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Sample records for fusrap middlesex sampling

  1. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1992, 239 Mountain Avenue, Middlesex, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and provides the results for 1992. The site, in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, is a fenced area and includes four buildings and two storage piles that contain 50,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive and mixed hazardous waste. More than 70 percent of the MSP site is paved with asphalt. The MSP facility was established in 1943 by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to sample, store, and/or ship uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores. In 1955 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), successor to MED, terminated the operation and later used the site for storage and limited sampling of thorium residues. In 1967 AEC activities ceased, onsite structures were decontaminated, and the site was certified for unrestricted use under criteria applicable at that time. In 1980 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a multiphase remedial action project to clean up several vicinity properties onto which contamination from the plant had migrated. Material from these properties was consolidated into the storage piles onsite. Environmental surveillance of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The environmental surveillance program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analyses are performed to detect metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling th DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses.

  2. Middlesex FUSRAP Site - A Path to Site-Wide Closure - 13416

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David M.; Edge, Helen

    2013-07-01

    The road-map to obtaining closure of the Middlesex Sampling Plant FUSRAP site in Middlesex, New Jersey (NJ) has required a multi-faceted approach, following the CERCLA Process. Since 1998, the US ACE, ECC, and other contractors have completed much of the work required for regulatory acceptance of site closure with unrestricted use. To date, three buildings have been decontaminated, demolished, and disposed of. Two interim storage piles have been removed and disposed of, followed by the additional removal and disposal of over 87,000 tons of radiologically and chemically-impacted subsurface soils by the summer of 2008. The US ACE received a determination from the EPA for the soils Operable Unit, (OU)-1, in September 2010 that the remedial excavations were acceptable, and meet the criteria for unrestricted use as required by the 2004 Record of Decision (ROD) for OU-1. Following the completion of OU-1, the project delivery team performed additional field investigation of the final Operable Unit for Middlesex, OU-2, Groundwater. As of December 2012, the project delivery team has completed a Supplemental Remedial Investigation, which will be followed with a streamlined Feasibility Study, Proposed Plan, and ROD. Several years of historical groundwater data was available from previous investigations and the FUSRAP Environmental Surveillance Program. Historical data indicated sporadic detections of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), with no apparent trend or pattern indicating extent or source of the VOC impact. In 2008, the project delivery team initiated efforts to re-assess the Conceptual Site Model (CSM) for groundwater. The bedrock was re-evaluated as a leaky multi-unit aquifer, and a plan was developed for additional investigations for adequate bedrock characterization and delineation of groundwater contaminated primarily by CT, TCE, and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The

  3. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1989, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1980, was continued in 1989 at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The MSP site is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a Department of Energy (DOE) program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain either from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The monitoring program at MSP measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater samples. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted in the area of the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site during calendar year 1989. 17 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed.

  5. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Leggett, R.W.; Dickson, H.W.; Myrick, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site.

  6. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  7. In-situ gamma-analysis support for Phase I, Middlesex cleanup project, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Reiman, R.T.

    1983-07-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Energy Measurements Group of EG and G participated in the Remedial Action program for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and associated properties at Middlesex, New Jersey from July to November 1980. EG and G provided real time analysis of the radiological character of the soil of each property included in the Phase I cleanup before, during, and after decontamination. The method used for the analysis was in situ gamma spectroscopy employing a high purity germanium detector. This report describes the in situ system and displays the results of the in situ measurements before and after decontamination of the properties surveyed during Phase I.

  8. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jessie; Spaziani, Gina

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  9. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction.

  10. Introducing RFID at Middlesex University Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, Alan; Chandrakar, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the first year of the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in Middlesex University Learning Resources. Design/methodology/approach: The technology is explained in detail to set the scene. Information on the implementation is presented in chronological order. Findings: Problems which would generally be…

  11. Is Middlesex County College Accomplishing Its Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabkins, Xenia P.

    Over the past few years, New Jersey's Middlesex County College (MCC) has placed an inordinate amount of attention and effort on the issue of student transfer to four-year institutions. Although attention to traditional academic goals is important, MCC's stated mission also addresses other important segments of the college's market. The college has…

  12. Middlesex Community College Software Technical Writing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlesex Community Coll., Bedford, MA.

    This document describes the Software Technical Writing Program at Middlesex Community College (Massachusetts). The program is a "hands-on" course designed to develop job-related skills in three major areas: technical writing, software, and professional skills. The program was originally designed in cooperation with the Massachusetts High…

  13. Radiological surveys of properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R W; Haywood, F.F. Cottrell, W.D.

    1981-03-01

    Results of the radiological surveys conducted at three properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area as well as one additional location downstream from the Middlesex Sampling Plant (Willow Lake), are presented. The survey revealed that the yard around the church rectory on Harris Avenue is contaminated with a /sup 226/Ra-bearing material, probably pitchblende ore from the former Middlesex Sampling Plant. The elevated /sup 226/Ra concentrations around and, to a lesser extent, underneath the rectory are leading to elevated /sup 222/Rn concentrations in air in the rectory and elevated alpha contamination levels (from radon daughters) on surfaces inside the rectory. External gamma radiation levels in the rectory yard are well above background levels, and beta-gamma dose rates at many points in the yard are above federal guidelines for the release of property for unrestricted use. The radiological survey of a parking lot at the Union Carbide plant in Bound Brook, New Jersey revealed that a nearly circular region of 50-ft diam in the lot showed above-background external gamma radiation levels. Two isolated spots within this region showed concentrations of uranium in soil above the licensable level stated in 10 CFR 40. Soil samples taken in the area of elevated gamma radiation levels generally showed nearly equal activities of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 238/U. The survey at the residences on William Street in Piscataway, revealed that the front yeard is generally contaminated from near the surface to a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 ft with /sup 226/Ra-bearing material, possibly pitchblende ore. The remainder of the yard shows scattered contaminaion. External gamma radiation levels inside the house are above the background level near some outside walls.

  14. Challenging Texts: How Teaching "Middlesex" Challenged Students' Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Middlesex" is a book about undiagnosed hermaphrodite coming to terms with his/her socially determined sexuality and his/her choice of sexuality. The protagonist and narrator of the novel, Calliope Stephanides, is raised as a girl because he/she presented feminine genitalia at birth. When Calliope realizes he/she is a hermaphrodite--a realization…

  15. Recent Developments in DOE FUSRAP - 13014

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Hooten, Gwen; Starr, Ken; Bahrke, Cheri; Gillespie, Joey; Widdop, Michael; Darr, Bob

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management assumed responsibility for the DOE FUSRAP in 2003. Since then, DOE has evaluated existing guidance and program needs to ensure that the program will remain effective in maintaining protectiveness at remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE has identified crucial elements that must be addressed to meet this goal. Knowledge of the sites and the program must be preserved and accessible to future custodians. Program processes must be defined and coordinated with other agencies. Long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) requirements for the sites must be based on human health risk and regulatory compliance, and those requirements must be well defined. Useful and accurate program information must be available to stakeholders. DOE has addressed these needs through development of a comprehensive program plan, an LTS and M plan for each completed FUSRAP site, a records finding aid, and a public information web site. These developments help ensure that the current knowledge is preserved and passed on to future custodians and stakeholders. (authors)

  16. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass... Middlesex County, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02471 and...

  17. Follow-Up Survey of the 1988-1989 Radiography Graduates of Middlesex Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Weymouth

    A graduate follow-up survey evaluated student outcomes for the radiography program at Middlesex Community College/Middlesex Memorial Hospital (Connecticut). The program prepares students for entry-level employment as radiographers. The questionnaire, based on input from program officials and respondents, was mailed to 14 1988 and 1989 graduates.…

  18. Remediation and Recycling of Linde FUSRAP Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J. P.; Rehmann, M. R.

    2002-02-27

    During World War II, the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) utilized facilities in the Buffalo, New York area to extract natural uranium from uranium-bearing ores. The Linde property is one of several properties within the Tonawanda, New York Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site, which includes Linde, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, and Seaway. Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division was placed under contract with the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) from 1942 to 1946 to extract uranium from seven different ore sources: four African pitchblende ores and three domestic ores. Over the years, erosion and weathering have spread contamination from the residuals handled and disposed of at Linde to adjacent soils. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) negotiated a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) governing remediation of the Linde property. In Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, Congress transferred cleanup management responsibility for the sites in the FUSRAP program, including the Linde Site, from the DOE to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), with the charge to commence cleanup promptly. All actions by the USACE at the Linde Site are being conducted subject to the administrative, procedural, and regulatory provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the existing FFA. USACE issued a Proposed Plan for the Linde Property in 1999 and a Final Record of Decision (ROD) in 2000. USACE worked with the local community near the Tonawanda site, and after considering public comment, selected the remedy calling for removing soils that exceed the site-specific cleanup standard, and transporting the contaminated material to off-site locations. The selected remedy is protective of human health and the environment, complies with Federal and State requirements, and meets commitments to the community.

  19. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at

  20. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  1. Lessons Learned from a Complex FUSRAP Site - Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site - 12269

    SciTech Connect

    Ewy, Ann; Hays, David

    2012-07-01

    Since its addition to the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 2005, the Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site (the Site) in Hicksville, New York, has provided challenges and opportunities from which to gain lessons learned for conducting investigation work at a complex multi-contaminant FUSRAP Site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and its contractors conducted a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RI) and are currently in the Feasibility Study (FS) phase at the Site. This paper presents the planning, execution, and reporting lessons learned by USACE during the RI/FS. The Site, operated from 1952 to 1967 for the research, development, and fabrication of nuclear elements under the Atomic Energy Commission, and other government and commercial contracts. Previous investigations performed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the current property owner have identified uranium, thorium, nickel, and chlorinated solvents, as Site contaminants [1]. The property owner is currently under two separate voluntary agreements with NYSDEC to investigate and remediate the Site. USACE's work at the site has been independent of this voluntary agreement and has moved on a parallel path with any work the property owner has completed. The project at the Site is complex because of the radiological and chemical concerns in both soils and groundwater, high hydraulically conductive soils, lack of a shallow aquiclude/aquitard, and a principal water table aquifer underlying the site. Contaminants are migrating from the Site and may potentially impact local drinking water supplies (municipal wells). During the RI/FS process the project team has encountered many issues and has thus developed many resolutions. The issues are organized into three categories: Planning and Contracting, Execution, and Reporting. Planning and Contracting lessons learned include: how

  2. St. Louis FUSRAP-A Strategy for Success

    SciTech Connect

    Lyerla, M.; Fox, B.; Chinnock, J.; Haase, A.; Wojinski, S.; Bretz, M.; Cotner, S.; Dellorco, L.; Mueller, D.; Roberts, S.; Overmohle, D.

    2002-02-27

    In October 1997, Congress transferred the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) from the Department of Energy (DOE) to the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). FUSRAP addresses contamination generated by activities of the Manhattan Engineering District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the 1940's and 50's in support of the nation's nuclear weapons development program. The USACE Operation Order for FUSRAP gave responsibility for remediation of five sites in Missouri and Illinois to the USACESt. Louis District. The principal site is the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS), which involves the removal, transportation, disposal, and restoration of approximately 28 acres and 245,000 bank cubic yards (bcy) of contaminated soils. This paper will focus on the progress and achievements in removal action efficiencies of the SLAPS team. This team consists primarily of the USACE and Stone & Webster, Incorporated.

  3. Development of Preliminary Remediation Goals for Indoor Dust at the Colonie FUSRAP Site - 12273

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, David J.; Opdyke, Clifford P.; Moore, James T.

    2012-07-01

    The Colonie FUSRAP Site is located in the Town of Colonie, Albany County, New York. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is currently addressing environmental contamination associated with the Site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Soil remediation activities have been substantially completed at the Colonie FUSRAP Site and its vicinity properties under the FUSRAP. A study unrelated to FUSRAP was recently performed by an independent party to establish the distribution of DU contamination in various media in the environs of the Site. As part of this study, dust samples were collected in residencies and businesses in the immediate vicinity of the Site. These samples were collected in non-living areas such as basement window sills and garages. Many of these samples tested positive for DU. An assessment was performed to establish preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for indoor dust in non-living areas of residential homes and businesses in the vicinity of the Site. The results of this assessment provide estimates of dose-based, carcinogenic risk-based, and noncarcinogenic-based PRGs derived from a hypothetical exposure scenario with reasonable levels of conservatism. Ultimately, the PRGs will be compared to results of dust sampling and analyses in residences and businesses in proximity of the Site to determine whether a response action is appropriate. This assessment estimates PRGs for DU contaminated dust in non-living areas of residences in the vicinity of the Colonie FUSRAP site based on a reasonably conservative exposure scenario. Estimated PRGs based on residential receptors are considered to be conservatively representative of workers in nearby businesses based on the considerably longer exposure duration of residents relative to workers. This assessment provides reasonably conservative estimates of PRGs for DU contaminated dust in non

  4. The Continuously Evolving Land Use Control Climate in FUSRAP - 12285

    SciTech Connect

    Ewy, Ann; Waples, Richard

    2012-07-01

    In recent years the topic of Land Use Controls (LUCs) has become much more prevalent in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) for a number of reasons. Some regulatory agencies have been placing much more emphasis on this topic than they historically did. Also as the FUSRAP has matured, more sites are approaching a point in the project lifecycle that LUCs are needed to be implemented. There are many issues, some site specific, some agency specific, and some programmatic, that may arise when addressing LUCs on a FUSRAP site. These issues can span the life of a project from planning to implementation. As the emphasis on LUCs increases at a fast pace, USACE is faced with the task of developing consistency in how we respond, and at the same time leaving enough latitude for projects to accomplish their individual missions while taking into consideration the site specific concerns. The Land Use Controls arena encompasses a large number of tools to address the matter at hand. There are numerous mechanisms that can accomplish Land Use Control goals, some of which include administrative controls and engineering controls. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms being utilized by USACE at our FUSRAP projects. Having a better understanding of how LUCs are currently being handled in the FUSRAP will be beneficial to project delivery teams in order to make the best decisions moving through the project lifecycle. Being aware of LUC requirements and options at an early stage in a project will help a team effectively plan for and execute the chosen alternative for remedial action. There are a number of guidance tools from various other agencies that exist for consideration during Land Use Control planning and implementation. The USACE is currently evaluating these guidance tools to determine applicability and impact to FUSRAP projects. Some of these tools are under review at Army and the Department of Defense. Critical to this evaluation is internal team

  5. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  7. Towpaths to Oblivion. The Middlesex Canal and the Coming of the Railroad 1792-1853.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cary W.

    This narrative history of the Middlesex Canal from 1792-1853 is designed to be used with "Canal," a role-playing, decision-making game found in SO 011 886. Economic, social, and political factors related to planning, building, and implementing the canal are considered. The document is presented in three parts. Part I states reasons for studying…

  8. E-FUSRAP: AUTOMATING THE CASE FILE FOR THE FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, D.; Marshall, K.

    2003-02-27

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Site Closure, EM-30, houses the document library pertaining to sites that are related to the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and regularly addresses ongoing information demands, primarily from Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, interested members of the public, the DOE, and other Federal Agencies. To address these demands more efficiently, DOE has begun to implement a new multi-phase, information management process known as e-FUSRAP. The first phase of e-FUSRAP, the development of the Considered Sites Database, summarizes and allows public access to complex information on over 600 sites considered as candidates for FUSRAP. The second phase of e-FUSRAP, the development of the Document Indexing Database, will create an internal index of more than 10,000 documents in the FUSRAP library's case file, allowing more effective management and retrieval of case file documents. Together, the phases of e-FUSRAP will allow EM-30 to become an innovative leader in enhancing public information sources.

  9. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.T.; Keil, K.G.; Rhodes, M.C.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District is evaluating environmental radioactive contamination at several Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites throughout New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. The investigations follow the process defined in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Groundwater data from the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York were evaluated for isotopic uranium ratios, specifically uranium-234 versus uranium-238 (U- 234 and U-238, respectively), and the results were presented at Waste Management 2006. Since uranium naturally occurs in all groundwater, it can be difficult to distinguish where low-concentration impacts from past releases differ from the high end of a site-specific natural background range. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 (unity) due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow and may take hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable increase is seen in the natural isotopic ratio. If site releases are the source of uranium being measured in groundwater, the U-234 to U-238 ratio is commonly closer to 1, which normally reflects FUSRAP-related, uranium-contaminated wastes and soils. This lower ratio occurs because not enough residence time has elapsed since the 1940's and 1950's for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered the contamination-derived ratio. An evaluation of NFSS-specific and regional groundwater data indicate that an isotopic ratio of 1.2 has been identified as a signature value to help distinguish natural groundwater, which may have a broad background range, from zones impacted by past releases. (authors)

  10. Successful Implementation of Soil Segregation Technology at the Painesville FUSRAP Site - 12281

    SciTech Connect

    Buechi, Stephen P.; Andrews, Shawn M.; Lombardo, Andrew J.; Lively, Jeffrey W.

    2012-07-01

    Typically the highest cost component of the radiological soils remediation of Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites is the cost to transport and dispose of the excavated soils, typically contaminated with naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, at an appropriately permitted off-site disposal facility. The heterogeneous nature of the contamination encountered at these sites makes it difficult to accurately delineate the extent of contaminated soil using the limited, discrete sampling data collected during the investigation phases; and difficult to precisely excavate only the contaminated soil that is above the established cleanup limits using standard in-field scanning and guiding methodologies. This usually results in a conservative guided excavation to ensure cleanup criteria are met, with the attendant transportation and disposal costs for the larger volumes of soil excavated. To address this issue during the remediation of the Painesville FUSRAP Site, located in Painesville, Ohio, the Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and its contractor, Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC), employed automatic soil segregation technology provided by MACTEC (now AMEC) to reduce the potential for transportation and disposal of soils that met the cleanup limits. This waste minimization technology utilized gamma spectroscopy of conveyor-fed soils to automatically segregate the material into above and below criteria discharge piles. Use of the soil segregation system resulted in cost savings through the significant reduction of the volume of excavated soil that required off-site transportation and disposal, and the reduction of the amount of imported clean backfill required via reuse of 'below criteria' segregated soil as place back material in restoring the excavations. Measurements taken by the soil segregation system, as well as results of quality control sampling of segregated soils, confirmed that soils segregated

  11. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian; Donakowski, Jough; Hays, David

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  12. Institutional factors in resource recovery co-disposal demonstration project, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Spring 1980 - Summer 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, R. M.

    1982-02-01

    A proposal to provide 1200 tons per day of solid waste disposal combined with 200 tons per day of sludge disposal was presented. The prospects for codisposal in Middlesex County were analyzed. Technically, codisposal was possible, however, it lacked a proven track record. Proposal for a resource recovery plant to be designed, built, and operated was acknowledged as consistent with County planning.

  13. 75 FR 42814 - Boston & Maine Corporation―Abandonment Exemption―in Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Counties, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Boston & Maine Corporation Abandonment Exemption in Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk Counties, MA Boston & Maine Corporation (B&M) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... sent to B&M's representative: Robert B. Burns, Esq., Boston & Maine Corporation, Iron Horse Park,...

  14. Hydrogeologic Modeling at the Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site - 13419

    SciTech Connect

    Ewy, Ann; Heim, Kenneth J.; McGonigal, Sean T.; Talimcioglu, Nazmi M.

    2013-07-01

    A comparative groundwater hydrogeologic modeling analysis is presented herein to simulate potential contaminant migration pathways in a sole source aquifer in Nassau County, Long Island, New York. The source of contamination is related to historical operations at the Sylvania Corning Plant ('Site'), a 9.49- acre facility located at 70, 100 and 140 Cantiague Rock Road, Town of Oyster Bay in the westernmost portion of Hicksville, Long Island. The Site had historically been utilized as a nuclear materials manufacturing facility (e.g., cores, slug, and fuel elements) for reactors used in both research and electric power generation in early 1950's until late 1960's. The Site is contaminated with various volatile organic and inorganic compounds, as well as radionuclides. The major contaminants of concern at the Site are tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), nickel, uranium, and thorium. These compounds are present in soil and groundwater underlying the Site and have migrated off-site. The Site is currently being investigated as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The main objective of the current study is to simulate the complex hydrogeologic features in the region, such as numerous current and historic production well fields; large, localized recharge basins; and, multiple aquifers, and to assess potential contaminant migration pathways originating from the Site. For this purpose, the focus of attention was given to the underlying Magothy formation, which has been impacted by the contaminants of concern. This aquifer provides more than 90% of potable water supply in the region. Nassau and Suffolk Counties jointly developed a three-dimensional regional groundwater flow model to help understand the factors affecting groundwater flow regime in the region, to determine adequate water supply for public consumption, to investigate salt water intrusion in localized areas, to evaluate the impacts of regional pumping activity, and to

  15. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  16. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, James; Hays, David; Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  17. Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se.

  18. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements.

  19. Implementation of an integrated CERCLA-NEPA environmental process at a FUSRAP site

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Robertson, R.C.; Atkin, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 and its amendment in 1986 through the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) have significantly affected the environmental compliance process. Remedial actions at contaminated sites now must satisfy the requirements of not only the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) but also CERCLA, as amended. For planning and conducting remedial actions under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), the US Department of Energy has developed and implemented an integrated process aimed at satisfying the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA, as amended. The integrated approach involves a single, comprehensive environmental process that results in a single set of documentation. The process is streamlined, efficient, and cost effective and it minimizes confusion to the public. This paper discusses the need for, and the elements of, the integrated process as applied to FUSRAP sites. The implementation of the process is illustrated through a case study of FUSRAP sites in Tonawanda, New York. 5 figs.

  20. Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433

    SciTech Connect

    Kollar, William

    2013-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

  1. Considerations for Implementation of MARSSIM/MARSAME Surface Radioactivity Surveys within FUSRAP - 12330

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Scott S.; Winters, Michael S.

    2012-07-01

    Surveys for residual surface radioactivity support the release of buildings under MARSSIM and the release of materials and equipment under MARSAME consensus guidance. There are a multitude of factors and conditions that must be assessed and addressed when developing a defensible survey design. ISO-7503 addresses the most basic survey considerations with consistent terminology and defensible calculation methodologies recommended for program-wide implementation by the authors. A key point of interest is the ISO-7503 approach to determining the total efficiency of the measurement system that is promoted by the authors for adoption throughout FUSRAP. (authors)

  2. Long Term Stewardship Challenges at the St. Louis District FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Orco, L.; Chambers, D.

    2002-02-27

    Non-Federally owned radioactively contaminated sites in St. Louis, Missouri are currently being remediated by the St. Louis District Corps of Engineers under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). When FUSRAP remediation is complete, inaccessible soils which have levels of contamination greater than unrestricted use standards, will remain. The purpose of this paper is to document the initial challenges facing the project team during its development of the Long Term Stewardship plan for the management of these soils. These soils are located under buildings, roads, railroads and bridges. The Long Term Stewardship plan for the majority of the sites is being developed simultaneously with the remedy selection process. A living document, it will ultimately document the remedial action end state and location of inaccessible soils and implement the plan for ensuring these soils are not a threat to human health and the environment. Although these soils are protective in their current configuration, at some point in time, when activities such as maintenance, utility or property improvement occur, the soils will become accessible and need to be addressed by the federal government. Up until that point in time they will need to be effectively managed to ensure they remain protective. The St. Louis District is in the process of collaboratively developing this plan with its regulators, affected stakeholders and interested parties.

  3. Land development in Massachusetts: Its effect on the environment within Essex and Middlesex counties from 1990 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardie, Peter Sean

    Since the 1970's urban centers in and surrounding Essex and Middlesex Counties in Massachusetts have expanded and proliferated into adjacent communities. This expansion has led to the conversion of land for housing, businesses, schools, recreation, and parks, placing significant strain on existing land cover, land use, and available natural resources. Mounting growth pressures and a reduction of undeveloped land have raised serious concerns as cropland and forest fragmentation, wetland destruction, protected open-space infringement, pollution, and systematic losses of rural conditions have become obvious. To monitor development, the post-classification change detection method was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and GIS was used to detect, quantity, and document the extent of development and its effect on the environment and to assess and quantify the demographic changes that occurred within the counties from 1990 to 2007. Classification of the 1990 image resulted in 217 clusters and 214 clusters for the 2007 image The overall accuracy achieved for the 1990 image classification was 87.3% with a KHAT value of 0.848, and the overall accuracy for the 2007 classification was 86.27% with a KHAT value of 0.840. From 1990 to 2007 land cover change occurred primarily along major transportation corridors. The post-classification change detection results indicate that Essex and Middlesex County combined gained 23,435.66 "new" acres of land development from 1990 to 2007 through a loss and change in acreage from the Bareland, Forest, Grassland, Water, and Wetland land cover class categories. Results indicate that there was an approximate 0.56% overall (net) increase of newly developed land areas within the 1990 and 2007 image classifications from 415.46 acres or 0.64 square miles. In addition, there was a substantial decrease (-40.0%) within the grassland category. Land development was responsible for a portion of the decrease of grasslands (-13

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Chemical Insecticide, Middlesex County, NJ. (First Remedial Action), September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The Chemical Insecticide site is part of a 94-acre industrial development in Edison, Middlesex County, New Jersey. From 1958 to 1970 Chemical Insecticide Corporation (CIC) produced and stored pesticide formulations at the property resulting in soil, surface water, and ground water contamination. Between 1966 and 1969 CIC was ordered by the city to close onsite lagoons, dispose of leaking drums, and stop wastewater discharge. Subsequent RI/FS investigations revealed the extreme complexity of the site due to the number and variety of contaminants (herbicides, pesticides, and metals) and the physical characteristics of the site. The primary contaminants of concern in the soil which may affect the surface water are organics including pesticides, and metals including arsenic. The selected remedial action for this site includes clearing and grading the site; covering the entire site with an impermeable surficial cap; constructing a surface water runoff diversion system; controlling the release of collected, uncontaminated surface water runoff from the site; and surface water monitoring.

  5. Public health assessment for Sayreville Landfill, Sayreville, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980505754. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The Sayreville Landfill site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey, was used primarily for the disposal of municipal wastes from 1970 through 1977. Illegal dumping of possibly hazardous materials allegedly occurred during active landfill operations and after landfill closure. Organic and inorganic compounds were found in on-site subsurface soil, ground water, surface water, and sediments at levels above public health assessment comparison values. The community is concerned about the safety of eating fish from the South River. The potential exists for past, present, and future exposure of local residents and workers to contaminated subsurface soil, nearby surface water, and sediments. The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) has concluded that the site is an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data exist for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed.

  6. The Changing Role of Public Participation as a FUSRAP Site Moves from Characterization to Remedial Action and Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, A. D.; Kollar, W.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive public participation program developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE, or the Corps) and its contractor, Shaw Environmental, Inc. at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site (the Site) in New Jersey, USA. It focuses on the program's evolving nature as the Site has moved through the Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. CERCLA is commonly referred to as the Superfund program. A principal objective of the FUSRAP Maywood Site's public involvement program is to minimize impacts to affected property owners, while keeping the broader public fully informed and involved as required under the CERCLA. The various properties comprising the Site have gone through site investigation (or characterization), remedial design, remedial action (ongoing) and, in some cases, property closeout reporting since the Corps assumed responsibility for the FUSRAP in 1997. At the outset, the Corps developed an integrated and forward-looking communication approach. As the CERCLA process drives changes in priorities, the approach has been tailored to accommodate the changing nature of the project. These changes were principally driven by the technical objectives of each project phase and, as important, by the anticipated and expressed needs of impacted property owners. This paper also notes public participation activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) during its management of the FUSRAP Maywood Site as needed, to provide context to the Corps' follow-on public participation efforts. (authors)

  7. Records Management in the Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Morekas, G.N.; Pape, M.B.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE's) performance of site investigation and remediation under the Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) requires the use of a records management system in order to effectively capture and manage data, document the decision making process, and allow communication of project information to regulators, congress, and the public. The USACE faces many challenges in managing the vast amount of data, correspondence, and reports generated under this program, including: management of data and reports in a variety of paper, electronic, and microfilm formats; incorporation of records generated by the Department of Energy (DOE) prior to 1997; ensuring smooth flow of information among numerous internal Project Managers and regulators; and facilitating public access to information through the development of CERCLA Administrative Records and response to Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. In 2004-2005, the USACE Buffalo District contracted with Dynamac Corporation to adapt the records management system developed for the Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) Program to the records for the Luckey and Painesville FUSRAP sites. The system, known as the FUDS Information Improvement Plan (FIIP), was jointly developed by the USACE Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Center of Expertise (HTRW-CX), USACE Rock Island District, and several FUDS contractors (including Dynamac Corporation) in 2003. The primary components of the FIIP which address the challenges faced by the FUSRAP Program include: the development of a standardized document organization system; the standardization of electronic conversion processes; the standardization of file naming conventions; and the development of an automated data capture system to speed the process and reduce errors in indexing. The document organization system allows for the assignment of each individual document to one of approximately 150 categories. The categories are based upon a

  8. Quantifying Contaminant Mass for the Feasibility Study of the DuPont Chambers Works FUSRAP Site - 13510

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Carl; Rahman, Mahmudur; Johnson, Ann; Owe, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) - Philadelphia District is conducting an environmental restoration at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deepwater, New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Discrete locations are contaminated with natural uranium, thorium-230 and radium-226. The USACE is proposing a preferred remedial alternative consisting of excavation and offsite disposal to address soil contamination followed by monitored natural attenuation to address residual groundwater contamination. Methods were developed to quantify the error associated with contaminant volume estimates and use mass balance calculations of the uranium plume to estimate the removal efficiency of the proposed alternative. During the remedial investigation, the USACE collected approximately 500 soil samples at various depths. As the first step of contaminant mass estimation, soil analytical data was segmented into several depth intervals. Second, using contouring software, analytical data for each depth interval was contoured to determine lateral extent of contamination. Six different contouring algorithms were used to generate alternative interpretations of the lateral extent of the soil contamination. Finally, geographical information system software was used to produce a three dimensional model in order to present both lateral and vertical extent of the soil contamination and to estimate the volume of impacted soil for each depth interval. The average soil volume from all six contouring methods was used to determine the estimated volume of impacted soil. This method also allowed an estimate of a standard deviation of the waste volume estimate. It was determined that the margin of error for the method was plus or minus 17% of the waste volume, which is within the acceptable construction contingency for cost estimation. USACE collected approximately 190 groundwater samples from 40 monitor wells. It is expected that excavation and disposal of

  9. Innovative Regulatory and Technical Approaches for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers' Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J. T.; Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J.; Boyle, J. D.; Rogers, B. C.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) created the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 to identify, investigate, and cleanup or control radiological contamination at sites used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the 1940s through the 1960s. The USDOE had identified 46 sites in the program and finished remediation at 24 of the smaller ones before the end of 1997. With the passage of the Energy and Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1998 the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designated by Congress with responsibility to manage and execute the FUSRAP. The Linde Site located in Tonawanda, New York was operated by the MED from 1942-1946 to extract uranium from several high-grade ores. This natural uranium was subsequently enriched in U-235 elsewhere in the United States and ultimately used to produce energy or weapons. Though in the process of reviewing alternative disposal options by 1995, the USDOE had operated FUSRAP with a strategy requiring virtually all materials remediated be disposed of at only one Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facility. The change in management of the FUSRAP in 1997 allowed the disposal policy of low levels of radioactively contaminated materials found at the remaining sites to be reexamined. This paper presents some of the innovative regulatory and technical approaches employed at the Linde Site that are resulting in project cost savings while meeting applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements as well as fulfilling commitments made to the local community.

  10. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

  11. Integrating Intrusive and Non-intrusive Characterization Methods To Achieve A Conceptual Site Model For The SLDA FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Frothingham, D.G.; Frederick, W.T.; Lenart, W.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is addressing radiological contamination following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements at the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) site, which is a radiologically contaminated property that is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The SLDA is an 18-hectare (44- acre) site in Parks Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, about 37 kilometers (23 miles) east-northeast of Pittsburgh. According to historical record, radioactive wastes were disposed of at the SLDA in a series of trenches by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Company (NUMEC) in the 1960's. The wastes originated from the nearby Apollo nuclear fuel fabrication facility, which began operations under NUMEC in the late 1950's and fabricated enriched uranium into naval reactor fuel elements. It is believed that the waste materials were buried in a series of pits constructed adjacent to one another in accordance with an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) regulation that has since been rescinded. A CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process was completed for the SLDA site, and the results of the human health risk assessment indicated that the radiologically contaminated wastes could pose a risk to human health in the future. There are no historical records that provide the exact location of these pits. However, based on geophysical survey results conducted in the 1980's, these pits were defined by geophysical anomalies and were depicted on historical site drawings as trenches. At the SLDA site, a combination of investigative methods and tools was used in the RI/FS and site characterization activities. The SLDA site provides an excellent example of how historical documents and data, historical aerial photo analysis, physical sampling, and non-intrusive geophysical and gamma walkover surveys were used in combination to reduce the uncertainty in the location of the

  12. Integrating intrusive and nonintrusive characterization methods to achieve a conceptual site model for the SLDA FUSRAP site - 8265.

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L. A.; Peterson, J. M.; Frothingham, D. G.; Frederick, W. T.; Lenart, W.; Environmental Science Division; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburg District; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is addressing radiological contamination following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements at the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) site, which is a radiologically contaminated property that is part of the Formerly utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The SLDA is an 18-hectare (44-acre) site in Parks township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, about 37 kilometers (23 miles) east-northeast of Pittsburgh. According to historical record, radioactive wastes were disposed of at the SLDA in a series of trenches by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Company (NUMEC) in the 1960s. The wastes originated from the nearby Apollo nuclear fuel fabrication facility, which began operations under NUMEC in the late 1950s and fabricated enriched uranium into naval reactor fuel elements. It is believed that the waste materials were buried in a series of pits constructed adjacent to one another in accordance with an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) regulation that has since been rescinded. A CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process was completed for the SLDA site, and the results of the human health risk assessment indicated that the radiologically contaminated wastes could pose a risk to human health in the future. There are no historical records that provide the exact location of these pits. However, based on geophysical survey results conducted in the 1980s, these pits were defined by geophysical anomalies and were depicted on historical site drawings as trenches. At the SLDA site, a combination of investigative methods and tools was used in the RI/FS and site characterization activities. The SLDA site provides an excellent example of how historical documents and data, historical aerial photo analysis, physical sampling, and nonintrusive geophysical and gamma walkover surveys were used in combination to reduce the uncertainty in the location of the trenches. The

  13. USACE FUSRAP Maywood Team Develops a Mechanism to Evaluate Residual Radon Exposure Potential at Vicinity Properties Where Remediation of Accessible Contamination has been Completed

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.; Walnicki, S.; Hays, D.

    2008-07-01

    The Maywood FUSRAP Team is obligated, under its approved remedy selection decision document, to demonstrate substantive compliance with New Jersey Administrative Code 7:28- 12(a)2, establishing an indoor limit of three Pico-Curies per liter above background for radon-222 (Rn-222). The Maywood Team explores various avenues for dealing with the radon issue and provides an alternative for demonstrating substantive compliance with the radon remediation standard by answering the question: 'In certain conservative situations, can compliance with the radon standard be demonstrated without performing monitoring?' While monitoring may be the most definitive method for demonstrating compliance, a logical argument can be made that when radiological remediation removes the potential source for Rn-222 above background, monitoring is unnecessary. This position is defended through the use of historical physical radon measurements which illustrate that indoor radon was not a pre-remediation problem, and post-remediation soil sampling data which demonstrate that the source of the potentially elevated Rn- 222 levels have been successfully mitigated. Monitoring recommendations are made for situations where insufficient data exists to make definitive determinations or when un-remediated sources affecting habitable structures remain on a given property. Additional information regarding recommended techniques and references for effective monitoring of indoor radon are included in this paper. This paper may benefit teams that have similar regulatory commitments and/or have need to make assessments of radon exposure potential based upon historical monitoring data and available soils concentration data. (authors)

  14. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 868 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and provides the results for 1992. The fenced, site, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Newark, New Jersey, was used between 1948 and 1971 for commercial processing of monazite sand to separate natural radioisotopes - predominantly thorium. Environmental surveillance of WISS began in 1984 in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The environmental surveillance program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, total uranium, and several chemicals in surface water and sediment; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. This monitoring program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results for environmental surveillance in 1992 show that the concentrations of all radioactive and most chemical contaminants were below applicable standards.

  15. New Brunswick Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the New Brunswick Site (NBS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. The site, near New Brunswick,, New Jersey, is a 5.6-acre vacant, fenced, and grass-covered area. Environmental monitoring of NBS began in 1981 when the site was part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Surplus Facilities Management Program. In 1990 responsibility for NBS was transferred to the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSP.4P). FUSRAP is a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the,early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at NBS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, americium-241, cesium-137, plutonium-239, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  16. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  17. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  18. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  19. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Colonie, New York, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program continued at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Colonie, New York. The CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action is being conducted at the site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The environmental monitoring program is also carried out by BNI. The monitoring program at the CISS measures external gamma radiation levels as well as uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess the potential effect of the site on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 5% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. Results of 1986 monitoring show that the CISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) W. R. Grace Building 23 Remedial Action-Challenges and Successes - 12247

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Brenda; Honerlah, Hans; O'Neill, Mike; Young, Carl

    2012-07-01

    : coordination with stakeholders, coordination between multiple RA contractors, addressing unique structural challenges for Building 23, nonradiological hazards associated with the RA, weather issues, and complex final status survey (FSS) coordination. The challenges during the Phase 1 RA were handled successfully. The challenges for the Phase 2 RA, which is anticipated to be complete by late-summer of 2012, have been handled successfully so far. By fall of 2012, USACE is expecting to finalize a robust RA Closure Report, including the Final Status Survey Report, which summarizes the RA activities and documents compliance with the ROD. During the ongoing RA at Building 23, there have been and still are many challenges both technically and from a project management perspective, due in part to the nature and extent of impact at the site (residual radioactivity within an active processing building), dual oversight by the property owner and USACE, and site-specific challenges associated with a complex RA and multiple contractors. Currently, USACE and its industry partner are overseeing the completion of RA field activities. RA closure documentation for the remediation of Building 23 to address residual contamination in building materials will be reviewed/approved by USACE and its industry partner upon completion of the field activities. USACE and its industry partner are working well together, through the Settlement Agreement, to conduct a cost-efficient and effective remedial action to address the legacy issues at Building 23. This cooperative effort has set a firm foundation for achieving a successful RA at the RWDA using a 'forward think' approach, and it is a case study for other sites where an industry partner is involved. The collaborative effort led to implementation of an RA which is acceptable to the site owner, the regulators, and the public, thus allowing USACE to move this project forward successfully in the FUSRAP program. (authors)

  1. Fall Protection Procedures for Sealing Bulk Waste Shipments by Rail Cars at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Sites - 13509

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.D.; Fort, E. Joseph; Lorenz, William; Mills, Andy

    2013-07-01

    Rail-cars loaded with radioactive materials must be closed and fastened to comply with United States Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements before they shipped. Securing waste shipments in a manner that meets these regulations typically results in the use of a sealable rail-car liner. Workers accessing the tops of the 2.74 m high rail-cars to seal and inspect liners for compliance prior to shipment may be exposed to a fall hazard. Relatively recent revisions to the Fall Protection requirements in the Safety and Health Requirements Manual (EM385-1-1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) have necessitated modifications to the fall protection systems previously employed for rail-car loading at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In response these projects have developed site-specific procedures to protect workers and maintain compliance with the improved fall protection regulations. (authors)

  2. Consolidated Online Data Management Strategy in Support of Environmental Remediation Activities at the Dupont Chambers Works Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (Fusrap) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.A.; Desai, N.B.; Samus, J.E.; Bock, G.O.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has developed and implemented an innovative online data management application in support of site characterization and remediation activities at the DuPont Chambers Works Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The password-protected, web-based application was implemented to centralize project data, facilitate project communications, and provide a large and diverse group of project team members with access to the data and analytical tools they need to efficiently and effectively manage the ongoing characterization and remediation efforts. Centralizing resources using the online application and web-based strategy streamlines data access and communications, allowing the team to effectively keep the project on track while reducing the costs associated with data requests, data duplication, document review and retrieval, software requirements, and lapses in communication or data transfer. (authors)

  3. Environmental surveillance results for 1994 for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site. FUSRAP technical memorandum Number 140-95-011

    SciTech Connect

    Szojka, S.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents analytical results and an interpretation of the results for samples collected as part of the 1994 environmental surveillance program for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) for the interim storage of radiologically contaminated soils. The discussion provides a comparative analysis of local background conditions and applicable regulatory criteria to results reported for external gamma radiation and for samples from the media investigated (air, surface water, sediment, groundwater, and stormwater). Results from the 1994 environmental surveillance program at HISS indicate that Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines were not exceeded for the calculated airborne particulate dose or for the monitored constituents.

  4. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G.; Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L.

    2013-07-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  5. Sampling and Sample Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawicki, Rubén O.

    Quality attributes in food products, raw materials, or ingredients are measurable characteristics that need monitoring to ensure that specifications are met. Some quality attributes can be measured online by using specially designed sensors and results obtained in real time (e.g., color of vegetable oil in an oil extraction plant). However, in most cases quality attributes are measured on small portions of material that are taken periodically from continuous processes or on a certain number of small portions taken from a lot. The small portions taken for analysis are referred to as samples, and the entire lot or the entire production for a certain period of time, in the case of continuous processes, is called a population. The process of taking samples from a population is called sampling. If the procedure is done correctly, the measurable characteristics obtained for the samples become a very accurate estimation of the population.

  6. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  7. "Middlesex" Meditations: Understanding and Teaching Intersex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breu, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Teachers who include intersex issues in their curricula can provide their intersex students with a sense of community. Intersex people, whether children, teenagers, or adults, often feel that they are going through their experiences absolutely alone. For them, realizing that there are others out there with similar experiences, facing similar…

  8. Capillary sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited amount of blood can be drawn using this method. The procedure has some risks (see below). Capillary ...

  9. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  10. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  11. Elevating sampling

    PubMed Central

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  12. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  13. Fluidic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-04-20

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  14. Fluidic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, E. D.

    1992-04-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2-39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02-0.05 gpm (77-192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016-0.026 gpm (60-100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140-150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  15. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases.

  16. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Norman R.; King, Lloyd L.; Jackson, Peter O.; Zulich, Alan W.

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

  17. SAMPLING OSCILLOSCOPE

    DOEpatents

    Sugarman, R.M.

    1960-08-30

    An oscilloscope is designed for displaying transient signal waveforms having random time and amplitude distributions. The oscilloscopc is a sampling device that selects for display a portion of only those waveforms having a particular range of amplitudes. For this purpose a pulse-height analyzer is provided to screen the pulses. A variable voltage-level shifter and a time-scale rampvoltage generator take the pulse height relative to the start of the waveform. The variable voltage shifter produces a voltage level raised one step for each sequential signal waveform to be sampled and this results in an unsmeared record of input signal waveforms. Appropriate delay devices permit each sample waveform to pass its peak amplitude before the circuit selects it for display.

  18. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  19. Sampling Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  1. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  2. Sampling mechanisms for asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D.; Franzen, M. A.; Preble, J.; Long, T.

    2003-04-01

    There is a unique challenge in developing sample collectors for low-gravity bodies such as asteroids. Traditional devices rely mostly on gravity for sample collection which is inappropriate in the case of asteroids. The NEAR Shoemaker has shown that we can design spacecrafts that can maneuver very closely to asteroids and provide us with a wealth of valuable data. However, a sample collector that can return samples to the Earth has yet to be fully developed. During the Near-Earth Sample Return Workshop held in Los Angeles in July 2002, the scientific requirements and engineering constraints of sample return collectors were discussed. It was proposed that the touch-and-go-sampler is to be preferred for the first missions. The collector should be as simple as possible, with the minimum of moving parts to reduce cost and prevent damage to the sampler during the collection process as well as minimize surface disturbance on the asteroid. However, the collection procedure must meet certain conditions in order for a complete assessment of the samples. The collection process should not change the composition (molecular, elemental, or isotopic), physical properties, mineral and phase proportions, or grain size distribution. Our answer to these challenges is an adhesive tray collector. The adhesive tray touch-and-go-sampler would include a thirty centimeter in diameter tray bound to a boom. The boom would allow the spacecraft to collect samples with a minimum amount of disturbance from the one to two second encounter with the surface of the asteroid with the adhesive tray. The adhesive tray would be able to sample surface regolith including one to two centimeter clasts in a diverse number of scientifically valuable sites. Once the sample has been collected, the boom will retract and place the adhesive sample tray into a sample return canister. Progress in the development of this collector and preliminary results of testing under microgravity and space conditions will be

  3. Misoe Sample Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creager, John A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Among the purposes of this chapter is the provision of a description of the sample and research design of the MISOE sample data systems, including a specification of the size of the sample. (Author/RK)

  4. SAMPLING TUBING EFFECTS ON GROUNDWATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds pose a challenge to groundwater sampling protocols, since they can be lost as a water sample degasses or lost due to sorption on tubing or pump materials. Laboratory sorption experiments have been conducted with five common flexible tubing materials to ...

  5. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  6. Selecting a Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of sampling methods that are appropriate for conducting online surveys. The authors review some of the basic concepts relevant to online survey sampling, present some probability and nonprobability techniques for selecting a sample, and briefly discuss sample size determination and nonresponse bias. Although some…

  7. Stardust Sample: Investigator's Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust spacecraft returned the first in situ collection of samples from a comet, and the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. Stardust is the first US sample return mission from a planetary body since Apollo, and the first ever from beyond the moon. This handbook is a basic reference source for allocation procedures and policies for Stardust samples. These samples consist of particles and particle residues in aerogel collectors, in aluminum foil, and in spacecraft components. Contamination control samples and unflown collection media are also available for allocation.

  8. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Danny A.; Tomich, Stanley D.; Glover, Donald W.; Allen, Errol V.; Hales, Jeremy M.; Dana, Marshall T.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  9. Apollo 14 rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, I. C.

    1978-01-01

    Petrographic descriptions of all Apollo 14 samples larger than 1 cm in any dimension are presented. The sample description format consists of: (1) an introductory section which includes information on lunar sample location, orientation, and return containers, (2) a section on physical characteristics, which contains the sample mass, dimensions, and a brief description; (3) surface features, including zap pits, cavities, and fractures as seen in binocular view; (4) petrographic description, consisting of a binocular description and, if possible, a thin section description; and (5) a discussion of literature relevant to sample petrology is included for samples which have previously been examined by the scientific community.

  10. Mars sample return - Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Douglas P.

    1988-01-01

    The possible scientific goals of a Mars sample return mission are reviewed, including the value of samples and the selection of sampling sites. The fundamental questions about Mars which could be studied using samples are examined, including planetary formation, differentiation, volcanism and petrogenesis, weathering, and erosion. Scenarios are presented for sample acquisition and analysis. Possible sampling methods and tools are discussed, including drilling techniques, types of rovers, and processing instruments. In addition, the possibility of aerocapture out of elliptical or circular orbit is considered.

  11. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  12. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  13. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan

    2014-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods of probability sampling provide a rigorous protocol which scientifically reliable information on environmental issues may e obtained. he authors review fundamentals of probability sampling from the perspective of monitoring environmental resources. hey first describe basi...

  15. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  16. Improved Sampling Method Reduces Isokinetic Sampling Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karels, Gale G.

    The particulate sampling system currently in use by the Bay Area Air Pollution Control District, San Francisco, California is described in this presentation for the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. The method represents a practical, inexpensive tool that can…

  17. ORGANIC SPECIATION SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling artifacts for molecular markers from organic speciation of particulate matter were investigated by analyzing forty-one samples collected in Philadelphia as a part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEOPS). Samples were collected using a high volume sampler ...

  18. SAMPLING OF CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of characterization of the amount and species of contamination of a hazardous waste site is the sampling plan developed for that site. f the sampling plan is not thoroughly conceptualized before sampling takes place, then certain critical aspects of the limits o...

  19. Decision by Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory of decision by sampling (DbS) in which, in contrast with traditional models, there are no underlying psychoeconomic scales. Instead, we assume that an attribute's subjective value is constructed from a series of binary, ordinal comparisons to a sample of attribute values drawn from memory and is its rank within the sample. We…

  20. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  1. Aerosol sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.

    2004-02-10

    A system for sampling air and collecting particulate of a predetermined particle size range. A low pass section has an opening of a preselected size for gathering the air but excluding particles larger than the sample particles. An impactor section is connected to the low pass section and separates the air flow into a bypass air flow that does not contain the sample particles and a product air flow that does contain the sample particles. A wetted-wall cyclone collector, connected to the impactor section, receives the product air flow and traps the sample particles in a liquid.

  2. Rockballer Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Cook, Brant T.

    2013-01-01

    It would be desirable to acquire rock and/or ice samples that extend below the surface of the parent rock or ice in extraterrestrial environments such as the Moon, Mars, comets, and asteroids. Such samples would allow measurements to be made further back into the geologic history of the rock, providing critical insight into the history of the local environment and the solar system. Such samples could also be necessary for sample return mission architectures that would acquire samples from extraterrestrial environments for return to Earth for more detailed scientific investigation.

  3. DIY Tomography sample holder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, L.; Wright, I.; Boyes, E. D.

    2015-10-01

    A very simple tomography sample holder at minimal cost was developed in-house. The holder is based on a JEOL single tilt fast exchange sample holder where its exchangeable tip was modified to allow high angle degree tilt. The shape of the tip was designed to retain mechanical stability while minimising the lateral size of the tip. The sample can be mounted on as for a standard 3mm Cu grids as well as semi-circular grids from FIB sample preparation. Applications of the holder on different sample systems are shown.

  4. Sample size calculations.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J

    2011-01-01

    The sample size is the number of patients or other experimental units that need to be included in a study to answer the research question. Pre-study calculation of the sample size is important; if a sample size is too small, one will not be able to detect an effect, while a sample that is too large may be a waste of time and money. Methods to calculate the sample size are explained in statistical textbooks, but because there are many different formulas available, it can be difficult for investigators to decide which method to use. Moreover, these calculations are prone to errors, because small changes in the selected parameters can lead to large differences in the sample size. This paper explains the basic principles of sample size calculations and demonstrates how to perform such a calculation for a simple study design. PMID:21293154

  5. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  6. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  7. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  8. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  9. Wireline fluid sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, J.; Moody, M.; Shwe, T.

    1995-12-31

    Accurate PVT data are crucial to well completion and production, formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. This is especially true for initial reservoir characterization where the PVF sample needs to be obtained prior to production. It is essential that the fluid sample be recovered as closely as possible to in-situ conditions whether by drill stem or wireline formation for. The need to remove drilling mud filtrate prior to collecting a sample has been widely recognized. Wireline testers which can pump fluid from a formation until filtrate is reduced to a minimum overcome this problem. While reducing sample contamination has been addressed, little emphasis has been placed on the need to control inlet pressure during filtrate removal or during sampling. Reducing contamination is important; however, there is equal need to determine the critical sampling pressure. The purpose is to prevent phase separation in the formation by regulating the sampling process based on this information and thereby obtain a more representative reservoir fluid sample. A recently introduced wireline instrument provides the capability of measuring the critical pressure prior to sampling, of controlling the sample pressure and of increasing the pressure in the sample container to compensate for temperature decline during delivery of that sample to a testing laboratory. Example of pressure tests while pumping and during pressure buildup are presented along with indicated sample properties. Introduction Wireline Formation Testers (WFT) provide an cost effective means to determine pressure as a function of depth and to recover samples of fluid from formations at selected depths. No other method can provide this type of information. Pressure data are used to estimate mobility, fluid contact and fluid density.

  10. PBDEs in environmental samples: sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia; Zabiegała, Bożena; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-05-15

    The paper reviews the subject literature concerning analytical procedures routinely sed for monitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in environmental samples. It describes and summarizes subsequent stages of analytical procedure including sample collection and preparation, extraction, clean-up and final determination. Different approaches with their advantages and limitations are presented. Special attention is drawn to the newly developed, promising extraction techniques, especially: liquid-liquid-microextraction (LLME) with its modifications, cloud point extraction (CPE) and hollow fiber microextraction. The review compares available detection techniques taking into account their usefulness for determining different PBDEs in complex matrix as well as discussing possible limitations that may occur during the analysis. The quality assurance and quality control aspect of analytical procedure is described. Finally special attention is paid to the determination of highly brominated PBDE compounds (e.g. BDE209), which requires implementation of different analytical approach. PMID:22483870

  11. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  12. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  13. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  14. Sampling diffusive transition paths.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian

    2007-04-14

    The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696

  15. Sampling in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    2011-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

  16. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  17. Fluid sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inlet leak is described for sampling gases, more specifically, for selectively sampling multiple fluids. This fluid sampling device includes a support frame. A plurality of fluid inlet devices extend through the support frame and each of the fluid inlet devices include a longitudinal aperture. An opening device that is responsive to a control signal selectively opens the aperture to allow fluid passage. A closing device that is responsive to another control signal selectively closes the aperture for terminating further fluid flow.

  18. Statistical distribution sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

  19. Nested sampling with demons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeck, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at Skilling's nested sampling from a physical perspective and interprets it as a microcanonical demon algorithm. Using key quantities of statistical physics we investigate the performance of nested sampling on complex systems such as Ising, Potts and protein models. We show that releasing multiple demons helps to smooth the truncated prior and eases sampling from it because the demons keep the particle off the constraint boundary. For continuous systems it is straightforward to extend this approach and formulate a phase space version of nested sampling that benefits from correlated explorations guided by Hamiltonian dynamics.

  20. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  1. Noroviruses in Archival Samples

    PubMed Central

    Skraber, Sylvain; Italiaander, Ronald; Lodder, Willemijn J.

    2005-01-01

    Application of recent techniques to detect current pathogens in archival effluent samples collected and concentrated in 1987 lead to the characterization of norovirus GGII.6 Seacroft, unrecognized until 1990 in a clinical sample. Retrospective studies will likely increase our knowledge about waterborne transmission of emerging pathogens. PMID:15757575

  2. Creating Sample Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Joseph H.; Seebode, Linda C.

    1999-03-24

    The program has been designed to increase the accuracy and reduce the preparation time for completing sampling plans. It consists of our files 1. Analyte/Combination (AnalCombo) A list of analytes and combinations of analytes that can be requested of the onsite and offsite labs. Whenever a specific combination of analytes or suite names appear on the same line as the code number, this indicates that one sample can be placed in one bottle to be analyzed for these paremeters. A code number is assigned for each analyte and combination of analytes. 2. Sampling Plans Database (SPDb) A database that contains all of the analytes and combinations of analytes along with the basic information required for preparing a sample plan. That basic information includes the following fields; matrix, hold time, preservation, sample volume, container size, if the bottle caps are taped, acceptable choices. 3. Sampling plans create (SPcreate) a file that will lookup information from the Sampling Plans Database and the Job Log File (JLF98) A major database used by Sample Managemnet Services for recording more than 100 fields of information.

  3. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  4. Extraterrestrial Samples at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the curation of extraterrestrial samples at NASA Johnson Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Apollo lunar samples; 2) Meteorites from Antarctica; 3) Cosmic dust from the stratosphere; 4) Genesis solar wind ions; 5) Stardust comet and interstellar grains; and 5) Space-Exposed Hardware.

  5. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine ...

  6. Creating Sample Plans

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-24

    The program has been designed to increase the accuracy and reduce the preparation time for completing sampling plans. It consists of our files 1. Analyte/Combination (AnalCombo) A list of analytes and combinations of analytes that can be requested of the onsite and offsite labs. Whenever a specific combination of analytes or suite names appear on the same line as the code number, this indicates that one sample can be placed in one bottle to bemore » analyzed for these paremeters. A code number is assigned for each analyte and combination of analytes. 2. Sampling Plans Database (SPDb) A database that contains all of the analytes and combinations of analytes along with the basic information required for preparing a sample plan. That basic information includes the following fields; matrix, hold time, preservation, sample volume, container size, if the bottle caps are taped, acceptable choices. 3. Sampling plans create (SPcreate) a file that will lookup information from the Sampling Plans Database and the Job Log File (JLF98) A major database used by Sample Managemnet Services for recording more than 100 fields of information.« less

  7. Adaptive Sampling Proxy Application

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-10-22

    ASPA is an implementation of an adaptive sampling algorithm [1-3], which is used to reduce the computational expense of computer simulations that couple disparate physical scales. The purpose of ASPA is to encapsulate the algorithms required for adaptive sampling independently from any specific application, so that alternative algorithms and programming models for exascale computers can be investigated more easily.

  8. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  9. Seawater sampling and collection.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Hawley, Alyse; Walsh, David A; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This video documents methods for collecting coastal marine water samples and processing them for various downstream applications including biomass concentration. nucleic acid purification, cell abundance, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today's demonstration samples were collected from the deck of the HMS John Strickland operating in Saanich Inlet. An A-frame derrick, with a multi-purpose winch and cable system, is used in combination with Niskin or Go-Flo water sampling bottles. A Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) sensor is also be used to sample the underlying water mass. To minimize outgassing, trace gas samples are collected first. Then, nutrients, chemistry, and cell counts are determined. Finally, waters are collected for biomass filtration. The set-up and collection time for a single cast is approximately 1.5 hours at a maximum depth of 215 meters. Therefore, a total of 6 hours is generally needed to complete the four-part collection series described here. PMID:19536065

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  12. Sampling video compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Lum, H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A system for transmitting video signal of compressed bandwidth is described. The transmitting station is provided with circuitry for dividing a picture to be transmitted into a plurality of blocks containing a checkerboard pattern of picture elements. Video signals along corresponding diagonal rows of picture elements in the respective blocks are regularly sampled. A transmitter responsive to the output of the sampling circuitry is included for transmitting the sampled video signals of one frame at a reduced bandwidth over a communication channel. The receiving station is provided with a frame memory for temporarily storing transmitted video signals of one frame at the original high bandwidth frequency.

  13. Waste tank sample transport

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.; Mercado, M.S.; Smith, R.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    Since 1943, radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The waste was the result of chemical separation processes for the production of fissile defense materials. Associated with the current environmental cleanup mission, waste characterization and processing programs are requiring the extraction of samples from the tanks. Approved onsite packaging are in place and in use for transfers of samples from the tanks to onsite laboratories. Initiatives are under way to develop and procure packaging for sample shipments to offsite laboratories. This paper will provide a current status of the tank sample packaging used at the Hanford Site, as well as the project status for new packaging to be used for offsite shipments.

  14. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  15. Water Sample Concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-07-21

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  16. Chorionic villus sampling

    MedlinePlus

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have to screen their baby for genetic problems. ... CVS can be done through the cervix (transcervical) or through the belly (transabdominal). Miscarriage rates are slightly ...

  17. Liquid sample processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Campen, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Processor is automatic and includes series of extraction tubes packed with fibrous absorbent material of large surface area. When introduced into these tubes, liquid test samples become completely absorbed by packing material as thin film.

  18. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  19. Sample positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Thomas H.; Johnson, Jr., Charles H.; Lane, Robert L.; Martin, Bradley E.; Tyree, William H.

    1976-01-06

    Apparatus for use in alpha particle counting with such as photomultiplier tubes, comprising a platform and linkage mechanism whereby samples are moved in linear manner toward and away from ends of the photomultiplier tubes.

  20. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

    2007-02-09

    Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

  1. Dissolution actuated sample container

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  2. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  3. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Loren L.

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  4. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  5. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  6. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  7. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  8. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  9. Fluid sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  10. Visual Sample Plan

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-10-25

    VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to risk decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 5.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. It also provides data quality assessment and statistical analysis functions to support evaluation of the data and determine whether the data support decisions regarding sitesmore » suspected of contamination. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (98, NT, 2000, Millennium Edition, CE, and XP) Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to two- and three-dimensional populations to be sampled (e.g., rooms and buildings, surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality. VSP is also applicable for designing sampling plans for assessing chem./rad/bio threat and hazard identification within rooms and buildings, and for designing geophysical surveys for UXO identification.« less

  11. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  12. Thermoluminescence of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types. The present thermoluminescence in the lunar samples is probably the result of a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition from radiation and loss in the lunar thermal environment. A progressive change in the glow curves of core samples with depth below the surface suggests the use of thermoluminescence disequilibrium to detect surfaces buried by recent surface activity, and it also indicates that the lunar diurnal temperature variation penetrates to at least 10.5 centimeters.

  13. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  14. Viscous sludge sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  15. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  16. Contamination sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Felix A. (Inventor); Stern, Susan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A contamination sample collection device has a wooden dowel with a cotton swab at one end, the cotton being covered by a nylon cloth and the wooden dowel being encapsulated by plastic tubing which is heat shrunk onto the dowel and onto a portion of the cotton swab to secure the cotton in place. Another plastic tube is heat shrunk onto the plastic that encapsulates the dowel and a portion of the nylon cloth to secure the nylon cloth in place. The device may thereafter be covered with aluminum foil protector. The device may be used for obtaining samples of contamination in clean room environments.

  17. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    From the first half century of space exploration, we have obtained samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded profound knowledge that could not have been obtained without the returned samples. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is crucial science, it is rarely done due to cost and complexity. Cassini's discovery of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials, indicate that there is an exceptional opportunity and science rational to do a low-cost flyby sample return mission, similar to what was done by the Stardust. The earliest low cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012]. Enceladus Plume Discovery - While Voyager provided evidence for young surfaces on Enceladus, the existence of Enceladus plumes was discovered by Cassini. Enceladus and comets are the only known solar system bodies that have jets enabling sample collection without landing or surface contact. Cassini in situ Findings -Cassini's made many discoveries at Saturn, including the break up of large organics in the plumes of Enceladus. Four prime criteria for habitability are liquid water, a heat source, organics and nitrogen [McKay et al. 2008, Waite et al. 2009, Postberg et al. 2011]. Out of all the NASA designated habitability targets, Enceladus is the single body that presents evidence for all four criteria. Significant advancement in the exploration of the biological potential of Enceladus can be made on returned samples in terrestrial laboratories where the full power of state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation and procedures can be used. Without serious limits on power, mass or even cost, terrestrial laboratories provide the ultimate in analytical capability, adaptability, reproducibility and reliability. What Questions can Samples Address? - Samples collected from the Enceladus plume will enable a thorough and replicated

  18. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  19. Sampling for Chemical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Byron; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This review, designed to make analysts aware of uncertainties introduced into analytical measurements during sampling, is organized under these headings: general considerations; theory; standards; and applications related to mineralogy, soils, sediments, metallurgy, atmosphere, water, biology, agriculture and food, medical and clinical areas, oil…

  20. [Samples in Coagulation Test].

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    An understanding and ability to develop a strategy to prevent pre-analytical errors of laboratory tests in the hemostasis area are two of the most important skills of medical technologists and related doctors. Recently, the working group for standardization of sampling in coagulation tests is working towards a consensus. This article reviews a summary of the consensus: (1) The anticoagulant for coagulation tests is 3.13-3.2% sodium citrate at a ratio of 1:9 to whole blood and the accuracy of the ratio is within 10%. (2) Blood sampling is achieved with the use of a 21-23G needle and coagulation. Blood sampling can be achieved by both a syringe and vacuum tube system. After taking blood, laboratory tests such as of the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) should be completed within one hour and the storage temperature should be at room temperature, not ice-cold conditions. 3) To prepare a plasma sample, citrated blood is centrifuged at 1,500 x g for 15 min at room temperature to minimize the remaining platelets in plasma (below 10,000/microL at least). PMID:27089656

  1. Adaptive Sampling Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flournoy, Nancy

    Designs for sequential sampling procedures that adapt to cumulative information are discussed. A familiar illustration is the play-the-winner rule in which there are two treatments; after a random start, the same treatment is continued as long as each successive subject registers a success. When a failure occurs, the other treatment is used until…

  2. ANNULAR IMPACTOR SAMPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Tait, G.W.C.

    1959-03-31

    A high-rate air sampler capable of sampling alphaemitting particles as small as 0.5 microns is described. The device is a cylindrical shaped cup that fits in front of a suction tube and which has sticky grease coating along its base. Suction forces contaminated air against the periodically monitored particle absorbing grease.

  3. Robotic nuclear sample management

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Temer, D.J.; Hopkins, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory processes in excess of 4000 plutonium metal samples each year. Depending on what specific elements are to be determined, each sample must be cut into fractions for distribution to the various task areas for specific analyses in areas such as mass spectrometry. A unique laboratory automation system has been developed based on a commercially available Zymate II robot. The robot consists of a central arm that operates in a hollow cylindrical work envelop and has four degrees of freedom. Accessible to the arm are standard Zymark laboratory stations, which include an analytical balance, a reagent dispensing station, a capping station, and vial racks. Custom stations designed and constructed by an in-house robotics group for corrosive environments include a vial capping station, a pipette tip shucker, and a vial dispenser. Initial reliability testing is currently in progress. Copper metal samples are being used in lieu of plutonium to identify areas in which mechanical adjustments are needed or in which the software needs modification. The system is projected to be commissioned during January 1988. Future plane include the addition of capabilities to accommodate plutonium oxide samples.

  4. Drafting Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic mechanical drawing. (The course is based on the entry level of an assistant drafter.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  5. GAS SAMPLE STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory evaluation to compare the storage stability of selected gases covering a range of compound categories, in three types of containers: glass bulbs and two different polymeric sample bags. The studies indicate that glass bulbs are the best ov...

  6. Plant sampling guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides GRACEnet guidelines for sampling plant shoots and roots with additional guidelines and references for determining plant quality. Plant biomass including rhizodeposition provides the majority of net primary production that fuels above- and below-ground ecosystems. Thus, high ca...

  7. Using Language Sample Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

  8. Randomization and sampling issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The need for randomly selected routes and other sampling issues have been debated by the Amphibian electronic discussion group. Many excellent comments have been made, pro and con, but we have not reached consensus yet. This paper brings those comments together and attempts a synthesis. I hope that the resulting discussion will bring us closer to a consensus.

  9. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  10. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

  11. Optimal hemicube sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N. |

    1992-12-17

    Radiosity algorithms for global illumination, either ``gathering`` or ``shooting`` versions, depend on the calculation of form factors. It is possible to calculate the form factors analytically, but this is difficult when occlusion is involved, so sampling methods are usually preferred. The necessary visibility information can be obtained by ray tracing in the sampled directions. However, area coherence makes it more efficient to project and scan-convert the scene onto a number of planes, for example, the faces of a hemicube. The hemicube faces have traditionally been divided into equal square pixels, but more general subdivisions are practical, and can reduce the variance of the form factor estimates. The hemicube estimates of form factors are based on a finite set of sample directions. We obtain several optimal arrangements of sample directions, which minimize the variance of this estimate. Four approaches are changing the size of the pixels, the shape of the pixels, the shape of the hemicube, or using non-uniform pixel grids. The best approach reduces the variance by 43%. The variance calculation is based on the assumption that the errors in the estimate are caused by the projections of single edges of polygonal patches, and that the positions and orientations of these edges are random.

  12. Optimal hemicube sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N. California Univ., Davis, CA )

    1992-12-17

    Radiosity algorithms for global illumination, either gathering'' or shooting'' versions, depend on the calculation of form factors. It is possible to calculate the form factors analytically, but this is difficult when occlusion is involved, so sampling methods are usually preferred. The necessary visibility information can be obtained by ray tracing in the sampled directions. However, area coherence makes it more efficient to project and scan-convert the scene onto a number of planes, for example, the faces of a hemicube. The hemicube faces have traditionally been divided into equal square pixels, but more general subdivisions are practical, and can reduce the variance of the form factor estimates. The hemicube estimates of form factors are based on a finite set of sample directions. We obtain several optimal arrangements of sample directions, which minimize the variance of this estimate. Four approaches are changing the size of the pixels, the shape of the pixels, the shape of the hemicube, or using non-uniform pixel grids. The best approach reduces the variance by 43%. The variance calculation is based on the assumption that the errors in the estimate are caused by the projections of single edges of polygonal patches, and that the positions and orientations of these edges are random.

  13. Drill Press Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  14. Sample Analysis At Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GCMS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

  15. Sample Analysis at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GC/MS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

  16. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R. ); Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. )

    1994-08-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1[degree]--7[degree]). The 7 [lambda] deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented.

  17. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  18. Comparative sampling molds evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrard, L.; Jarry, P.; Charbonnier, J.; Rigaut, C.

    1996-10-01

    The metallurgical industry needs to cast alloys with narrow tolerances in their chemical composition in order to reduce variability of their use properties. Therefore appropriate sampling practices and analytical methods are required. Both accuracy and precision of the analytical results are limited by the non-homogeneity of as-cast disk or cylinder samples, which results from macrosegregation phenomenon. This paper presents a comparison between six commonly used molds: four molds recommended by ASTM standards (center-pour molds type B and vacuum mold), mushroom shaped and cylinder molds. Two complementary approaches are exhibited for the different molds designs: (1) solidification modeling in order to predict macrosegregation localization using the Simulor software; (2) experimental characterization. Radial and axial segregation profiles are determined by Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy in addition to analytical precision evaluation by spark optical emission and X-Ray fluorescence spectrometries for a given machining depth.

  19. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M C; Corcelli, S A

    2016-07-21

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase. PMID:27448877

  20. Water sample filtration unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, M.W.; Scarbro, G.F., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A readily portable, all plastic, pressure filtration unit is described which greatly facilitates rapid micropore membrane field filtration of up to several liters of water with a minimum risk of inorganic chemical alteration or contamination of the sample. The unit accommodates standard 10.2-cm. (4-inch) diameter filters. The storage and carrying case serves as a convenient filter stand for both field and laboratory use.

  1. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  2. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  3. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model.

  4. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  5. 340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  6. 340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  7. 340 representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Halgren, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-09

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  8. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  9. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of this first analysis are reported here.

  10. Stack sampling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Love, Lonnie J; Noakes, Mark W; Pin, Francois G; Richardson, Bradley S; Rowe, John C

    2014-09-16

    An apparatus for obtaining samples from a structure includes a support member, at least one stabilizing member, and at least one moveable member. The stabilizing member has a first portion coupled to the support member and a second portion configured to engage with the structure to restrict relative movement between the support member and the structure. The stabilizing member is radially expandable from a first configuration where the second portion does not engage with a surface of the structure to a second configuration where the second portion engages with the surface of the structure.

  11. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  12. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  13. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  14. 46. VIEW OF SAMPLING ROOM FROM SOUTHEAST. TO LEFT, SAMPLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF SAMPLING ROOM FROM SOUTHEAST. TO LEFT, SAMPLING ELEVATOR AND IN CENTER, SAMPLE BINS WITH DISCHARGE CHUTE AND THREE LABELS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling protocol should be dictated by the sampling objective(s). It is important to obtain representative ground water samples, regardless of the sampling objective(s). Low-flow (minimum draw-down) purging and sampling techniques are best in most instances, particularly for VOC...

  16. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  17. Conformational sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Marcus P D; Lovas, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    The potential energy hyper-surface of a protein relates the potential energy of the protein to its conformational space. This surface is useful in determining the native conformation of a protein or in examining a statistical-mechanical ensemble of structures (canonical ensemble). In determining the potential energy hyper-surface of a protein three aspects must be considered; reducing the degrees of freedom, a method to determine the energy of each conformation and a method to sample the conformational space. For reducing the degrees of freedom the choice of solvent, coarse graining, constraining degrees of freedom and periodic boundary conditions are discussed. The use of quantum mechanics versus molecular mechanics and the choice of force fields are also discussed, as well as the sampling of the conformational space through deterministic and heuristic approaches. Deterministic methods include knowledge-based statistical methods, rotamer libraries, homology modeling, the build-up method, self-consistent electrostatic field, deformation methods, tree-based elimination and eigenvector following routines. The heuristic methods include Monte Carlo chain growing, energy minimizations, metropolis monte carlo and molecular dynamics. In addition, various methods to enhance the conformational search including the deformation or smoothing of the surface, scaling of system parameters, and multi copy searching are also discussed. PMID:23947647

  18. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  19. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  20. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus.

  1. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1993-12-21

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus. 5 figures.

  2. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.

    1991-02-05

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

  3. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  4. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidance for selecting a plan to tomposite environmental or biological samples is provided in the form of models, equations, tables, and criteria. Composite sampling procedures can increase sensitivity, reduce sampling variance, and dramatically reduce analytical costs, depending...

  5. Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The electro-optic sampling system developed under AFOSR contract no. F49620-85-0016 has been the workhorse for high speed measurements made in this lab. This report documents the continuing effort to improve this tool and highlights its most recent uses. In addition, we report the development of a time-lens, a new tool that gives us electronic control of the shape of optical pulses. The development of a time-lens has opened up a new field of research. It is a tool to electronically control the temporal characteristics of optical pulses just like glass lenses control the spatial characteristics. Our results to date include the creation of 7 ps pulses from a CW laser, active focusing (compression) of 55 ps pulses down to 2 ps, and demonstration of the time-reversal properties of time-lenses. A Ph.D. thesis detailing the Stanford time-lens and pulse compression experiments is included as an appendix.

  6. Glass sample characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anees

    1990-01-01

    The development of in-house integrated optical performance modelling capability at MSFC is described. This performance model will take into account the effects of structural and thermal distortions, as well as metrology errors in optical surfaces to predict the performance of large an complex optical systems, such as Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility. The necessary hardware and software were identified to implement an integrated optical performance model. A number of design, development, and testing tasks were supported to identify the debonded mirror pad, and rebuilding of the Technology Mirror Assembly. Over 300 samples of Zerodur were prepared in different sizes and shapes for acid etching, coating, and polishing experiments to characterize the subsurface damage and stresses produced by the grinding and polishing operations.

  7. Global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, E. A.; Perkins, P. J.; Englund, D. R.; Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Automated instruments were installed on a commercial B-747 aircraft, during the program, to obtain baseline data and to monitor key atmospheric constituents associated with emissions of aircraft engines in order to determine if aircraft are contributing to pollution of the upper atmosphere. Data thus acquired on a global basis over the commercial air routes for 5 to 10 years will be analyzed. Ozone measurements in the 29,000 to 45,000 foot altitude were expanded over what has been available from ozonesondes. Limited aerosol composition measurements from filter samples show low levels of sulfates and nitrates in the upper troposphere. Recently installed instruments for measurement of carbon monoxide and condensation nuclei are beginning to return data.

  8. Revisiting sample entropy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Eswaran, H.; Lowery, C. L.; Preißl, H.

    2007-03-01

    We modify the definition of sample entropy (SaEn) by incorporating a time delay between the components of the block (from which the densities are estimated) and show that the modified method characterizes the complexity of the system better than the original version. We apply the modified SaEn to the standard deterministic systems and stochastic processes (uncorrelated and long range correlated (LRC) processes) and show that the underlying complexity of the system is better quantified by the modified method. We extend this analysis to the RR intervals of the normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects (available via www.physionet.org) and show that there is a good degree of separation between the two groups.

  9. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  10. Stratospheric CCN sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    When Mt. St. Helens produced several major eruptions in the late spring of 1980, there was a strong interest in the characterization of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of the material that was injected into the troposphere and stratosphere. The scientific value of CCN measurements is two fold: CCN counts may be directly applied to calculations of the interaction of the aerosol (enlargement) at atmospherically-realistic relative humidities or supersaturations; and if the chemical constituency of the aerosol can be assumed, the number-versus-critical supersaturation spectrum may be converted into a dry aerosol size spectrum covering a size region not readily measured by other methods. The sampling method is described along with the instrumentation used in the experiments.

  11. Automated Factor Slice Sampling.

    PubMed

    Tibbits, Matthew M; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C

    2014-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the "factor slice sampler", a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  12. Automated Factor Slice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “factor slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  13. [A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling].

    PubMed

    Suen, Lee-Jen Wu; Huang, Hui-Man; Lee, Hao-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Convenience sampling and purposive sampling are two different sampling methods. This article first explains sampling terms such as target population, accessible population, simple random sampling, intended sample, actual sample, and statistical power analysis. These terms are then used to explain the difference between "convenience sampling" and purposive sampling." Convenience sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique applicable to qualitative or quantitative studies, although it is most frequently used in quantitative studies. In convenience samples, subjects more readily accessible to the researcher are more likely to be included. Thus, in quantitative studies, opportunity to participate is not equal for all qualified individuals in the target population and study results are not necessarily generalizable to this population. As in all quantitative studies, increasing the sample size increases the statistical power of the convenience sample. In contrast, purposive sampling is typically used in qualitative studies. Researchers who use this technique carefully select subjects based on study purpose with the expectation that each participant will provide unique and rich information of value to the study. As a result, members of the accessible population are not interchangeable and sample size is determined by data saturation not by statistical power analysis. PMID:24899564

  14. Sample Manipulation System for Sample Analysis at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumm, Erik; Kennedy, Tom; Carlson, Lee; Roberts, Dustyn

    2008-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument will analyze Martian samples collected by the Mars Science Laboratory Rover with a suite of spectrometers. This paper discusses the driving requirements, design, and lessons learned in the development of the Sample Manipulation System (SMS) within SAM. The SMS stores and manipulates 74 sample cups to be used for solid sample pyrolysis experiments. Focus is given to the unique mechanism architecture developed to deliver a high packing density of sample cups in a reliable, fault tolerant manner while minimizing system mass and control complexity. Lessons learned are presented on contamination control, launch restraint mechanisms for fragile sample cups, and mechanism test data.

  15. Sample holder with optical features

    DOEpatents

    Milas, Mirko; Zhu, Yimei; Rameau, Jonathan David

    2013-07-30

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  16. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  17. Variable Sampling Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  18. Super-sample signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin; Hu, Wayne; Takada, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    When extracting cosmological information from power spectrum measurements, we must consider the impact of super-sample density fluctuations whose wavelengths are larger than the survey scale. These modes contribute to the mean density fluctuation δb in the survey and change the power spectrum in the same way as a change in the cosmological background. They can be simply included in cosmological parameter estimation and forecasts by treating δb as an additional cosmological parameter enabling efficient exploration of its impact. To test this approach, we consider here an idealized measurement of the matter power spectrum itself in the Λ CDM cosmology though our techniques can readily be extended to more observationally relevant statistics or other parameter spaces. Using subvolumes of large-volume N -body simulations for power spectra measured with respect to either the global or local mean density, we verify that the minimum variance estimator of δb is both unbiased and has the predicted variance. Parameter degeneracies arise since the response of the matter power spectrum to δb and cosmological parameters share similar properties in changing the growth of structure and dilating the scale of features especially in the local case. For matter power spectrum measurements, these degeneracies can lead in certain cases to substantial error degradation and motivates future studies of specific cosmological observables such as galaxy clustering and weak lensing statistics with these techniques.

  19. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  20. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  1. Sampling-interval-dependent stability for linear sampled-data systems with non-uniform sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hanyong; Lam, James; Feng, Zhiguang

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the sampling-interval-dependent stability of linear sampled-data systems with non-uniform sampling. A new Lyapunov-like functional is constructed to derive sampling-interval-dependent stability results. The Lyapunov-like functional has three features. First, it depends on time explicitly. Second, it may be discontinuous at the sampling instants. Third, it is not required to be positive definite between sampling instants. Moreover, the new Lyapunov-like functional can make use of the information fully of the sampled-data system, including that of both ends of the sampling interval. By making a new proposition for the Lyapunov-like functional, a sampling-interval-dependent stability criterion with reduced conservatism is derived. The new sampling-interval-dependent stability criterion is further extended to linear sampled-data systems with polytopic uncertainties. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the reduced conservatism of the stability criteria.

  2. Form development sample test matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B

    1999-10-15

    This document summarizes the status of sample fabrication and analysis in the Form Development Sample Test Matrix. Since its publication in the ''Baseline Formulation'' report (UCRL-ID- 133089, PIP-99-O 12) and in the ''Complete Single-Phase Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application and Complete Process and Compositional Extreme Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application'' report (PIP-99-078), the Sample Test Matrix has been updated and expanded. This version is current though September 30, 1999.

  3. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  4. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  5. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING SAMPLING AND SAMPLE BANK AUDITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) is responsible for preparing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for auditing sampling and sample bank activities performed under the Resource Conservation and Reco...

  6. Sampling for area estimation: A comparison of full-frame sampling with the sample segment approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, M.; Bauer, M. E.; Davis, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Full-frame classifications of wheat and non-wheat for eighty counties in Kansas were repetitively sampled to simulate alternative sampling plans. Evaluation of four sampling schemes involving different numbers of samples and different size sampling units shows that the precision of the wheat estimates increased as the segment size decreased and the number of segments was increased. Although the average bias associated with the various sampling schemes was not significantly different, the maximum absolute bias was directly related to sampling size unit.

  7. Sample Tube Sealing for Future Proposed Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, P.; Aveline, D.; Bao, X.; Berisford, D.; Bhandari, P.; Budney, C.; Chen, F.; Cooper, M.; Chung, S.; Lewis, D.

    2013-01-01

    A key premise of a proposed Sample Caching Rover, a crucial element of the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign, is that the samples could be packaged and left on Mars for an extended period of time (at least five Mars years) without loss of scientific value (Fig. 1). The MEPAG E2E-iSAG (2011) concluded that the single most important factor in preserving the scientific integrity of the samples during the interval between their collection and their analysis is effective sealing of the samples.

  8. STATISTICAL SAMPLING AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research is being conducted to develop approaches to improve soil and sediment sampling techniques, measurement design and geostatistics, and data analysis via chemometric, environmetric, and robust statistical methods. Improvements in sampling contaminated soil and other hetero...

  9. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Volume XXVI. 1975 Edition of Course of Study Outlines. Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools and Middlesex County Adult Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capizzi, James

    The two courses of study described and outlined here are offered at Burr D. Coe Vocational and Technical High School in East Brunswick, New Jersey, for students wishing to prepare for a career in air conditioning and refrigeration. Section 1 deals with a 4-year high school course, Section 2 with a 1-year course for those who have completed high…

  10. Sampling properties of directed networks.

    PubMed

    Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Bizhani, G; Foster, D V; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M

    2012-10-01

    For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties is all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage can make to the structural properties of sampled versions of these seven networks. Most notably, we find that sampling method and coverage affect both the bow-tie structure and the number and structure of strongly connected components in sampled networks. In addition, at a low sampling coverage (i.e., less than 40%), the values of average degree, variance of out-degree, degree autocorrelation, and link reciprocity are overestimated by 30% or more in BFS-sampled networks and only attain values within 10% of the corresponding values in the complete networks when sampling coverage is in excess of 65%. These results may cause us to rethink what we know about the structure, function, and evolution of real-world directed networks. PMID:23214649

  11. Correction of Anisokinetic Sampling Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William G.

    Gas flow patterns at a sampling nozzle are described in this presentation for the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Three situations for sampling velocity are illustrated and analyzed, where the flow upstream of a sampling probe is: (1) equal to free stream…

  12. Sampling properties of directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S.-W.; Christensen, C.; Bizhani, G.; Foster, D. V.; Grassberger, P.; Paczuski, M.

    2012-10-01

    For many real-world networks only a small “sampled” version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties is all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage can make to the structural properties of sampled versions of these seven networks. Most notably, we find that sampling method and coverage affect both the bow-tie structure and the number and structure of strongly connected components in sampled networks. In addition, at a low sampling coverage (i.e., less than 40%), the values of average degree, variance of out-degree, degree autocorrelation, and link reciprocity are overestimated by 30% or more in BFS-sampled networks and only attain values within 10% of the corresponding values in the complete networks when sampling coverage is in excess of 65%. These results may cause us to rethink what we know about the structure, function, and evolution of real-world directed networks.

  13. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion. PMID:25677085

  14. Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Bagby, John (Editor); Race, Margaret (Editor); Rummel, John (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol (QP) Workshop was convened to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent uncontrolled release of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of live organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. During the first part of the Workshop, several tutorials were presented on topics related to the workshop in order to give all participants a common basis in the technical areas necessary to achieve the objectives of the Workshop.

  15. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, K.; Badescu, M.; Haddad, N.; Shiraishi, L.; Walkemeyer, P.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a potential Mars Sample Return campaign NASA is studying a sample caching mission to Mars, with a possible 2018 launch opportunity. As such, a Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) has been developed in support of the Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture as it relates to the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign. The tool allows for core generation and capture directly into a sample tube. In doing so, the sample tube becomes the fundamental handling element within the IMSAH sample chain reducing the risk associated with sample contamination as well as the need to handle a sample of unknown geometry. The tool's functionality was verified utilizing a proposed rock test suite that encompasses a series of rock types that have been utilized in the past to qualify Martian surface sampling hardware. The corresponding results have shown the tool can effectively generate, fracture, and capture rock cores while maintaining torque margins of no less than 50% with an average power consumption of no greater than 90W and a tool mass of less than 6kg.

  16. Clean and Cold Sample Curation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Agee, C. B.; Beer, R.; Cooper, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    Curation of Mars samples includes both samples that are returned to Earth, and samples that are collected, examined, and archived on Mars. Both kinds of curation operations will require careful planning to ensure that the samples are not contaminated by the instruments that are used to collect and contain them. In both cases, sample examination and subdivision must take place in an environment that is organically, inorganically, and biologically clean. Some samples will need to be prepared for analysis under ultra-clean or cryogenic conditions. Inorganic and biological cleanliness are achievable separately by cleanroom and biosafety lab techniques. Organic cleanliness to the <50 ng/sq cm level requires material control and sorbent removal - techniques being applied in our Class 10 cleanrooms and sample processing gloveboxes.

  17. Adaptive sampling for noisy problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2004-03-26

    The usual approach to deal with noise present in many real-world optimization problems is to take an arbitrary number of samples of the objective function and use the sample average as an estimate of the true objective value. The number of samples is typically chosen arbitrarily and remains constant for the entire optimization process. This paper studies an adaptive sampling technique that varies the number of samples based on the uncertainty of deciding between two individuals. Experiments demonstrate the effect of adaptive sampling on the final solution quality reached by a genetic algorithm and the computational cost required to find the solution. The results suggest that the adaptive technique can effectively eliminate the need to set the sample size a priori, but in many cases it requires high computational costs.

  18. Obstructions to Sampling Qualitative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Arne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sampling methods have proven to be a very efficient and intuitive method to understand properties of complicated spaces that cannot easily be computed using deterministic methods. Therefore, sampling methods became a popular tool in the applied sciences. Results Here, we show that sampling methods are not an appropriate tool to analyze qualitative properties of complicated spaces unless RP = NP. We illustrate these results on the example of the thermodynamically feasible flux space of genome-scale metabolic networks and show that with artificial centering hit and run (ACHR) not all reactions that can have variable flux rates are sampled with variables flux rates. In particular a uniform sample of the flux space would not sample the flux variabilities completely. Conclusion We conclude that unless theoretical convergence results exist, qualitative results obtained from sampling methods should be considered with caution and if possible double checked using a deterministic method. PMID:26287384

  19. Sample Sealing Approaches for Mars Sample Return Caching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; deAlwis, Thimal; Backes, Paul; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    Objective ot this project was to investigate sealing methods for encapsulating samples in 1 cm diameter thin-walled sample tubes applicable to future proposed Mars Sample Return Techniques implemented include a spring energized Teflon sleeve plug, a crimped tube seal, a heat-activated shape memory alloy plug, a shape memory alloy activated cap, a solder-based plug, and a solder-based cap

  20. Innovative sample tracking for a project requiring thousands of samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, J.G.; Edlund, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    A large project spread over 9,800 square miles with 3,000 samples and 300 sites demanded creative tracking and accounting of the samples. To answer this need, an innovative sample data system was developed for this project which investigated potential environmental impacts at missile sites in South Dakota and Missouri. The system provided improved data quality, lower transcription and typographical errors, reduced field efforts, fast sample tracking, and reduced data entry. Samples of groundwater, soils, lagoon sludge and paint required analysis of up to 75 analytical parameters. A project of this scope presented many logistics and accounting challenges involving many sites, samples, analyses, and sampling teams under a fast-track schedule. During one phase over two weeks, three teams collected over 1,000 samples at over 100 sites. To address such a scope, an integrated data system was implemented using computerized label preparation, a sample tracking database, electronic chains-of-custody, and database storage of analytical results. Pollutants of concern are VOCs, metals, and diesel fuels.

  1. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  2. SALTSTONE PROCESSING FACILITY TRANSFER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Reigel, M.

    2010-08-04

    On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Production Facility inadvertently transferred 1800 gallons of untreated waste from the salt feed tank to Vault 4. During shut down, approximately 70 gallons of the material was left in the Saltstone hopper. A sample of the slurry in the hopper was sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze the density, pH and the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals. The sample was hazardous for chromium, mercury and pH. The sample received from the Saltstone hopper was analyzed visually while obtaining sample aliquots and while the sample was allowed to settle. It was observed that the sample contains solids that settle in approximately 20 minutes (Figure 3-1). There is a floating layer on top of the supernate during settling and disperses when the sample is agitated (Figure 3-2). The untreated waste inadvertently transferred from the SFT to Vault 4 was toxic for chromium and mercury. In addition, the pH of the sample is at the regulatory limit. Visually inspecting the sample indicates solids present in the sample.

  3. Chemical analyses of provided samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    Two batches of samples were received and chemical analysis was performed of the surface and near surface regions of the samples by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The samples included four one-inch optics and several paint samples. The analyses emphasized surface contamination or modification. In these studies, pulsed sputtering by 7 keV Ar+ and primarily single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118 nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/cm(sup 2) were used. For two of the samples, also multiphoton ionization (MPI) at 266 nm (approximately 5 x 10(exp 11) W/cm(sup 2) was used. Most notable among the results was the silicone contamination on Mg2 mirror 28-92, and that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) paint sample had been enriched in K and Na and depleted in Zn, Si, B, and organic compounds relative to the control paint.

  4. Study of sample drilling techniques for Mars sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D. C.; Harris, P. T.

    1980-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring various surface samples for a Mars sample return mission the following tasks were performed: (1) design of a Mars rover-mounted drill system capable of acquiring crystalline rock cores; prediction of performance, mass, and power requirements for various size systems, and the generation of engineering drawings; (2) performance of simulated permafrost coring tests using a residual Apollo lunar surface drill, (3) design of a rock breaker system which can be used to produce small samples of rock chips from rocks which are too large to return to Earth, but too small to be cored with the Rover-mounted drill; (4)design of sample containers for the selected regolith cores, rock cores, and small particulate or rock samples; and (5) design of sample handling and transfer techniques which will be required through all phase of sample acquisition, processing, and stowage on-board the Earth return vehicle. A preliminary design of a light-weight Rover-mounted sampling scoop was also developed.

  5. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil has always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agroc...

  6. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING METHODS FOR GASEOUS ATMOSPHERIC SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research program was conducted to test and evaluate several alternatives for collecting and transferring samples from the collection site to the laboratory for the analysis of a variety of toxic organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC). Sample storage media included three ...

  7. 16. DETAILED VIEW OF SAMPLING EQUIPMENT. SAMPLED OFFGAS IS SENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAILED VIEW OF SAMPLING EQUIPMENT. SAMPLED OFF-GAS IS SENT THROUGH A FOUR - STAGE COLD WATER TRAP. COOLING OF THE GAS ALLOWS A CONDENSATE TO FORM. THE CONDENSATE IS ANALYZED FOR CHEMICAL CONTENT. (6/2/80) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  9. Development of Sample Verification System for Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Manohara, Harish

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a proof of-concept sample verification system (SVS) for in-situ mass measurement of planetary rock and soil sample in future robotic sample return missions. Our proof-of-concept SVS device contains a 10 cm diameter pressure sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in proximity to an opposing substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap to be narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two nearly parallel plates. Capacitance readout circuitry on a nearby printed circuit board (PCB) transmits data via a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) interface. The fabricated SVS proof-of-concept device has successfully demonstrated approximately 1pF/gram capacitance change

  10. Mars sample return: Site selection and sample acquisition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickle, N. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Various vehicle and mission options were investigated for the continued exploration of Mars; the cost of a minimum sample return mission was estimated; options and concepts were synthesized into program possibilities; and recommendations for the next Mars mission were made to the Planetary Program office. Specific sites and all relevant spacecraft and ground-based data were studied in order to determine: (1) the adequacy of presently available data for identifying landing sities for a sample return mission that would assure the acquisition of material from the most important geologic provinces of Mars; (2) the degree of surface mobility required to assure sample acquisition for these sites; (3) techniques to be used in the selection and drilling of rock a samples; and (4) the degree of mobility required at the two Viking sites to acquire these samples.