-dependent xenon feedback calculations * Control rod and burnable absorber simulation * Search for LP with flat BOC power distribution * Artificial ADD option * Variable dimensioning technique * RBI version of MCRAC code * Programming changes in PC version * Fuel interchange option * MCRAC Input/Output * General input description * Sample input * Sample output * EXPERIENCE WITH MCRAC CODE * CONCLUSIONS * REFERENCES

  8. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis. PMID:27048809

  9. Variable depth core sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates to a sampling means, more particularly to a device to sample hard surfaces at varying depths. Often it is desirable to take samples of a hard surface wherein the samples are of the same diameter but of varying depths. Current practice requires that a full top-to-bottom sample of the material be taken, using a hole saw, and boring a hole from one end of the material to the other. The sample thus taken is removed from the hole saw and the middle of said sample is then subjected to further investigation. This paper describes a variable depth core sampler comprimising a circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapse to form a point and capture a sample, and a second saw member residing inside the first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of the first member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside the the first hole saw member.

  10. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-05-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  11. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  12. Core-mantle Mill Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yikun

    2003-05-01

    Based on radiation mechanics, the history of Earth can be interpreted by core-mantle mill theory. The theory confesses the inner core as a ferromagnet. The ferromagnetism of inner core is supported by observed anisotropic property of inner core in transmitting seismic waves. Rotation of Earth originates from the magnetic interaction between Earth and Jovian planets. Since the torque caused by the magnetic interaction between Earth and Jovian planets only acts on the iron core of Earth, the core behaves as a rotating engine, tending to change both the rate and axis of Earth's rotation, while the mantle is the resistant to any alternation of rotation. The interplay between the two leads to formations of fluid outer core, basalt magmas, oceanic crust, and differential rotation between the inner core and mantle. Rock materials at the core-mantle boundary are ground into basalt magma due to the differential rotation between the inner core and mantle. Mid-ocean ridge systems are interpreted as the huge dike systems rooted in some principal magma chambers in the core-mantle boundary layer. The anisotropy of background radiation in the polar directions determines the patterns of mid-ocean ridge systems on the Earth's surface and the global tectonic movement of the Earth's crust. The theory also explains the causes of geomagnetic reversals, mass extinctions and global climate changes. The history of Earth is featured by three stages: without oceanic crust (before 2.7Ga), creation of oceanic crust (2.7-2.25Ga) and growth of continents (after 2.25Ga).

  13. Detectability of deuterated water in prestellar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quénard, D.; Taquet, V.; Vastel, C.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Water is an important molecule in the chemical and thermal balance of dense molecular gas, but knowing its history throughout the various stages of the star formation is a fundamental problem. Its molecular deuteration provides us with a crucial clue to its formation history. H2O has recently been detected for the first time towards the prestellar core L1544 with the Herschel Space Observatory with a high spectral resolution (HIFI instrument). Aims: Prestellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and none on its deuteration before the collapse starts and a protostar forms at the centre. We report on new APEX observations of the ground state 10,1-00,0 HDO transition at 464 GHz towards the prestellar core L1544. The line is undetected, and we present an extensive study of the conditions for its detectability in cold and dense cloud cores. Methods: The water and deuterated water abundances have been estimated using an advanced chemical model simplified for the limited number of reactions or processes that are active in cold regions (<15 K). In this model, water is removed from the gas phase by freezing onto dust grains and by photodissociation. We use the LIME radiative transfer code to compute the expected intensity and profile of both H2O and HDO lines and compare them with the observations. Results: The predicted H2O line intensity of the LIME model using an abundance and structure profile, coupled with their dust opacity, is over-estimated by a factor of ~3.5 compared to the observations. We present several ad hoc profiles that best-fit the observations and compare the profiles with results from an astrochemical modelling, coupling gas phase and grain surface chemistry. The water deuteration weakly depends on the external visual extinction, the external ISRF, and contraction timescale. The [HDO]/[H2O] and [D2O]/[H2O] abundance

  14. Helium Isotopic Ratios of Core Samples from IODP Exp. 319 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, K.; Matsuda, J.; Wiersberg, T.; Shimo, Y.; Tamura, H.; Kumagai, H.; Suzuki, K.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D.; Takahashi, K.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    IODP Exp.319 of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Drilling Program Stage 2 started at May 2009. Various advanced technologies including first riser-based scientific ocean drilling were carried out at this cruise. The Hole C0009A (Site C0009/ Hole A) recovered cutting and partly core samples from 703.9-1604 mbsf by riser-drilling. The core samples were collected between the depth of 1510.5 and 1593.9 mbsf. Here we report preliminary helium isotopic ratios of these cores. We collected three types of samples for our study: (1) gas of cores, (2) whole round cores (100 cc) and (3) small whole round cores (10 cc). The gas samples were taken immediately after the core recovery. The gas samples were collected from each core section by using a syringe, and it was transferred to the glass bottle using the water displacement method. The glass bottle was made by Pyrex glass with vacuum valve at each end. We collected two sizes of whole round core samples (100 cc and 10 cc) The 100 cc cores were collected from the bottom and top sections of coring. The 10 cc cores were taken from the other sections. The outer parts of these samples were carefully removed to avoid contaminations from drilling fluid. After the removal of contamination, we immediately stored the 100 cc samples into vacuum container and 10 cc samples into plastic bag under a dry condition, respectively. The gas samples were measured for helium isotopic ratios. The noble gas measurement was carried out at Osaka University by using VG5400 mass spectrometer. We measured helium isotopic ratio and 4He/20Ne ratio. The latter is useful for making correction of the air contamination. The obtained result of helium isotopic ratios shows that the radiogenic helium is prominent in all samples. In addition, the helium isotope ratios show a trend that the ratio at shallower part is slightly higher than that at deeper part. It is conceivable that this trend is due to the larger radiogenic ingrowths at the deeper part. However, the

  15. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  16. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  17. Complicated Politics to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…

  18. COVERING A CORE BY EXTRUSION

    DOEpatents

    Karnie, A.J.

    1963-07-16

    A method of covering a cylindrical fuel core with a cladding metal ms described. The metal is forced between dies around the core from both ends in two opposing skirts, and as these meet the ends turn outward into an annular recess in the dics. By cutting off the raised portion formed by the recess, oxide impurities are eliminated. (AEC)

  19. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  20. The Dynamics of Massive Starless Cores with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Kong, Shuo; Butler, Michael J.; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    How do stars that are more massive than the Sun form, and thus how is the stellar initial mass function (IMF) established? Such intermediate- and high-mass stars may be born from relatively massive pre-stellar gas cores, which are more massive than the thermal Jeans mass. The turbulent core accretion model invokes such cores as being in approximate virial equilibrium and in approximate pressure equilibrium with their surrounding clump medium. Their internal pressure is provided by a combination of turbulence and magnetic fields. Alternatively, the competitive accretion model requires strongly sub-virial initial conditions that then lead to extensive fragmentation to the thermal Jeans scale, with intermediate- and high-mass stars later forming by competitive Bondi-Hoyle accretion. To test these models, we have identified four prime examples of massive (~100 M ⊙) clumps from mid-infrared extinction mapping of infrared dark clouds. Fontani et al. found high deuteration fractions of N2H+ in these objects, which are consistent with them being starless. Here we present ALMA observations of these four clumps that probe the N2D+ (3-2) line at 2.''3 resolution. We find six N2D+ cores and determine their dynamical state. Their observed velocity dispersions and sizes are broadly consistent with the predictions of the turbulent core model of self-gravitating, magnetized (with Alfvén Mach number mA ~ 1) and virialized cores that are bounded by the high pressures of their surrounding clumps. However, in the most massive cores, with masses up to ~60 M ⊙, our results suggest that moderately enhanced magnetic fields (so that mA ~= 0.3) may be needed for the structures to be in virial and pressure equilibrium. Magnetically regulated core formation may thus be important in controlling the formation of massive cores, inhibiting their fragmentation, and thus helping to establish the stellar IMF.

  1. Solid charged-core model of ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldrew, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ball lightning (BL) is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM) field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941). It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon - a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.

  2. Cleaning of exhaust gases in the mold core industry

    SciTech Connect

    Balabanov, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    Methods for detoxifying the exhaust gases in the core-making sections of the casting industry were studied. The gases generated when making cores from sand-resin mixtures based on oil-free binders and synthetic resins were evaluated. Tests were conducted on activated carbon AR-3, catalysts containing precious and nonprecious metals, and on solutions of sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorate. The absorption, adsorption, and catalytic methods of cleaning the gas discharges from toxic substances were comparatively assessed. Results show that sorption methods were unsuitable while catalytic methods achieved near-total detoxification.

  3. Anisotropic charged core envelope star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study a charged compact object with anisotropic pressures in a core envelope setting. The equation of state is quadratic in the core and linear in the envelope. There is smooth matching between the three regions: the core, envelope and the Reissner-Nordström exterior. We show that the presence of the electric field affects the masses, radii and compactification factors of stellar objects with values which are in agreement with previous studies. We investigate in particular the effect of electric field on the physical features of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 in the core envelope model. The gravitational potentials and the matter variables are well behaved within the stellar object. We demonstrate that the radius of the core and the envelope can vary by changing the parameters in the speed of sound.

  4. Viscosity of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, R.

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of the coefficient of kinematical viscosity nu of the earth's liquid metallic core that are given in the geophysical literature range from approximately 0.001 sq cm/s, the viscosity of molten iron at ordinary pressures, to approximately less than 10 to the 8th power sq cm/s, based on the observation that compressional waves traverse the core without suffering serious attenuation. Bumps on the core-mantle boundary with typical horizontal dimensions up to a few thousand km and vertical dimensions h of a few km would produce the topographic coupling between the core and mantle that is evidently implied by the observed decade variations in the length of the day (unless the coupling is due to the presence of rapidly fluctuating magnetic fields in the core).

  5. Core formation by giant impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonks, W. B.; Melosh, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas about the accretion and early evolution of the Earth and the other terrestrial planets have recently undergone a number of revolutionary changes. It has become clear that giant impacts were far from rare events. In the later stages of accretion any given planetary embryo is liable to be struck several times by other bodies of up to half its own diameter. Such an impact may have the ability to trigger core formation. Traditional accretion models have had great difficulty explaining the formation of the core. If one admits the importance of infrequent large events that may melt an entire hemisphere, the core formation difficulty vanishes. Millimeter-size iron blebs in the melted region will rain out due to their density difference with the silicate melt. Core formation may not require the melting of the entire hemisphere of the planet. The conditions are explored under which impact induced core formation may occur.

  6. Fabrication development of full-sized components for GCFR core assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, J.R.; Flynn, P.W.; Foster, L.C.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents the status of the development of full-sized components for gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core assemblies. Methods for ribbing of the fuel rod cladding, fabrication of grid spacers of two different designs, drawing of assembly flow ducts, and fabrication of fission gas collection manifolds by several methods are discussed.

  7. Data interchange across cores of multi-core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ehab S.

    2015-12-01

    A novel device for data interchange among space-division multiplexed cores inside MCF is demonstrated using numerical simulations. The device allows complete exchange of all WDM data channels between MCF cores in propagation direction whether the channels have the same or different sets of wavelengths. This is crucial in future MCF optical networks where in-fiber data interchange over space-division multiplexed cores can allow for a simple and fast data swapping among cores without a need for space-division demultiplexing to single-mode single-core fibers. The data core-interchange (DCI) device consists of a graded refractive-index rectangular waveguide enclosing the two interchanged cores in addition to the cladding region in between them. Both finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and eigenmode expansion (EME) simulations are performed to verify the device operation and characterize its performance. The simulations demonstrate that the DCI has a very short-length with polarization independent operation, and high performance over the broadband wavelength range S, C, L, and U bands. Moreover, the device shows a high coupling-factor of -0.13 dB with small cross-talk, back-reflection, and return-loss of -26.3, -46.1, and -48.8 dB, respectively.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery. Improved reservoir evaluation object of sponge coring process

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-04-01

    Oil saturation data determined by core analysis have improved. One result is the development of the sponge coring process. In the sponge coring method, the core sample is taken in much the same way as in conventional coring. The major difference is the porous, hard sponge that lines the core barrel. The sponge is so porous (approximately 80%) that cigarette smoke can be blown through it. It has one full darcy permeability and is oil-wet. The sponge is inside a thin polyvinyl chloride liner with small perforations in it. As the sponge core barrel is run into the hole, the sponge becomes wet with drilling fluid, usually water. Any oil in the core being forced out by the water and the reduction in pressure as the core is brought to surface is caught by the sponge. Since it is oil-wet the oil is retained. But water is forced out the small perforations in the liner. At the surface the 20-ft core is cut into 5-ft sections and put into special containers filled with fluid from the formation. That keeps the core in standard condition. Even much of the gas in solution remains in the core. This is noted during capping operations as the cap is forced back until the glue on it holds and seals the tube.

  9. Crystallization in Earth's Core after High-Temperature Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, K.; Morard, G.; Hernlund, J. W.; Helffrich, G. R.; Ozawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent core formation models based on the metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements suggest that the Earth's core was formed by metal segregation at high pressure and high temperature in a deep magma ocean. It is also thought that the simultaneous solubility of silicon and oxygen in liquid iron are strongly enhanced at high pressure and high temperature, such that at the end of accretion the core was rich in both silicon and oxygen. Here we performed crystallization experiments on the Fe-Si binary and Fe-Si-O ternary systems up to core pressure in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The starting material for the latter was a homogeneous mixture of fine-grain Fe-Si and SiO2 (<1 µm). We prepared cross sections of samples recovered from the DAC using a focused ion beam (FIB) and subsequently performed textural and chemical characterization with field-emission-type electron microprobe (FE-EPMA). Quenched liquid alloy was found at the hottest part coexisting with a solid phase (liquidus phase) at the periphery. These results combined with literature data on the melting phase relations in the Fe-FeO binary system demonstrate that the liquidus field of SiO2 is very wide at the Fe-rich portion of the Fe-Si-O ternary system at the core pressure range. It indicates that the original Fe-Si-O core liquid should have crystallized a large amount SiO2 until it lost either silicon or oxygen. The recent finding of high thermal conductivity of the core suggests that core thermal convection is difficult to sustain without extreme degrees of secular cooling. However, even for modest degrees of joint Si-O incorporation into the early core, the buoyancy released by crystallization of SiO2 is sufficient to overcome thermal stratification and sustain the geodynamo.

  10. Refined potentials for rare gas atom adsorption on rare gas and alkali-halide surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of models of interatomic potential for physical interaction to estimate the long range attractive potential for rare gases and ions is discussed. The long range attractive force is calculated in terms of the atomic dispersion properties. A data base of atomic dispersion parameters for rare gas atoms, alkali ion, and halogen ions is applied to the study of the repulsive core; the procedure for evaluating the repulsive core of ion interactions is described. The interaction of rare gas atoms on ideal rare gas solid and alkali-halide surfaces is analyzed; zero coverage absorption potentials are derived.

  11. Gas vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Walsby, A E

    1994-01-01

    The gas vesicle is a hollow structure made of protein. It usually has the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps. Gas vesicles occur in five phyla of the Bacteria and two groups of the Archaea, but they are mostly restricted to planktonic microorganisms, in which they provide buoyancy. By regulating their relative gas vesicle content aquatic microbes are able to perform vertical migrations. In slowly growing organisms such movements are made more efficiently than by swimming with flagella. The gas vesicle is impermeable to liquid water, but it is highly permeable to gases and is normally filled with air. It is a rigid structure of low compressibility, but it collapses flat under a certain critical pressure and buoyancy is then lost. Gas vesicles in different organisms vary in width, from 45 to > 200 nm; in accordance with engineering principles the narrower ones are stronger (have higher critical pressures) than wide ones, but they contain less gas space per wall volume and are therefore less efficient at providing buoyancy. A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth. Gas vesicle width is genetically determined, perhaps through the amino acid sequence of one of the constituent proteins. Up to 14 genes have been implicated in gas vesicle production, but so far the products of only two have been shown to be present in the gas vesicle: GvpA makes the ribs that form the structure, and GvpC binds to the outside of the ribs and stiffens the structure against collapse. The evolution of the gas vesicle is discussed in relation to the homologies of these proteins. Images PMID:8177173

  12. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  13. Gas magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  14. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  15. Correlation of natural gas content to iron species in the New Albany shale group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1981-01-01

    Mo??ssbauer parameters were obtained for four Illinois Basin shales and their corresponding < 2??m clay fractions from wells drilled through the New Albany Shale Group in Henderson, Tazewell, and Effingham counties in Illinois and Christian County in Kentucky. Off-gas analysis indicated that the Illinois cores were in an area of low gas potential, while the Kentucky core was in an area of moderate-to-good potential. Iron-rich dolomite (ankerite) was found in the Kentucky core but not in the Illinois cores. In the Kentucky core, gas content could be correlated with the ankerite in the bulk sample, the Mo??ssbauer M (2) species in the clay fraction, and a ferrous iron species in the clay fraction. The location of the greatest concentration of natural gas in the Kentucky core could be predicted by following the changes in percentage concentration of these iron species when plotted against the depth of burial of the core sample. ?? 1981.

  16. Depressurization and electrical heating of hydrate sediment for gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minagawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on electrical heating of the hydrate core combined with depressurization for gas production. In-situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary for commercial recovery of natural gas from natural gas hydrate sediment. Thermal stimulation is an effective dissociation method, along with depressurization.To simulate methane gas production from methane hydrate layer, we investigated electrical heating of methane hydrate sediment. A decrease in core temperature due to the endothermic reaction of methane hydrate dissociation was suppressed and the core temperature increased between 1oC and 4oC above the control temperature with electric heating. A current density of 10A/m2 with depressurization would effectively dissociate hydrate. Therefore, depressurization and additional electrode heating of hydrate sediment saturated with electrolyte solution was confirmed to enable higher gas production from sediment with less electric power.

  17. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided

  18. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    The core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines were measured using a technique which requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine vore. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an Avco Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  19. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines. [YF 102 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines were measured using a technique which requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine vore. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an Avco Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  20. Calculated Neutron and Gamma-ray Spectra across the Prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Sterbentz

    2008-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray flux spectra are calculated using the MCNP5 computer code and a one-sixth core model of a prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor based on the General Atomics Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor. Spectra are calculated in the five inner reflector graphite block rings, three annular active core fuel rings, three outer graphite reflector block rings, and the core barrel. The neutron spectra are block and fuel pin averages and are calculated as a function of temperature and burnup. Also provided are the total, fast, and thermal radial profile fluxes and core barrel dpa rates.