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Building Community Connections: Designing a Future That Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trainer's manual is designed to enable trainers to provide information about the use of personal connections in the development of networks leading to employment opportunities to individuals with disabilities. Detailed information is provided for a 2-day workshop that focuses on the importance of using networks, the benefits of using personal…

Gandolfo, Cecilia; Gold, Martine; Hunt, Ashley; Marrone, Joe; Whelan, Tom


Trading Agent Competition Market Design Game Strategic Trader Game Conclusion and Future Work A Platform for Trading Agent Competition  

E-print Network

Trading Agent Competition Market Design Game Strategic Trader Game Conclusion and Future Work A Platform for Trading Agent Competition Dongmo Zhang and Chun Gao Intelligent Systems Laboratory University of Western Sydney Australia #12;Trading Agent Competition Market Design Game Strategic Trader Game Conclusion

Zhang, Dongmo


Future integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

Meyer, D. D.



Women Shaping the Future. The Future of Work Discussion Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to inform and empower women to participate in debates and decisions about the future of work in Australia, this kit provides everything needed to run a discussion session on the future of work with women in the community. It consists of a guide for users, workshop guide, topic sheets, and background reading. The guide for users introduces…

Pine, Janet; Jackson, Sue; MacNeill, Kate


Chapter VI: Conclusion & Future Work In this thesis we extended automatic visualization design to include all four phases of the visualization  

E-print Network

VI­156 Chapter VI: Conclusion & Future Work In this thesis we extended automatic visualization design to include all four phases of the visualization creation process: data, mapping, graphical enabling interactive visualization interfaces to be created automatically. Previous automatic systems


Kids Design the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Maryland wants children to have "a voice in making new technology for kids." To meet this goal, the group have organized a technology design team which brings together children (ages seven to eleven) and researchers from computer science, education, art, robotics, and other disciplines to meet twice a week and work on projects together. The teams write papers and create new technologies, most of which are available free to download from this website. Information on the group's design process and approach to teaching and learning is also provided.


Beyond formalization: rethinking the future of work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A long-standing meta-narrative regarding the future of work is that, over history, economic activity has shifted from the informal into the formal economy and that the informal economy is now a residue existing only in the margins. This paper aims to evaluate critically this formalization thesis so as to question whether the future of work is inevitably and

Colin Williams; John Round



Design of future surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This brief chapter addresses two related issues: how effort should be allocated to different parts of the sampling plan and, given optimal allocation, how large a sample will be required to achieve the PRISM accuracy target. Simulations based on data collected to date showed that 2 plots per cluster on rapid surveys, 2 intensive camps per field crew-year, 2-4 intensive plots per intensive camp, and 2-3 rapid surveys per intensive plot is the most efficient allocation of resources. Using this design, we investigated how crew-years should be allocated to each region in order to meet the PRISM accuracy target most efficiently. The analysis indicated that 40-50 crew-years would achieve the accuracy target for 18-24 of the 26 species breeding widely in the Arctic. This analysis was based on assuming that two rounds of surveys were conducted and that a 50% decline occurred between them. We discuss the complexity of making these estimates and why they should be viewed as first approximations.

Bart, Jonathan; Smith, Paul A.



OECD Work on Future Educational Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing school buildings to respond to change is not a new idea. But perhaps what is different today is the kind and degree of change which we have to anticipate. The OECD is carrying out projects that can help in the planning and design of future educational facilities--exploring trends in education and studying innovative learning…

Theisens, Henno; Benavides, Francisco; Dumont, Hanna



Adult Learning and the Future of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

Singh, Madhu, Ed.


Working Conditions: Job Design. Working Paper #4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary report presents an integration of findings on teachers' perceptions of their working conditions, based on survey and interview data from special educators in six large urban school districts. Emphasis is on perceptions of problems related to job design, the highly interrelated set of structures, systems, and processes intended to…

Gersten, Russell; And Others


Design Patterns - Past, Present & Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design Patterns are now a 15 year old thought experiment. And today, for many, Design Patterns have become part of the standard development lexicon. This talk looks back to the origin of Design Patterns and how they evolved since their initial description. I will then show patterns in action in the context of the Eclipse and Jazz platforms. Finally, I will discuss how the Design Patterns from the book can be refactored towards a Design Pattern 2.0 version.

Gamma, Erich


Rocket Design for the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of the AA MDO team is to reduce product development cost through the capture and automation of best design and analysis practices and through increasing the availability of low-cost, high-fidelity analysis. Implementation of robust designs reduces costs associated with the Test-Fall-Fix cycle. RD is currently focusing on several technologies to improve the design process, including optimization and robust design, expert and rule-based systems, and collaborative technologies.

Follett, William W.; Rajagopal, Raj



Environmental Design Charrettes: The future of design  

SciTech Connect

In October, 1995, an Environmental Design Charrette (EDC) was held at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado. This EDC was part of a larger American Institute of Architects project of 15 other charrettes held throughout the US and linked together via modem. Experts were placed at the various sites to assist with the process at both a local and a national level. This paper presents the design problem addressed by the Fort Collins, Colorado site to program and design and Environmental Learning Center for Colorado State University.

Anstead, K. [Anstead Design Group, Boulder, CO (United States); Franta, G. [ENSAR Group, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)



Future Centered Design: Designing for Sustainable Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper outlines the changing attitudes of business leaders towards sustainability and the opportunities this presents\\u000a to product and information designers. Smart business leaders are beginning to understand the importance of sustainable practices\\u000a to their success. Resource scarcity, increased regulation, and need to safeguard their brand reputation are a few of the key\\u000a drivers for this mind shift. Just as

Janaki Kumar; Peter Graf


California Energy Futures Study Working Committee  

E-print Network

Economic Biomass Yield Technology Design & implementation of high biomass crops Development of improved: Can we get there with low carbon technologies without reducing demand? H. Youngs ­ EBI, UC Berkeley ~ $300m each = ~ $3 billion capital investment H. Youngs, UC Berkeley CCST CA Biofuels Jobs associated

California at Davis, University of


Equipped for the Future. Preparing for Work: A Guide for Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Preparing for Work," developed by Equipped for the Future at the Center for Literacy Studies, University of Tennessee, is a skills-based course designed for implementation in organizations and agencies involved in preparing their clients and students for entry level work. Each of the instructional modules that comprise the "Preparing for Work"…

Center for Literacy Studies, University of Tennessee (NJ3), 2011



Accelerator Design Concept for Future Neutrino Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the findings of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The work of the group took place at three plenary meetings along with three workshops, and an oral summary report was presented at the NuFact06 workshop held at UC-Irvine in August, 2006. The goal was

Michael S Zisman; J. S. Berg; A. Blondel; S. Brooks; J.-E. Campagne; D. Caspar; C. Cevata; P. Chimenti; J. Cobb; M. Dracos; R. Edgecock; I. Efthymiopoulos; A. Fabich; R. Fernow; F. Filthaut; J. Gallardo; R. Garoby; S. Geer; F. Gerigk; G. Hanson; R. Johnson; C. Johnstone; D. Kaplan; E. Keil; H. Kirk; A. Klier; A. Kurup; J. Lettry; K. Long; S. Machida; K. McDonald; F. Meot; Y. Mori; D. Neuffer; V. Palladino; R. Palmer; K. Paul; A. Poklonskiy; M. Popovic; C. Prior; G. Rees; C. Rossi; T. Rovelli; R. Sandstrom; R. Sevior; P. Sievers; N. Simos; Y. Torun; M. Vretenar; K. Yoshimura



The Work Design Method for Human Friendly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize “the product life cycle with respect for human nature". we ought to make work design so that work environment should be configured to be sound in mind and body, with due consideration of not only physical but also mental factors from the viewpoint of workers. The former includes too heavy work, unreasonable working posture, local fatigue of the body, the safety, and working comfort, and the latter includes work motivation, work worthiness, stress, etc. For the purpose of evaluating the degree of working comfort and safety at human-oriented production lines, we acknowledged, for the work design, the effectiveness of the work designing technique with working time variation duly considered. And, we formulated a model for a mental factor experienced by workers from the degree of working delays. This study covers a work design technique we developed with the effect of the factor as the value of evaluation.

Harada, Narumi; Sasaki, Masatoshi; Ichikawa, Masami


Division XII \\/ Commission 5 \\/ Working Group Designations  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 2003 Sydney IAU meeting, Marion Schmitz (Caltech, USA) took over the chair of the Commission 5 Working Group Designations, succeeding Helene Dickel. The Working Group Designations of IAU Commission 5 clarifies existing astronomical nomenclature and helps astronomers avoid potential problems when designating their sources. The most important function of WG Designations during the period 2003-2005 was overseeing the

Marion Schmitz; Heinz J. Andernach; Suzanne Borde; Kirk D. Borne; Anne P. Cowley; Helene R. Dickel; Pascal Dubois; John S. Gallagher; Françoise Genova; Paul W. Hodge; Richard W. Hunstead; Marie-Claire Lortet; Donald A. Lubowich; Oleg Yu. Malkov; Tetsuya Nagata; François Ochsenbein; Sean E. Urban; Ethan T. Vishniac; Wayne H. Warren; Norbert Zacharias



The Future of Work. Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Future of Work project grew out of an essay of the same title by Frithjof Bergmann, a philosophy professor at the University of Michigan. In spring 1983, Professor Bergmann and a colleague, Richard Gull, founded the Center for New Work of Flint in Michigan, where the problems besieging the U.S. auto industry were focusing attention on the…

Center for New Work of Flint, MI.


Designing a Package that Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams act as engineers and brainstorm, design, create and test their ideas for packaging to protect a raw egg shipped in a 9 x 12-in envelope. They follow the steps of the engineering design process and aim for a successful solution with no breakage, low weight, minimal materials and recyled/reused materials. Students come to understand the multi-faceted engineering considerations associated with the packaging of items to preserve, market and safely transport goods.

Making the Connection, Women in Engineering Programs and Advocates Network (WEPAN) ,


Present status and future of the sophisticated work station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excellency of the work station is explained, by comparing the functions of software and hardware of work station with those of personal computer. As one of the examples utilizing the functions of work station, desk top publishing is explained. By describing the competition between the Group of ATT · Sun Microsystems which intends to have the leadership by integrating Berkeley version which is most popular at this moment and System V version, and the group led by IBM, future of UNIX as OS of work station is predicted. Development of RISC processor, TRON Plan and Sigma Projects by MITI are also mentioned as its background.

Ishida, Haruhisa


CHARIS Construction Status, Design, and Future Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Princeton University is funded by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to build an integral field spectrograph (IFS) dubbed the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS). CHARIS is part of the ongoing exoplanet science effort at the Subaru Telescope, and will serve as the science imager for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) and AO188 systems. The principal science goals are disk imaging and high contrast spectra of brown dwarfs and hot Jovian planets across J, H, and K bands. SCExAO is a coronagraphic and wavefront control system that will be capable of extreme adaptive optics and quasi-static speckle suppression. Speckle suppression is meant to reduce the residual speckle to a level that makes it possible to detect planets at very low inner working angles (~80 mas). Even so, CHARIS must mitigate spectral contamination from the residual speckle halo due to crosstalk between the closely packed spectra of the image. CHARIS mitigates crosstalk via an array of field stops behind the lenslet array and carefully toleranced relay optics. This reduces uncertainty in the measured spectrum of the exoplanets by increasing robustness of the spectrograph to nearby bright speckles. Mitigating crosstalk in hardware both improves science and reduces computational overhead. Combined with a detailed wavefront budget this improves the utility of CHARIS in the speckle control loop. Another defining feature of CHARIS is its disperser design. In addition to imaging in individual J, H, and K bands, CHARIS has a fourth mode that images across all three simultaneously. This required an improvement in the linearity of dispersion from 1.15 to 2.38 microns. To do so the CHARIS project has chosen a new high-index dispersing material and characterized its properties at cryogenic temperatures. We present the build status of the spectrograph, including status and viability of operating an H2RG detector directly using a SAM card via gigabit Ethernet over Linux. In addition to the stated and as-built specifications of the instrument hardware, we discuss the future of science impacts of CHARIS at the Subaru telescope.

Groff, Tyler Dean; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Peters, Mary Anne; Galvin, Michael; Knapp, Gillian R.; Brandt, Timothy; Loomis, Craig; Carr, Michael; Mede, Kyle; Jarosik, Norman; McElwain, Michael W.; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Takato, Naruhisa; Hayashi, Masahiko



The Future of Digital Working: Knowledge Migration and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Against the backdrop of intensified migration linked to globalisation, this article considers the implications of knowledge migration for future digital workers. It draws empirically on a socio-material analysis of the international software localisation industry. Localisers' work requires linguistic, cultural and software engineering skills…

Malcolm, Irene




E-print Network

in construction is a major international research endeavour in scientific establishments and industry Materials and Components Iceland 2000 Taking the Construction Industry into the 21st Century Table 1 ­ CIB WINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR CONSTRUCTION: RECENT WORK AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Robert Amor1 and Martin

Amor, Robert



E-print Network

and Components Iceland 2000 Taking the Construction Industry into the 21st Century Table 1 ­ CIB W78 MeetingsINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR CONSTRUCTION: RECENT WORK AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Robert Amor1 and Martin Betts2 1 Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland, New Zealand 2 School of Construction

Amor, Robert


Summary of “Future of DIS” Working Group Session  

SciTech Connect

Despite the closure of the HERA accelerator in the past few years, much physics still remains to be understood, from the quark and gluon content of the nucleon/nucleus across all x to the still unknown spin structure of the proton. The 'Future of DIS' working group was dedicated to discussions on these and many other subjects. This paper represents a brief overview of the discussions. For further details, please refer to individual contributions.

Lamont M.; Guzey, V.; Polini, A.



Designing for Our Future in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, the disciplines of architecture and human factors have been increasingly recognized as specialties that have focused upon "human-centered design" in the development of spacecraft and surface habitats. These specialties have been instrumental in the conceptual design of overall spacecraft configurations and layouts, as well as habitability outfitting hardware, such as the galley, hygiene facility, sleep quarters, or the layout of displays and controls. From the human-centered perspective, this approach to design assists in the mitigation of risk when designing for an extreme environment such as space. It takes into account the human s physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations, the human s performance in the context of human space flight, the human s interaction with machines that are both physically and cognitively complex, the activities required of the human to accomplish the goals of missions, and the use of design practices that promote products to enable human activity. It is this latter aspect - the use of design practices that promote products to enable human activity - that is the focus of the approach used by the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) in collaboration with the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). During the past few years, there has been a growing recognition of the value added by utilizing industrial designers to further the conceptual development of space hardware, that when used in conjunction with architecture and human factors, provides a robust solution to the design challenge. The "Design for Extreme Environments" Studio at RISD has taken suggested design topics from the NASA JSC HHFB and asked the students to investigate solutions to these challenges. The topics have demanded that the student pay particular attention to a variety of aspects of the space environment and understand how the human responds to each. The student must then adapt the design to these responses. The studio environment has been one way to introduce these challenges, but providing for an "in-residence" opportunity at JSC has given the students a broader vision and set of experiences. The accompanying presentation highlights the studio as well as in-residence work that has been accomplished.

Connolly, Janis



Guidelines for children's work in agriculture: implications for the future.  


The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to assist parents in assigning developmentally appropriate and safe farm work to their children aged 7-16 years. Since their release in 1999, a growing body of evidence has accumulated regarding the content and application of these guidelines to populations of working children on farms. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific and programmatic evidence about the content, efficacy, application, and uptake of NAGCAT and propose key recommendations for the future. The methods for this review included a synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature and programmatic evidence gathered from safety professionals. From the review, it is clear that the NAGCAT tractor guidelines and the manual material handling guidelines need to be updated based upon the latest empirical evidence. While NAGCAT do have the potential to prevent serious injuries to working children in the correct age range (7-16 years), the highest incidence of farm related injuries and fatalities occur to children aged 1-6 years and NAGCAT are unlikely to have any direct effect on this leading injury problem. It is also clear that NAGCAT, as a voluntary educational strategy, is not sufficient by itself to protect children working on farms. Uptake of NAGCAT has been sporadic, despite being geographically widespread and has depended, almost solely, on a few interested and committed professionals. Key recommendations for the future are provided based upon this review. PMID:22490027

Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C; Pickett, William



Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as originated by the author, by amendment to two U.S. federal laws: National Historic Preservation Act and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The dissertation provides a case study in public anthropology. The findings of the dissertation include recommendations whereby the Future Remains clause gives historic preservation and cultural resources a leading and ongoing role in facilitating real-time forward looking historical documentation at environmental restoration projects at United States National Priorities List (i.e., "Superfund") sites.

Freer, Brian


Designing Classrooms that Work: Teacher Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a guide for teachers and trainers participating in the initial experimental offering of a 6-week minisabbatical, Designing Classrooms that Work (CTW). The minisabbatical is designed to help teachers learn how to make the kinds of curricular and pedagogical changes implied by reforms to integrate vocational and academic education…

Ramsey, Kimberly; Stasz, Cathleen; Ormseth, Tor; Eden, Rick; Co, Jennifer


Job Design for Learning in Work Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--What is required of job design and production planning, if they are to result in a work group taking a self-starting approach and going beyond what is formally required of it? This paper aims to contribute to group research by testing a theoretical model of relations between job design on the one hand (captured as completeness, demand on…

Lantz, Annika; Brav, Agneta



Designer drugs Scientists are working across disciplines  

E-print Network

Designer drugs Scientists are working across disciplines to make new drugs Rapid response The power Zealand installation at the 2011 Venice Biennale being as much about music as art. Michael Parekowhai plants. "With six tonnes of bronze the works themselves are indeed heavy and impressive," Michael says

Auckland, University of


Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

Quincy, Michael L.



Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with future French SFR concept has been done based on the requirement of EDF, the investor-operator of future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of EDF-JAEA bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation on future SFR. (authors)

Uematsu, M. M. [JAEA, 2-2-2 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8577 (Japan); Prele, G. [EDF SEPTEN, 12-14 Avenue Dutrievoz, F-69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Mariteau, P.; Sauvage, J. F. [Electricite de France EDF (France); Hayafune, H.; Chikazawa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency JAEA (Japan)



Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis



Energy Efficient School Designed for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When completed, the planned Greeley Elementary School will be able to accommodate any future changes in enrollment and technological developments, while maintaining a constant energy efficient heating and cooling operation. (Author/MLF)

Modern Schools, 1977



On the Design of Future Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the design of future wireless ad hoc networks. Particularly, we consider that the future wire- less ad hoc networks shall be able to efficiently provide conn ectiv- ity and support a variety of quality of service requirements, such as bandwidth and delay requirements. To address these issues, we propose a novel framework for the design

Kejie Lu; Shengli Fu; Tao Zhang; Yi Qian



Schools of the Future and Sustainable Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis examines what practices schools and school districts need to adopt if they want to apply sustainable design principles to their new schools and the benefits these design practices offer school communities. The paper argues that school districts will benefit from these design principles, and that these benefits will occur because…

Fox, Anne Webster


Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work T cell repertoire maintenance  

E-print Network

Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work T cell repertoire, March 2008 #12;Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work History cell activation) Effector T cell PERIPHERY (or mature T cell) #12;Immunological background Mathematical

Wirosoetisno, Djoko


Division XII / Commission 5 / Working Group Designations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 2003 Sydney IAU meeting, Marion Schmitz (Caltech, USA) took over the chair of the Commission 5 Working Group Designations, succeeding Helene Dickel. The Working Group Designations of IAU Commission 5 clarifies existing astronomical nomenclature and helps astronomers avoid potential problems when designating their sources. The most important function of WG Designations during the period 2003-2005 was overseeing the IAU REGISTRY FOR ACRONYMS (for newly discovered astronomical sources of radiation: see the website ) which is sponsored by the WG and operated by the Centre de Données de Strasbourg (CDS). The Clearing House, a subgroup of the WG, screens the submissions for accuracy and conformity to the IAU Recommendations for Nomenclature (). From its beginning in 1997 through August 2006, there have been 132 submissions and 111 acceptances. Attempts to register asterisms, common star names, and suspected variable stars were rejected. The past three years saw 61 acronyms submitted with 50 of them being accepted. (GIRL - yes; WOMEN - no).

Schmitz, Marion; Andernach, Heinz J.; Borde, Suzanne; Borne, Kirk D.; Cowley, Anne P.; Dickel, Helene R.; Dubois, Pascal; Gallagher, John S.; Genova, Françoise; Hodge, Paul W.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Lortet, Marie-Claire; Lubowich, Donald A.; Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Ochsenbein, François; Urban, Sean E.; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Warren, Wayne H.; Zacharias, Norbert




E-print Network

are introduced which give equal consideration to the design levels of interaction, social communication, workflow that this is a context in which workplace design faces different challenges than those posed by a conventional office together with input, output and communication devices) and workflows on the one hand, and physical

Reiterer, Harald


Career opportunities--Design your future!  

E-print Network Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin new materials and improve existing materials. The products we work on are everywhere; companies couldn

Lin, Zhiqun


FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Market Design Analysis Tool  

E-print Network

AND SIMULATION Market Design Instrument Schema #12;FOCUS AREA Focus Area Two targets research in the areasFUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Market Design Analysis Tool OBJECTIVE Power market design plays a critical role in the outcomes related to power system reliability and market efficiency. However


The Catalina Sky Survey: Current and Future Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) continues to be the most productive Near Earth Object (NEO) survey in operation, accounting for nearly two-thirds of all NEO discoveries since 2005. We present a review of the current status of the survey operations, and highlight recent and future upgrades to our instrumentation. Recently, CSS has refurbished a 1.0-m telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, adjacent to the 1.5-m survey telescope. This telescope will be primarily used for NEO follow-up, recovery, and physical characterization of NEOs including colors and light curves. It will be capable of remote or robotic operations, programmed by adaptive queue-planning software of our own design. We expect to complete commissioning activities and begin full-time operations by the end of this year. A large-format camera featuring a single 10k x 10k detector is in the process of being fabricated for the 1.5-m survey telescope. The new camera system will increase the field-of-view from 1.2 to 5.0 square degrees, and the nightly coverage rate from 180 to 750 square degrees, to limiting magnitude V 21.5. This telescope is already the most productive for NEO discovery, accounting for approximately 40% of new NEOs since 2008, at an average rate of over 350 NEOs per year. We anticipate a significant increase in its discovery rate after commissioning, which will begin in late 2013. The Catalina Sky Survey gratefully acknowledges the support of NASA’s Near Earth Object Observation program (grant no. NNH12ZDA001N-NEOO).

Christensen, Eric; Larson, S.; Boattini, A.; Gibbs, A.; Grauer, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kowalski, R.; McNaught, R.



Essays on the workings and uses of futures markets  

E-print Network

futures contracts call for delivery of 5 tonnes of robusta coffee. The minimum price fluctuation is one U.S. dollar per tonne, and delivery months are January, March, May, July, September, and November. Daily trading volume in the nearby futures...

Bryant, Henry L., IV



A Future in Fashion: Designing Wearable Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art instructors are ever mindful of the need to introduce and encourage the possibilities of careers in the art field. The longer the author has been teaching art, the more aware she has become of the many wonderful art-related jobs and careers that exist. Fashion design, marketing and retail are three areas in which many students--male and…

Brew, Charl Anne



The SAS® ADX Interface - Designing the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new SAS ADX Interface provides scientists, engineers, and statisticians with the power to explore, visualize, and model a process through designed experiments. Through the visualization provided by this graphical user interface, you gain valuable insight into the behavior of a process. Scientists convey this knowledge to colleagues and management in a manner that provides the ability to make sound

Stewart L. Fossceco


Models of Design: Envisioning a Future Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a large-scale view of how design fits in the world economy today, and the role of design education in preparing designers for their economic and professional role. The current context of design involves broad-based historical changes including a major redistribution of geopolitical and industrial power from the West to the…

Friedman, Ken



Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed: Results and Future Work  

SciTech Connect

'Extreme' adaptive optics systems are optimized for ultra-high-contrast applications, such as ground-based extrasolar planet detection. The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A simple optical design allows us to minimize wavefront error and maximize the experimentally achievable contrast before progressing to a more complex set-up. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer is used to measure wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy. We have demonstrated RMS wavefront errors of <1.3 nm and a contrast of >10{sup -7} over a substantial region using a shaped pupil. Current work includes the installation and characterization of a 1024-actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical- Systems (MEMS) deformable mirror, manufactured by Boston Micro-Machines, which will be used for wavefront control. In our initial experiments we can flatten the deformable mirror to 1.8-nm RMS wavefront error within a control radius of 5-13 cycles per aperture. Ultimately this testbed will be used to test all aspects of the system architecture for an extrasolar planet-finding AO system.

Evans, J W; Sommargren, G; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Severson, S; Dillon, D; Sheinis, A; Palmer, D; Kasdin, J; Olivier, S



The Future of Working Wisconsin. Proceedings from "The Future of Working Wisconsin" Conference (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, February 24-26, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are among the 45 papers included in this proceedings: "Labor Force Changes in the United States: Implications for Education and Training" (Kutscher); "Industry, Employment, and Family Income: Wisconsin's Status" (Stoner); "Future Demographic and Social Trends" (Zach); "International Business in Wisconsin's Future" (Shank);…

Wacker, Gabrielle Banick, Ed.


30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. 71.208...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions....



30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. 71.208 Section 71.208...STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling...208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each operator...



30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. 71.208 Section 71.208...STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling...208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each operator...



30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. 71.208 Section 71.208...STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling...208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each operator...



30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. 71.208 Section 71.208...STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling...208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each operator...



American RadioWorks: Design of Desire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wants are much different than needs, though it would seem that various groups do a very good job of convincing individuals that they need all types of consumer goods. This rather insightful documentary from American RadioWorks looks into the world of buying and selling by talking with marketers, scientists, designers, and others. Produced by Chris Julin, Ochen Kaylan, and Ellen Guettler, the documentary explores topics such as the science behind shopping and the quest to market products directly to teenagers. Visitors can listen to the entire program here, read the transcript, take the "spendthrift-tightwad survey", and also view photographs of the American shopping experience. Additionally, visitors can take a look at their very thorough set of external links and resources on this subject.

Guettler, Ellen; Julin, Chris; Kaylan, Ochen


Designing Educational Futures: An Application of Comparative Futurology to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prediction is made of a change in the role of the teacher from dispenser of knowledge to a learning facilitator and an "anticipatory design science" specialist. A description is given of a workshop seminar focusing on the process of designing educational futures so that teachers can gain direct experience with policy study and formation. This…

Clatworthy, F. James


Ten Questions about the Future of Art and Design Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asks ten questions about the future of art, crafts, and design education. Focuses on why art, crafts, and design education should be included in the curriculum; how the curriculum should be defined; and how art educators should respond to conflicting calls for cultural relativism and for cultural nationalism. (DSK)

Steers, John



Course 2010. The Future of Work in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three articles come from the series "Course 2010--A Decade in View" published in the Handelsblatt (Duesseldorf and Frankfurt/Main), an influential German business newspaper. "The Labor Market: With Flexibility into the Service Society" (Elga Lehari) states that the key to more employment in future is a service society with an industrial…

Lehari, Elga; Stehr, Christoph; Lemmer, Ruth



Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems  

E-print Network

Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool systèmes de propulsion hybride et électrique: un outil avancé et intégré dans une chaîne complète dédiée à and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool Integrated in a Complete

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound…

Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.



Effects of Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, and Perceptions of Future Work Environment on Preservice Teacher Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…

Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.



Lessons for Working with Web Designers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of an outside graphic design firm to redesign the Yale University Library (New Haven, CT) Web site. Topics include division of labor; design principles and technical requirements; related Web sites at Yale; usability testing; coding that conformed to library standards; ease of use; and communication between the design firm and…

Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Linden, Julie; Mayman, Gillian; Reardon, Karen; Shimp, Andrew



Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.



Cold Forging Die Design: Recent Advanced and Future Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die design in the forging process become crucial as the production cost and accuracy of the forged part being tighten. The study present a review of the current advanced of die design used in forging process and the system associated with in order to enhance the design process and performance of the die. At the end of this study future challenges of the die design area and the approach taken to develop a support system that can fulfilled the customer demand is also outlined.

Abdullah, A. B.; Samad, Z.


Creating Online Worlds: The Future of Student Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 20th century, student work was dominated by paper-print assignments, particularly essays. This was a reflection of the dominant media technology of that century--books, magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. But those days are gone. In the 21st century, the dominant media technology of today's students is the Internet. In addition to…

Riegle, Rodney P.



Technological developments: shaping the telecommuting work environment of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the concept and the implementation of telecommuting and how it will affect the employee, organization and the general business environment. It also provides suggestions for employers implementing a telecommuting program. In this new millennium, it is obvious that the workforce and the way of work are changing drastically. Telecommuting, or allowing the employees to perform their jobs

Mohammad Ahmadi; Marilyn M. Helms; Tammy J. Ross



Report of the Working Design Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering study group in the LOUISA workshop was responsible for producing a preliminary general design for an optical synthetic aperture telescope on the Moon. This design is intended to be a test case for focusing continuing design studies. The scope of the design included consideration of the array geometry, individual telescopes, metrology, site attributes, and construction. However, no attempt was made to go into further depth in the design than to cover the essential characteristics of the instrument. The starting point for the array design was the lunar optical array discussed by Burke (1985). His array geometry followed the design and correlation procedure of the 27-element Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes near Socorro, New Mexico.



Designing the smaller library: a hospital looks to the future.  


Like other libraries, hospital libraries are preparing for a future which will include a mix, as yet undetermined, of print and electronic information. This case study relates how the library at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital was designed to meet the needs of users and staff and to balance them with the need for more sophisticated methods of retrieving, storing, and delivering information. Details are provided on planning process and on design features such as lighting and color. PMID:7842662

Walker, M E



Future of color in the visual arts, architecture, and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

My brief for this report was to reflect on the congress from the point of view of the visual arts, architecture and design, and to say something about how I see the future of color in these fields. I will say a bit about the congress itself, a bit about some of the topics that particularly struck me, and a

Paul Green-Armytage



Homogeneous multiprocessing and the future of silicon design paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two challenges of the consumer semiconductor industry: (1) economical and social forces are increasingly reducing the length of product life cycles, and (2) the continuing exponential growth of the on-chip transistor count is pushing design complexity. In concert these two trends represent a formidable challenge for semiconductor companies that aim to benefit from future technological developments in

Paul Stravers; Jan Hoogerbrugge



Futures at the IC Design-Manufacturing Andrew B. Kahng  

E-print Network

exponentially with Lgate, Vt, tox ... 5-20X variation is common · Gate length [== "critical dimension" (CD variation is common · Gate length [== "critical dimension" (CD)] variation in manufacturing is a majorFutures at the IC Design-Manufacturing Interface Andrew B. Kahng UCSD VLSI CAD Laboratory abk

California at San Diego, University of


Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method was studied, and the method was compared to other surrogate-based optimization methods that aim to locate the global optimum using two two-dimensional test functions, a six-dimensional test function, and a five-dimensional engineering example.

Villanueva, Diane


Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.



Centaur: NASA's Mobile Humanoid Designed for Field Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's future lunar and martian missions will require a suite of advanced robotic systems to complete tasks during precursor visits and to assist humans while present on the surface. The Centaur is a new mobile, dexterous manipulation system designed with this future role in mind. Centaur combines the sophisticated upper body dexterity of NASA's humanoid, Robonaut, with a rugged and

Joshua S. Mehling; Philip Strawser; Lyndon Bridgwater; W. K. Verdeyen; Roger Rovekamp



Design evolution in total knee replacement: which is the future?  


Total knee replacement (TKR) procedures have evolved in the last 40 years to guarantee improvements implants life and an excellent joint function. The goals for the future evolutions are make easier prosthesis implantation and promote precision. The demand for TKR will rise for the life length increase and for the risk factors impact increase. Design evolution in total knee replacement has to satisfy these new necessities: anatomic congruence, range of motion, less material wear and better resistance to the weight bearing and to the stresses. This paper analyzes design evolution, materials development and future purposes in total knee arthroplasty. At the beginning, TKR history is treated; then we compare several prosthetic designs developed during years. At last the paper speak about recent innovations, like CAD (computer aided design) for example, born to reach the most important goal in the future: better TKR design, is the one that better imitate natural knee characteristics, and that is able to integrate it-self with capsule-ligaments and muscle-tendons patient structures. PMID:25409713

Causero, A; Di Benedetto, P; Beltrame, A; Gisonni, R; Cainero, V; Pagano, M



Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions  

PubMed Central

For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses. PMID:19538735

Herr, Hugh



Designing Groupware Applications: A Work-Centered Design Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group-ware is about group-work. It is about developing technologies that support the way people communicate and collaborate to accomplish work goals in the context of personal, managerial and organizational imperatives. In contrast to single user applications which support peoples' tasks, groupware supports peoples' work. Tasks are often explicit, ob- servable and concrete. Work is often tacit, invisible and amorphous. The




Intranet Development and Design that Works  

SciTech Connect

Making information available and easy to find is the objective of designing a good web site. A company's Intranet typically provides a great deal of information to its employees in an effort to help them better perform their jobs. If the information is available but is difficult to locate, the usefulness of this information is diminished. Sandia National Laboratories performed a redesign of its home page and has obtained a successful design which enables its employees to locate information quickly and efficiently. Three phases of usability testing were conducted to develop and optimize the home page. This paper will discuss the redesign of the Intranet home page and describe how usability studies were used to help ensure a usable design.




Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated ProductProcess Design  

E-print Network

Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated Product­Process Design Cynthia C. Y. Tsao, A.M.ASCE1 ; Iris presents "work structuring," a term used to describe the effort of integrating product and process design throughout the project development process. To illustrate current work structuring practice, we describe

Tommelein, Iris D.


Supporting social awareness @ work design and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last year we have been designing and studying a computer based tool intended to strengthen social group awareness within a research laboratory. While awareness has been a subject of previous research it is still unclear how it should be conceptualized and how it can be provided for a CSCW system. In order to investigate this, and hence to

Konrad Tollmar; Ovidiu Sandor; Anna Schömer



Designing programs that check their work  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It designs program checkers for a few specific and carefully chosen problems in the class P of problems solvable in polynomial time. It also applies methods of modern cryptography, especially the idea of a probabilistic interactive proof,

Manuel Blum; S. Kanna



Interactive design and analysis of future large spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in interactive computer-aided design and analysis of future large spacecraft concepts are presented. The primary emphases are on automatic spacecraft modeling for lattice (truss-like) structures and simplified multidiscipline design and analysis modules. Capabilities and performance of the twenty some applications modules, the executive and data management software, and graphics display features are reviewed. Data generated for an earth-orbiting large diameter (750 meter) antenna satellite are used to illustrate current capabilities. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting spacecraft with relative ease. The approach is particularly useful in the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of concepts must be evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner

Garrett, L. B.



FeatherSail - Design, Development and Future Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To the present day, the idea of using solar sails for space propulsion is still just a concept, but one that provides a great potential for future space exploration missions. Several notable solar propulsion missions and experiments have been performed and more are still in the development stage. Solar Sailing is a method of space flight propulsion, which utilizes the light photons to propel spacecrafts through the vacuum of space. This concept will be tested in the near future with the launch of the NanoSail-D satellite. NanoSail-D is a nano-class satellite, <10kg, which will deploy a thin lightweight sheet of reflective material used to propel the satellite in its low earth orbit. Using the features of the NanoSail-D architecture, a second-generation solar sail design concept, dubbed FeatherSail, has been developed. The goal of the FeatherSail project is to create a sail vehicle with the ability to provide steering from the sails and increase the areal density. The FeatherSail design will utilize the NanoSail-D based extendable boom technology with only one sail on each set of booms. This design also allows each of the four sails to feather as much as ninety degrees. The FeatherSail concept uses deployable solar arrays to generate the power necessary for deep space missions. In addition, recent developments in low power, low temperature Silicon-Germanium electronics provide the capability for long duration deep space missions. It is envisioned that the FeatherSail conceptual design will provide the impetus for future sail vehicles, which may someday visit distant places that mankind has only observed.

Alhorn, Dean C.; Scheierl, J. M.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Work system design for patient safety: the SEIPS model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and methods of work system design need to be developed and implemented to advance research in and design for patient safety. In this paper we describe how the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model of work system and patient safety, which provides a framework for understanding the structures, processes and outcomes in health care and their relationships,

P Carayon; A Schoofs Hundt; B-T Karsh; A P Gurses; C J Alvarado; M Smith; P Flatley Brennan



Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.



Engagement in Academic Work: The Role of Learning Goals, Future Consequences, Pleasing Others, and Perceived Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement in academic work was viewed from a multiple goals perspective. Two studies were conducted in which high school math students completed an instrument measuring five goals students might have for doing academic work (learning goals, performance goals, obtaining future consequences, pleasing the teacher, and pleasing the family), perceived math ability, self-regulatory activities, strategies (deep or shallow) used when studying

Raymond B. Miller; Barbara A. Greene; Gregory P. Montalvo; Bhuvaneswari Ravindran; Joe D. Nichols



Bridge Design Project with SolidWorks Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides information about using SolidWorks to design bridges in the classroom. The booklet is quite extensive and includes sections on what SolidWorks is, structure design, using the beam calculator, analyzing the structure, building and testing the bridge structure and more. It would be useful for classes learning SolidWorks software in this context. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.



Applying Learning Design to Work-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning design is currently slanted to reflect a course-based approach to learning. This article explores whether the concept of learning design could be applied to support the informal aspects of work-based learning (WBL). It also discusses the characteristics of WBL and presents a WBL-specific learning design that highlights the key features…

Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Heinz Ulrich



CO2 Car Design Project with SolidWorks Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides information about using SolidWorks to design a CO2 car. The booklet is quite extensive and includes sections on what SolidWorks is, exploring and assembling the car, using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, visualization and rendering and more. It would be useful for classes learning SolidWorks software in this context. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.



Computational design of ICCP systems: Lessons learned and future directions  

SciTech Connect

Computational modeling using boundary element techniques has been proposed for design and evaluation of shipboard impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems. LaPlace's equation, the governing differential equation for electrochemical corrosion, is well suited for solution by the boundary element method. There has been much work performed in this field during the past two decades. Computational modeling efforts designed to validate boundary element procedures are reviewed. US Navy ship systems discussed are CG-59, CG-66, and CVN-068. Computational analysis accuracy is determined by comparison with physical scale modeling experimental results. Lessons learned from the analysis described are summarized. Advantages and disadvantages of boundary element modeling are discussed.

DeGiorgi, V.G.; Lucas, K.E.



Design and operations technologies - Integrating the pieces. [for future space systems design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As major elements of life-cycle costs (LCC) having critical impacts on the initiation and utilization of future space programs, the areas of vehicle design and operations are reviewed in order to identify technology requirements. Common to both areas is the requirement for efficient integration of broad, complex systems. Operations technologies focus on the extension of space-based capabilities and cost reduction through the combination of innovative design, low-maintenance hardware, and increased manpower productivity. Design technologies focus on computer-aided techniques which increase productivity while maintaining a high degree of flexibility which enhances creativity and permits graceful design changes.

Eldred, C. H.



Work in progress Design Principles for Machine-Description Languages  

E-print Network

tools could be retargeted that the same machine descriptions can be usedmtouhelpch more easily Work in progress Design Principles for Machine these tools, the* * amount and complexity tended to help generate parts of software toolsothatfma

Ramsey, Norman


Learning in design: From Characterizing Dimensions to Working Yoram Reich  

E-print Network

in engineering and design and listed four core learning processes (see Figure 1): (1) Machine learningLearning in design: From Characterizing Dimensions to Working Systems Yoram Reich Department 69978, Israel email:, URL: Tel: +972­3­640­7385, Fax

Reich, Yoram


Design and fabrication stable LNF contact for future IC application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enable the design of a small contact spring for applications requiring high density, high speed and high durability. A low normal force (LNF) contact spring with high performance is fabricated using a unique combined MEMS photo resist lithography and electro fine forming (EFF) technology. Reducing a total contact material cost of a connector, a high-Hertz stress with LNF contact will be a key technology in the future. Only radius R 5?m tip with 0.1N force contact provides an excellent electrical performance which is much sharper than conventional contact. 0.30million cycle's durability test was passed at 300?m displacement and the contact resistance was <=50m?.

Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Rashid, M. M.; Ahmed, Sayem; Bhuiyan, M.; Kajihara, M.



Education, Training and the Future of Work I: Social, Political and Economic Contexts of Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first of two volumes is organized around the theme of the social, political, and economic contexts of education and training. (Volume II focuses on the development of vocational policy. Both volumes form part of the Open University MA Module, Education, Training, and the Future of Work.) An introduction (Geoff Esland, John Ahier) provides an…

Ahier, John, Ed.; Esland, Geoff, Ed.


Education, Training and the Future of Work II: Developments in Vocational Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on developments in vocational education and training in Great Britain and the future of work. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Geoff Esland, Mike Flude, Sandy Sieminski); "The Roles of the State and the Social Partners in Vocational Education and Training Systems" (Andy Green); "Education Training and…

Flude, Mike, Ed.; Sieminski, Sandy, Ed.


5.2 Future Work Establish an analytical relationship of how demand variance and  

E-print Network

categories of products · Implementation · Cost/Benefit analysis for alternative solutions Team Members: Ali (MTTR) Product Arrival Rate (Probabilistic) Identifying distributions (Weibull, exponential, normal etc5.2 Future Work · Establish an analytical relationship of how demand variance and production


Lunar base habitat designs: Characterizing the environment, and selecting habitat designs for future trade-offs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of distinct conceptual lunar habitat designs covering the pre- and post-Apollo era is presented. The impact of the significant lunar environmental challenges such as temperature, atmosphere, radiation, soil properties, meteorites, and seismic activity on the habitat design parameters are outlined. Over twenty habitat designs were identified and classified according to mission type, crew size; total duration of stay, modularity, environmental protection measures, and emplacement. Simple selection criteria of (1) post-Apollo design, (2) uniqueness of the habitat design, (3) level of thoroughness in design layout, (4) habitat dimensions are provided, and (5) materials of construction for the habitat shell are specified, are used to select five habitats for future trade studies. Habitat emplacement scenarios are created to examine the possible impact of emplacement of the habitat in different locations, such as lunar poles vs. equatorial, above ground vs. below ground, etc.

Ganapathi, Gani B.; Ferrall, Joseph; Seshan, P. K.



Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than the contaminant of concern. Guidance is needed on incorporating LTM issues and needs earlier in the remedy selection and design process. LTM and remediation designs are usually developed separately, but in many cases they are inextricably linked and sites would benefit from considering them simultaneously. Professional guidance and education are needed on a number of other implementation issues, including criteria for eliminating sampling of particular constituents and for halting LTM, public involvement in LTM optimization, and the fate of monitoring wells that are no longer being sampled.

Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.



Monuments of the Future: Designs by El Lissitzky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Getty Research Institute presents this Website on the work of El Lissitzky, 1890-1941, using materials from their extensive archival collections. The site includes over 175 images, a chronology of El Lissitzky's life, and links to related resources at the Getty and other institutions. For those with fast connections, there is an animated introduction. The Website preserves thematic sections from the exhibition of the same name displayed at the Getty, November 1998-February 1999, which connect El Lissitzky's theories to his artistic work. These sections display on the right side of the screen, while exhibition content shows on the left, resulting in awkward scrolling to see everything. The section Printing Trades and Pressa Exhibitions includes an accordion-folded photomontage, designed for the Soviet Pavilion at a printing trades show in 1928, fortunately cleverly programmed to scroll automatically, making viewing much easier. Another nice feature of the site is the availability of .pdf format text, chronology, and checklist for printing.


Design Study of Wafer Seals for Future Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future hypersonic vehicles require high temperature, dynamic seals in advanced hypersonic engines and on the vehicle airframe to seal the perimeters of movable panels, flaps, and doors. Current seals do not meet the demanding requirements of these applications, so NASA Glenn Research Center is developing improved designs to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design has shown promise in meeting these needs. Results from a design of experiments study performed on this seal revealed that several installation variables played a role in determining the amount of leakage past the seals. Lower leakage rates were achieved by using a tighter groove width around the seals, a higher seal preload, a tighter wafer height tolerance, and a looser groove length. During flow testing, a seal activating pressure acting behind the wafers combined with simulated vibrations to seat the seals more effectively against the sealing surface and produce lower leakage rates. A seal geometry study revealed comparable leakage for full-scale wafers with 0.125 and 0.25 in. thicknesses. For applications in which lower part counts are desired, fewer 0.25-in.-thick wafers may be able to be used in place of 0.125-in.-thick wafers while achieving similar performance. Tests performed on wafers with a rounded edge (0.5 in. radius) in contact with the sealing surface resulted in flow rates twice as high as those for wafers with a flat edge. Half-size wafers had leakage rates approximately three times higher than those for full-size wafers.

Dunlap, Patrick H.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.



Design Elements and Consumer Characteristics Relating to Design Preferences of Working Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

My study was designed to investigate the effect of design elements and consumers’ personal, psycho-social, job-related, and physical characteristics on business jacket design preferences of working females. A self-administered questionnaire including visual stimuli was mailed to 1,500 randomly drawn working females across the U.S. The sample consisted of 265 respondents who wore business jackets to work at least once a

Seulhee Yoo



Tracks to the Future, Tracks to Diversity: Student Summer Work Experience Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AISES Student Summer Work Experience Program provides Native American college students with paid summer internships in federal agencies. Interns work with mentors on projects designed by the participating agency and applicable to the student's course of study. The program benefits students and agencies while striving to increase Native…

Kastl, Tamara



Strategies for a Creative Future with Computer Science, Quality Design and Communicability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current work is presented the importance of the two-way triad between computer science, design and communicability. It is demonstrated how the principles of quality of software engineering are not universal since they are disappearing inside university training. Besides, a short analysis of the term "creativity" males apparent the existence of plagiarism as a human factor that damages the future of communicability applied to the on-line and off-line contents of the open software. A set of measures and guidelines are presented so that the triad works again correctly in the next years to foster the qualitative design of the interactive systems on-line and/or off-line.

Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Villarreal, Maria


Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design.  


The objective of the study was to perform a literature review on the health consequences of working rotating shifts and implications for structural design. A literature search was performed in June 2012 and a selection of the most relevant peer-review articles was included in the present review. Shift workers are more likely to suffer from a circadian sleep disorder characterized by sleepiness and insomnia. Shift work is associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life and adverse effects on health. Circadian disruption resulting from rotating shift work has also been associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This article summarizes the known health effects of shift work and discusses how light can be used as a countermeasure to minimize circadian disruption at night while maintaining alertness. In the context of the lighted environment, implications for the design of newborn intensive care units are also discussed. PMID:23536025

Figueiro, M G; White, R D



Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

Newman, Dava



Changes of glaciers in the Andes of Chile and priorities for future work.  


Glaciers in the Andes of Chile seem to be shrinking and possibly loosing mass, but the number and types of studies conducted, constrained mainly by data availability, are not sufficient to provide a synopsis of glacier changes for the past or future or explain in an explicit way causes of the observed changes. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of changes in glaciers for the entire country, followed by a discussion of the studies that have provided evidence of such changes. We identify a missing type of work in distributed, physically-oriented modelling studies that are needed to bridge the gap between the numerous remote sensing studies and the specific, point scale works focused on process understanding. We use an advanced mass balance model applied to one of the best monitored glaciers in the region to investigate four main research issues that should be addressed in modelling studies for a sound assessment of glacier changes: 1) the use of physically-based models of glacier ablation (energy balance models) versus more empirical models (enhanced temperature index approaches); 2) the importance of the correct extrapolation of air temperature forcing on glaciers and in high elevation areas and the large uncertainty in model outputs associated with it; 3) the role played by snow gravitational redistribution; and 4) the uncertainty associated with future climate scenarios. We quantify differences in model outputs associated with each of these choices, and conclude with suggestions for future work directions. PMID:24300481

Pellicciotti, F; Ragettli, S; Carenzo, M; McPhee, J




Microsoft Academic Search

productivity, employee satisfaction, and manager judgments. Data were collected from 391 employees, 70 managers, and archival records for 80 work groups in a financial organization. Results showed that all three effectiveness criteria were predicted by the characteristics, and nearly all characteristics predicted some of the effectiveness criteria. The job design and process themes were slightly more predictive than the interdependence,




New statistical techniques for designing future generation retirement and insurance solutions  

E-print Network

This thesis presents new statistical techniques for designing future generation retirement and insurance solutions. It addresses two major challenges for retirement and insurance products: asset allocation and policyholder ...

Zhu, Zhe



Accelerator System Design, Injection, Extraction and Beam-Material Interaction: Working Group C Summary Report  

E-print Network

The performance of high beam power accelerators is strongly dependent on appropriate injection, acceleration and extraction system designs as well as on the way interactions of the beam with machine components are handled. The experience of the previous ICFA High -Brightness Beam workshops has proven that it is quite beneficial to combine analyses and discussion of these issues in one group. A broad range of topics was presented and discussed at the Working Group C sessions at the HB2012 Workshop. Highlights from the talks, outstanding issues along with plans and proposals for future work are briefly described in this report.

Mokhov, N V



Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen. PMID:24391302

Nyang’wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick PJ; Balasegaram, Manica



Remember the future II: meta-analyses and functional overlap of working memory and delay discounting.  


Previously we showed that working memory training decreased the discounting of future rewards in stimulant addicts without affecting a go/no-go task. While a relationship between delay discounting and working memory is consistent with other studies, the unique brain regions of plausible causality between these two abilities have yet to be determined. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed on foci from studies of delay discounting (DD = 449), working memory (WM = 452), finger tapping (finger tapping = 450), and response inhibition (RI = 450). Activity maps from relatively less (finger tapping) and more (RI) demanding executive tasks were contrasted with maps of DD and WM. Overlap analysis identified unique functional coincidence between DD and WM. The anterior cingulate cortex was engaged by all tasks. Finger tapping largely engaged motor-related brain areas. In addition to motor-related areas, RI engaged frontal brain regions. The right lateral prefrontal cortex was engaged by RI, DD, and WM and was contrasted out of overlap maps. A functional cluster in the posterior portion of the left lateral prefrontal cortex emerged as the largest location of unique overlap between DD and WM. A portion of the left lateral prefrontal cortex is a unique location where delay discounting and working memory processes overlap in the brain. This area, therefore, represents a therapeutic target for improving behaviors that rely on the integration of the recent past with the foreseeable future. PMID:24041504

Wesley, Michael J; Bickel, Warren K



Design-based practice: a new perspective for social work.  


Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as an alternative to traditional social work practice and has ignited a new round in the decades-old debate about the relationship between knowledge and practice in the field. This article identifies several limitations inherent in the EBP perspective and argues that it would be unfortunate if EBP were to become the new paradigm for social work practice and education. It also presents a new perspective for social work called design-based practice (DBP), which is based on the work of Herbert Simon and Mary Parker Follett, and compares this perspective with EBP and authority-based practice. DBP rests on the belief that knowledge is derived from experience and interactions between practitioners and clients and that professional practice should be primarily concerned with "how things ought to be." PMID:22308666

Cohen, Burton J



Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

Pressman, Norman E. P.


Models of Change: The Future of Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses design and design education in the context of four major social and environmental concerns identified by Bruce Archer in 1973: overpopulation; pollution; depletion of natural resources; control. It argues for the social and economic importance of design education in primary and secondary schools. It identifies "designerly

Baynes, Ken; Baynes, Brochocka



Spatial Patterns and Design Policies for Future American Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes plans for future urban development which take into account energy needs, mass transportation, technological innovations, high density settlement along the rapid transit spine, and rational decision making. (Author/DB)

Dutt, Ashok K.; Costa, Frank J.



Audio gunshot detection and localization systems: History, basic design, and future possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, law enforcement organizations have increasingly utilized audio detection and localization systems to identify potential gunshot incidents and to respond accordingly. These systems have grown from simple microphone configurations used to estimate location into complex arrays that seem to pinpoint gunfire to within mere feet of its actual occurrence. Such technology comes from a long and dynamic history of developing equipment dating back to the First World War. Additionally, though basic designs require little in terms of programming or engineering experience, the mere presence of this tool invokes a firestorm of debate amongst economists, law enforcement groups, and the general public, which leads to questions about future possibilities for its use. The following pages will retell the history of these systems from theoretical conception to current capabilities. This work will also dissect these systems to reveal fundamental elements of their inner workings, in order to build a basic demonstrative system. Finally, this work will discuss some legal and moral points of dissension, and will explore these systems’ roles in society now and in the future, in additional applications as well.

Graves, Jordan R.


Technology futures analysis: Toward integration of the field and new methods Technology Futures Analysis Methods Working Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of analyzing future technology and its consequences coexist, for example, technology intelligence, forecasting, roadmapping, assessment, and foresight. All of these techniques fit into a field we call technology futures analysis (TFA). These methods have matured rather separately, with little interchange and sharing of information on methods and processes. There is a range of experience in the use of

Alan L. Porter


The advent of canine performance science: Offering a sustainable future for working dogs.  


Working and sporting dogs provide an essential contribution to many industries worldwide. The common development, maintenance and disposal of working and sporting dogs can be considered in the same way as other animal production systems. The process of 'production' involves genetic selection, puppy rearing, recruitment and assessment, training, housing and handling, handler education, health and working life end-point management. At present, inefficiencies throughout the production process result in a high failure rate of dogs attaining operational status. This level of wastage would be condemned in other animal production industries for economic reasons and has significant implications for dog welfare, as well as public perceptions of dog-based industries. Standards of acceptable animal use are changing and some historically common uses of animals are no longer publicly acceptable, especially where harm is caused for purposes deemed trivial, or where alternatives exist. Public scrutiny of animal use appears likely to increase and extend to all roles of animals, including working and sporting dogs. Production system processes therefore need to be transparent, traceable and ethically acceptable for animal use to be sustainable into the future. Evidence-based approaches already inform best practice in fields as diverse as agriculture and human athletic performance. This article introduces the nascent discipline of canine performance science, which aims to facilitate optimal product quality and production efficiency, while also assuring evidence-based increments in dog welfare through a process of research and development. Our thesis is that the model of canine performance science offers an objective, transparent and traceable opportunity for industry development in line with community expectations and underpins a sustainable future for working dogs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25444772

Cobb, Mia; Branson, Nick; McGreevy, Paul; Lill, Alan; Bennett, Pauleen



Viking dynamics experience with application to future payload design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and test techniques are discussed. Areas in which hindsight indicated erroneous, redundant, or unnecessarily severe design and test specifications are identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in the dynamic design and criteria philosophy, aimed at reducing costs for payloads.

Barrett, S.; Rader, W. P.; Payne, K. R.



High Performance Interconnect System Design for Future Chip Multiprocessors  

E-print Network

Chip Multi-Processor (CMP) architectures have become mainstream for designing processors. With a large number of cores, Network-On-Chip (NOC) provides a scalable communication method for CMP architectures. NOC must be carefully designed to meet...

Wang, Lei



The 21st century substation design: Vision of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the 21st century substation design requirements, which should meet the following criteria: improved reliability, cost, interoperability, reconfigurability, security, controllability and flexibility. Such criteria require designs that use new methodologies quite different from the existing philosophy. The design strategies are focused on reducing cost while maintaining the performance, or maintaining cost while improving performance. Based on the considerations

Mladen Kezunovic; Yufan Guan; Chenyan Guo; Mohsen Ghavami



The rise and fall of job analysis and the future of work analysis.  


This review begins by contrasting the importance ascribed to the study of occupational requirements observed in the early twentieth-century beginnings of industrial-organizational psychology with the diminishing numbers of job analysis articles appearing in top journals in recent times. To highlight the many pending questions associated with the job-analytic needs of today's organizations that demand further inquiry, research on the three primary types of job analysis data, namely work activities, worker attributes, and work context, is reviewed. Research on competencies is also reviewed along with the goals of a potential research agenda for the emerging trend of competency modeling. The cross-fertilization of job analysis research with research from other domains such as the meaning of work, job design, job crafting, strategic change, and interactional psychology is proposed as a means of responding to the demands of today's organizations through new forms of work analysis. PMID:21961945

Sanchez, Juan I; Levine, Edward L



Including the Effects of Future Tests in Aircraft Structural Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract In this paper, we investigate the effects of future tests on aircraft structural safety, focusing on the numbers of coupon tests and structural element tests. The mean failure stress is assumed to be predicted by a failure criterion (e.g. Tsai-Wu), and the initial distribution of this mean failure stress reflects the uncertainty in the analysis procedure that uses

Erdem Acar; Raphael T. Haftka; Nam-Ho Kim; Deepti Buchi


Interactive design and analysis of future large spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive computer aided design program used to perform systems level design and analysis of large spacecraft concepts is presented. Emphasis is on rapid design, analysis of integrated spacecraft, and automatic spacecraft modeling for lattice structures. Capabilities and performance of multidiscipline applications modules, the executive and data management software, and graphics display features are reviewed. A single user at an interactive terminal create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of Earth orbiting spacecraft with relative ease. Data generated in the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of an Earth-orbiting large diameter antenna satellite are used to illustrate current capabilities. Computer run time statistics for the individual modules quantify the speed at which modeling, analysis, and design evaluation of integrated spacecraft concepts is accomplished in a user interactive computing environment.

Garrett, L. B.



A successful methodology for designing and implementing virtual work teams  

SciTech Connect

A system has been implemented at Los Alamos National Laboratory to rapidly staff and manage project teams. These project teams are created and subsequently perform their project functions using information technology as the communication medium. A simplified model of group interactions was used to guide the design and implementation of the system. The model uses three primary axes of group interactions to express the functional requirements that must be supported by a virtual work team application. The evolution of the approach and its relationship to traditional project management are described. A number of design characteristics were found to be critical to the success of the implementation and are presented. The technology and supporting processes and the business results stemming from implementation of the system are described in a limited manner.

Stuewe, R.B.; Barnes, M.G.; Hughes, D.K.



Robonaut: a robot designed to work with humans in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Robotics Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing robotic systems to assist astronauts in space. One such system, Robonaut, is a humanoid robot with the dexterity approaching that of a suited astronaut. Robonaut currently has two dexterous arms and hands, a three degree-of-freedom articulating waist, and a two degree-of-freedom neck used as a camera and sensor platform. In contrast to other space manipulator systems, Robonaut is designed to work within existing corridors and use the same tools as space walking astronauts. Robonaut is envisioned as working with astronauts, both autonomously and by teleoperation, performing a variety of tasks including, routine maintenance, setting up and breaking down worksites, assisting crew members while outside of spacecraft, and serving in a rapid response capacity.

Bluethmann, William; Ambrose, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Askew, Scott; Huber, Eric; Goza, Michael; Rehnmark, Fredrik; Lovchik, Chris; Magruder, Darby



Designing and implementing an evaluation of a national work support program.  


Welfare reforms in the 1990s have shifted governments around the world towards financial assistance conditional on work. While large-scale rigorous research on welfare-to-work programs has demonstrated effectiveness towards employment in other countries, no such micro-level evaluation of a policy has ever been conducted in Singapore. This article describes the process of developing a large experimental evaluation of the Work Support Program, which the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports started in 2006. The lessons learned from planning and implementing the research can be helpful to future researchers in negotiating long-term rigorous evaluations in an environment where collaborators lack sufficient research knowledge. Insights include ways to focus on the essentials, find alternative experimental designs, collaborate effectively, and adapt instruments across cultures. PMID:22054527

Ng, Irene Y H; Ho, Kong Weng; Nesamani, Tharmalingam; Lee, Alex; Liang, Ngiam Tee



Designing the STS-134 Re-Rendezvous: A Preparation for Future Crewed Rendezvous Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation to provide the capability for the Orion spacecraft, also known as the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), to rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft, a new suite of relative navigation sensors are in development and were tested on one of the final Space Shuttle missions to ISS. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) commissioned a flight test of prototypes of the Orion relative navigation sensors on STS-134, in order to test their performance in the space environment during the nominal rendezvous and docking, as well as a re-rendezvous dedicated to testing the prototype sensors following the undocking of the Space Shuttle orbiter at the end of the mission. Unlike the rendezvous and docking at the beginning of the mission, the re-rendezvous profile replicates the newly designed Orion coelliptic approach trajectory, something never before attempted with the shuttle orbiter. Therefore, there were a number of new parameters that needed to be conceived of, designed, and tested for this rerendezvous to make the flight test successful. Additionally, all of this work had to be integrated with the normal operations of the ISS and shuttle and had to conform to the constraints of the mission and vehicles. The result of this work is a separation and rerendezvous trajectory design that would not only prove the design of the relative navigation sensors for the Orion vehicle, but also would serve as a proof of concept for the Orion rendezvous trajectory itself. This document presents the analysis and decision making process involved in attaining the final STS-134 re-rendezvous design.

Stuit, Timothy D.



After its first half-century, NASA celebrates and considers the future of its work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two halves of NASA merge at half-century at 50: Johnson Space Center being put to the test Years in Space: NASA's Roadmap to 2058 Hubble Space Telescope [Real Player, Macromedia Flash Player] Human Space Flight [Macromedia Flash Player, pdf] fifty years, the work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has fascinated children and adults both here in the United States and around the world. NASA officially opened its doors for business on October 1, 1958 and since that time they have sponsored hundreds of research missions that made household names of people like Alan Shepard, John Glenn, Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin. In recent years, the agency has weathered a number of criticisms, including some pointed critiques of the space shuttle program. One of the current programs that NASA is working on involves bringing robotic and human exploration together, rather than keeping them separated, which has been the practice for most of their history. Currently, NASA has a number of long-range plans to fix the Hubble Space Telescope, finish the international space station, and also return to the moon. Of course, one long-standing question that remains unanswered (and also quite controversial) is whether or not involving humans in spaceflight at all is worth the risk and expense. In a recent interview, physicist Robert Park remarked that manned spaceflight is an "old-fashioned way" to do things. In response, NASA administrator Michael Griffin noted, "Human spaceflight is about expanding the range of human action. And I think that matters." The first link will take users to a piece from this Wednesday's Voice of America that discusses both the past accomplishments of NASA and their future challenges. The second link will whisk users away to a thoughtful piece by MSNBC's Alan Boyle on NASA's attempts to bring together the work of both robots and humans for future ventures and missions. The third link will take visitors to an article from this Monday's Houston Chronicle on the future of the Johnson Space Center, which is more commonly known to millions around the world as "Mission Control". Moving on, the fourth link leads to a fine piece from aerospace consultant Jim Banke on what can be expected from NASA in their next fifty years. The fifth link leads to the homepage of the Hubble Space Telescope. Here visitors can read about this tremendous piece of technology, view images, and also learn about its future missions. Finally, the last link leads to NASA's Human Space Flight website, where visitors can learn about future voyages to the moon and Mars.

Grinnell, Max


Ergonomic implementation and work station design for quilt manufacturing unit  

PubMed Central

Background: Awkward, extreme and repetitive postures have been associated with work related musculoskeletal disorders and injury to the lowerback of workers engaged in quilting manufacturing unit. Basically quilt are made manually by hand stitch and embroidery on the quilts which was done in squatting posture on the floor. Mending, stain removal, washing and packaging were some other associated work performed on wooden table. their work demands to maintain a continuous squatting posture which leads to various injuries related to low back and to calf muscles. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken in Tarai Agroclimatic Zone of Udham Singh Nagar District of Uttarakhand State with the objective to study the physical and physiological parameters as well as the work station layout of the respondent engaged on quilt manufacturing unit. A total of 30 subjects were selected to study the drudgery involved in quilt making enterprise and to make the provision of technology option to reduce the drudgery as well as musculoskeletal disorders, thus enhancing the productivity and comfortability. Results: Findings of the investigation show that majority of workers (93.33 per cent) were female and very few (6.66 per cent) were the male with the mean age of 24.53±6.43. The body mass index and aerobic capacity (lit/min) values were found as 21.40±4.13 and 26.02±6.44 respectively. Forty per cent of the respondents were having the physical fitness index of high average whereas 33.33 per cent of the respondents had low average physical fitness. All the assessed activities involved to make the quilt included a number of the steps which were executed using two types of work station i.e squatting posture on floor and standing posture using wooden table. A comparative study of physiological parameters was also done in the existing conditions as well as in improved conditions by introducing low height chair and wooden spreader to hold the load of quilt while working, to improve the work posture of the worker. The average working heart rate values were found to reduced by performing the activity using improved technology followed by energy expenditure (6.99 kj/min), total cardiac cost of work (1037.95 beats), physiological cost of work (103.79 beats) and rate of perceived rate of exertion to the score of 2.6 Results of postural analysis that is change in motion at cervical region reveal that range of motion in case of extension was found beyond the normal range in existing setup where as it reduced to normal range in improved work station. Conclusion: The finding of the study concludes that to ensure safety and to reduce occupational health hazards while performing the activity, an ergonomically designed work station by introduction of improved technology option will be a right choice which also enhances the productivity. PMID:23580839

Vinay, Deepa; Kwatra, Seema; Sharma, Suneeta; Kaur, Nirmal



Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions  

E-print Network

For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated ...

Herr, Hugh M.


Energy Mobility Network : system design, interfaces, and future interactions  

E-print Network

The Energy Mobility Network is a mobile, networked energy production, consumption and sharing system that is designed to motivate users to be more aware of their energy consumption. In particular, the system provides a ...

Cheung, Natalie Wen Yua



Intervening to reduce the future burden of occupational cancer in britain: what could work?  


In Britain, 14 carcinogenic agents and occupational circumstances currently account for 86% of estimated occupation attributable cancer. The future burden associated with these carcinogens has been forecast, using attributable fractions for forecast scenarios representing patterns of past and predicted future exposure, and exposure levels representing the introduction of new occupational exposure limits, increased levels of compliance with these limits and other reductions in worker exposure. Without intervention, occupational attributable cancers are forecast to remain at more than 10,000 by 2060. With modest intervention over 2,600, or with stricter interventions more than 8,200 cancers could be avoided by 2060 although because of long latency no impact will be seen until at least 10 years after intervention. Effective interventions assessed in this study include reducing workplace exposure limits and improving compliance with these limits. Cancers associated with asbestos, diesel engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, work as a painter, radon, and solar radiation are forecast to continue, with construction remaining the prime industry of concern. Although exposure levels to the established carcinogens are falling, workers are remaining exposed at low levels at which there is still a cancer risk, although the aging population also contributes to rising cancer numbers, These forecasts can be used to assess the relative costs to society of different occupational carcinogenic agents, and the relative merits and savings associated with alternative intervention strategies. The methods are adaptable for different data circumstances, other types of interventions and could be extended to environmental carcinogens and other chronic diseases. PMID:22961776

Hutchings, Sally; Cherrie, John W; Van Tongeren, Martie; Rushton, Lesley



Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan



Model evaluation, recommendation and prioritizing of future work for the manipulator emulator testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Manipulator Emulator Testbed (MET) is to provide a facility capable of hosting the simulation of various manipulator configurations to support concept studies, evaluation, and other engineering development activities. Specifically, the testbed is intended to support development of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) and related systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the math models developed for the MET simulation of a manipulator's rigid body dynamics and the servo systems for each of the driven manipulator joints. Specifically, the math models are examined with regard to their amenability to pipeline and parallel processing. Based on this evaluation and the project objectives, a set of prioritized recommendations are offered for future work.

Kelly, Frederick A.



The Robonaut 2 Hand - Designed to do Work with Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second generation Robonaut hand has many advantages over its predecessor. This mechatronic device is more dexterous and has improved force control and sensing giving it the capability to grasp and actuate a wider range of tools. It can achieve higher peak forces at higher speeds than the original. Developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA, the hand is designed to more closely approximate a human hand. Having a more anthropomorphic design allows the hand to attain a larger set of useful grasps for working with human interfaces. Key to the hand s improved performance is the use of lower friction drive elements and a redistribution of components from the hand to the forearm, permitting more sensing in the fingers and palm where it is most important. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the hand. Lessons learned during the development and initial operations along with planned refinements to make it more effective are presented.

Bridgwater, L. B.; Ihrke, C. A.; Diftler, M. A.; Abdallah, M. E.; Radford, N. A.; Rogers, J. M.; Yayathi, S.; Askew, R. S.; Linn, D. M.



Challenge to Human Resource Development of System LSI Design in Silicon Sea Belt Fukuoka Project -Education for Working Engineers-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silicon Sea Belt Fukuoka Project was pushed forward in Fukuoka Prefecture in 2001 and has promoted human resource development of System LSI design engineers. Under liaising of industry, academia and government, “College of System LSI, Fukuoka” was founded and QUBE (Q-shu University hardware/software Borderless system design Education program) has been started aiming to establish education system for working engineers. In this paper, results of our challenge and future prospects are described.

Tsukizoe, Akira; Hayashida, Takanori; Yasuura, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Kazuyuki; Ito, Fumiaki; Murakami, Takashi; Hisazumi, Kenji; Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Fukuda, Akira


OECD TRADE POLICY WORKING PAPERS The OECD Trade Policy Working Paper series is designed to make available to a wide  

E-print Network

#12;OECD TRADE POLICY WORKING PAPERS The OECD Trade Policy Working Paper series is designed to make been declassified on the responsibility of the Working Party of the Trade Committee under the OECD TRADE POLICY WORKING PAPERS are published on © OECD 2011 Applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A Unified Software Architecture to Enable Cross-Layer Design in the Future Internet  

E-print Network

A Unified Software Architecture to Enable Cross-Layer Design in the Future Internet Ilia Baldine-layering gracefully. As part of our FIND project, we propose a software architecture for the future Internet provided by networking. We are already seeing the beginnings of this: in sensor/actuator networks

Dutta, Rudra


Future Technology Workshop: A Collaborative Method for the Design of New Learning Technologies and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the future technology workshop (FTW), a method whereby people with everyday knowledge or experience in a specific area of technology use (such as using digital cameras) envision and design the interactions between current and future technology and activity. Through a series of structured workshop sessions, participants collaborate to…

Vavoula, Giasemi N.; Sharples, Mike



Design for Optimizability: Traffic Management for a Future Internet  

E-print Network

of setting these parameters to optimize an objective. In re- cent years, the language, and algorithms of constraints. It is well-established that convexity is a watershed Jiayue He , Jennifer Rexford and Mung Chiang and architectures can range from minor extensions to clean-slate designs. In general, the more freedom we have

Chiang, Mung


Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie



Design of high efficiency blowers for future aerosol applications  

E-print Network

predicted a blower scaled 70% in planar direction (XZ) and 28% in axial direction (Y) and running at 19200 rpm (70xz_28y@19.2k) as the most appropriate choice. The pressure rise is 1021 Pa at the design flow rate of 100 L/min. FLUENT predicts an efficiency...

Chadha, Raman



Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla


Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all-subsonic future fleet. The methodology, procedures, and recommendations for the development of future HSCT and the subsonic fleet scenarios used for this evaluation are discussed.

Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.



30 CFR 22.11 - Instructions on handling future changes in design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




Design for Optimizability: Traffic Management of a Future Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As networks grow in size and complexity, network management has become an increasingly challenging task. Many protocols have tunable parameters, and optimization is the process of setting these parameters to optimize an objective. In recent years, optimization techniques have been widely applied to network management problems, albeit with mixed success. Realizing that optimization problems in network management are induced by assumptions adopted in protocol design, we argue that instead of optimizing existing protocols, protocols should be designed with optimization in mind from the beginning. Using examples from our past research on traffic management, we present principles that guide how changes to existing protocols and architectures can lead to optimizable protocols. We also discuss the trade-offs between making network optimization easier and the overhead these changes impose.

He, Jiayue; Rexford, Jennifer; Chiang, Mung


Invention and Innovation in Designing Future Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the contributions in this volume that are representative of international research efforts\\u000a exploring ways in which environments for learning may help students achieve goals of importance in twenty-first century education.\\u000a The centrality of design in its iterative and coevolutionary manifestations is of importance in several of the research programs discussed in this\\u000a volume. Other

Michael J. Jacobson; Peter Reimann


Future Modeling Needs in Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a performance model rocket engine design that takes advantage of pulse detonation to generate thrust. The contents include: 1) Introduction to the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE); 2) PDRE modeling issues and options; 3) Discussion of the PDRE Performance Workshop held at Marshall Space Flight Center; and 4) Identify needs involving an open performance model for Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Meade, Brian; Talley, Doug; Mueller, Donn; Tew, Dave; Guidos, Mike; Seymour, Dave



Integrating Motivational, Social, and Contextual Work Design Features: A Meta-Analytic Summary and Theoretical Extension of the Work Design Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors developed and meta-analytically examined hypotheses designed to test and extend work design theory by integrating motivational, social, and work context characteristics. Results from a summary of 259 studies and 219,625 participants showed that 14 work characteristics explained, on average, 43% of the variance in the 19 worker attitudes and behaviors examined. For example, motivational characteristics explained 25% of

Stephen E. Humphrey; Jennifer D. Nahrgang; Frederick P. Morgeson



The Role of Future Work Goal Motives in Adolescent Identity Development: A Longitudinal Mixed-Methods Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of adolescent identity development often emphasize the importance of adolescents' future work goals, yet these theories rarely distinguish the "self-oriented" motives (enjoying or being a good fit for one's work) from the "beyond-the-self-oriented" motives (having a positive impact on the world beyond the self) that underlie them. The…

Yeager, David Scott; Bundick, Matthew J.; Johnson, Rebecca



Designing bimetallic catalysts for a green and sustainable future.  


This Critical Review provides an overview of the recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of bimetallic nanoparticles. Initially the review follows a materials science perspective on preparing bimetallic nanoparticles with designer morphologies, after which the emphasis shifts towards recent developments in using these bimetallic particles for catalysing either oxidation or reduction. In the final part of this review we present an overview of the utilization of bimetallic catalyst systems for the transformation of bio-renewable substrates and reactions related to the realization of a bio-refinery. Because of the sheer number of examples of transformations in this area, a few key examples, namely selective oxidation, hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis and reforming of biomass derived molecules, have been chosen for this review. Reports of bimetallic catalysts being used for the aforementioned transformations are critically analysed and the potential for exploiting such bimetallic catalysts have also been highlighted. A specific objective of this review article is to motivate researchers to synthesize some of the "designer" bimetallic catalysts with specific nanostructures, inspired from recent advances in the area of materials chemistry, and to utilize them for the transformation of biomass derived materials that are very complex and pose different challenges compared to those of simple organic molecules. We consider that supported bimetallic nanoparticles have an important role to play as catalysts in our quest for a more green and sustainable society. PMID:23093051

Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Miedziak, Peter J; Wells, Peter P; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J



Building for change: university hospital design for future clinical learning.  


Recent developments in the way health care is organized and delivered have rendered many old hospital structures obsolete. The creation of an entire new university hospital for tertiary health care, clinical research and education has made it necessary to discuss and define what pedagogical strategies should be used in this new setting and how physical structures can support learning. Contemporary health care is per se interprofessionally team-based, but most health care education is still performed in silos, separated for each profession. When building a new hospital new possibilities arise to create an interprofessional and learner-centered environment with an adjusted physical infrastructure and spaces for learning. The old hospital conserved highly discipline-based (and professionally isolated) curriculas and didactically oriented; all manifested in the physical environments. However, the New Karolinska University Hospital presents a shift towards a pedagogy characterized by learning centeredness, interprofessionalism clearly expressed in the architecture, design and allocation of spaces within the new buildings. The aim of this article is to highlight the considerations that have been made during the process to design and plan for the new university hospital. PMID:23713805

Nordenström, Jörgen; Kiessling, Anna; Nordquist, Jonas



13 CFR 305.4 - Projects for design and engineering work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Projects for design and engineering work. 305.4 Section 305.4... § 305.4 Projects for design and engineering work. In the case of Public Works...Assistance awarded solely for design and engineering work, the following additional...



13 CFR 305.4 - Projects for design and engineering work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Projects for design and engineering work. 305.4 Section 305.4... § 305.4 Projects for design and engineering work. In the case of Public Works...Assistance awarded solely for design and engineering work, the following additional...



13 CFR 305.4 - Projects for design and engineering work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Projects for design and engineering work. 305.4 Section 305.4... § 305.4 Projects for design and engineering work. In the case of Public Works...Assistance awarded solely for design and engineering work, the following additional...



13 CFR 305.4 - Projects for design and engineering work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Projects for design and engineering work. 305.4 Section 305.4... § 305.4 Projects for design and engineering work. In the case of Public Works...Assistance awarded solely for design and engineering work, the following additional...



13 CFR 305.4 - Projects for design and engineering work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Projects for design and engineering work. 305.4 Section 305.4... § 305.4 Projects for design and engineering work. In the case of Public Works...Assistance awarded solely for design and engineering work, the following additional...



Interim measure work plan/design for Agra, Kansas.  

SciTech Connect

This Interim Measure Work Plan/Design (IMWP/D) is supplemental to the Argonne document Interim Measure Conceptual Design for Remediation of Source Area Contamination at Agra, Kansas. The IMWP/D includes information required by Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Policy BER-RS-029, Policy and Scope of Work for Interim Measures. Specific to Policy BER-RS-029 is the requirement for several documents that will ensure that an adequate amount and type of data are collected for implementation of the IMWP/D and that data quality and safe conditions are prevailed. Such information is included in the IMWP/D as follows: Appendix A: Data Acquisition Plan--Design Testing Requirements; Appendix B: Basis of Design; Appendix C: Permits; Appendix D: Quality Assurance Project Plan; Appendix E: Health and Safety Plan; and Appendix F: Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Schedule. The proposed remedial technology for this project is the installation of five large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) in a source area that has been identified on the property formerly used for grain storage by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The goal of the LDB technology is the remediation of the source area by removal of mass quantities of contaminated soil from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. Secondary to the soil remediation is the remediation of groundwater at and adjacent to the source areas. The LDB technology serves the following purposes: (1) The physical removal of contaminated soil from the identified source area. (2) Replacement of less permeable native materials (silty clay, clayey silt, and silty sand) with more permeable materials to facilitate the capture of volatilized contaminants in the vertical borehole. (3) Removal of contaminants volatilized by air sparging (AS) and extracted from the vadose zone by soil vapor extraction (SVE). (4) Volatilization of contaminants from portions of the affected aquifer that can be accessed from the former CCC/USDA property. The primary objective of the proposed removal action is removal of mass quantities of carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area, to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. This objective will be the basis for evaluating system performance. The scope of action outlined in the IMWP/D is limited to the five treatment zones defined by the LDB/SVE/AS locations. Surrounding soils and groundwater will benefit; however, remedial benefits to groundwater will be limited to the area of influence associated with the five treatment zones. While treatment should be aggressive in the vicinity of the LDB locations, the heterogeneity, clay content, and low permeability of the soils will place inherent limits on the area of influence.

LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division



A Work-centered Architecture and Design Method for Creating Joint  

E-print Network

1 of A Work-centered Architecture and Design Method for Creating Joint Human-Computer Systems Wayne technology more usable, intuitive, and effective #12;4 of Areas we work in ... Decision-Support and Work... Work within a well-defined design space abstractions of solutions that are known to work

Cummings, Mary "Missy"


Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung



NEMA Suggested Standards for Future Design of AC Integral Horsepower Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the new NEMA suggested standards for future design of ac integral horsepower motors, 1-200 hp where the horsepower ratings have been increased for frame sizes, and compares them with the standards (T versus U frames). Design changes necessary to meet the new standards are indicated.

Robert E. Arnold



Development of the EUREF Velocity Model - Status and Roadmap for Future Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplate and intraplate deformations are present all over Europe. They can be subdivided by their spatial or temporal nature as well as their magnitude. For example, different, partly overlapping processes are related to several geodynamic zones such as plate boundaries, micro-plates, volcanoes, (formerly) glaciated areas, hydrological basins etc. On the other side, there are long-term processes such as the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound, episodic events such as earthquakes and many temporarily intermediate deformations from e.g. volcanic swelling or anthropogenic influences due to oil or gas extraction or CO2 sequestration. The corresponding deformations of different scales are measured as three-dimensional crustal velocities by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations with meanwhile sufficient detail and accuracy. The IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe (EUREF) working group on "Deformation models" aims at obtaining velocity models for Europe and adjacent areas and significantly improving the prediction of the time evolution of coordinates, thus overcoming the limitations in the use of the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89). A general understanding of the physics behind such a velocity field is also a major goal. In particular, the working group will model and correct for interplate and intraplate deformations, while using the reference frame, and thus extend the useful lifetime of a realisation of the ETRS89. Hence, the purpose of this working group are twofold; first, pure scientific interests in improved knowledge of the surface deformations of Eurasia and adjacent areas, and second, providing a valuable tool in the management and use of the national realisations of the ETRS89. The work will strongly benefit from sophisticated infrastructures such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). Key information for improved knowledge of crustal deformations is observed motions at stations. This includes station velocities, and possible station position shifts for the case of episodic events, where the European Permanent Network (EPN) is considered as the core infrastructure. However, a denser network of GNSS stations than EPN will be needed to sample the crustal deformations sufficiently well. The availability of velocity solutions including additional stations compared to the EPN stations provided by other initiatives and projects is therefore of high interest for this initiative. The key input for the working group is the EPN densification where the dense national permanent GNSS networks are integrated with the EPN on the weekly SINEX level. There are three major activities for the development of this solution: An evaluation of station velocities, Development of a crustal deformation model for Europe, and Consideration of such a deformation model in maintenance and use of national realisations of ETRS89. The presentation will give an overview of the current status in the evaluation of station velocities based on initiatives and projects in the last two decades as well as an outlook to future work including details to the model development.

Lidberg, Martin; Steffen, Holger; Altamimi, Zuheir; Bruyninx, Carine; Caporali, Alessandro; Dousa, Jan; Habrich, Heinz; Kenyeres, Ambrus; da Silva Fernandes, Rui Manuel; Stangl, Günter



A Full Course Banquet: Designing a Single Group Work Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first course in group work was taught in 1923 and was followed by a growing recognition in social work education of the importance of preparing students to work with groups. Unfortunately by the end of the 1970s group work located within a generalist curriculum had all but disappeared. This article presents a single course elective that…

Lazar, Ana



Complexity aided design. The FuturICT technological innovation paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations, our bodies-even our dreams ....What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel? How will we use its surges of sensation? For several years-maybe for a decade-there will be no central nervous system to manage this vast signaling network. Certainly there will be no central intelligence...some qualities of self-awareness will emerge once the Net is sensually enhanced. Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward intelligence". These statements are quoted by an interview by Cherry Murray, Dean of the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Physics. It is interesting to outline the timeliness and highly predicting power of these statements. In particular, we would like to point to the relevance of the question "What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel?" to the work we are going to discuss in this paper. There are many additional compelling questions, as for example: "How can the electronic earth's skin be made more resilient?"; "How can the earth's electronic skin be improved to better satisfy the need of our society?";"What can the science of complex systems contribute to this endeavour?"

Carbone, A.; Ajmone-Marsan, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Batty, M.; Masera, M.; Rome, E.



Dismantling the Built Drawing: Working with Mood in Architectural Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the late Middle Ages onward an emphasis on the rational and the technical aspects of design and design drawing gained hold of architectural practice. In this transformation, the phenomenon of mood has been frequently overlooked or seen as something to be added on to a design; yet the fundamental grounding of mood, as described in Martin…

Teal, Randall




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Futurity website features "the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada and Australia." Currently, some of the participating universities include Boston University, Duke University, McGill University, and the University of Sheffield. Visitors to the homepage will note that there are four areas on the site: Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Technology, and Society & Culture. Recently profiled news items include a compelling new discovery from New York University about the reality of a tractor beam that can pull microscopic particles. The Society & Culture section is a real find, as it contains engaging pieces like "Is zero tolerance too hard on students?" and "Big banks loom over finance 'ecosystem'." Also, visitors can browse news items by school or by topic area. Finally, the Week's Most Discussed area is a great way to learn about compelling new stories from around the globe.


On the systematic design and selection of optimal working fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the first approach to the systematic design and selection of optimal working fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) based on computer aided molecular design (CAMD) and process optimization techniques. The resulting methodology utilizes group contribution methods in combination with multi-objective optimization technology for the generation of optimum working fluid candidates. Optimum designs of the corresponding ORC processes

Athanasios I. Papadopoulos; Mirko Stijepovic; Patrick Linke



Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester



Is work in education child's play? Understanding risks to educators arising from work organization and design of work spaces.  


The educational sector exposes its primarily female work force to numerous psychosocial risk factors. At the request of the education workers', ergonomists developed a participatory research project in order to understand the determinants of the difficulties experienced by special education technicians. These technicians work with students presenting behavioral and learning difficulties as well as developmental and mental health problems. Eighteen technicians were interviewed and the work of seven technicians and two teachers was observed. Technicians prevent and manage crisis situations and help students acquire social skills. Coordination with teachers is made difficult by the fact that most technicians work part time, part year, and many technicians' work areas and classrooms are physically distant one from another. Most technicians change schools each year and must continually reconstruct work teams. Management strategies and poorly adapted working spaces can have important repercussions on coordination among educators and on technicians' capacity to help students and prevent aggressive behavior. PMID:17434862

Seifert, Ana María



Considerations for design of future research and development interactive image analysis systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future interactive image analysis systems must provide for the increased processing requirements imposed by a thermal channel to LANDSAT-3 and the increased number of spectral channels with significantly higher spatial resolution provided by the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper. Other design considerations must include the rapidly changing technology in memories and special purpose processors, as well as the analyst-machine interface and the human factors involved. The centralized and distributed system approaches are examined in relation to the optimum design configuration of future systems.

Wilkinson, T. B. (principal investigator)



Recommendations of the Research Strategies Working Group to the UC Commission on the Future  

E-print Network

TO REVENUE ENHANCEMENT Sponsored Internships, Fellowships, and Teaching Engagements Recommendation 1: Collaborate with foundations, businesses, industries and the National labs to provide internships students through enhanced use of internships, fellowships, and exposure to their future mentors outside

Rose, Michael R.


8. SUMMARIES AND FUTURE WORK The aim of the project was to investigate how thermal conductivity and noise  

E-print Network

41 8. SUMMARIES AND FUTURE WORK The aim of the project was to investigate how thermal conductivity for the thermal conductivity of the tetrakaidecahedron, cube models and sphere models. To overcome the shortcomings a new simple-cube model was created and the thermal conductivity was calculated as a function

Cambridge, University of


Hello Future FIG Student! Welcome to the Science of Design FIG! We hope you are enjoying your summer and spending  

E-print Network

to begin your journey at the University of Oregon! Here on campus, the activities, clubs, and sports you) and is passionate about giving future citizens the tools and experience to design a more sustainable future. Her

Oregon, University of


Designing and Assessing Productive Group Work in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A history teacher examines what is successful and not successful in group work in his high school classroom and gives concrete suggestions for improving group practice. Topics discussed include preparing students for group work, supporting collaboration, inviting critical analysis, and assessing both group and individual performance. (Contains 2…

Vaca, Javier; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas




NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new special section in the New York Times, Working, features articles on the American worker. For example, the current issue contains stories on the contrast between the recent trend in layoffs and employers's complaints that they are unable to fill job openings; what is "retaining and motivating...the American worker"; and the shortage of qualified legal talent. The site also offers a great deal of career and job advice such as an article on non-traditional jobs, job forecasts, and office design. Interviews include an audio piece with Robert B. Reich, the former US Secretary of Labor. And of course, what would a newspaper section on work be without a link to the Dilbert comic strip?


Designing Effective Science Instruction: What Works in Science Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science teachers, like all teachers, start each school year with high hopes and expectations for students to succeed. They plan their lessons, scramble to get the necessary equipment, and work hard to engage their students. However, despite good intention

Anne Tweed



Looking Back to Imagine the Future: Connecting with the Radical Past in Technologies of School Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why look back to imagine the future? Given the almost universal consensus that higher level technology-enhanced learning should lead in the design of school buildings, what place is there for low-level (non-digital) technologies in education? What can we learn from revisiting schools that were at one time seen to be internationally pioneering in…

Burke, Catherine



An Introduction to Socio-technical System Design Part V: The Future of Computing  

E-print Network

Technology utopianism is the belief that technology alone creates the future. It is popular in fiction, e. Despite cartoons and science fiction, today's housework robot is the Roomba (Figure 5.2). It picks up dirt. Cartoons, b. Science fiction, c. Reality #12;An Introduction to STS Design Part 5, Brian Whitworth

Whitworth, Brian


An Assessment of Future Employment Opportunities for Individuals Trained in the Automotive Trades. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Youth Authority (CYA) planned to offer a training program covering all aspects of the automotive trades to wards during their incarceration. Through analysis, it showed future job opportunities exist, due to increased job numbers and high turnover rate, for persons trained in the automotive trades in California over a 10-year period…

California State Dept. of Employment Development, Sacramento.


Design Principles of Worked Examples: A Review of the Empirical Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers investigated the efficacy of using worked examples in classroom instruction and provided evidence in the effectiveness of worked example instruction in mathematics, computer programming, physics, and etc. However, there are limited studies in worked example design. The purpose of this study is to generate the instructional design

Shen, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Hui-Chun



7?Redesigning Work Design Theories: The Rise of Relational and Proactive Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars assume that the fundamental questions about work design have been answered. However, a global shift from manufacturing economies to service and knowledge economies has dramatically altered the nature of work in organizations. To keep pace with these important and rapid changes, work design theory and research is undergoing a transformation. We trace the highlights of two emerging viewpoints

Adam M. Grant; Sharon K. Parker



Program Evaluation and Research Designs. NBER Working Paper No. 16016  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter provides a selective review of some contemporary approaches to program evaluation. One motivation for our review is the recent emergence and increasing use of a particular kind of "program" in applied microeconomic research, the so-called Regression Discontinuity (RD) Design of Thistlethwaite and Campbell (1960). We organize our…

DiNardo, John; Lee, David S.




Microsoft Academic Search

The sewing machine workstation demands an ergonomic design because of the discomfort level associated with it. The kind of discomfort can be musculoskeletal loads as a result of sustained postures and repetitive movements. The adjustment of the sewing machine workstation involves no of combination of variable parameters, which can be optimized to get the best possible results from the workers.

Balraj Singh Brar; Chandandeep Singh Grewal; Kuldeep Kumar Sareen


First Considerations on Beam Optics and Lattice Design for the Future Hadron-Hadron Collider FCC  

E-print Network

The present document explains the steps carried out in order to make the first design of the Future Hadron-Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) following the base line parameters that can be found in [1]. Two lattice layouts are presented, a ring collider with 12 arcs and 12 straight sections, four of them designed as interaction points, and a racetrack like collider with two arcs and two straight sections, each of them equipped with two interaction points. The lattice design presented in the paper is modular allowing the same modules be used for both layouts. The present document addresses as well the beta star reach at the interaction points.

Alemany Fernandez, R



Design-Based Practice: A New Perspective for Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as an alternative to traditional social work practice and has ignited a new round in the decades-old debate about the relationship between knowledge and practice in the field. This article identifies several limitations inherent in the EBP perspective and argues that it would be unfortunate if EBP were to…

Cohen, Burton J.



Work in progress Design Principles for Machine-Description Languages  

E-print Network

software. These languages are in- tended to help generate parts of software tools that ma- nipulate machine Introduction Many innovative programming-environment tools work with machine-code representations of programs wants to use these tools, the amount and complexity of their machine-dependent code make them difficult

Ramsey, Norman


Present investigations of radioactive raw materials by the Geological Survey and a recommended program for future work  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geological Survey's program of investigation of radioactive raw materials is presented herewith under present investigations, plans for future investigations, plan of operation, and cost of operation. This report was prepared at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission. Present investigations are summarized to show the scope of the present Trace Elements program, grouping individual projects into related types of investigations. Plans for future investigations on an expanded scale are outlined. These should provide sufficient data and knowledge of the occurrence and availability of uranium, thorium, and related elements, to permit a more complete evaluation of domestic resources. Reconnaissance projects are designed to discover possible new sources of uranium and thorium and to select areas and materials warranting further investigation. Typical projects leading to the estimation of reserves are the investigation of the carnotite ores of the Colorado Plateau by geologic mapping, exploratory drilling, and related research, and investigation of asphaltic sandstone in Emery County, Utah. Extensive research will be undertaken to establish the principles governing the geological and geochemical relations of uranium, thorium, and associated elements as an essential guide in appraising domestic resources. Particular emphasis will be placed on phosphatic rocks and black shales which offer ultimate resources of uranium far greater than carnotite ores. All the foregoing investigations will be accompanied by chemical, gephysical, and mineralogical research and analytical work. Under plan of operation is discussed the organization of the Trace Elements Unit, space requirements for laboratory and office, the scheduling of investigations, and other related problems. The proposed scheduling of work calls for approximately 109, 173, and 203 man years in fiscal years 1948, 1949, and 1950 respectively. Definite plans have been formulated only for the next three fiscal years, by which time it is assumed the program will reach stable proportions or can be altered as experience dictates. Under cost of operation is set forth the funds available in fiscal year 1947, the status of funds transferred from Atomic Services (14-217/80920), and funds necessary in succeeding fiscal years. The estimate for fiscal year 1948 inclues a non-recurring item of $1,025,000 for establishing adequate laboratories for chemical, physical, spectrographic and mineralogic research and analytical work. The total funds required in fiscal years 1948, 1949, and 1950 to support the proposed program will be $2,440,000, $2,161,000 and $2,198,000 respectively. The Geological survey anticipates contributing from its appropriation in fiscal years 1948, 1949 and 1950 approximately $243,000, $350,000, and $400,000 respectively; the balance of the necessary funds to be contributed by the Atomic Energy Commission in fiscal years 1948, 1949, and 1950 will be approximately $2,196,900, $1,811,000, and $1,798,000 respectively.

Butler, A.P., Jr.; Stead, F.W.



Preparing School Social Work for the Future: An Update of School Social Workers' Tasks in Iowa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors begin this article by highlighting clinical social casework as a historic trend in school social work practice. They then identify two major shifts in current education policy related to school social work practice. One shift is an emphasis on a multilevel intervention approach, and the other is the differentiation between academic and…

Peckover, Christopher A.; Vasquez, Matthew L.; Van Housen, Stephanie L.; Saunders, Jeanne A.; Allen, Larry



Working Memory Involved in Predicting Future Outcomes Based on Past Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in working memory have been shown to contribute to poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task [IGT: Bechara, A., & Martin, E.M. (2004). "Impaired decision making related to working memory deficits in individuals with substance addictions." "Neuropsychology," 18, 152-162]. Similarly, a secondary memory load task has been shown to impair…

Dretsch, Michael N.; Tipples, Jason



The Dynamics of Work and Play: An Historical Analysis and Future Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces selected sociological, anthropological and psychological interpretations of work and play and their implications for classroom practice. Conflict theorists' views of the impact of industrialization on the family and the school and the increasing separation of the worlds of play and work are counterposed to functionalist models of…

Baer, Neal A.


Work in Progress: Using Wolves to Teach Engineering Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-credit-hour course was developed and offered as part of an experimental effort that attempts to bring instruction in design methodologies to both engineering and non-engineering majors alike through collaboration with the Wolf Conservation Center in New York. One important overarching goal is to increase the technical literacy of students at Binghamton University who may not be formally enrolled in

George D. Catalano; Maggie Howell



Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.  


There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? PMID:23608710

Zink, Klaus J



What Types of Designs Are We Using in Social Work Research and Evaluation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses a void in the literature about social work research and evaluation (R&E) designs, in particular related to the quality of its published work. Data were collected by reviewing three empirically oriented journals, "Research on Social Work Practice", "Journal of Social Service Research", and "Social Work Research" over three…

Holosko, Michael J.



The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group (BGW): Collaborative Research For A Sustainable Future  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1990, the United States and Germany have worked bilaterally to identify, understand, and apply innovative technologies and policies for remediation and sustainable revitalization of contaminated sites in each country. Over a period of 15 years (= three Phases) remarkable b...


The "LARSE" Project - Working Toward a Safer Future for Los Angeles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Los Angeles region is underlain by a network of active faults, including many that are deep and do not break the Earth's surface. These hidden faults include the previously unknown one responsible for the devastating January 1994 Northridge earthquake, the costliest quake in U.S. history. So that structures can be built or strengthened to withstand the quakes that are certain in the future, the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is locating hidden earthquake hazards beneath the region to help scientists determine where the strongest shaking will occur.

Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Similia, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.



The user's view for the future of LAMPF, 1989: Reports from the pion physics working group  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a collection of papers on pion-nucleus interactions that were written as part of the long-range planning process of LAMPF that took place in spring, 1989. These papers served as the basis of the pion portion of a report to the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) for its Long Range Plan. They were read and discussed in some detail by the pion physics community and represent the views of the present and the future of pion physics by the authors and to a great extent by the pion physics community as a whole.

Burleson, G.R.; Ernst, D.J.



Working memory training and semantic structuring improves remembering future events, not past events.  


Objectives. Memory training in combination with practice in semantic structuring and word fluency has been shown to improve memory performance. This study investigated the efficacy of a working memory training combined with exercises in semantic structuring and word fluency and examined whether training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Methods. In this double-blind randomized control study, 36 patients with memory impairments following brain damage were allocated to either the experimental or the active control condition, with both groups receiving 9 hours of therapy. The experimental group received a computer-based working memory training and exercises in word fluency and semantic structuring. The control group received the standard memory therapy provided in the rehabilitation center. Patients were tested on a neuropsychological test battery before and after therapy, resulting in composite scores for working memory; immediate, delayed, and prospective memory; word fluency; and attention. Results. The experimental group improved significantly in working memory and word fluency. The training effects also generalized to prospective memory tasks. No specific effect on episodic memory could be demonstrated. Conclusion. Combined treatment of working memory training with exercises in semantic structuring is an effective method for cognitive rehabilitation of organic memory impairment. PMID:24699430

Richter, Kim Merle; Mödden, Claudia; Eling, Paul; Hildebrandt, Helmut



Understanding the Design Context for Australian University Teachers: Implications for the Future of Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that providing support for university teachers in designing for their teaching will ultimately improve the quality of student learning outcomes, recent interest in the development of support tools and strategies has gained momentum. This article reports on a study that examined the context in which Australian university…

Bennett, Sue; Thomas, Lisa; Agostinho, Shirley; Lockyer, Lori; Jones, Jennifer; Harper, Barry



Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners\\/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke



A Review of the Empirical Generations at Work Research: Implications for School Leaders and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most schools currently employ three generations of teachers and leaders: Baby Boomers (1946-65), Generation X (1966-80) and Generation Y (1981-2003). However, the implications for school leaders of multi-generational schools remain relatively unexplored. This paper examines the empirical multi-disciplinary generations at work evidence to identify…

Edge, Karen



New Models of Working and Learning: How Young People Are Shaping Their Futures Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the way in which young people are increasingly adopting dual identities--worker and learner--during the long transition from full-time student to full-time worker. Part-time jobs undertaken while in full-time education provide opportunities for learning about work and may lead to full-time careers in the same industry area.…

Smith, Erica



Education for the World of Work and Citizenship: Towards Sustainable Future Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While education is a key to any development strategy, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is the master key that can transform the world of work and the economy, alleviate poverty, save the environment and improve the quality of life. As students are being prepared to become efficient, skillful and competent workers, they can at…

Quisumbing, Lourdes R.



Future Work Development of a model determining the mechanical response and effect  

E-print Network

Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group Background Glass reinforced plastic, GRP, is used in overD mine counter measure vessels (MCMVs) are constructed from single skin E-glass polyester hulls stiffened of a preliminary 3D FEA model replicating previous experimental work to verify progressive damage technique

Sóbester, András


Informing the Future: A Plan for Higher Education for the Eighties. Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major issues affecting higher education in Texas in the 1980s are identified in 20 working papers from outside consultants, the academic community, and Texas College and University System Coordinating Board staff. Topics and authors include: higher education in Texas in the 1980s (Christopher Dede); leadership in higher education (Joseph…

Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.


Touching the Future: Building Skills for Life and Work. Australian Education Review No. 55  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Education Review (AER) 55 explores the goals of Australian education and of how schools should prepare young people for work and life. Section 1 provides an overview, discussing the nature of broad social and economic changes over the last 20 years, and their implications for the goals of Australian education systems today and for the…

Wyn, Johanna



What Adolescents Can Tell Us: Technology and the Future of Social Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use and usefulness of Information Technology (IT) is rapidly growing around the world, especially among the youth. IT has been shown to impact learning styles, communication, and social relationships in many ways. Recently, significant discussion has arisen around the importance of IT in higher education and more specifically, social work education. This study qualitatively assesses 128 youth aged 13–14

Brian K. Ahmedani; Rena D. Harold; Victoria A. Fitton; Erica D. Shifflet Gibson



The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adapta- tion by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity. As empirical research on resilience has bur- geoned in recent years, criticisms have been levied at work in this area. These critiques have generally focused on ambiguities in definitions and central terminology; heterogeneity in risks experienced

Suniya S. Luthar; Dante Cicchetti; Bronwyn Becker



The Role of Work Experience in the Future Employability of Higher Education Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many new graduates are finding it difficult to obtain graduate-level work and impossible to break into the sectors they were aiming at. In order to address this, higher education institutions are examining the methods they use to enhance student employability and deploying various measures to grow and strengthen this activity, with an increasing…

Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne



Work Requirements in Transformation, Competence for the Future: A Critical Look at the Consequences of Current Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Germany and elsewhere, the literature on current and future work requirements rarely discusses the effects of globalization, internationalization, computerization, and other factors from the point of view of workers. Some have suggested that a blurring of limits will be one of the main changes in work in the future. This blurring will involve…

Plath, Hans-Eberhard


Group-Work in the Design of Complex Adaptive Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case study where twelve graduate students undertook the demanding role of the adaptive e-course developer and worked collaboratively on an authentic and complex design task in the context of open and distance tertiary education. The students had to work in groups in order to conceptualise and design a learning scenario for…

Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis



Work Design Theory: A Review and Critique with Implications for Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these…

Torraco, Richard J.



Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.




Working Notes from the 1992 AAAI Workshop on Automating Software Design. Theme: Domain Specific Software Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this workshop is to identify different architectural approaches to building domain-specific software design systems and to explore issues unique to domain-specific (vs. general-purpose) software design. Some general issues that cut across the particular software design domain include: (1) knowledge representation, acquisition, and maintenance; (2) specialized software design techniques; and (3) user interaction and user interface.

Keller, Richard M. (editor); Barstow, David; Lowry, Michael R.; Tong, Christopher H.



[The "Mining Rescue System and Mine Fires" Working Group. Tasks, results, future activities].  


The president of the working party presents details of its principal tasks in the past and in the present time. These can be summed up in a study of the problems mentioned below and the subsequent elaboration of recommendations for the benefit of the governments, guidelines, information reports and research proposals. The principal problems that were or are still under study are: --prevention of fires: shaft equipment, hydraulic fluids, belt conveyors, . . .; --detection of mine fires and spontaneous combustion; --fighting of mine fires: shaft fires, construction of stoppings, openings and recovering of fire zones, . . .; --coordination and rescue equipment: escape and rescue breathing apparatus, flameproof clothing, rescue of trapped miners; --stabilization of ventilation in the event of fire, . . . The speaker stresses the importance of the information exchange and the atmosphere of fellowship and solidarity that prevails in the working party. PMID:6622911

Coenders, A



SpyCam and RoboCam: An Application of the Future Technology Workshop Method to the Design of New Technology for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Future Technology Workshop is a method for the design of future socio-technical systems. It builds upon existing participatory design techniques and provides a way of exploring the interactions between technologies and activities, now and in the future. The method has been applied to the design of future imaging technologies for children. Prototypes of such technologies have been produced and

Giasemi N Vavoula; Mike Sharples; James Cross; Chris Baber


Balancing Work and Family. A Working Curriculum To Assist Vocational Parent and Family Educators in Designing and Delivering Employer-Sponsored Work and Family Seminars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed to help vocational teachers and family educators to design and deliver employer-sponsored seminars for employees as well as community-based adult education programs. The curriculum is intended to help working parents improve their ability to meet their personal wants and needs as well as the demands of their…

Burns, Mary Dooley; And Others


How Web Banner Designers Work: The Role of Internal Dialogues, Self-Evaluations, and  

E-print Network

How Web Banner Designers Work: The Role of Internal Dialogues, Self-Evaluations, and Impiicit with web banner designers, combined with retrospective protocols, reveai implicit theories ofthe of imaginary audiences with whom web banner designers engage in imaginary dialogues. The dialogues reveal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A language\\/action perspective on the design of cooperative work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing computer-based systems, we work within a perspective that shapes the design questions that will be asked and the kinds of solutions that are sought. This paper introduces a perspective based on language as action, and explores its consequences for practical system design. The language\\/action perspective is contrasted to a number of other currently prominent perspectives, and is illustrated

Terry Winograd



Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

Lewis, J. L.



Work Centered Support Systems: A Framework for Design and Evaluation of  

E-print Network

Work Centered Support Systems: A Framework for Design and Evaluation of Computer Support Systems Stephen Deutsch BBN Technologies Collaborators #12;Outline of Talk · Introduce Work-Centered Support monitoring and replanning in a military airlift organization · Introduce Work-Centered Evaluation concepts

Cummings, Mary "Missy"


Thinking About the Future Cognitive Remediation Therapy—What Works and Could We Do Better?  

PubMed Central

This article reviews progress in the development of effective cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) and its translational process. There is now enough evidence that cognitive difficulties experienced by people with schizophrenia can change and that the agenda for the next generation of studies is to increase these effects systematically through cognitive remediation. We examine the necessary steps and challenges of moving CRT to treatment dissemination. Theories which have been designed to explain the effects of cognitive remediation, are important but we conclude that they are not essential for dissemination which could progress in an empirical fashion. One apparent barrier is that cognitive remediation therapies look different on the surface. However, they still tend to use many of the same training procedures. The only important marker for outcome identified in the current studies seems to be the training emphasis. Some therapies concentrate on massed practice of cognitive functions, whereas others also use direct training of strategies. These may produce differing effects as noted in the most recent meta-analyses. We recommend attention to several critical issues in the next generation of empirical studies. These include developing more complex models of the therapy effects that take into account participant characteristics, specific and broad cognitive outcomes, the study design, as well as the specific and nonspecific effects of treatment, which have rarely been investigated in this empirical programme. PMID:21860051

Wykes, Til; Spaulding, Will D.



Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega-Studies: A Case Study At Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data, ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender-specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly-developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene-specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology megastudies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research.

Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle



Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega Studies: A Case Study at Argonne National Laboratory  

PubMed Central

Between 1952 and 1992 more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the life span and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology mega studies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals, and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research. PMID:22004930

Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle



Lessons Learned and Technical Standards: A Logical Marriage for Future Space Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive database of engineering lessons learned that corresponds with relevant technical standards will be a valuable asset to those engaged in studies on future space vehicle developments, especially for structures, materials, propulsion, control, operations and associated elements. In addition, this will enable the capturing of technology developments applicable to the design, development, and operation of future space vehicles as planned in the Space Launch Initiative. Using the time-honored tradition of passing on lessons learned while utilizing the newest information technology, NASA has launched an intensive effort to link lessons learned acquired through various Internet databases with applicable technical standards. This paper will discuss the importance of lessons learned, the difficulty in finding relevant lessons learned while engaged in a space vehicle development, and the new NASA effort to relate them to technical standards that can help alleviate this difficulty.

Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)



Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions  

PubMed Central

Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the option of carrying batteries to the metabolic cost of harvesting the energy, and examined the advantages of methods for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. PMID:21521509



Market characteristics of future oil tanker operations  

E-print Network

This work analyzes the market characteristics of future oil tanker operations with a particular emphasis on those aspects which will have a potential impact on the design of future vessels. The market analysis model used ...

Willemann, Simmy Dhawan



The geometric clutch as a working hypothesis for future research on cilia and flagella.  


The Geometric Clutch hypothesis contends that the forces transverse to the flagellar axis (t-forces) act on the axonemal scaffold to regulate flagellar beating. T-forces develop as the product of the curvature and the accumulated tension or compression on the doublet microtubules. In this respect, t-force is a mediator of self-organizing behavior. It arises from the collective action of the assemblage of dynein motors on the structural components of the axoneme and, in turn, imparts order to the sequence of activation and deactivation of the dynein. At the switch point of the flagellar beat, the magnitude of the t-force per micron of flagellum is approximately equal to the sum total of dynein force that can be generated per micron of flagellum. This suggests that the t-force could directly overcome the force-producing dynein bridges and terminate their action. However, many questions remain to be answered concerning the behavior of the axonemal scaffold under stress. Little is known of the force-bearing capacity of the radial spokes and the central pair (cp) projections. The properties of these structures will determine how t-force is distributed within the axoneme. The mechanical and elastic properties of the dynein arms and nexin links need to be better understood to determine how they respond to the application of t-force. In the framework of the Geometric Clutch hypothesis these are the issues that are most important to explore if we are to understand how the flagellum works. PMID:17303832

Lindemann, Charles B



Estimation of Cyclic Interstory Drift Capacity of Steel Framed Structures and Future Applications for Seismic Design  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Terán-Gilmore, Amador



Estimation of cyclic interstory drift capacity of steel framed structures and future applications for seismic design.  


Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E; Terán-Gilmore, Amador



Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment, held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, September 16-17, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of intelligent agents technology and to identify the potential of software agents for use in future design and synthesis environment. The presentations covered the current status of agent technology and several applications of intelligent software agents. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)



Personal Leadership in Practice: A Critical Approach to Instructional Design Innovation Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An argument is made in this article for a link between leadership and innovation, when innovation is an outcome of the work approaches and practices that underpin an educational technologist's academic course designs. The practice of instructional design (ID) is continually being challenged to rethink its conceptualization of academic course…

Ashbaugh, Marcia L.



Protocol-aware, enhanced cognition robot agent design for team work effort in lunar exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the design and prototyping of a protocol-aware and cognitively enhanced Robot agent. A set of protocols have been defined which support autonomous robot team mission activity. These include a Team Work Effort protocol and ancillary protocols which support situation awareness and assist the robot team in flexibly executing the mission. The Robot agents are engaged in a

Margaret Lyell; William Drozd



Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark



Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.

Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)



Designing sociotechnical systems with cognitive work analysis: putting theory back into practice.  


Cognitive work analysis (CWA) is a framework of methods for analysing complex sociotechnical systems. However, the translation from the outputs of CWA to design is not straightforward. Sociotechnical systems theory provides values and principles for the design of sociotechnical systems which may offer a theoretically consistent basis for a design approach for use with CWA. This article explores the extent to which CWA and sociotechnical systems theory offer complementary perspectives and presents an abstraction hierarchy (AH), based on a review of literature, that describes an 'optimal' CWA and sociotechnical systems theory design system. The optimal AH is used to assess the extent to which current CWA-based design practices, uncovered through a survey of CWA practitioners, aligns with sociotechnical systems theory. Recommendations for a design approach that would support the integration of CWA and sociotechnical systems theory design values and principles are also derived. PMID:25407778

Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A



Molecular Entropy, Thermal Efficiency, and Designing of Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortage of fossil energy sources boosts the utilization of renewable energy. Among numerous novel techniques, recovering energy from low-grade heat sources through power generation via organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) is one of the focuses. Properties of working fluids are crucial for the ORC's performance. Many studies have been done to select proper working fluids or to design new working fluids. However, no researcher has systematically investigated the relationship between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. This paper has investigated the interrelations of molecular structures, molecular entropies, and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. By calculating thermal efficiencies and molecular entropies, we find that the molecular entropy is the most appropriate thermophysical property of a working fluid to determine how much energy can be converted into work and how much cannot in a system. Generally speaking, working fluids with low entropies will generally have high thermal efficiency for an ideal ORC. Based on this understanding, the direct interrelations of molecular structures and entropies provide an explicit interrelation between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies, and thus provide an insightful direction for molecular design of novel working fluids for ORCs.

Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Zhiyou



The optical antenna system design research on earth integrative network laser link in the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth integrated information network can be real-time acquisition, transmission and processing the spatial information with the carrier based on space platforms, such as geostationary satellites or in low-orbit satellites, stratospheric balloons or unmanned and manned aircraft, etc. It is an essential infrastructure for China to constructed earth integrated information network. Earth integrated information network can not only support the highly dynamic and the real-time transmission of broadband down to earth observation, but the reliable transmission of the ultra remote and the large delay up to the deep space exploration, as well as provide services for the significant application of the ocean voyage, emergency rescue, navigation and positioning, air transportation, aerospace measurement or control and other fields.Thus the earth integrated information network can expand the human science, culture and productive activities to the space, ocean and even deep space, so it is the global research focus. The network of the laser communication link is an important component and the mean of communication in the earth integrated information network. Optimize the structure and design the system of the optical antenna is considered one of the difficulty key technologies for the space laser communication link network. Therefore, this paper presents an optical antenna system that it can be used in space laser communication link network.The antenna system was consisted by the plurality mirrors stitched with the rotational paraboloid as a substrate. The optical system structure of the multi-mirror stitched was simulated and emulated by the light tools software. Cassegrain form to be used in a relay optical system. The structural parameters of the relay optical system was optimized and designed by the optical design software of zemax. The results of the optimal design and simulation or emulation indicated that the antenna system had a good optical performance and a certain reference value in engineering. It can provide effective technical support to realize interconnection of earth integrated laser link information network in the future.

Liu, Xianzhu; Fu, Qiang; He, Jingyi



Planning an Empirical Experiment To Evaluate The Effects Of Pair Work On The Design Phase Of The Software Lifecycle  

E-print Network

as compare the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the pair work approach and the individual work approaches is more efficient or cost effective than individual work approach. The aims of the experiment are to compare the quality of the design products produced by pair designers and individual designers as well

New South Wales, University of


Futures Conditional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

Theobald, Robert


MICE -- Absorber and focus coil safety working group design document: Preliminary design and assessments  

SciTech Connect

A Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly the discovery of leptonic CP violation. it is also the first step toward a muon collider. To develop a stored-muon-beam facility to serve as a Neutrino Factory, it is necessary to ''cool'' a muon beam (decrease its phase-space volume). The short lifetime of the muon, 2.2 {micro}s at rest, eliminates all currently demonstrated cooling techniques and requires that a new, heretofore untried, technique--ionization cooling--be employed. Although ionization cooling of muons has never been demonstrated in practice, it has been shown by end-to-end simulation and design studies to be an important factor both for the performance and for the cost of a Neutrino Factory. This motivates an international program of R and D, including an experimental demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The aims of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment are: (1) to show that it is possible to design, engineer and build a section of cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory; and (2) to place it in a muon beam and measure its performance in various modes of operation and beam conditions, thereby investigating the limits and practicality of cooling. The MICE collaboration has designed an experiment in which a section of an ionization cooling channel is exposed to a muon beam. This cooling channel assembles liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing energy loss and high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to re-accelerate the particles, all tightly contained in a magnetic channel. It reduces the beam transverse emittance by > 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. The layout of the experiment is shown. They utilize one complete magnetic cell of the cooling channel, comprising three absorber-focus-coil (AFC) modules and two RF-coupling-coil (RFCC) modules. Spectrometers placed before and after the cooling section shown, perform the measurements of beam transmission and emittance reduction with an absolute precision of {+-} 0.1%. The detector solenoids each have separate coils (matching coils) to tailor the optics smoothly between the cooling channel and detector modules.

Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael



Work-Centered Support Systems: A Human-Centered Approach to Intelligent System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work-centered support system approach to human-centered computing focuses on analyzing and supporting the multiple facets of work. The WCSS for global weather management developed to support weather forecasting and monitoring in an airlift service organization, exemplifies this approach. A hallmark of human-centered computing (HCC) is its focus on domain practitioners and their field of practice. Human-centered design depends on

Ronald Scott; Emilie M. Roth; Stephen E. Deutsch; Erika Malchiodi; Thomas E. Kazmierczak; Robert G. Eggleston; Samuel R. Kuper; Randall D. Whitaker



Conceptual design statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project  

SciTech Connect

The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-activity waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This statement of work describes the work scope (encompassing definition of new installations and retrofit modifications to four existing grout vaults), to be performed by the Architect-Engineer, in preparation of a conceptual design for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Interim Storage Facility.

Carlson, T.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford



A 3D Polymer Model for Future Nutrition Design Novel Nutrition Approach for Cystic Fibrosis, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Ulcerative Colitis (UC), and Crohn’s Disease (CD) manifest as various, multiple symptoms from malfunctioning and/or damaged gastrointestinal tract, which plague the patients. These symptoms result from the dysfunctional expression products of the specific mutations of the genes, which either manifest upon birth (CF) or later in life in immuno-genetically susceptible individuals as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). They all may potentially lead to malnutrition of the patients. Since only correcting the mutated genes, may cure these diseases permanently, the works on the future safe gene therapies continue vigorously. However, provision of the necessary nutrients to the suffering patients is the requirement for an effective, supportive care at present. In this realm, we have developed a model of the diseased gastrointestinal tract aimed to guide designing and testing various nutritional therapies. Materials and Methods It is well known that inflammatory bowel diseases induce crypts within the patients’ gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we have bioengineered, a novel, three-dimensional model of the gastrointestinal tract to evaluate the rheology of different types of nutrients. The model was assembled out of the bio-inert polymer tube with openings leading to vials of different shapes and sizes, as the simulation of the gastrointestinal tract altered by the diseases to contain multiple crypts. Results and Conclusions The newly developed three-dimensional model effectively simulates the structure and functions of the gastrointestinal tract of the patients with mild and severe Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Disease, and Cystic Fibrosis. This model should allow us to design and test different nutritional supplements, with properties complementing the pathologically altered by the diseases functionalities of the patients’ gastrointestinal tracts. Therefore, it should help us to design the effective supportive therapies; thus to prevent the patients’ malnutrition.

Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pezirkianidis, Nikolaos; Ritzoulis, Christos; Huang, Haidong; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lampaki, Sofia; Organtzis, John; Malecki, Bianca Kathryn; Saetre, Sindre Ervik; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Malecki, Marek



Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.

Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.



Ergonomics action research II: a framework for integrating HF into work system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that can support efforts to integrate human factors (HF) into the work system design process, where improved and cost-effective application of HF is possible. The framework advocates strategies of broad stakeholder participation, linking of performance and health goals, and process focussed change tools that can help practitioners engage in improvements to embed HF into

W. P. Neumann; J. Village



The Challenges of Designing and Implementing a Cross-Cultural Unit of Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the challenges that were experienced as I engaged in an action research project in which I designed and enacted a cross-cultural unit of work entitled "Maintaining Health". George has advocated the use of traditional knowledge as a strategy for increasing the relevance of science curricula within the Trinidad and Tobago…

Herbert, Susan



A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. View between two of the four rails of the track. Note motor and electrical conduit. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-1-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID


A simulation model to design a supply vessel fleet for Petrobras offshore works  

SciTech Connect

This work presents an operational model to design offshore vessels fleet that are responsible for the delivery of supplies to ocean platforms. All stochastic factors of the real problem are considered and the ARENA software is used, including templates and animation features, which helps the understanding of system`s behavior.

Botter, R.C.; Souza, R.L. de; Borges, M.J.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Naval and Ocean Engineering Dept.



Closing the Achievement Gap: A "High Schools That Work" Design for Challenged Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the High Schools That Work (HSTW) program. HSTW, created by the Southern Regional Education Board, presents a school-reform design that encompasses goals, key practices, and key conditions for setting higher standards and accelerating learning. The HSTW model integrates college-preparatory studies with quality…

Bottoms, Gene


Studio Design Work in First Year Architectural Education. Advisory Centre Occasional Papers in University Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course for first-year architectural students is described. The approach concentrated on developing an understanding of the nature of design activity through exploration of the kind of thinking that may be applied in order to improve the first-year studio work. The course is based on the following premises: (1) it is possible and educationally…

Claridge, Philip George Brian


The Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems: Present Challenges and Future Promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are used in the SE community to address the need for managing the development of complex systems. A key feature of the MBSE approach is the use of a model to capture the requirements, architecture, behavior, operating environment and other key aspects of the system. The focus on the model differentiates MBSE from traditional SE techniques that may have a document centric approach. In an effort to assess the benefit of utilizing MBSE on its flight projects, NASA Langley has implemented a pilot program to apply MBSE techniques during the early phase of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X). MISSE-X is a Technology Demonstration Mission being developed by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist i . Designed to be installed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS), MISSE-X will host experiments that advance the technology readiness of materials and devices needed for future space exploration. As a follow-on to the highly successful series of previous MISSE experiments on ISS, MISSE-X benefits from a significant interest by the

Bloebaum, Christina L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas



FGD metals and design technology: Past problems/solution, present status and future outlook  

SciTech Connect

Unscheduled downtime of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s was often traced to corrosion of the material components. A concerted effort by the FGD industry (A/E firms, EPRI, alloy producers, lining suppliers, research institutions, et al) was mounted to define the problems and provide cost effective solutions. The industry today has a much better (if not total) understanding of the complexity of the corrosive environments of wet scrubber systems and this knowledge was gained only after years of investment in research and development programs. The results of these programs have led to improved alloy metallurgy, non-metallic coatings, process designs and fabrication/inspection techniques. The benefits of this effort are that today the industry is fully enjoying the reliability in performance in FGD systems with minimal interruption, a phenomenon which was almost non existent about 20 years ago. This paper briefly describes the chronology of the various factors leading to where the industry is today regarding alloy trends, case histories, and some corrosion data. Also discussed are the future trends, prospects and challenges this industry will be facing in the 21st century.

Agarwal, D.C. [Krupp VDM, Houston, TX (United States); Ford, M. [Wheelabrator Air Pollution Control, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)



Anticipatory ethics for a future internet: analyzing values during the design of an internet infrastructure.  


The technical details of Internet architecture affect social debates about privacy and autonomy, intellectual property, cybersecurity, and the basic performance and reliability of Internet services. This paper explores one method for practicing anticipatory ethics in order to understand how a new infrastructure for the Internet might impact these social debates. This paper systematically examines values expressed by an Internet architecture engineering team-the Named Data Networking project-based on data gathered from publications and internal documents. Networking engineers making technical choices also weigh non-technical values when working on Internet infrastructure. Analysis of the team's documents reveals both values invoked in response to technical constraints and possibilities, such as efficiency and dynamism, as well as values, including privacy, security and anonymity, which stem from a concern for personal liberties. More peripheral communitarian values espoused by the engineers include democratization and trust. The paper considers the contextual and social origins of these values, and then uses them as a method of practicing anticipatory ethics: considering the impact such priorities may have on a future Internet. PMID:24407888

Shilton, Katie



A Buddhist perspective on industrial engineering and the design of work.  


The modern way of life is highly dependent upon the production of goods by industrial organizations that are in turn dependent upon their workers for their ongoing operations. Even though more than a century has passed since the dawn of the industrial revolution, many dangerous aspects of work, both physical and mental, remain in the workplace today. Using Buddhist philosophical principles, this paper suggests that although many sources of the problem reside within the larger society, the industrial engineer is still a key factor in bettering work and providing a workplace suitable for their fellow workers. Drawing on these insights, we present a number of work design guidelines that industrial engineers who abide by Buddhist principles could practice to help overcome some of the many sufferings produced by modern work. PMID:24048817

Lee, Wei-Tau; Blumenthal, James A; Funk, Kenneth H



On the use of systems technologies and a systematic approach for the synthesis and the design of future biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems technologies emerge with a powerful potential to support the deployment and design of future biorefineries. The chemical industry experiences a steady growth in the use of renewables induced by the gradual depletion of oil, uncertainties in energy supplies and a commanding requirement to reduce GHG emissions and save the planet. Renewables introduce an impressive range of options with biorefining

Antonis C. Kokossis; Aidong Yang



Impact of Nano-scale Through-Silicon Vias on the Quality of Today and Future 3D IC Designs  

E-print Network

Impact of Nano-scale Through-Silicon Vias on the Quality of Today and Future 3D IC Designs Dae Hyun sub-micron dimensions in a few years. This downscaling of TSVs requires research on the impact of nano. In this paper, we investigate, for the first time, the impact of nano-scale TSVs on the area, wirelength, delay

Lim, Sung Kyu


Lessons from Tarceva in pancreatic cancer: where are we now, and how should future trials be designed in pancreatic cancer ?  

E-print Network

1 Lessons from Tarceva in pancreatic cancer: where are we now, and how should future trials be designed in pancreatic cancer ? Pierre Laurent-Puig1 ,2, 3, 4 Julien Taieb1,3 1 Université Paris Descartes of review: The recent advances in the use of targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer are based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


75 FR 67364 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Clinton Engineering Works...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Designate a Class of Employees From Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, TN, To Be Included...designate a class of employees from Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as follows: Facility: Clinton Engineering Works. Location: Oak Ridge,...



The Future of STEM Curriculum and Instructional Design: A Research and Development Agenda for Learning Designers. Report of a Workshop Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009-10 a series of Workshops was organized to focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning design for young students and adolescents. The objective was to provide visionary leadership to the education community by: (a) identifying and analyzing the needs and opportunities for future STEM curriculum development and…

Center for the Study of Mathematics Curriculum, 2012



Women in Design, Graduate School of Design Women in Design (WiD) is a student group working to increase the visibility of practicing women designers and to further  

E-print Network

Women in Design, Graduate School of Design Women in Design (WiD) is a student group working to increase the visibility of practicing women designers and to further incorporate their experiences environment. Events and meetings are aimed at connecting the GSD community to the larger professional


Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Erie Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures" ™ in Education program in Erie Public Schools (EPS). As described in the CPRE proposal and research design, the purpose was to closely analyze…

Riggan, Matt; Fink, Ryan; Sam, Cecile; Darfler, Anne



Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Jefferson County Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures"™ in Education program in Jefferson County Public Schools (JCPS). As described in the CPRE proposal and research design, the purpose was to…

Darfler, Anne; Riggan, Matt



The Silver Bullet Skunk Works: Holistic design of the answering system 1300  

SciTech Connect

The Silver Bullet Skunk Works, and experimental product realization team at AT T Consumer Products, designed and shipped a new telephone answering system to market in eight months, approximately one year faster than previous AT T products of similar complexity. This paper outlines the Design for X'' (DFX) philosophies and the team structure that enabled the group to accelerate the Product Realization Process. The Answering System 1300, developed in record time, was a successful product that met its schedule and cost objectives, and sold out its entire high-volume manufacturing run. Lessons learned from the Skunk Works experience have since been applied to other development activities in AT T Consumer Products. 3 figs.

Andrews, A.K.



Present Situation and Future Trends in Modelling of Machining Operations Progress Report of the CIRP Working Group ‘Modelling of Machining Operations’  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 CIRP STC “Cutting” started a working group “Modelling of Machining Operations” with the aim of stimulating the development of models capable of predicting quantitatively the performance of metal cutting operations which will be better adapted to the needs of the metal cutting industry in the future. This paper has the character of a progress report. It presents the

C. A. van Luttervelt; T. H. C. Childs; I. S. Jawahir; F. Klocke; P. K. Venuvinod; Y. Altintas; E. Armarego; D. Dornfeld; I. Grabec; J. Leopold; B. Lindstrom; D. Lucca; T. Obikawa; Shirakashi; H. Sato



Why Social Work, and What Does the Future Hold?: The Narratives of Recently Graduated Hispanic and African-American Male BSW and MSW Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employing a focus group interview, this exploratory study investigated the influences on the social work career choice of recently graduated (spring 2007) Hispanic and African-American male BSW and MSW students (N = 7). Also investigated were the views of these men regarding entering a female majority profession and their future in the profession.…

Warde, Bryan



Cognitive work analysis and the analysis, design, and evaluation of human-computer interactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a short conceptual and visual introduction to some of the basic principles of cognitive work analysis (CWA). CWA is an approach to the analysis, design, and evaluation of human-computer interactive systems-particularly of complex, high-technology sociotechnical systems. The paper also introduces the following five symposium papers, which provide detailed examples of CWA being used in research at the

Penelope Sanderson



NASA's Design and Development of a Field Goniometer Instrument Using Solid Works  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA suffering severe funding cutbacks, engineers at NASA are required to produce state-of-the-art hardware with limited personnel and financial resources. In light of these constraints, the new NASA mandate is to build better, faster and cheaper. In April of 1998, Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program contracted to the Systems Engineering Division at NASA Ames Research Center to develop a device known as a Field Goniometer. A Field Goniometer is a device that measures bi-directional reflectance of a target, such as vegetation, relative to the sun and an imaging system in an aircraft or spacecraft. The device is able to provide a spectral fingerprint of the surface it is measuring in wavelengths from 350nm-2500nm using a hyperspectral imager. To accomplish this project, several obstacles had to be overcome. First, the design had to be completed in less than four months. Second, due to the complexity of the design, the use of solid modeling was highly desirable but most of the group's solid modelers were assigned to other jobs. Third, the amount of funding available from the customer was one half to one third the funding typically expended for a job of this nature. Our choices for this project were to design with standard 2-D CAD systems currently used in-house or train additional engineers on our existing solids package or purchase a new solid model package. The use of a 2D CAD system was very undesirable due to the complexity of the design. Using our existing solids modeler would have required a learning curve for our engineers that would be incompatible with our schedule. Prior to this project, a member of our design group researched the solid modeling industry and decided to purchase SolidWorks. After examining the product for ease of use, modeling capability, training time required and cost, we decided our highest probability of success would be to design with Solidworks. During the design phase, our fabrication group was able to provide input at the very early stages, which added significant benefit to the final product. Fabrication cost and schedule savings have been realized by having complex part geometries translated directly from the SolidWorks design models to Surfcam and other computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. This direct model translation capability optimized the fabrication processes. The end result was that we were able to successfully complete the project on time and on budget. Other advantages of using SolidWorks, as cited by the design team, include a rapid negotiation of the initial learning curve, the ability to develop solid model hardware prototypes (used to communicate the design intent to both the customer and the fabricator), and the ability to work as a team collaborating on a large, complex model. These types of tools and efforts represent our response to NASA's challenge to produce higher quality products within shorter design and fabrication times.

Turner, Mark; Sasaki, Glen; Jennings, Ernest (Technical Monitor)



Thermal design calculations for food freezing equipment—past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on methods for thermal design of food freezing equipment is reviewed with emphasis on two questions: what do those who design, build and commission freezers most need from researchers in terms of improved design calculation methods, and what are the most limiting factors in determining whether a particular freezer design will satisfactorily freeze the product at the required

A. C Cleland; S Özilgen



Future Carbon Regulations and Current Investments in Alternative Coal-Fired Power Plant Designs  

E-print Network

This paper assesses the role of uncertainty over future U.S. carbon regulations in shaping the current choice of which type of power plant to build. The pulverized coal technology (PC) still offer the lowest cost power— ...

Sekar, Ram C.


Designing High Performance, Reliable, and Energy-Efficient Networked Computing Systems for the Future  

E-print Network

for the Future Chen-Zhong Xu inside the Earth Simulator, the then fastest computer. As computer systems become roller coaster rides and terror attacks, there is a surge of Internet traffic that can quickly saturate

Xu, Cheng-Zhong


Ergonomic risk assessment with DesignCheck to evaluate assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.  


Occupational hazards exist, if the design of the work situation is not in accordance with ergonomic design principles. At assembly lines ergonomics is applied to the design of work equipment and tasks and to work organisation. The ignoring of ergonomic principles in planning and design of assembly work leads to unfavourable working posture, action force and material handling. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system are of a common occurrence throughout Europe. Musculoskeletal disorders are a challenge against the background of disabled workers. The changes in a worker's capability have to be regarded in the conception of redesigned and new assembly lines. In this way ergonomics becomes progressively more important in planning and design of vehicles: The objective of ergonomic design in different stages of the vehicles development process is to achieve an optimal adaptation of the assembly work to workers. Hence the ergonomic screening tool "Design Check" (DC) was developed to identify ergonomic deficits in workplace layouts. The screening-tool is based on the current ergonomic state of the art in the design of physical work and relevant EU legal requirements. It was tested within a federal German research project at selected work stations at the assembly lines at Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG / Stuttgart. Meanwhile the application of the screening-tool DC is transferred in other parts of the Porsche AG, Stuttgart. It is also realized as an ergonomic standard method to perform assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process. PMID:22317393

Winter, Gabriele; Schaub, Karlheinz G; Großmann, Kay; Laun, Gerhard; Landau, Kurt; Bruder, Ralph



Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.



The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

Bernhardt, Annette


Work Design Issues in Lean Production from a Sociotechnical Systems Perspective: Neo-Taylorism or the Next Step in Sociotechnical Design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarities and differences between twoparadigms, Lean Production (LP) and SociotechnicalSystems (STS) thinking, which currently compete for theattention of managers and scholars interested inimproving the design of work systems, are studied in thisarticle. In order to find the logic behind eachapproach, the design principles formulated by Chernshave been used to evaluate LP from an STS viewpoint with respect to work

Willem Niepce; Eric Molleman



Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions

Julie Cwikel; Elizabeth Hoban



Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.



NASA Now: Engineering Design: Tilt Rotors, Aircraft of the Future - Duration: 6:09.  

NASA Video Gallery

Meet Carl Russell, a research aerospace engineer who is working on developing new innovations for air travel. Russell discusses how tilt rotors work, including a demonstration on how rotors use Ber...


Design of a Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter for Future Joint Service Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A slowed-rotor compound helicopter has been synthesized using the NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) conceptual design software. An overview of the design process and the capabilities of NDARC are presented. The benefits of trading rotor speed, wing-rotor lift share, and trim strategies are presented for an example set of sizing conditions and missions.

Silva, Christopher; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne R.



The Pathway Program: How a Collaborative, Distributed Learning Program Showed Us the Future of Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a three-campus collaborative, distributed learning program that delivers social work education to remote rural and desert communities in California via distance learning modalities. This "Pathway Program" provides accredited social work education for a career ladder beginning with advising and developing an academic…

Morris, Teresa; Mathias, Christine; Swartz, Ronnie; Jones, Celeste A; Klungtvet-Morano, Meka



Interim Working Document 2001/12/03 Validation of a Modified Operational Cruise Designed to Sample Dead Wood  

E-print Network

Interim Working Document 2001/12/03 i Validation of a Modified Operational Cruise Designed to Sample Dead Wood Interim Working Document Version 1 December 3 2001 Prepared for the TWF/INTERFOR Project, implementation, and/or compilation issues as they arise. #12;Interim Working Document 2001/12/03 ii Table


Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.



IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 4th Quarter 20062 he trend in designing future global communication net-  

E-print Network

in the future global communication infra- structure [1­3]. First-generation satellite-based communica- tion these requirements, a new generation of satel- lite communications (SATCOM) networks, called broadband satelliteStar) are exam- ples of this generation of satellite communication networks [1]. These satellite communication

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed


Why the Future Doesn't Come from Machines: Unfounded Prophecies and the Design of Naturoids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological imagination and actual technological achievements have always been two very different things. Sudden and unpredictable events always seem to intervene between our visions regarding possible futures and the subsequent concrete realizations. Thus, our ideas and projects are continually being redirected. In the field of…

Negrotti, Massimo



Design of parabolic trough collector solar field for future solar thermal power plants in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main future challenge for Algeria is to realize the self-sufficiency from solar electricity and its exportation; because it has the best annual solar potential in the Mediterranean basin, estimated by 169 TWh. Now Algeria has planned a program of capacity 22 000 MW in which the considerable share is renewable origin for horizon 2030. The program includes photovoltaic and

Abdelhafid Moummi



Summary Report of the Series of Joint NSF-EU Working Groups on Future Directions for Digital Libraries Research: October 12, 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Union and the National Science Foundation have been collaborating on a joint international project to identify future research directions and funding priorities for digital libraries. Five working groups were established to explore specific research areas: Intellectual Property and Economics, Global Resource Discovery, Interoperability, Metadata, and Multilingual Information Access. At their most recent workshop in October 1998, the five working groups presented recommendations based on their studies, the results of which are outlined in this Summary Report (available in HTML, Word, and .pdf). The final reports from each of the five working groups are expected to be published in early 1999. The collaborative work on digital libraries by the National Science Foundation and the European Union is described briefly in the Summary of Research Agenda. Also included here are links to European digital library research and initiatives.



Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.  


Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy. PMID:23685851

Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord



NASA Now: Technology and Design: The Future of Space Exploration - Duration: 6:10.  

NASA Video Gallery

John Connolly, deputy manager of the Exploration Missions and Systems Office, describes the physics and environmental differences engineers must consider when designing crewed exploration missions ...


Using Distributed Power System Models to Design New Controllers for Future Grid  

E-print Network

works § New Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) Investigating the possibility of less disruptive supplementary information with its neighbors. Therefore graph of physical layer and communication layer coincide. Test

Li, Husheng


Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or

James B. Sampson



The Brownies' Book (1920-1921): Exploring the Past to Elucidate the Future of Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates culture-based instructional design in its purest form through "The Brownies' Book", a children's periodical produced from 1920 to 1921. Methodologies of examination include historical analysis and critical discourse analysis grounded in a Foucaultian framework. The findings extrapolated from the design of "The Brownies'…

Young, Patricia A.



Is There a Wiki in Your Future?: Applications for Education, Instructional Design, and General Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wiki is a collaborative and highly interactive communication technology that enjoys worldwide fame in multi-user editing. It is based on specific design principles. Wiki has implications for both educational and instructional design as well as for general usage. As long as wiki is relatively cost-free, and users find value in its contents, it…

Toker, Sacip; Moseley, James L.; Chow, Ann T.



Preserving the Past, Enjoying the Present and Facing the Future: Interaction Design and Family Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital archives of personal memories are becoming increasingly technically feasible, but there remain significant interaction design challenges. These challenges must be addressed before these archives will present interactive experiences that are attractive and emotionally engaging. In this paper, we present a research and design study of the Living Memory Box, a device and service to assist families in preserving memories

Molly M. Stevens; Gregory D. Abowd; Khai N. Truong


Can We Secure Future-Responsive Management Through Systems Thinking and Design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future-responsive management raises far-reaching cognitive and methodological difficulties. This essay in honor of C.W. Churchman, former management scientist and research philosopher at the University of California, Berkeley, analyzes some of these difficulties in the light of Churchman's systems thinking about planning and management. Although systems thinking cannot make the difficulties in question disappear, it can help us to better understand




Designing Smart Health Care Technology into the Home of the Future  

SciTech Connect

This editorial paper presents a vision for intelligent health care in the home of the future, focusing on technologies with the highest potential payoff given targeted government funding over the next ten years. A secure, plug-and-play information framework provides the starting point for identifying technologies that must be developed before home-based devices can know their context and assimilate information to support care decisions.

Craft, R.L.; Warren, S.



An overview of RDF processing systems: Current status, design features, and future trends  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the recent history of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing facilities in the United States. The current status of these facilities, including environmental, institutional, and economic considerations is discussed. The unit operations used to produce a desired RDF product are described, and the future potential of RDF processing systems is evaluated. Current research sponsored by the US Department of Energy is also presented. 6 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Ohlsson, O.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Walter, D.K. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Waste Material Management Div.); Goodman, B.J. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States))



Designs that Fly: What the History of Aeronautics Tells Us about the Future of Design-Based Research in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost two decades, there has been growing interest in what design-based research (DBR) can contribute to both educational practice and theory. Since its introduction into the literature, this orientation to educational research has repeatedly been likened to aeronautical engineering as a way to clarify its nature and argue its potential. This…

O'Neill, D. Kevin



Designs that fly: what the history of aeronautics tells us about the future of design-based research in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost two decades, there has been growing interest in what design-based research (DBR) can contribute to both educational practice and theory. Since its introduction into the literature, this orientation to educational research has repeatedly been likened to aeronautical engineering as a way to clarify its nature and argue its potential. This paper critically examines for the first time how

D. Kevin ONeill



Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 2, appendix B: Trade and design definition studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System trades, evaluations, and selection were organized under the appropriate manned remote work station roles and subsystems. Those trades/evaluations that have an impact on simulator fidelity were given emphasis in terms of identifying alternate concepts, making a selection, and defining the system approach. Those trades that do not impact simulator fidelity have the issues delineated and future study requirements identified.



Public Health Preparedness and Response to Chemical and Radiological Incidents: Functions, Practices, and Areas for Future Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 66 page report released in August 2009 looks into the world of public health emergency preparedness, and for those persons who work in the fields of emergency response policy, public health, or security studies, this work will be most timely. Authored by five researchers at the RAND Corporation this technical report looks into "the roles of the public health service in emergency preparedness and its response to chemical and radiological incidents." The report is divided into four chapters, two appendices, and a references section. As events like nuclear plant accidents, chemical terrorism, and other related occurrences can have tremendous implications for public health, the report is most valuable.

Latourrette, Tom


Possible Futures for Social Work with Children and Families in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable interest in recent years in comparing the operation of social work services for children and families internationally, particularly between Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Reviewing the respective policy environments and drawing on recent research experience in these three nations, the author…

Spratt, Trevor



Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

Wernicki, M. Chris



A novel biomimetic photochemical switch at work: design of a photomodulable peptide.  


We report the outcomes of our recent computational and experimental work for the development of a novel biomimetic molecular switch. Furthermore, we present the new results on the design and computational characterization of a "functional" cyclic peptidomimetic formed by the switch conjugated to a biologically active peptide: the RGD sequence involved in the control of cell adhesion. Structural properties of the construct are investigated in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Analysis of MD trajectories reveals that, for each diastereoisomer of the switch (E or Z), different conformations are stabilized. Electrostatic and spectroscopic properties of such conformers are evaluated by means of ab initio multiconfiguration quantum chemical method implemented in a quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanic (CASPT2//CASSCF/6-31G*/AMBER) scheme. PMID:20024160

Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Bernini, Caterina; Basosi, Riccardo; Olivucci, Massimo



Design of a Robotic System to Measure Propulsion Work of Freewheeling Wheelchair Maneuvers.  


A wheelchair-propelling robot has been developed to measure the efficiency of manual wheelchairs. The use of a robot has certain advantages compared to the use of human operators with respect to repeatability of measurements and the ability to compare many more wheelchair configurations than possible with human operators. Its design and implementation required significant engineering and validation of hardware and control systems. The robot can propel a wheelchair according to pre-programmed accelerations and velocities and measures the forces required to achieve these maneuvers. Wheel velocities were within 0.1 m/s of programmed values and coefficients of variation (CV) < 2%. Torque measurements were also repeatable with CV <10%. By determining the propulsion torque required to propel the wheelchair through a series of canonical maneuvers, task-dependent input work for various wheelchairs and configurations can be compared. This metric would serve to quantify the combined inertial and frictional resistance of the mechanical system. PMID:25420269

Liles, Howard; Huang, Morris; Caspall, Jayme; Sprigle, S



Risk Management in Product Design: Current State, Conceptual Model and Future Research  

E-print Network

Risk management is an important element of product design. It helps to minimize the project- and product-related risks such as project budget and schedule overrun, or missing product cost and quality targets. Risk management ...

Oehmen, Josef


Implications of multiplane-multispeed balancing for future turbine engine design and cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several alternative approaches, provided by multiplane-multispeed balancing, to traditional gas turbine engine manufacture and assembly procedures. These alternatives, which range from addition of trim-balancing at the end of the traditional assembly process to modular design of the rotating system for assembly and balancing external to the engine, require attention by the engine designer as an integral part of the design process. Since multiplane-multispeed balancing may be incorporated at one or more of several points during manufacture-assembly, its deliberate use is expected to provide significant cost and performance (reduced vibration) benefits. Moreover, its availability provides the designer with a firm base from which he may advance, with reasonable assurance of success, into the flexible rotor dynamic regime.

Badgley, R. H.



The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Design as a context for research : the design of a museum of modern art as a vehicle for studying Alvar Aalto's work  

E-print Network

The premise of this thesis is that there is valuable knowledge embedded in the buildings and related work of an architect that can only be understood in the context of some specific design setting. This thesis is an inquiry ...

Shen, Kairos



Meta-design: A Framework for the Future of End-User Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world that is not predictable, improvisation, evolution, and innovation are more than a luxury: they are a necessity.\\u000a The challenge of design is not a matter of getting rid of the emergent, but rather of including it and making it an opportunity\\u000a for more creative and more adequate solutions to problems.\\u000a \\u000a Meta-design is an emerging conceptual framework aimed

Gerhard Fischer; Elisa Giaccardi


Future Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lesson plan from Metro's environmental planning and transportation curriculum called 'Planning for a Livable Future'. Focuses on activities in which students speculate about necessary structure, imagine the cultural and environmental changes, and design and draw structures to meet the needs of the future population. (Author/KHR)

Clearing, 2003



Experiments at the W.M. Keck Observatory to support the Thirty Meter Telescope design work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to validate various assumptions about the operating environment of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), to validate the modeling packages being used to guide the design work for the TMT and to directly investigate the expected operation of several subsystems we have embarked on an extensive campaign of environmental measurements at the Keck telescopes. We have measured and characterized the vibration environment around the observatory floor and at certain locations on the telescope over a range of operating conditions. Similarly the acoustic environment around the telescope and primary mirror has been characterized for frequencies above 2 Hz. The internal and external wind and temperature fields are being measured using combined sonic anemometer and PRT sensors. We are measuring the telescope position error and drive torque signals in order to investigate the wind induced telescope motions. A scintillometer mounted on the telescope is measuring the optical turbulence inside the telescope tube. This experimental work is supplemented by an extensive analysis of telescope and engineering sensor log files and measurements, primarily those of accelerometers located on the main telescope optics, primary mirror segment edge sensor error signals (residuals), telescope structure temperature measurements and the telescope status information.

Skidmore, Warren; Travouillon, Tony; Riddle, Reed; Kinoshita, Kyle; Johnston, Richard; Murg, Phil; Thompson, Hugh; Matsuda, Richard; Colavita, Mark; Tolleth, Grant; Goodrich, Robert; Chock, Elizabeth; Lewis, Hilton; Panteleev, Sergey



Does visual working memory represent the predicted locations of future target objects? An event-related brain potential study.  


During the maintenance of task-relevant objects in visual working memory, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is elicited over the hemisphere opposite to the visual field where these objects are presented. The presence of this lateralised CDA component demonstrates the existence of position-dependent object representations in working memory. We employed a change detection task to investigate whether the represented object locations in visual working memory are shifted in preparation for the known location of upcoming comparison stimuli. On each trial, bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. Participants had to encode and maintain three visual objects on one side of the memory display, and to judge whether they were identical or different to three objects in the test display. Task-relevant memory and test stimuli were located in the same visual hemifield in the no-shift task, and on opposite sides in the horizontal shift task. CDA components of similar size were triggered contralateral to the memorized objects in both tasks. The absence of a polarity reversal of the CDA in the horizontal shift task demonstrated that there was no preparatory shift of memorized object location towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These results suggest that visual working memory represents the locations of visual objects during encoding, and that the matching of memorized and test objects at different locations is based on a comparison process that can bridge spatial translations between these objects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25445999

Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin



Training for the future NHS: training junior doctors in the United Kingdom within the 48-hour European working time directive  

PubMed Central

Since August 2009, the National Health Service of the United Kingdom has faced the challenge of delivering training for junior doctors within a 48-hour working week, as stipulated by the European Working Time Directive and legislated in the UK by the Working Time Regulations 1998. Since that time, widespread concern has been expressed about the impact of restricted duty hours on the quality of postgraduate medical training in the UK, particularly in the “craft” specialties – that is, those disciplines in which trainees develop practical skills that are best learned through direct experience with patients. At the same time, specialist training in the UK has experienced considerable change since 2007 with the introduction of competency-based specialty curricula, workplace-based assessment, and the annual review of competency progression. The challenges presented by the reduction of duty hours include increased pressure on doctors-in-training to provide service during evening and overnight hours, reduced interaction with supervisors, and reduced opportunities for learning. This paper explores these challenges and proposes potential responses with respect to the reorganization of training and service provision. PMID:25560369



Application of advanced high speed turboprop technology to future civil short-haul transport aircraft design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With an overall goal of defining the needs and requirements for short-haul transport aircraft research and development, the objective of this paper is to determine the performance and noise impact of short-haul transport aircraft designed with an advanced turboprop propulsion system. This propulsion system features high-speed propellers that have more blades and reduced diameters. Aircraft are designed for short and medium field lengths; mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) are used as performance measures. The propeller diameter was optimized to minimize DOC. Two methods are employed to estimate the weight of the acoustic treatment needed to reduce interior noise to an acceptable level. Results show decreasing gross weight, block fuel, DOC, engine size, and optimum propfan diameter with increasing field length. The choice of acoustic treatment method has a significant effect on the aircraft design.

Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.



The Implications of Encoder/Modulator/ Phased Array Designs for Future Broadband LEO Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we summarize the effects of modulation and channel coding on the design of wide angle scan, broadband, phased army antennas. In the paper we perform several trade studies. First, we investigate the amplifier back-off requirement as a function of variability of modulation envelope. Specifically, we contrast constant and non-constant envelope modulations, as well as single and multiple carrier schemes. Additionally, we address the issues an(f concerns of using pulse shaping filters with the above modulation types. Second, we quantify the effects of beam steering on the quality of data, recovery using selected modulation techniques. In particular, we show that the frequency response of the array introduces intersymbol interference for broadband signals and that the mode of operation for the beam steering controller may introduce additional burst or random errors. Finally, we show that the encoder/modulator design must be performed in conjunction with the phased array antenna design.

Vanderaar, Mark; Jensen, Chris A.; Terry, John D.



Work Design Issues in Lean Production from a Sociotechnical Systems Perspective: Neo-Taylorism or the Next Step in Sociotechnical Design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarities and differences between two paradigms, Lean Production (LP) and Sociotechnical Systems (STS) thinking, which currently compete for the attention of managers and scholars interested in improving the design of work systems, are studied in this article. In order to find the logic behind each approach, the design principles formulated by Cherns have been used to evaluate LP from

Willem Niepcel; Eric Molleman



Future needs for inelastic analysis in design of high-temperature nuclear plant components. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The role that inelastic analyses play in the design of high-temperature nuclear plant components is described. The design methodology, which explicitly accounts for nonlinear material deformation and time-dependent failure modes, requires a significant level of realism in the prediction of structural response. Thus, material deformation and failure modeling are, along with computational procedures, key parts of the methodology. Each of these is briefly discussed along with validation by comparisons with benchmark structural tests, and problem areas and needs are discussed for each.

Corum, J.M.



Design considerations of a cable wiring system for a new medical center to support a future medical imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Medical Center is faced with the problem to design a cable wiring system today, install it by the middle 1990''s, and allow for upgrades and enhancements for the next ten to fifteen years. The cable plant must be able to support functions and activities which are poorly defined today, but will include the hospital information system (HIS), a future picture archiving and communication system (PACS), and possibly an electronic patient chart with integrated image data. The cable plant must also connect to a future campus wide Medical Network of the Indiana University Medical center with the first component being a positron emission tomography system (PET) located approximately one mile away. To meet these goals the proposed cable plant will be a structured wire cabling system following existing and proposed standards for building wiring architectures including the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA) 568 Commercial Building Wiring Standard and the proposed Federal Telecommunication Standard 1090. The structured wiring system approached has been evaluated with emphasis on the present and future network topologies that can be implemented, the type and size of fiber optic cable to install, and the need to install fiber optic cable to individual workstations.

Witt, Robert M.; Emrich, Jack



Visualizing the Future of Research on Post Secondary Correctional Education: Designs, Data, and Deliverables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing post-secondary education in correctional settings has emerged as one of the best ways to reduce recidivism, save taxpayer dollars, and promote post release employment and community reintegration. While a number of studies exist, this paper argues persistent challenges connected to research design, data collection, and the communication…

Wheeldon, J.




Microsoft Academic Search

Car manufacturers design vehicles and side impact restraint systems to protect passengers from the risk of serious injury in the event of a side impact. In each of the major markets of the world, the side- impact testing requirements as set by the regulatory and the consumer interests are generally different. This paper will document and compare the international side

A. McNeill; J. Haberl; M Holzner; R. Schoeneburg; T. Strutz; U. Tautenhahn



EPA Science Inventory

As the EPA, states, and tribes move towards a consolidated assessment and listing process to satisfy requirements of the Clean Water Act, multi-purpose monitoring designs will be needed to assess regional condition as well as predict site-specific probabilities of impairment. Th...


Design study of a tritium transport package for future fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first design of a tritium transport package with large capacity and compact size, which can be applicable to tritium transport for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was developed. To verify that the package complies with the requirements for the BU type package stipulated in the IAEA regulation of transport packages, structural and thermal analysis were made for hypothetical accident

S. O’hira; T. Suzuki; S. Hode; M. Nishi



Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...


New Australian High School Represents the Future of Education Facility Design: Kingston High School, Tasmania, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brief from local government called for an environmentally sustainable school that establishes new models for excellence in curriculum, teaching, and learning. With its visionary sine wave design concept, flexible learning areas, shared community spaces and "extensive" green roof system--a first for an Australian school--the new $33 million…

Deni, Adriano



Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.

Choi, Benjamin B.



Design of an Advanced Expander Test Bed. [for future space engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is the key element for development of technology for future space engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The AETB will use oxygen/hydrogen propellants and a split expander cycle with nominal operation at a combustion chamber pressure of 1200 psia, a mixture ratio of 6.0, and an equivalent vacuum thrust of 20,000 lbf. It will function over a wide range of conditions including throttling to 5 percent thrust, operation at a mixture ratio of 12.0, and operation in tank head idle and pumped idle modes.

Masters, Arthur I.; Tabata, William K.




E-print Network

7.09 ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS IN ORDER TO DESIGN A WORK HELP TOOL : SIGOONS Corinne Chabaud & Sandrine. INTRODUCTION This study issue is ergonomics part in design processes. We will describe how ergonomics tackle results and ambitions. 2. CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES 2. 1 Context The present ergonomic study has been

Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba


Abstract--Multimedia groupware systems provide rich support for distributed team work. Yet effective design of these  

E-print Network

Abstract--Multimedia groupware systems provide rich support for distributed team work. Yet evolve design ideas. The problem is that multimedia groupware is hard to prototype because distributed designed to ease prototyping of multimedia groupware. The Collabrary blends real-time streaming multimedia

Greenberg, Saul


Abstract--Multimedia groupware systems provide rich support for distributed team work. Yet effective design of these systems is  

E-print Network

1 Abstract--Multimedia groupware systems provide rich support for distributed team work. Yet evolve design ideas. The problem is that multimedia groupware is hard to prototype because distributed specifically designed for easy prototyping of multimedia groupware. The Collabrary blends real-time streaming

Greenberg, Saul


Behavior Breakthroughs[TM]: Future Teachers Reflect on a Focused Game Designed to Teach ABA Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of a focused educational game. The game, "Behavior Breakthroughs"[TM], was created to teach people that work with children with autism, appropriate behavior management techniques. A group of undergraduate, teacher education students played the game and provided feedback on their experiences.

Lowdermilk, John; Martinez, Deborah; Pecina, Julie; Beccera, Lisa; Lowdermilk, Carey



Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

Ritterbusch, S.E.



300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan  

SciTech Connect

The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes.

Gustafson, F.W.



Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems  

SciTech Connect

The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of advanced lightweight structures for new generation vehicles in the context of whole life performance parameters.

Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R. [CEIAT, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queens University, Belfast (United Kingdom)



The future is now: Model-based clinical trial design for Alzheimer's disease.  


Failures in trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be attributable to inadequate dosing, population selection, drug inefficacy, or insufficient design optimization. The Coalition Against Major Diseases (CAMD) was formed in 2008 to develop drug development tools (DDT) to expedite drug development for AD and Parkinson's disease.(1) CAMD led a process that successfully advanced a clinical trial simulation (CTS) tool for AD through the formal regulatory review process at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). PMID:25669145

Romero, K; Ito, K; Rogers, Ja; Polhamus, D; Qiu, R; Stephenson, D; Mohs, R; Lalonde, R; Sinha, V; Wang, Y; Brown, D; Isaac, M; Vamvakas, S; Hemmings, R; Pani, L; Bain, Lj; Corrigan, B



Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of advanced lightweight structures for new generation vehicles in the context of whole life performance parameters.

Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.



Fridge of the future: Designing a one-kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer  

SciTech Connect

An industry/government Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established to evaluate and test design concepts for a domestic refrigerator-freezer unit that represents approximately 60% of the US market. The goal of the CRADA was to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50 percent, the 1993 NAECA standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 I) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translated to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research was to facilitate the introduction of cost-efficient technologies by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. A 1996 model refrigerator-freezer was selected as the baseline unit for testing. Since the unit was required to meet the 1993 NAECA standards, the energy consumption was quite low (1.676 kWh/d), thus making further reductions in energy consumption very challenging. Among the energy saving features incorporated into the original design of the baseline unit were a low-wattage evaporator fan, increased insulation thicknesses, and liquid line flange heaters.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.



Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work.  

SciTech Connect

Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert



Parents’ Participation in a Work-Based Anti-Poverty Program Can Enhance Their Children's Future Orientation: Understanding Pathways of Influence  

PubMed Central

Planning and preparing for life after high school is a central developmental task of American adolescents, and may be even more critical for low-income youth who are less likely to attend a four year college. This study investigates factors that led to the effects of the New Hope Project, a work-based, anti-poverty program directed at parents on youths’ career-related thoughts and planning. The New Hope project was implemented in Milwaukee, WI, during the mid-1990s. 745 families participated (52% male children; 56% African American; 30% Latino, and 15% White non-Hispanic) and half were randomly selected to receive New Hope benefits, which included earnings supplements, job search assistance, and child and health care subsidies for three years. Importantly, effects on youths’ future orientation were found eight years after the program began (five years after benefits ended). The present study investigates what factors sustained these positive impacts over time. Results indicate that parental perceptions of reading performance mediate the effects of New Hope on youths’ cynicism about work. Additionally, parental perceptions of reading performance and youths’ educational expectations mediate the effects of New Hope on boys’ pessimism about future employment. These findings highlight the importance of youths’ educational development to their career-related thoughts and planning. PMID:22878938

Purtell, Kelly M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.



Work in progress — Phenomenographic approach to understanding students' ways of experiencing human-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-centered approaches to design contribute to innovations in engineering design and have been shown to increase productivity, improve quality, reduce errors, improve acceptance of new products, and reduce development costs. Understanding the ways in which students understand and experience human-centered design is needed to create effective design learning experiences to develop the skills needed for human-centered design. To address that

Carla B. Zoltowski; William C. Oakes; Monica E. Cardella



Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems: Lessons Learned and Steps to the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously, we defined a blackbox formal system modeling language called RSML (Requirements State Machine Language). The language was developed over several years while specifying the system requirements for a collision avoidance system for commercial passenger aircraft. During the language development, we received continual feedback and evaluation by FAA employees and industry representatives, which helped us to produce a specification language that is easily learned and used by application experts. Since the completion of the PSML project, we have continued our research on specification languages. This research is part of a larger effort to investigate the more general problem of providing tools to assist in developing embedded systems. Our latest experimental toolset is called SpecTRM (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology), and the formal specification language is SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language). This paper describes what we have learned from our use of RSML and how those lessons were applied to the design of SpecTRM-RL. We discuss our goals for SpecTRM-RL and the design features that support each of these goals.

Leveson, Nancy G.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Reese, Jon Damon



Design of a Multicast Optical Packet Switch Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Technology for Future Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a non-blocking multicast optical packet switch based on fiber Bragg grating technology with optical output buffers is proposed. Only the header of optical packets is converted to electronic signals to control the fiber Bragg grating array of input ports and the packet payloads should be transparently destined to their output ports so that the proposed switch can reduce electronic interfaces as well as the bit rate. The modulation and the format of packet payloads may be non-standard where packet payloads could also include different wavelengths for increasing the volume of traffic. The advantage is obvious: the proposed switch could transport various types of traffic. An easily implemented architecture which can provide multicast services is also presented. An optical output buffer is designed to queue the packets if more than one incoming packet should reach to the same destination output port or including any waiting packets in optical output buffer that will be sent to the output port at a time slot. For preserving service-packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, a priority scheme and a round-robin algorithm are adopted at the optical output buffer. The fiber Bragg grating arrays for both input ports and output ports are designed for routing incoming packets using optical code division multiple access technology.

Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Yeh, Tzuoh-Chyau; Cheng, Shyr-Yuan



Working on the Boundaries: Philosophies and Practices of the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While systems engineering process is a program formal management technique and contractually binding, the design process is the informal practice of achieving the design project requirements throughout all design phases of the systems engineering process. The design process and organization are systems and component dependent. Informal reviews include technical information meetings and concurrent engineering sessions, and formal technical discipline reviews are conducted through the systems engineering process. This paper discusses and references major philosophical principles in the design process, identifies its role in interacting systems and disciplines analyses and integrations, and illustrates the process application in experienced aerostructural designs.

Ryan, R.; Blair, J.; Townsend, J.; Verderaime, V.



Antennas for the array-based Deep Space Network: current status and future designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of very large arrays1,2 of small antennas has been proposed as a way to increase the downlink capability of the NASA Deep Space Network DSN) by two or three orders of magnitude thereby enabling greatly increased science data from currently configured missions or enabling new mission concepts. The current concept is for an array of 400 x 12-m antennas at each of three longitudes. The DSN array will utilize radio astronomy sources for phase calibration and will have wide bandwidth correlation processing for this purpose. NASA has undertaken a technology program to prove the performance and cost of a very large DSN array. Central to that program is a 3-element interferometer to be completed in 2005. This paper describes current status of the low cost 6-meter breadboard antenna to be used as part of the interferometer and the RF design of the 12-meter antenna.

Imbriale, William A.; Gama, Eric



Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.



Oxygen diffusion barriers using a new sacrificial design concept for future high-density memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We emphasize the importance of the new design concept for diffusion barriers in high-density memory capacitors. RuTiN and RuTiO films are proposed as sacrificial oxygen diffusion barriers. They showed much lower sheet resistance up to 800 °C than various barriers including binary and ternary nitrides, reported by others. The contact resistance for both the Pt/RuTiN/TiSix/n++poly-plug/n+channel layer/Si and the Pt/RuTiO/RuTiN/TiSix/n++poly-plug/n+channel layer/Si contact structures, the most important electrical parameter for the diffusion barrier in the bottom-electrode structure of capacitors, exhibited values as low as 5 k?, even after annealing up to 750 °C. When each RuTiN and TiN film is inserted as a glue layer between the bottom electrode Pt layer in the CVD-BST simple stack-type structure, the thermal stability of the RuTiN glue layer is observed to be 150 °C higher than that of the TiN glue layer. Moreover, the capacitance of the PVD-BST simple stack-type structure with a TiN glue layer initially degrades after annealing at 500 °C, and thereafter failed completely. In the case of RuTiN and the RuTiO/RuTiN glue layers, however, the capacitance continuously increased up to 550 °C. These new experimental results accommodate the introduction of the sacrificial design concept of diffusion barriers against oxygen in high-density memory capacitors.

Yoon, D. S.; Roh, J. S.


The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning  

E-print Network

The ATLAS detector at LHC will require a Trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400 Hz. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 3 x 10^34 cm-2s-1, this represents an unprecedented challenge faced by the ATLAS Trigger system. To cope with the higher event rate and efficiently select relevant events from a physics point of view, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme after 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo system, currently developed at CERN, will consist initially of an ATCA crate and two L1Topo modules. A high density opto-electroconverter (AVAGO miniPOD) drives up to 1.6 Tb/s of data from the calorimeter and muon detectors into two high-end FPGA (Virtex7-690), to be processed in about 200 ns. The design has been optimized to guarantee excellent signal in- tegrity of the high-speed links and low latency data transmission on the Real Time Data Path (RTDP). The L1Topo receives data in a standalone protocol from the calorimeters and muon detectors to be processed into several VHDL topological algorithms. Those algorithms perform geometrical cuts, correlations and calculate complex observables such as the invariant mass. The output of such topological cuts is sent to the Central Trigger Processor. This talk focuses on the relevant high-density design characteristic of L1Topo, which allows several hundreds optical links to processed (up to 13 Gb/s each) using ordinary PCB material. Relevant test results performed on the L1Topo prototypes to characterize the high-speed links latency (eye diagram, bit error rate, margin analysis) and the logic resource utilization of the algorithms are discussed.

Eduard Simioni




SciTech Connect

This document describes the design of the accelerator and target systems for the AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility. Under the direction of the Associate Laboratory Director Tom Kirk, BNL has established a Neutrino Working Group to explore the scientific case and facility requirements for a very long baseline neutrino experiment. Results of a study of the physics merit and detector performance was published in BNL-69395 in October 2002, where it was shown that a wide-band neutrino beam generated by a 1 MW proton beam from the AGS, coupled with a half megaton water Cerenkov detector located deep underground in the former Homestake mine in South Dakota would be able to measure the complete set of neutrino oscillation parameters: (1) precise determination of the oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 32}; (2) detection of the oscillation of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub e} and measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}; (3) measurement of {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} sin 2{theta}{sub 12} in a {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance mode, independent of the value of {theta}{sub 13}; (4) verification of matter enhancement and the sign of {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}; and (5) determination of the CP-violation parameter {delta}{sub CP} in the neutrino sector. This report details the performance requirements and conceptual design of the accelerator and the target systems for the production of a neutrino beam by a 1.0 MW proton beam from the AGS. The major components of this facility include a new 1.2 GeV superconducting linac, ramping the AGS at 2.5 Hz, and the new target station for 1.0 MW beam. It also calls for moderate increase, about 30%, of the AGS intensity per pulse. Special care is taken to account for all sources of proton beam loss plus shielding and collimation of stray beam halo particles to ensure equipment reliability and personal safety. A preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the accelerator upgrade and target system are also included.




The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena



Improving return-to-work after childbirth: design of the Mom@Work study, a randomised controlled trial and cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many women suffer from health problems after giving birth, which can lead to sick leave. About 30% of Dutch workers are on sick leave after maternity leave. Structural contact of supervisors with employees on maternity leave, supported by early medical advice of occupational physicians, may increase the chances of return-to-work after maternity leave. In addition, to understand the process of sick leave and return-to-work after childbirth it is important to gain insight into which factors hinder return-to-work after childbirth, as well, as which prognostic factors lead to the development of postpartum health complaints. In this paper, the design of the Mom@Work study is described. Methods The Mom@Work study is simultaneously a randomised controlled trial and a cohort study. Pregnant women working for at least 12 hours a week at one of the 15 participating companies are eligible to participate. The supervisors of these pregnant employees are randomised at 35 weeks pregnancy into the intervention group or control group. During maternity leave, supervisors in the intervention group contact their employee six weeks after delivery using a structured interview. When employees do not expect to return to their jobs at the end of their scheduled maternity leave due to health problems, the supervisor offers early support of the occupational physician. Supervisors in the control group have no structural contact with their employees during maternity leave. Measurements take place at 30 weeks pregnancy and at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks postpartum. In addition, cost data are collected. For the RCT, primary outcome measures are sick leave and return-to-work, and secondary outcome measures are costs, health, satisfaction with intervention and global feelings of recovery. Outcome measures for the cohort are pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain, fatigue and depression. Finally, a number of prognostic factors for return-to-work and for the development of complaints will be measured. Discussion The Mom@Work study will provide important information about return-to-work of employees after giving birth. Results will give insight in prognosis of postpartum sick leave and complaints. Also, the role of supervisors and occupational physicians in successful return-to-work after childbirth will be clarified. PMID:17394629

Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne GM; van Poppel, Mireille NM; Hendriksen, Ingrid JM; Bruinvels, David J; Uegaki, Kimi; de Bruijne, Martine C; van Mechelen, Willem



Design and construction techniques of an American vernacular architect : the work of Dr. Henry Chapman Mercer  

E-print Network

The design and building process of Dr. Henry Chapman Mercer is explored for its relationship to vernacular design. The vehicle for this exploration is 'Fonthill,' the home of Dr. Mercer constructed by him in 1908. Complete ...

Eichenberger, Kurt Frederick



Method of fuel tank design development for future long-term space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of developing propellant tanks for spacecrafts is discussed. Typical situations are analysed which require knowledge of hydrodynamic processes in propellant tanks. Complex approaches to developing propellant tanks based on joint experimental and theoretical methods (including computation) is proved. Two typical experimental plants are described. One of the plants is a construction providing side overloads for a propellant tank model by its moving in a horizontal plane allowing its turn about a horizontal axis. The other plant allows to investigate liquid drain out of the tank model while oscillating in two mutually perpendicular directions in a horizontal plane. Some results of experimental investigation of hydrodynamic processes in propellant tanks are given. It is shown that an investigator should have a wide set of mathematical models of different complexity, adequacy and efficiency (time and resources spent for computation). Two mathematical models are given with a description of their possibilities and applicability limits. Non-linear oscillator model is a non-linear mechanical analogue hydrodynamic processes with small filling of propellant tanks and spread damper construction. A model of depth-averaged equations of hydrodynamics is true for the case of small filling of tanks and allows to reduce computation of three-dimensional hydrodynamic processes to solving two-dimension problems. Comparative analysis of experimental results and theoretical design is carried out. Carrying out experiments for obtaining emperical parameters of mathematical models, adequacy and applicability limits for development is emphasized.

Bezugly, V. U.; Boitsun, N. E.; Kozlov, I. N.; Makarova, A. S.


The curriculum is dead! Long live the curriculum! Designing an undergraduate medicine and surgery curriculum for the future.  


Where changing social circumstances demand reform of medicine, this in turn provokes new thinking in medical education. Curriculum changes, however, are often ill conceived, consisting of syllabus (content) modification, rather than careful consideration of fundamental principles and theory shaping a curriculum process initiative. The undergraduate medicine and surgery curriculum of the future must address some basic fault lines in current provision, such as medical culture's failure to democratise work practices ensuring patient safety. While acquiring a reputation as innovative and progressive, and after a decade of success with current provision, Peninsula Medical School (UK) has recognised the need to develop its curriculum for the future. Such a curriculum will be guided by best evidence from medical education to inform pedagogical practices and by sophisticated curriculum theory. Drawing on social learning pedagogies and curriculum reconceptualisation models for guidance, and incorporating evaluation of its current provision and published evaluations of other curricula (particularly Longitudinal Integrated models), fundamental principles were conceived to guide curriculum reform. PMID:22632276

Bleakley, Alan



Integral sheet metal design via severe plastic deformation - state of the art and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The innovative forming processes Linear Flow Splitting (LFS) and Linear Bend Splitting (LBS) were developed to facilitate the continuous production of branched profiles with tailored sheet thickness by inducing severe plastic strain. In contrast to most SPD processes the stress state in LFS and LBS is very complex and plastic deformation is confined to limited volumes which results in steep strain gradients and consequently ultrafine grained (UFG) gradient microstructures. Even though the processes have been commercialized, the increased lightweight potential that originates from the local grain refinement remains mostly idle since it is neither fully understood nor easily assessable yet. The present work shows the state of the art for the LFS and LBS processes and compares the microstructures and distribution of mechanical properties for different steels processed with different LFS parameters. The data is used to identify characteristic manufacturing induced properties that are insensitive to processing parameters. Based on the experimental results a material flow model for the processing zone is proposed which is discussed with respect to the current understanding of plasticity at severe strains.

Bruder, E.; Kaune, V.; Müller, C.



Future Directions in the Design, Development, and Investigation of Technology as a Service Delivery Vehicle  

PubMed Central

Treatment outcome research with children and adolescents has progressed to such an extent that numerous handbooks have been devoted to reviewing and summarizing the evidence base. Ensuring that consumers of these advancements in state-of-the-field interventions have the opportunity to access, engage in, and benefit from this evidence-base, however, has been wrought with challenge. As such, much discussion exists about innovative strategies for overcoming the gap between research and practice; yet, no other potential solution that has received more attention in both the popular and academic press than technology. The promise of technology is not surprising given the fast-paced evolution in development and, in turn, a seemingly endless range of possibilities for novel service delivery platforms. Yet, this is precisely the most formidable challenge threatening to upset the very promise of this potential solution: The rate of emerging technologies is far outpacing the field’s capacity to demonstrate the conceptual or empirical benefits of such an approach. Accordingly, this paper aims to provide a series of recommendations that better situate empirical enquiry at the core of a collaborative development, testing, and deployment process that must define this line of work if the promise of mental health technologies is going to be a reality for front-line clinicians and the clients they serve. PMID:24400723

Jones, Deborah J.



Biological neural networks as model systems for designing future parallel processing computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more interesting debates of the present day centers on whether human intelligence can be simulated by computer. The author works under the premise that neurons individually are not smart at all. Rather, they are physical units which are impinged upon continuously by other matter that influences the direction of voltage shifts across the units membranes. It is only the action of a great many neurons, billions in the case of the human nervous system, that intelligent behavior emerges. What is required to understand even the simplest neural system is painstaking analysis, bit by bit, of the architecture and the physiological functioning of its various parts. The biological neural network studied, the vestibular utricular and saccular maculas of the inner ear, are among the most simple of the mammalian neural networks to understand and model. While there is still a long way to go to understand even this most simple neural network in sufficient detail for extrapolation to computers and robots, a start was made. Moreover, the insights obtained and the technologies developed help advance the understanding of the more complex neural networks that underlie human intelligence.

Ross, Muriel D.



Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot  

SciTech Connect

A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dubey, R.V. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)



Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program  

SciTech Connect

A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering



Safe places for pedestrians: using cognitive work analysis to consider the relationships between the engineering and urban design of footpaths.  


Footpaths provide an integral component of our urban environments and have the potential to act as safe places for people and the focus for community life. Despite this, the approach to designing footpaths that are safe while providing this sense of place often occurs in silos. There is often very little consideration given to how designing for sense of place impacts safety and vice versa. The aim of this study was to use a systems analysis and design framework to develop a design template for an 'ideal' footpath system that embodies both safety and sense of place. This was achieved through using the first phase of the Cognitive Work Analysis framework, Work Domain Analysis, to specify a model of footpaths as safe places for pedestrians. This model was subsequently used to assess two existing footpath environments to determine the extent to which they meet the design requirements specified. The findings show instances where the existing footpaths both meet and fail to meet the design requirements specified. Through utilising a systems approach for footpaths, this paper has provided a novel design template that can inform new footpath design efforts or be used to evaluate the extent to which existing footpaths achieve their safety and sense of place requirements. PMID:25089766

Stevens, Nicholas; Salmon, Paul



Results Conclusions & Future Work TRADEOFF ANALYSIS OF Design of a Green Campus Motor Fleet Decision Support System  

E-print Network

and track, verify, and grade progress of Federal Departments towards requirements mandated by E.O. 13514. Acquisition Cost Conversion Cost Battery Cost Suitable for all types of weather & terrain? Carbon 24 2011 Establishes national goal to reduce oil imports by one-third by 2025 date Provides guidance


Important Tenders and Contracts to be Placed in the Near Future - Concrete and Masonry Construction Work for the Control Station and Part of the Annex Laboratory Wing and the Corridor which Connects them to the Main SC Building  

E-print Network

Important Tenders and Contracts to be Placed in the Near Future - Concrete and Masonry Construction Work for the Control Station and Part of the Annex Laboratory Wing and the Corridor which Connects them to the Main SC Building

European Organization for Nuclear Research



Acting out the future: a process for envisionment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to design innovative information and communication technologies to meet needs that will emerge from future interactions between users, technologies and their situations of use. We have been using scenarios that are acted out as a way of envisioning the future. This paper describes some of the core dilemmas of innovative design. It draws on our existing work

Jennie Carroll; Daniel Tobin



Work in progress - motivation for mathematics, using design with the Wright State model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first iteration of a freshman ¿applying mathematics to engineering design¿ course at Oklahoma State University was based on the successful national model of a freshman engineering math course designed at Wright State University. This course is addresses issues in transfer of mathematics to engineering, motivation, and retention. The course introduces engineering applications to algebra, linear algebra, trigonometry, sinusoids, differentiation,

Nick Oswald; Alan Cheville; Karen High



Design and Implementation of an Integrated Computer Working Environment for Doing Mathematics and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…

Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton



Collaborative Faculty Assessment of Service-Learning Student Work to Improve Student and Faculty Learning and Course Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates an approach for using university-wide service-learning student outcomes to assess student work for the purpose of improving service-learning student and faculty learning and course design. The author and a colleague used this approach to study the author's service-learning course. The results of this study generated an…

Shapiro, Daniel F.



Design for end-user acceptance: requirements for work clothing for fishermen in Mediterranean and northern fishing grounds.  


Fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations, and as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world suffer fatal injuries or drowning at sea every year. Although fishermen in the European fishing fleet work in harsh and dangerous environments, many fishermen do not use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and poor functionality. This emphasizes the importance of designing work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) with functionality that matches the fishermen's needs. The aim of this study was to identify the requirements for work clothing in terms of comfort, protection, and safety for fishermen operating in northern fishing grounds and in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, we investigated whether fishermen in the Mediterranean prioritize work-clothing requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. Interviews and observations of fishermen provided us with the requirements for work clothing for fishermen. A questionnaire was then distributed to a selection of European fishermen. The study showed that fishermen operating in the Mediterranean prioritized their requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. There was good agreement on requirements regarding work comfort. Safety requirements, such as integrated buoyancy, were ranked as less important by the Mediterranean fishermen compared to fishermen in northern fishing grounds. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of work clothing and PPE for fishermen. Work clothing and PPE that fulfil the requirements are likely to obtain end-user acceptance and thus improve safety for fishermen at sea. PMID:22669810

Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjorsvik; Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Faerevik, Hilde; Reitan, Jarl; Holmen, Ingunn Marie; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo



Speeding Up Classical and Quantum Adiabatic Processes: Implications for Work Functions and Heat Engine Designs  

E-print Network

Adiabatic processes are important for studying the dynamics of a time-dependent system. Conventionally, the adiabatic processes can only be achieved by varying the system slowly. We speed up both classical and quantum adiabatic processes by adding control protocols. In classical systems, we work out the control protocols by analyzing the classical adiabatic approximation. In quantum systems, we follow the idea of transitionless driving by Berry [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. Vol.42 365303 (2009)]. Such fast-forward adiabatic processes can be performed at arbitrary fast speed, and in the meanwhile reduce the work fluctuation. In both systems, we use a time-dependent harmonic oscillator model to work out explicitly the work function and the work fluctuation in three types of processes: fast-forward adiabatic processes, adiabatic processes, and non-adiabatic processes. We show the significant reduction on work fluctuation in fast-forward adiabatic process. We further illustrate how the fast-forward process improved the converging rate of the Jarzynski equality between the work function and the free energy. As an application, we show that the fast-forward process not only maximizes the output power but also improve the efficiency of a quantum engine.

Jia-wen Deng; Qing-hai Wang; Jiangbin Gong




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene



FUTURES with Jaime Escalante  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy awarded the Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education (FASE) $826,000 as support to produce the second set of FUTURES segments consisting of 12, 15-minute programs. The programs provide motivation for students to study math by connecting math to the work place and real-life problem scenarios. The programs are broadcast in 50 states through PBS Elementary and Secondary Service (E/SS). The grant term ended on December 16, 1993 and this final report documents program and financial activity results. The 12 episodes are titled: Animal Care, Meteorology, Mass Communication, Advanced Energy, Oceanography, Graphic Design, Future Habitats, Environmental Science & Technology, Fitness & Physical Performance, Interpersonal Communications, Advanced Transportation and Product Design. Each program addresses as many as ten careers or job types within the broader field named. Minority and gender-balanced role models appear throughout the programs.




Designing Effective Science Instruction: What Works in Science Classrooms (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science teachers, like all teachers, start each school year with high hopes and expectations for students to succeed. They plan their lessons, scramble to get the necessary equipment, and work hard to engage their students. However, despite good intention

Anne Tweed



Designing New York's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The genius of Mayor Bloomberg's plan to develop a new applied sciences campus in New York City is that it acknowledges the increasingly pivotal role of academic institutions as drivers of local economic growth. At a time when large corporations may not be the reliable job producers they were in the past and cities like New York badly need to…

Giles, David



Ergonomic evaluation of footrest designs for sitting and standing work postures  

E-print Network

-Overview Footrest Feature Checklists-Sitting Responses Footrest Feature Checklists-Standing Responses DISCUSSION Page iv vii 1 2 3 3 3. 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 11 15 19 25 26 27 28 30 31 32 CONCLUSION Recommendations for Future Research 35... 58 69 84 Table LIST OF TABLES Page 1 ANOVA results for combined right and left legs, sitting data 2 ANOVA results for right and left leg change in volume variables, standing subjects 12 3 Type III SS for left leg initial to hour 6 standing...

Gray, Jada Lea



Role of ligand-based drug design methodologies toward the discovery of new anti- Alzheimer agents: futures perspectives in Fragment-Based Ligand Design.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD), a degenerative disease affecting the brain, is the single most common source of dementia in adults. The cause and the progression of AD still remains a mystery among medical experts. As a result, a cure has not yet been discovered, even after decade's worth of research that started since 1906, when the disease was first identified. Despite the efforts of the scientific community, several of the biological receptors associated with AD have not been sufficiently studied to date, limiting in turn the design of new and more potent anti-AD agents. Thus, the search for new drug candidates as inhibitors of different targets associated with AD constitutes an essential part towards the discovery of new and more efficient anti-AD therapies. The present work is focused on the role of the Ligand-Based Drug Design (LBDD) methodologies which have been applied for the elucidation of new molecular entities with high inhibitory activity against targets related with AD. Particular emphasis is given also to the current state of fragment-based ligand approaches as alternatives of the Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) methodologies. Finally, several guidelines are offered to show how the use of fragment-based descriptors can be determinant for the design of multi-target inhibitors of proteins associated with AD. PMID:22376033

Speck-Planche, A; Luan, F; Cordeiro, M N D S



Participatory Action Research in the Implementing Process of Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Project Design of the “Healthy Future” Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context. PMID:23956843

Stormark, Kjell Morten



Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit features 40 activities that challenge students to assume the roles of workers at Lunar Nautics Space Systems, Inc., a fictional aerospace company specializing in mission management, lunar habitat and exploration design, and scientific research. The guide includes information to teach the basics on Newton's Laws of Motion, rocket design, microgravity, and the moon. Students design, test and analyze a model lunar lander, a robot, and a soda bottle rocket. They also build edible models, a solar oven to cook hot dogs, and a microgravity sled while underwater. Educators can use this guide in a variety of formats such as week-long day camps, after-school programs, a classroom unit or as supporting curriculum.


Participation in programs designed to improve employment outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities: evidence from the New York WORKS demonstration project.  


The New York WORKS demonstration project was designed to improve employment outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability payments. This article shows how the individual characteristics of participants were related to outcomes at each stage of the multistage recruitment process used in the project and how those characteristics contributed to enrollment. The findings are important to program administrators who are interested in ensuring that SSI recipients receive equal access to employment-related services and who want to improve recruitment strategies for future demonstration projects. The New York WORKS recruitment process used administrative records from the Social Security Administration (SSA) to identify the population of over 68,000 SSI recipients with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disability in Erie County and New York City. Staff involved in the project documented the results of each stage of the recruitment process. The New York WORKS project included four stages: (1) the provision of information (sending a letter and information packet); (2) demonstrated awareness of the project (response to a letter containing an overview of the project); (3) expression of interest (indication of interest in the project, using a postmarked form returned to New York WORKS project staff); and (4) participation (actual enrollment in the program). The project staff members were also able to identify data from administrative records that described the characteristics of the population, including age, sex, type of psychiatric diagnosis, the number of months that the person collected benefits before the recruitment process, employment experience before the recruitment process, and annual earnings in the year before the recruitment process. The data on outcomes at each stage of the recruitment process and the characteristics of SSI recipients were analyzed using an empirical method recently suggested by Heckman and Smith. The analysis identified the relationship between the characteristics of SSI recipients and the outcomes at each stage of the recruitment process and demonstrated how those characteristics contributed to the overall likelihood of enrollment. Demographic characteristics, information about diagnosis, and characteristics related to work history had different effects on outcomes at different stages of the recruitment process. For example, younger SSI recipients were less likely to reply to the information letter but more likely to express an interest in the project and more likely to enroll, given that interest. This result suggests that there may be an information barrier for the younger group of SSI recipients during the early recruitment stages. There were also interesting differences by psychiatric diagnosis and by recent employment experience at each stage of the process. Most notably, persons with anxiety disorders were less likely to express an interest in the project and less likely to enroll in the project if they expressed an interest. This finding suggests that project administrators may need to examine more effective methods to accommodate persons with an anxiety disorder at the enrollment stage of the recruitment process. Persons with relatively low earnings in the year before the project were more likely to respond, to express interest in the project, and to enroll than were those with no earnings and those with relatively high earnings. This finding suggests that the recruitment strategy used by the New York WORKS project is more effective at enrolling a subset of the population that has some demonstrated work capacity and that, of those with a demonstrated work capacity, New York WORKS is enrolling those who are likely to have the most to gain from the project. This finding has implications for the development of sample designs for other demonstration projects, in particular the SSA-proposed mental health treatment study. A number of strategies may lead to improvements in future evaluations of participation in SSA projects and programs. For exampl

Ruiz-Quintanilla, S Antonio; Weathers, Robert R; Melburg, Valerie; Campbell, Kimberly; Madi, Nawaf


Design and implementation of a universal controller working under the MCX-16 real-time kernel  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the design of a universal controller is introduced. The controller has a 16-bit processor, four A/D channels and two D/A channels. It can run a control program up to 64K byte long. The real-time kernel, MCX-16, is selected...

Xue, Yuannong



Work in progress-design of animation oriented classroom multi-media environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric machinery in our university had been authorized as the national best course of China. Some undergraduates are organized to take part in the construction of the course teaching. Design of the classroom multi-media environment oriented animation is one of the research programs. This paper analyzes the animation oriented to the classroom multi-media environment. The main characters of the

Yang Song; Ye Zhang; Mingji Liu; Xiqiang Chen; Yingli Luo



40 CFR 60.103a - Design, equipment, work practice or operational standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...practice or operational standards...practice or operational standards...written flare management plan no later...and fuel gas systems, make, model, type, range...gas recovery system designed...provided that the management plan includes...refinery's energy...



Working through meetings (tutorial session)(abstract only): a framework for designing meeting support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals and content: Through this tutorial, participants will: understand distinctions among various types of meetings and the role of various types of conversations in successful meetings; understand the importance of partnership for achieving team results in meetings; formulate plans for successful technological support for meetings. Participants will experience, through a series of connected exercises, an ad hoc meeting designed to

John Bennett; John Karat



World Wide Web working whilst ignoring graphics: good news for web page designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many web pages are made up of blocks of text with surrounding graphics. In some cases these graphics are animated in a variety of different ways. A common task of web users is to search the text on a web page for some information of interest and, often, this is what such pages’ designers expect. Where information extraction from text

Dan Diaper; P. Waelend



Preparing engineering students for working in teams through senior design projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores teaming and its cultivation in senior capstone design projects to better prepare students for occupational interaction with other professionals, clients, and management to solve complex or open-ended problems. Teaming is deemed an important skill for engineers, by organizations employing engineers and other professionals. In the global marketplace organizations that value and capitalize on these skills can be

Hodge Jenkins; Laura W. Lackey



The Design of Performance Pay in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16710  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter analyzes the design of incentive schemes in education while reviewing empirical studies that evaluate performance pay programs for educators. Several themes emerge. First, it is difficult to use one assessment system to create both educator performance metrics and measures of student achievement. To mitigate incentives for coaching,…

Neal, Derek



Assessment of steam work efficiency as applied to a turbine being designed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formulas for evaluating the relative internal efficiencies of turbines that have not been designed as yet are given in many publications. Such assessments are required at the first stages of development and calculation of the thermal process circuit of a new steam turbine unit. The above-mentioned formulas are given without indicating the author's name, particular initial material, and evaluation accuracy. To give an answer on these questions, the relevant publications were analyzed, and the results from calculations of relative internal efficiencies carried out using the published formulas and obtained from the hs diagrams of already designed turbines are compared. It is determined that Professor B.M. Troyanovskii, a well-known scientist specializing in turbines, is the author of these formulas. It is shown that these formulas give the "upper" (the best) estimate of efficiency. Formulas having the same structure as those of Troyanovskii but yielding a mean estimate with respect to already designed turbines are proposed. The results from the performed comparison are aimed at helping the developers of thermal process circuits for new steam turbine units to select the values of relative internal efficiencies of the cylinders for a turbine that has not been designed as yet.

Astvatsaturova, A. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Trukhnii, A. D.



Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny



Drawing Lessons from Local Designated Helpers to Develop Culturally Appropriate Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study which explores the underlying cultural themes of the helping approaches of a group of local designated helpers in Sarawak, Malaysia. In drawing lessons for developing culturally appropriate practice, an important finding is the mutuality of world views between the cultural themes of the helpers and the help? seekers. Insights can also be drawn from the

Ling How Kee



Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan



Beyond Knowing How to Make It Work: The Conceptual Foundations of Designing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilbert Ryle (1949) divided knowledge into "know that" and "know how", which is neatly appealing to many design and technology educators, and like many writers on developing the curriculum, Kahney (1993) made a distinction between declarative knowledge: "verbal knowledge, that is, the kind you get from books, instructions and being told what to…

Hope, Gill



Supporting the Development of Undergraduates' Experimental Design Skills and Investigating their Perceptions of Project Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project work represents a significant component of most Bioscience degrees. Conscious that students are not necessarily given adequate preparation for their final year project, we have investigated two core elements in the 3rd year of a 4-year Honours programme. One element, an investigative project on aspects of insect biology, has run for…

MacKenzie, Jane; Ruxton, Graeme



Designing task visualizations to support the coordination of work in software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development tools primarily focus on supporting the technical work. Yet no matter the tools employed, the process followed, or the size of the team, important aspects of development are non-technical, and largely unsupported. For example, increasing distribution of development teams highlights the issues of coordination and cooperation. This paper focuses on one area: managing change requests. Interviews with industry

Christine A. Halverson; Jason B. Ellis; Catalina Danis; Wendy A. Kellogg



The use of design activity for research into Computer Supported Cooperative Working (CSCW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes current research at Loughborough University in the field of Computer Supported Co-operative Working (CSCW). The project, which is funded by the Information Engineering Directorate (IED) within the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), is titled 'Establishing the Communicational Requirements of Information Technology (IT) Systems that Support Humans Co-operating Remotely'. The research group have adopted a less cumbersome

Garner SW; Scrivener SAR; Clarke AA; Clark S; Connolly JH; Schappo A; Smyth MG


The Working Postures among Schoolchildren--Controlled Intervention Study on the Effects of Newly Designed Workstations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School workstations are often inappropriate in not offering an optimal sitting posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individually adjustable saddle-type chairs with wheels and desks with comfort curve and arm support on schoolchildren's working postures compared to conventional workstations. Methods:…

Saarni, Lea; Nygrd, Clas-H kan; Rimpel, Arja; Nummi, Tapio; Kaukiainen, Anneli



Intelligent Design: Student Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Large Social Work Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into the effects of large classes demonstrates that students are disadvantaged in terms of higher order learning because interactions between teachers and students occur at lower cognitive levels. This has significance for social work education, with its emphasis on the development of critical thinking and problem solving, both higher…

Moulding, Nicole Therese



A Study of Search Intermediary Working Notes: Implications for IR System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports findings from an exploratory study investigating working notes created during encoding and external storage (EES) processes, by human search inter- mediates using a Boolean information retrieval (IR) system. EES processes have been an important area of research in educational contexts where students create and use notes to facilitate learning. In the context of interactive IR, encoding can

Amanda Spink; Abby Goodrum



Safety and accidents in the construction industry: A work design perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synoptic view of construction safety from a behavioural science perspective. It considers the different influences that have a bearing upon the formation and maintenance of operatives' attitudes and motivations towards safety and risk-taking at work. It summarizes these influences in terms of a ‘Potential Accident Subject’ model. The implications of this model for the development of

Philip J. Leather



Design Criteria for Work-Based Learning: Merrill's First Principles of Instruction Expanded  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In multinational corporations, new models of learning are developing. A particular model with direct applications for challenges facing distributed workforces is one that combines the strengths of formal and informal learning while focusing on participants' work-based tasks. An operationalisation of this model in the context of the ongoing…

Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush



The What Works Clearinghouse Single-Case Design Pilot Standards: Who Will Guard the Guards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we respond to Wolery's critique of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) pilot "Standards," which were developed by the current authors. We do so to provide additional information and clarify some points previously summarized in this journal. We also respond to several concerns raised by Maggin, Briesch, and Chafouleas…

Hitchcock, John H.; Horner, Robert H.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Levin, Joel R.; Odom, Samuel L.; Rindskopf, David M.; Shadish, William R.



Past, Present, and Future Challenges in Earthquake Hazard Mitigation of Indonesia: A Collaborative Work of Geological Agency Indonesia and Geoscience Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, Indonesia has suffered from earthquakes disaster since four out of twelve of the world's large earthquakes with more than 1000 causalities occurred in Indonesia. The great Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004 followed by tsunami which cost 227,898 of lives has brought Indonesia and its active tectonic setting to the world's attention. Therefore the government of Indonesia encourages hazard mitigation efforts that are more focused on the pre-disaster phase. In response to government policy in earthquake disaster mitigation, Geological Agency Indonesia attempts to meet the need for rigorous earthquake hazard map throughout the country in provincial scale in 2014. A collaborative work with Geoscience Australia through short-term training missions; on-going training, mentoring, assistance and studying in Australia, under the auspices of Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) have accelerated the execution of these maps. Since 2010 to date of collaboration, by using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) method, provincial earthquake hazard maps of Central Java (2010), West Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and North Maluku (2011) have been published. In 2012, by the same method, the remaining provinces of Sulawesi Island, Papua, North Sumatera and Jambi will be published. In the end of 2014, all 33 Indonesian provinces hazard maps will be delivered. The future challenges are to work together with the stakeholders, to produce district scale maps and establish a national standard for earthquake hazard maps. Moreover, the most important consideration is to build the capacity to update, maintain and revise the maps as recent information available.

Hidayati, S.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Omang, A.; Griffin, J.; Horspool, N.; Robiana, R.; Sulaeman, C.



Computer tools to support collaborative organization design: definition and analysis of the work at the Vanderbilt University Hospital and Clinic.  

PubMed Central

In November, 1993 The Vanderbilt University Hospital and Clinic (VUH/TVC) convened a 10-member Collaborative Organization Design (COD) team that represented a diagonal slice through the organization. This team, lead by Gelinas & James, an outside consulting firm, was charged to develop, recommend, and implement a new organizational design which would promote a stronger patient focus, increased efficiency, and lower costs. The COD process is structured to inspire and enable employees to rebuild their organization so that it can respond to the challenges and opportunities that exist within their environment, to customer needs, and their own aspirations. This manuscript describes several of the computer tools which were utilized in the definition and analysis of the work of patient care at VUH/TVC. Specific examples of the findings from this phase of the work are utilized to illustrate their use and value. PMID:7949956

Sittig, D. F.



Owens Community College: A Case Study on the Effects of Politics, Economics, Social Factors, and Technological Factors on Future Educational Delivery Strategies, Space Needs, and Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study was to explore the influence of four factors--politics, economics, society, and technology--on educational delivery strategies, space needs, and design at Owens Community College. The future effects of these factors on the college were predicted four to six years from the time the study was conducted. The researcher…

Paskvan, Brian A.



Spoke cavity power coupler conceptual design work for the HEL-JTO beam exp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report was to create a low-cost, modest-power RF coupler for a SRF spoke cavity beam test of electrons test to be done at LANL. Developing the design for this magnetically-coupled SRF spoke cavity testing coupler was basically straightforward since the cavity coupling port needed to be one of the 1.22-inch ID ports, and the power level




Job Design and Ethnic Differences in Working Women’s Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Objective To document the role job control and schedule control play in shaping women’s physical activity, and how it delineates educational and racial variability in associations of job and social control with physical activity. Methods Prospective data were obtained from a community-based sample of working women (N = 302). Validated instruments measured job control and schedule control. Steps per day were assessed using New Lifestyles 800 activity monitors. Results Greater job control predicted more steps per day, whereas greater schedule control predicted fewer steps. Small indirect associations between ethnicity and physical activity were observed among women with a trade school degree or less but not for women with a college degree. Conclusions Low job control created barriers to physical activity among working women with a trade school degree or less. Greater schedule control predicted less physical activity, suggesting women do not use time “created” by schedule flexibility for personal health enhancement. PMID:24034681

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Martinson, Brian C.; Quandt, Sara A.



Design and start-up of Gary Works' pulverized coal injection facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulverized coal injection system began operation at the Gary works' blast furnaces on Feb. 1, 1993. This system is capable of processing more than 3500 tons of coal\\/day to eventually supply the furnaces at a 400 lb\\/NTHM rate. The start-up was aggressive with coal levels exceeding 200 lb\\/NTHM within two to five weeks on the furnaces. Current rates are

E. M. ODonnell; L. M. Cloran; T. W. Oshnock



Workplace Design, Complementarities among Work Practices, and the Formation of Key Competencies: Evidence from Italian Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author analyzes the extent to which High Performance Workplace Practices (HPWP) act as a mediating variable between High Performance Work Organization (HPWO) and the economic outcomes of firms in developing workers’ key competencies, which include higher order cognition, problem-solving, and self-reflexivity. Using a large survey of Italian employees drawn from a government-constructed database, the author finds that HPWPs that

Riccardo Leoni



Intelligent Fiber Optic Sensor for Estimating the Concentration of a Mixture-Design and Working Principle  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the construction and working principles of an intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for examining the concentration of a mixture in conjunction with water. It can find applications e.g. in waste-water treatment plant for selection of a treatment process. The sensor head is the end of a large core polymer optical fiber, which constitutes one arm of an asymmetrical coupler. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on the Fresnel reflection from the air and from the mixture examined when the head is immersed in it. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal can be measured on head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence. Therefore, the measured signal depends on the surface tension, viscosity, turbidity and refraction coefficient of the solution. The signal coming from the head is processed electrically in an opto-electronic interface. Then it is fed to a neural network. The novelty of the proposed sensor lies in that it contains an asymmetrical coupler and a neural network that works in the generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on the efficiency of the asymmetrical coupler, the precision of the opto-electronic signal conversion and the learning accuracy of the neural network. Therefore, the number and quality of the points used for the learning process is very important. By way of example, the paper describes a sensor intended for examining the concentration of liquid soap in water.

Borecki, Michal



Using optimization and lean principles to design work cells and make capital purchase decisions for hole drilling operations in turbine airfoil manufacturing  

E-print Network

Classical manufacturing work cells have machines to perform each operation in the process, the number of each type of machine being chosen so that all machines would be equally busy. Although design of work cells for ...

Neal, Thomas E. (Thomas Eugene)



Dependence of the mechanical behavior of alloys on their electron work function—An alternative parameter for materials design  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we demonstrate that the electron work function (EWF) as an intrinsic parameter can provide information or clues in a simple or straightforward way for material design, modification, and development. A higher work function of a material represents a more stable electronic state, which consequently generates a higher resistance to any attempt of changing the electronic state and other corresponding states, e.g., changes in structure or microstructure caused by mechanical and electrochemical actions. Using Cu-Ni alloy as an example, we demonstrate the correlation between the EWF and Young's modulus of the material as well as its hardness. The properties of a material can be modified using elements with appropriate work functions. This is also applicable for tailoring inter-phase boundaries or interfaces.

Lu, Hao; Hua, Guomin; Li, Dongyang, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)



Spoke cavity power coupler conceptual design work for the HEL-JTO beam exp.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report was to create a low-cost, modest-power RF coupler for a SRF spoke cavity beam test of electrons test to be done at LANL. Developing the design for this magnetically-coupled SRF spoke cavity testing coupler was basically straightforward since the cavity coupling port needed to be one of the 1.22-inch ID ports, and the power level was limited by the available RF to less than 400 W TW power. In addition, the coupler would be immersed in bath cryostat filled with liquid helium, and ultimately used in a pulsed mode to accelerate beam, thereby significantly relaxing the thermal loads on the coupler. Combining the above considerations with the level of resources available for this task, emphasis was placed on rapidly developing a robust, reliable design that would use commercially-available components as available to save design, engineering, and fabrication costs. Analysis was also kept to a minimum. As such, the design incorporates the following features: (1) Use of a commercially-available Type-N ceramic feedthrough. For the power and frequency range of the test, with the feedthrough immersed in LHe, it was felt the Type-N feedthrough would provide a robust, low-cost vacuum window solution. (2) The coupler outer conductors would be solid OFE copper that is brazed into two 2.75-inch CFF, with the cavity-sde flange being rotatable to allow minor Qx adjustments by rotating the coupler. The braze joint shown has the copper brazed into a groove in the SST to ensure maximum strength for successive thermal cyclings. The outer wall of the copper between the two flanges serves as the heat sink for depositing coupler heat to the liquid helium. (3) The inner conductor would be solid OFE copper brazed to the outer conductor at the top to ensure maximum thermal conductivity from the outer thermal sink area to the base of the feedthrough. A mass-reducing hole is placed down the center of the inner conductor to decrease thermal mass and weight. (4) This assembly would be mated to the Type-N feedthrough by pushing the pin from the feedthrough into a spring-loaded connector on the base of the inner conductor, then bolting the flanges together. (5) If the coupling needs to be greatly reduced, an additional 1/2-inch CFF can be inserted between the coupler and cavity flanges. Increasing the coupling can be done with a 3 stub tuner.

Rusnak, B



Designing a Specialist Post-Graduate Qualification and Continuing Professional Development Structure for the Health Librarian Workforce of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a grant received from the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA), Health Libraries Australia (HLA) is conducting a twelve-month research project with the goal of developing a system-wide approach to education for the future health librarianship workforce. The research has two main aims: to determine the future skills,…

Ritchie, Ann; Hallam, Gillian; Hamill, C.; Lewis, S.; Foti, M.; O'Connor, P.; Clark, C.



A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode since rest to rest case is not adequate to truly represent an on orbit failure of a single wheel. The study is intended to facilitate the ACS community to further develop a more practical under-actuated control law and present a path to extend these current thinking to address a more realistic reconfigurable ACS subject to a dynamic transition from a 3 RWs mode to 2 RWs mode.

Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak



Design of a 4-DOF MR haptic master for application to robot surgery: virtual environment work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design and control performance of a novel type of 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master in cyberspace for a robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) application. By using a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid, the proposed haptic master can have a feedback function for a surgical robot. Due to the difficulty in utilizing real human organs in the experiment, the cyberspace that features the virtual object is constructed to evaluate the performance of the haptic master. In order to realize the cyberspace, a volumetric deformable object is represented by a shape-retaining chain-linked (S-chain) model, which is a fast volumetric model and is suitable for real-time applications. In the haptic architecture for an RMIS application, the desired torque and position induced from the virtual object of the cyberspace and the haptic master of real space are transferred to each other. In order to validate the superiority of the proposed master and volumetric model, a tracking control experiment is implemented with a nonhomogenous volumetric cubic object to demonstrate that the proposed model can be utilized in real-time haptic rendering architecture. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is then designed and empirically implemented to accomplish the desired torque trajectories. It has been verified from the experiment that tracking the control performance for torque trajectories from a virtual slave can be successfully achieved.

Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok



Aviation in the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

Kayten, Gerald G.




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract FPGA-based re-programmable logic design became more attractive during the last decade, and the use of FPGA in digital logic design is increasing rapidly. The need for highly qualified FPGA designers is increasing at a fast rate. To respond to the industry needs of FPGA designers, universities are updating their curriculum with courses in FPGA logic design. As a result,

Nasser Alaraje; Joanne DeGroat; Aurenice Lima



FutureGen Project Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the comprehensive siting, permitting, engineering, design, and costing activities completed by the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, the Department of Energy, and associated supporting subcontractors to develop a first of a kind near zero emissions integrated gasification combined cycle power plant and carbon capture and storage project (IGCC-CCS). With the goal to design, build, and reliably operate the first IGCC-CCS facility, FutureGen would have been the lowest emitting pulverized coal power plant in the world, while providing a timely and relevant basis for coal combustion power plants deploying carbon capture in the future. The content of this report summarizes key findings and results of applicable project evaluations; modeling, design, and engineering assessments; cost estimate reports; and schedule and risk mitigation from initiation of the FutureGen project through final flow sheet analyses including capital and operating reports completed under DOE award DE-FE0000587. This project report necessarily builds upon previously completed siting, design, and development work executed under DOE award DE-FC26- 06NT4207 which included the siting process; environmental permitting, compliance, and mitigation under the National Environmental Policy Act; and development of conceptual and design basis documentation for the FutureGen plant. For completeness, the report includes as attachments the siting and design basis documents, as well as the source documentation for the following: • Site evaluation and selection process and environmental characterization • Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permit Application including well design and subsurface modeling • FutureGen IGCC-CCS Design Basis Document • Process evaluations and technology selection via Illinois Clean Coal Review Board Technical Report • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for slurry-fed gasifier configuration • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for dry-fed gasifier configuration • Full capital cost report and cost category analysis (CAPEX) • Full operating cost report and assumptions (OPEX) Comparative technology evaluations, value engineering exercises, and initial air permitting activities are also provided; the report concludes with schedule, risk, and cost mitigation activities as well as lessons learned such that the products of this report can be used to support future investments in utility scale gasification and carbon capture and sequestration. Collectively, the FutureGen project enabled the comprehensive site specific evaluation and determination of the economic viability of IGCC-CCS. The project report is bound at that determination when DOE formally proposed the FutureGen 2.0 project which focuses on repowering a pulverized coal power plant with oxy-combustion technology including CCS.

Cabe, Jim; Elliott, Mike



Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George



Design Constraints in Practical Syntheses of Complex Molecules: Current Status, Case Studies with Carbohydrates and Alkaloids, and Future  

E-print Network

with Carbohydrates and Alkaloids, and Future Perspectives Tomas Hudlicky Department of Chemistry, University 23 IV. Selected Examples 24 1. Carbohydrate Synthesis 24 2. Alkaloid Synthesis 25 V. Summary 27 "What

Hudlicky, Tomas


Integration of design and manufacturing in a virtual enterprise using enterprise rules, intelligent agents, STEP, and work flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enterprise's ability to deliver new products quickly and efficiently to market is critical for competitive success. While manufactureres recognize the need for speed and flexibility to compete in this market place, companies do not have the time or capital to move to new automation technologies. The National Industrial Information Infrastructure Protocols Consortium's Solutions for MES Adaptable Replicable Technology (NIIIP SMART) subgroup is developing an information infrastructure to enable the integration and interoperation among Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Enterprise Information Systems within an enterprise or among enterprises. The goal of these developments is an adaptable, affordable, reconfigurable, integratable manufacturing system. Key innovative aspects of NIIIP SMART are: (1) Design of an industry standard object model that represents the diverse aspects of MES. (2) Design of a distributed object network to support real-time information sharing. (3) Product data exchange based on STEP and EXPRESS (ISO 10303). (4) Application of workflow and knowledge management technologies to enact manufacturing and business procedures and policy. (5) Application of intelligent agents to support emergent factories. This paper illustrates how these technologies have been incorporated into the NIIIP SMART system architecture to enable the integration and interoperation of existing tools and future MES applications in a 'plug and play' environment.

Gilman, Charles R.; Aparicio, Manuel; Barry, J.; Durniak, Timothy; Lam, Herman; Ramnath, Rajiv



Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy recommendations and research needs to derive strategies for strengthening resilience at the local and regional level and to design appropriate incentives.

Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian



Designing a program. Programming the design  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most rational systems development methods, distinct phases of construction work is envisaged: Analysis, design, programming, testing, etc. Different methods are often contrasted to each other with regards to the amount of design that is required before implementation, the importance for testing continually or the prominence of future users' involvement. However, little evidence can be found that one method is

Steinar Kristoffersen


The role of structural dynamics in the design and operations of space systems: The history, the lessons, the technical challenges of the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural dynamics and its auxiliary fields are the most progressive and challenging areas space system engineering design and operations face. Aerospace systems are dependent on structural dynamicists for their success. Past experiences (history) are colored with many dynamic issues, some producing ground or flight test failures. The innovation and creativity that was brought to these issues and problems are the aura from the past that lights the path to the future. Using this illumination to guide understanding of the dynamic phenomena and designing for its potential occurrence are the keys to successful space systems. Our great paradox, or challenge, is how we remain in depth specialists, yet become generalists to the degree that we make good team members and set the right priorities. This paper will deal with how we performed with acclaim in the past, the basic characteristics of structural dynamics (loads cycle, for example), and the challenges of the future.

Ryan, Robert S.



Architecture Studio Archive: A Case Study in the Comprehensive Digital Capture and Repository of Student Design Work as an Aid to Teaching, Research, and Accreditation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Architecture Studio Archive" pilot sought to form a comprehensive digital archive of the diverse student work conducted in the first year of the Bachelor of Design in Architecture Degree at the University of Sydney. The design studio is the primary vehicle for teaching architectural design. It is a locus for creative activity, with students…

Anderson, Ross; Arndell, Michael; Christensen, Sten



Arizona Teacher Working Conditions: Designing Schools for Educator and Student Success. Results of the 2006 Phase-In Teacher Working Conditions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools across the country face persistent teacher working condition challenges that are closely related to high teacher turnover rates and chronic difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers. Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ) research examining working conditions survey results in both North Carolina and South Carolina demonstrates…

Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott



Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Stamford Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures"™ in Education program in Stamford Public Schools (SPS). The purpose was to closely analyze district capacity to support system-wide…

Fink, Ryan; Riggan, Matt



"Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria



Towards an Organizational Database on America's Schools: A Proposal for the Future of SASS, with Comments on School Reform, Governance, and Finance. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One prospect for the future of the Schools and Staffing Survey of the National Center for Data Collection is to continue in the direction set by its three previous rounds of surveys. Another approach, the one recommended in this paper, is to make the SASS the main vehicle of NCES for organizational information about U.S. schools from kindergarten…

Baker, David P.


Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Cincinnati Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures"™ in Education program in Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS). The purpose was to closely analyze district capacity to support system-wide…

Sam, Cecile; Riggan, Matt



A review of performance characteristics of satellite antennas and some observations on future directions in satellite antenna design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general review of the state-of-the-art and new directions in research and development of spacecraft antennas is presented. Three general classes of antennas are discussed: phased arrays, lenses (dielectric and waveguide), and reflector antennas. Presently, the antenna with most applications is the reflector with considerable research being performed to improve its scan and multiple beam characteristics. Future applications for spacecraft antennas and research goals to meet these projected needs also are discussed.

Mittra, R.; Galindo-Israel, V.; Bathker, D. A.; Moule, W. N.



Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III  

SciTech Connect

The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

R. P. Wells




SciTech Connect

The aim of this research project was to develop a preliminary ''conceptual design'' for a radically smaller, highly adaptive and application-flexible underground coal mining machine, for performing non-production utility work and/or also undertake limited production mining for the recovery of reserves that would otherwise be lost. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner (CM)], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies. Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery. The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications. From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine.

Andrew H. Stern



How to use programme theory to evaluate the effectiveness of schemes designed to improve the work environment in small businesses.  


Due to the many constraints that small businesses (SBs) face in meeting legislative requirements, occupational health and safety (OHS) regulatory authorities and other OSH actors have developed programmes which can reach out to SBs and motivate and assist them in improving the work environment. A number of conceptual models help to enhance our understanding of OHS interventions in SBs and their effectiveness. However, they have mainly been evaluated on output rather than the process relating to the change theory underlying the intervention, and hence have seldom been rigorously evaluated. Thus little is known about how particular features of SBs can be taken into account when designing and implementing national programmes. This paper shows how realist analysis and programme theory may be used as a framework for evaluating, developing and improving national intervention programmes for the improvement of the work environment and reducing injuries in SBs. It illustrates this for a specific New Zealand intervention: the Workplace Safety Discount scheme and its implementation in the agriculture sector. In practice, realist analysis should be performed during the planning, implementation and management stages so that ongoing findings can be fed back to the participant social actors to help them make appropriate changes to enhance the likelihood of success. PMID:22317740

Olsen, Kirsten; Legg, Stephen; Hasle, Peter



Reducing travel by design: a micro analysis of new household location and the commute to work in Surrey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic volumes (and hence energy consumption) from the transport sector continue to rise, yet the potential fundamental role of urban planning in helping to reduce transport energy consumption remains to be poorly understood and hugely underplayed. Current urban planning practice, particularly in suburban areas, tends to increase traffic volumes by dispersing activities and hence facilitates private car travel rather than travel by public transport, walking or cycling. Public transport orientated development as an evolving practice tends to be focused very much on urban areas. This thesis seeks to understand the logic behind travel and suggests that urban planning can be applied more fully, at the strategic and local levels, to reduce energy consumption in car use (at least in the journey to work). The detailed analysis assesses the extent to which the design of the urban environment affects travel behaviour. The research hypothesis is that: "Journey to work travel behaviour generated by new residential development is dependent on a number of land use and socio-economic variables. The strength, significance and range of interaction vary spatially and over time." Within the analysis, the journey to work is used as the dependent variable, and is measured in terms of journey length and time, mode share and composite energy consumption. The independent variables considered include: Land use: resident population density, resident employment density, workplace population density, workplace employment density, resident population size, workplace population size, distance from urban centres and strategic transport networks, jobs-housing balance, resident classification (relative to the urban area), type of journey to work, neighbourhood streetscape design, public transport accessibility, and resident location (relative to the green belt). Socio-economic: household tenure, house type, house size, number of children, car availability, company car ownership, household income, house value, respondent sex, respondent age, marital status, occupation, qualification, attitude to travel, attitude to home and home location, reason for moving home and choosing new home location, relative levels of mobility, and dual income households. The methodological approach is to systematically examine the study hypothesis and a series of related research questions using data from the county of Surrey, UK. The empirical analysis is based on two new household occupier surveys carried out in 1998 and 2001, together with additional, complementary data taken from local authority datasets and the Census 2001. The thesis's particular originality is in providing: An examination of the complexity of the land use and transport interaction field, using energy consumption as the dependent variable and an estimation of the strength and significance of a wide range of land use and socio-economic variables - both previously researched and under researched variables A segmentation of respondents into different groups, such as stayers, inmovers and outmovers, showing the different manifestation of the land use and transport relationship for different groups within society A systematic tracking of the impact of time on the land use and transport relationship, with temporality and adaptation (including "co-location" effects) noted as critical features in travel behaviour, with the analysis controlling for potential attrition factors Analysis of a seldom-studied London fringe/suburban county such as Surrey - much previous work is concentrated on the city or other urban areas. The key findings and recommendations are that each land use, socio-economic and attitudinal variable, when considered on its own or even in small groupings, offers limited explanatory power in explaining travel behaviour. When a number of variables are brought together, including some variables not usually considered in the literature, the explanatory power of the modelling begins to work. Linear regression analysis shows that the land use and socio-economic variables, when con

Hickman, Robin


Investing in Oregon's Future: Providing Greater Access to Postsecondary Education for More Oregonians. Progress Report of the Excellence in Delivery and Productivity Working Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Excellence in Delivery and Productivity (EDP) Working Group, comprised of members from the State Board of Higher Education, community colleges, and the business community, came together to address education concerns affecting the entire state. It was determined that all initiatives discussed in the EDP working group must have "face value"…

Oregon University System, 2005



The robotic fac?ade : a design solution for energy conservation in the CityHome of the future  

E-print Network

This project outlines a design for a fac?ade product that can potentially be used to simplify both the construction and operation of an apartment in an urban setting. Additionally, this fagade module has been conceptualized ...

Lonergan, Ronan (Ronan Patrick)



Unnatural amino acid incorporation in E. coli: current and future applications in the design of therapeutic proteins  

PubMed Central

Unnatural amino acid (UAA) incorporation by amber codon suppression offers scientists a powerful tool to modify the properties of proteins at will. UAA incorporation has been used for a plethora of fundamental research applications and, more recently, also for the selective modification of therapeutic proteins. In this review most recent developments in Escherichia coli codon expansion and, unnatural amino acid incorporation are discussed together with some remarkable recent developments in improved efficient UAA incorporation. We focus on the generation of proteins that hold promise for future therapeutic applications that would be impossible to obtain without unnatural amino acid incorporation, including the generation of bi-specific antibodies and antibody drug conjugates. PMID:24790983

Wals, Kim; Ovaa, Huib



Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.


Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework

Andreas Holtermann; Marie B Jørgensen; Bibi Gram; Jeanette R Christensen; Anne Faber; Kristian Overgaard; John Ektor-Andersen; Ole S Mortensen; Gisela Sjøgaard; Karen Søgaard



31 March 1997 Subject to Change ECQP97DTE Designed for the future using the 64-bit  

E-print Network

-performance implementation of the DIGITAL Alpha architecture designed for Windows NT desktop PCs and workstations. The 21164-performance translation technol- ogy for x86 applications · Highest performance Windows NT sys- tems · Increased and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Windows is a registered trademark and Windows NT is a trademark of Microsoft

Jacob, Bruce


Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV  

SciTech Connect

This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

R. P. Wells



The Future of Electronic Device Design: Device and Process Simulation Find Intelligence on the World Wide Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are on the path to meet the major challenges ahead for TCAD (technology computer aided design). The emerging computational grid will ultimately solve the challenge of limited computational power. The Modular TCAD Framework will solve the TCAD software challenge once TCAD software developers realize that there is no other way to meet industry's needs. The modular TCAD framework (MTF) also provides the ideal platform for solving the TCAD model challenge by rapid implementation of models in a partial differential solver.

Biegel, Bryan A.



Making Work Pay: How To Design and Implement Financial Work Supports To Improve Family and Child Well-Being and Reduce Poverty. How-To Guide: Technical Assistance for States and Localities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide explains how to design and implement financial work supports in order to improve family and child well-being. The information provided draws heavily from the study of these three programs that increased employment and earnings while improving employment stability, boosting income, and reducing poverty: Minnesota Family Investment…

Greenberger, Debbie; Anselmi, Robert


NASA is pleased to release this summary of the agency's recent work on future human space exploration capabilities and missions, largely performed by our Human  

E-print Network

and program planning. HEFT's analysis focused on affordability, cost, performance, schedule, technology to low Earth orbit, including the International Space Station; and 4) mission-focused technologies analysis, NASA looks forward to working closely with the Congress and the public to build a space program


Parents' Participation in a Work-Based Anti-Poverty Program Can Enhance Their Children's Future Orientation: Understanding Pathways of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planning and preparing for life after high school is a central developmental task of American adolescents, and may be even more critical for low-income youth who are less likely to attend a four year college. This study investigates factors that led to the effects of the New Hope Project, a work-based, anti-poverty program directed at parents on…

Purtell, Kelly M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.



The Role That Web 2.0 Currently Has and Could Have in the Future in Supporting the Teaching of ICT Design for All  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the article is to highlight the role that Web2.0 currently has and could have in the future in supporting the teaching of ICT Design for All. According to this, first the concepts of Web2.0 and eLearning2.0 are clarified and connected. The new way of thinking about eLearning being inspired by the emergence of Web2.0, the term eLearning2.0 was introduced to identify a new paradigm. So, eLearning 2.0, by contrast to eLearning1.0 is built around collaboration, also eLearning2.0 assumes that knowledge is socially constructed. Related to the role of Web2.0 in supporting the teaching of ICT Design for All, the 4 steps involved by the ICT Design For All Teaching Principles are presented and detailed. Finally, some real world examples are shown, as evidence of how the new methods of communication offered by Web2.0 can be used to support students as they learn about Design for All.

Mitrea, Paulina; Mitrea, Delia


Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

D. E. Shanklin



The role of fear-avoidance beliefs in acute low back pain: relationships with current and future disability and work status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear-avoidance beliefs have been identified as an important psychosocial variable in patients with chronic disability doe to low back pain. The importance of fear-avoidance beliefs for individuals with acute low back pain has not been explored. Seventy-eight subjects with work-related low back pain of less than 3 weeks'duration were studied. Measurements of pain intensity, physical impairment, disability, nonorganic signs and

Julie M. Fritz; Steven Z. George; Anthony Delitto



Planning for a Sustainable Future of the Cincinnati Union Terminal  

SciTech Connect

The Cincinnati Museum Center invited a number of local stakeholders, political leaders, nationally and internationally recognized design professionals and the Design Team, that has been engaged to help shape the future of this remarkable resource, to work together in a Workshop that would begin to shape a truly sustainable future for both the Museum and its home, the Union Terminal, one of the most significant buildings in America. This report summarizes and highlights the discussions that took place during the Workshop and presents recommendations for shaping a direction and a framework for the future.




Design change management in regulation of nuclear fleets: World nuclear association's working groups on Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing (CORDEL)  

SciTech Connect

The 60 year life of a reactor means that a plant will undergo change during its life. To ensure continuing safety, changes must be made with a full understanding of the design intent. With this aim, regulators require that each operating organisation should have a formally designated entity responsible for complete design knowledge in regard to plant safety. INSAG-19 calls such an entity 'Design Authority'. This requirement is difficult to achieve, especially as the number of countries and utilities operating plants increases. Some of these operating organisations will be new, and some will be small. For Gen III plants sold on a turnkey basis, it is even more challenging for the operating company to develop and retain the full knowledge needed for this role. CORDEL's Task Force entitled 'Design Change Management' is investigating options for effective design change management with the aim to support design standardization throughout a fleet's lifetime by means of enhanced international cooperation within industry and regulators. This paper starts with considering the causes of design change and identifies reasons for the increased beneficial involvement of the plant's original vendor in the design change process. A key central theme running through the paper is the definition of responsibilities for design change. Various existing mechanisms of vendor-operator interfaces over design change and how they are managed in different organisational and regulatory environments around the world are considered, with the functionality of Owners Groups and Design Authority being central. The roles played in the design change process by vendors, utilities, regulators, owners' groups and other organisations such as WANO are considered The aerospace industry approach to Design Authority has been assessed to consider what lessons might be learned. (authors)

Swinburn, R. [CORDEL DCM Task Force, Rolls-Royce Plc (United Kingdom); Borysova, I. [CORDEL, WNA, 22a St.James Sq., London SW1Y 4JH (United Kingdom); Waddington, J. [CORDEL Group (United Kingdom); Head, J. G. [CORDEL Group, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy (United Kingdom); Raidis, Z. [CORDEL Group, Candu Energy (United Kingdom)



Reprint of "Safe places for pedestrians: Using cognitive work analysis to consider the relationships between the engineering and urban design of footpaths".  


Footpaths provide an integral component of our urban environments and have the potential to act as safe places for people and the focus for community life. Despite this, the approach to designing footpaths that are safe while providing this sense of place often occurs in silos. There is often very little consideration given to how designing for sense of place impacts safety and vice versa. The aim of this study was to use a systems analysis and design framework to develop a design template for an 'ideal' footpath system that embodies both safety and sense of place. This was achieved through using the first phase of the Cognitive Work Analysis framework, Work Domain Analysis, to specify a model of footpaths as safe places for pedestrians. This model was subsequently used to assess two existing footpath environments to determine the extent to which they meet the design requirements specified. The findings show instances where the existing footpaths both meet and fail to meet the design requirements specified. Through utilising a systems approach for footpaths, this paper has provided a novel design template that can inform new footpath design efforts or be used to evaluate the extent to which existing footpaths achieve their safety and sense of place requirements. PMID:25455808

Stevens, Nicholas; Salmon, Paul



Clustering of Journal Titles According to Citation Data: Report on Preparatory Work, Design, Data Collection, and Preliminary Analyses. Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences, Working Paper No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DISISS (Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences) is a research project financed by OSTI, which began in January 1971. The objective of the project is to carry out research necessary for the effective design of information systems in the social sciences. The aim of this part of the DISISS project is the application of statistical…

Bath Univ. of Technology (England). Univ. Library.


Airframe Noise Studies: Review and Future Direction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains the following information: 1) a review of airframe noise research performed under NASA's Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program up to the year 2000, 2) a comparison of the year 1992 airframe noise predictions with those using a year 2000 baseline, 3) an assessment of various airframe noise reduction concepts as applied to the year 2000 baseline predictions, and 4) prioritized recommendations for future airframe noise reduction work. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program was the software used for all noise predictions and assessments. For future work, the recommendations for the immediate future focus on the development of design tools sensitive to airframe noise treatment effects and on improving the basic understanding of noise generation by the landing gear as well as on its reduction.

Rackl, Robert G.; Miller, Gregory; Guo, Yueping; Yamamoto, Kingo



Ergonomics and work organization: the relationship between tayloristic design and workers' health in banks and credit cards companies.  


The discussion developed in this paper is based on the results of an ergonomic work analysis carried out with attendants at call centers. Some critical issues and difficulties, like working pace, inadequate tools and workstations, and software inadequacies were detected in working situations. Operator-customer interactions are presented, attempting to put in evidence working constraints, working conditions, and their connection with health problems. The main conclusion is that serving clients, especially when the job is to provide information, is not a simple task, as information is not always available in the computerized system and is completely fragmented. The scope of workers' actions is very restricted and complicated and recurrent requests are redirected to others. Workers (individually or as groups) have limited possibilities to make adjustments to be able to give more adequate and personalized treatment to clients and, at the same time, to work in a less stressful environment. In periods of increased workload and work intensification, the situation is very much favorable to the incidence of health disorders, such as work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) and others. Some suggestions to improve the work situation are discussed. PMID:10602650

Sznelwar, L I; Mascia, F L; Zilbovicius, M; Arbix, G



New Estimates of Design Parameters for Clustered Randomization Studies: Findings from North Carolina and Florida. Working Paper 43  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gold standard in making causal inference on program effects is a randomized trial. Most randomization designs in education randomize classrooms or schools rather than individual students. Such "clustered randomization" designs have one principal drawback: They tend to have limited statistical power or precision. This study aims to provide…

Xu, Zeyu; Nichols, Austin



The Effects of Task Design Remediation and Response Efficiency on Work Productivity in Adults with Moderate and Severe Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies involving workers with moderate/severe mental retardation analyzed productivity rates on a seated assembly task and analyzed the most efficient means to remediate a custodial vacuuming task. A motion economy-based task design was more efficient than the site-based task design in terms of cleanliness, production rates, and reduction of…

Belfiore, Phillip J.; And Others



Evaluating the Gifted Program of an Urban School District Using a Modified Regression Discontinuity Design. NBER Working Paper No. 16414  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of a gifted program on retention in an urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. Gifted programs often employ IQ thresholds for admission, with those above the threshold being admitted. One common problem with the RD design arises if the forcing variable (the IQ score) is manipulated, thus…

Davis, Billie; Engberg, John; Epple, Dennis N.; Sieg, Holger; Zimmer, Ron



Dimensions of Human-Work Domain Interaction: A Preliminary Analysis for the Design of a Corporate Digital Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies the cognitive system engineering approach to investigate human-work interaction at a corporate setting. Reports preliminary analysis of data collected from diary analysis and interview of 20 subjects. Results identify three dimensions for each of four interactive activities involved in human-work interaction and their relationships.…

Xie, Hong



Abstract--In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures,  

E-print Network

Abstract--In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed application to assist the EV driver on these processes. This proposed Smart Electric Vehicle Charging System

da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues


Decentralized Utility-based Sensor Network Design Narayanan Sadagopan and Bhaskar Krishnamachari  

E-print Network

. In this study, we apply techniques from Mechanism Design and Game Theory to facilitate the design. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 briefly describes the related work. The formal and future work. 2 Related Work Game-theoretic Mechanism Design is a useful tool for distributed decision

Krishnamachari, Bhaskar


Robust Methods for Engineering Design Optimization  

E-print Network

1 Robust Methods for Engineering Design Optimization Brian Dennis, PhD Research Associate ADVENTURE Project University of Tokyo Outline · Introduction · Robust Algorithms for Design Optimization · Example Applications · Application to ADVENTURE project · Conclusion & Future Work #12;2 Introduction · Design

Dennis, Brian


Prototypes as (Design) Tools for Behavioral and Organizational ChangeA Design-Based Approach to Help Organizations Change Work Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article promotes the idea that prototyping, a method regularly employed in the design and development of products and services, is a powerful means to facilitate organizational development and change. The authors present three objectives related to prototyping that facilitate behavioral change within organizations. These objectives include building to think—creating tangible expressions of ideas enables organizational thinking to develop concretely

Peter Coughlan; Jane Fulton Suri; Katherine Canales



How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu



Universal Design for Learning in the Classroom: Practical Applications. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clearly written and well organized, this book shows how to apply the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) across all subject areas and grade levels. The editors and contributors describe practical ways to develop classroom goals, assessments, materials, and methods that use UDL to meet the needs of all learners. Specific teaching…

Hall, Tracey E., Ed.; Meyer, Anne, Ed.; Rose, David H., Ed.



ORNL biomedical engineers Boyd Evans and John Mueller are working to improve prosthetic fitting and design for  

E-print Network

ORNL biomedical engineers Boyd Evans and John Mueller are working to improve prosthetic fitting advances made in video game technology to develop inexpensive tools for amputee reha- bilitation," Evans and to be taken out- side the clinic." To monitor the motion and force of walking pat- terns, Evans and Mueller

Pennycook, Steve


Working Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore the contribution that an information literacy approach to the empirical study of workplace learning can make to how people understand and conceptualise workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: Three cohorts of fire-fighters working in two regional locations in NSW, Australia were…

Lloyd, Annemaree; Somerville, Margaret



Ongoing and Future Work Construct binary vectors  

E-print Network

of programmed cell death (PCD) was up-or down-regulated in the transition zone of black walnut based transcript in black walnut determined by real-time PCR. Summer-TZ Summer_SW_exterior Fall-TZ Fall zone in black walnut and the transcript level of those unique genes was detected via semi


Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary care program on recovery and return to work of patients after gynaecological surgery; design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Return to work after gynaecological surgery takes much longer than expected, irrespective of the level of invasiveness. In order to empower patients in recovery and return to work, a multidisciplinary care program consisting of an e-health intervention and integrated care management including participatory workplace intervention was developed. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the multidisciplinary care program on full sustainable return to work in patients after gynaecological surgery, compared to usual clinical care. Two hundred twelve women (18-65 years old) undergoing hysterectomy and/or laparoscopic adnexal surgery on benign indication in one of the 7 participating (university) hospitals in the Netherlands are expected to take part in this study at baseline. The primary outcome measure is sick leave duration until full sustainable return to work and is measured by a monthly calendar of sickness absence during 26 weeks after surgery. Secondary outcome measures are the effect of the care program on general recovery, quality of life, pain intensity and complications, and are assessed using questionnaires at baseline, 2, 6, 12 and 26 weeks after surgery. Discussion The discrepancy between expected physical recovery and actual return to work after gynaecological surgery contributes to the relevance of this study. There is strong evidence that long periods of sick leave can result in work disability, poorer general health and increased risk of mental health problems. We expect that this multidisciplinary care program will improve peri-operative care, contribute to a faster return to work of patients after gynaecological surgery and, as a consequence, will reduce societal costs considerably. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2087 PMID:22296950



The hydrogeologic framework and a reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, with a design for future study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the relation of ground- water quality and land use in the regolith and fractured rock ground-water system of the North Carolina Piedmont. The initial phase of this study provides a description of the ground-water flow system and a review of available ground-water data and formulates hypotheses that guide the design of a water-quality monitoring network for study of selected areas. In the Piedmont, the solid igneous and metamorphic bedrock grades upward into unweathered fractured rock that is covered by a transition zone of highly-fractured, partially weathered rock, clay-rich saprolite, and the soil. The fractured bedrock, transition zone, saprolite, and soil make up a complex flow system. A review of available ground-water quality data shows a lack of information about organic compounds and trace metals and changes in ground- water quality with depth. Land use, soils, and geology significantly influence ground-water quality. The hypotheses that need to be tested in the next study phase are: (1) that ground-water contamination can be related to land use, and (2) that the transition zone between bedrock and regolith serves as a primary transmitter of contaminants. Monitoring of basins containing industrial, urban, residential, and agricultural land uses in future studies will help define the relation of ground-water quality to land use. Water quality at different depths in the flow system and in streams during base flow needs to be identified.

Harned, Douglas



An overview of the design, construction and performance of large area triple-GEM prototypes for future upgrades of the CMS forward muon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEM detectors are used in high energy physics experiments given their good spatial resolution, high rate capability and radiation hardness. An international collaboration is investigating the possibility of covering the 1.6 < |?| < 2.4 region of the CMS muon endcaps with large-area triple-GEM detectors. The CMS high-? area is actually not fully instrumented, only Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) are installed. The vacant area presents an opportunity for a detector technology able to to cope with the harsh radiation environment; these micropattern gas detectors are an appealing option to simultaneously enhance muon tracking and triggering capabilities in a future upgrade of the CMS detector. A general overview of this feasibility study is presented. Design and construction of small (10cm × 10cm) and full-size trapezoidal (1m × 0.5m) triple-GEM prototypes is described. Results from measurements with x-rays and from test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS is shown for the small and large prototypes. Preliminary simulation studies on the expected muon reconstruction and trigger performances of this proposed upgraded muon system are reported.

Abbaneo, D.; Abbrescia, M.; Alfonsi, M.; Armaingaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Ban, Y.; Bally, S.; Benussi, L.; Berzano, U.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bunkowski, K.; Cai, J.; Cecchi, R.; Chatelain, J. P.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Croci, G.; David, E.; de Robertis, G.; De Oliveira, R.; Dildick, S.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Ferry, S.; Formenti, F.; Franconi, L.; Fruboes, T.; Gnanvo, K.; Gutierrez, A.; Hohlmann, M.; Karchin, P. E.; Loddo, F.; Magazzù, G.; Maggi, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Mehta, K.; Merlin, J.; Mohapatra, A.; Moulik, T.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Piccolo, D.; Park, S.; Postema, H.; Raffone, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Snoeys, W.; Staib, M. J.; van Stenis, M.; Teng, H.; Tytgat, M.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turini, N.; Smilkjovic, N.; Villa, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Zientek, M.



The impact of silicon nano-wire technology on the design of single-work-function CMOS transistors and circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three-dimensional exploratory study on vertical silicon wire MOS transistors with metal gates and undoped bodies demonstrates that these transistors dissipate less power and occupy less layout area while producing comparable transient response with respect to the state-of-the-art bulk and SOI technologies. The study selects a single metal gate work function for both NMOS and PMOS transistors to alleviate fabrication

Ahmet Bindal; Sotoudeh Hamedi-Hagh



Design of the embedded remote monitor system for building automation system based on the VxWorks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embedded building automation system (BAS) is introduced in this paper, which includes BAS overall architecture, hardware and software structure. The BAS based on Pc104 bus adopts VxWorks system which is powerful real-time operating system. AMD processor is used as the BAS main controller's CPU. Meanwhile the whole information flow of the BAS is also discussed in this article. Data

Liao Wenjiang; Dong Nanping; Fan Tongshun



Reliable gains? Evidence for substantially underpowered designs in studies of working memory training transfer to fluid intelligence  

PubMed Central

In recent years, cognitive scientists and commercial interests (e.g., Fit Brains, Lumosity) have focused research attention and financial resources on cognitive tasks, especially working memory tasks, to explore and exploit possible transfer effects to general cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence. The increased research attention has produced mixed findings, as well as contention about the disposition of the evidence base. To address this contention, Au et al. (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis of extant controlled experimental studies of n-back task training transfer effects on measures of fluid intelligence in healthy adults; the results of which showed a small training transfer effect. Using several approaches, the current review evaluated and re-analyzed the meta-analytic data for the presence of two different forms of small-study effects: (1) publication bias in the presence of low power and; (2) low power in the absence of publication bias. The results of these approaches showed no evidence of selection bias in the working memory training literature, but did show evidence of small-study effects related to low power in the absence of publication bias. While the effect size estimate identified by Au et al. (2014) provided the most precise estimate to date, it should be interpreted in the context of a uniformly low-powered base of evidence. The present work concludes with a brief set of considerations for assessing the adequacy of a body of research findings for the application of meta-analytic techniques.

Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne



Return to work of workers without a permanent employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: design of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Workers without a permanent employment contract represent a vulnerable group within the working population. Mental disorders are a major cause of sickness absence within this group. Common mental disorders are stress-related, depressive and anxiety disorders. To date, little attention has been paid to effective return to work interventions for this type of sick-listed workers. Therefore, a participatory supportive return to work program has been developed. It combines elements of a participatory return to work program, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program compared to care as usual. Methods/Design The cost-effectiveness of the participatory supportive return to work program will be examined in a randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of twelve months. The program strongly involves the sick-listed worker in the identification of obstacles for return to work and possible solutions, resulting in a consensus based action plan. This plan will be used as a starting point for the search of suitable competitive employment with support of a rehabilitation agency. During this process the insurance physician of the sick-listed worker contacts other caregivers to promote integrated care. Workers eligible to participate in this study have no permanent employment contract, have applied for a sickness benefit at the Dutch Social Security Agency and are sick-listed between two and fourteen weeks due to mental health problems. The primary outcome measure is the duration until first sustainable return to work in a competitive job. Outcomes are measured at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. Discussion If the participatory supportive return to work program proves to be cost-effective, the social security system, the sick-listed worker and society as a whole will benefit. A cost-effective return to work program will lead to a reduction of costs related to sickness absence. For the sick-listed worker a cost-effective program results in earlier sustainable return to work, which can be associated with both social and health benefits. Trial registration The trial registration number and date is NTR3563, August 7, 2012. PMID:24919561



Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

DeMeo, E.



Toward chemistry-based design of the simplest metalloenzyme-like catalyst that works efficiently in water.  


Enzymes exhibit overwhelmingly superior catalysis compared with artificial catalysts. Current strategies to rival enzymatic catalysis require unmodified or minimally modified structures of active sites, gigantic molecular weight, and sometimes the use of harsh conditions such as extremely low temperatures in organic solvents. Herein, we describe a design of small molecules that act as the simplest metalloenzyme-like catalysts that can function in water, without mimicking enzyme structures. These artificial catalysts efficiently promoted enantioselective direct-type aldol reactions using aqueous formaldehyde. The reactions followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and heat-resistant asymmetric environments were constructed in water. PMID:25349140

Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Sh?



Abstract--An interplay between mobile devices and static sensor nodes is envisioned in the near future. This will enable a heterogeneous design space that can offset the stringent resource and power constraints encountered in traditional static sensor  

E-print Network

future. This will enable a heterogeneous design space that can offset the stringent resource and power for cheap, small, low- power sensor nodes, making it impractical to equip sensor nodes with GPS developed for connecting billions of electronic products, such as PDAs, cell phones, laptops, and cars

Shatz, Sol M.


Reactor physics design of supercritical CO?-cooled fast reactors  

E-print Network

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) are among the GEN-IV designs proposed for future deployment. Driven by anticipated plant cost reduction, the use of supercritical CO? (S-CO?) as a Brayton cycle working fluid in a direct ...

Pope, Michael A. (Michael Alexander)



Communities putting prevention to work: local evaluation of community-based strategies designed to make healthy living easier.  


This introduction is an overview of the articles presented in this supplement that describe implementation and evaluation activities conducted as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) initiative. CPPW was one of the largest federal investments ever to combat chronic diseases in the United States. CPPW supported high-impact, jurisdiction-wide policy, systems, and environmental changes to improve health by increasing access to physical activity and healthy foods, and by decreasing tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke. The articles included in this supplement describe implementation and evaluation efforts of strategies implemented as part of CPPW by local awardees. This supplement is intended to guide the evidence base for public health interventions on the basis of jurisdiction-wide policy and environmental-level improvements and to encourage rigorous evaluation of the public health interventions. PMID:25150384

Soler, Robin E; Whitten, Kathleen L; Ottley, Phyllis G



Reorganizing Working Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reasons why work-sharing has gained increasing acceptance. Reasons include long-term unemployment, growing labor supply, and decreasing labor demand. The author reviews examples of current work-sharing schemes in Great Britain, Europe, and the United States. Future developments in work-sharing programs are discussed. (AM)

Blyton, Paul



Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers’ health, well-being, work performance and creativity  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this research project is to understand and to improve workers’ recovery from work stress. Although recovery during lunch breaks is the most common within-workday break, it has received only minor research attention. Therefore, we will study whether lunch breaks including a relaxation session or exposure to nature have more favorable outcomes than usually spent lunch breaks concerning: a) recovery processes, b) health, c) well-being, d) job performance and e) creativity. We approach recovery by combining the theoretical frameworks of work and environmental psychology. Methods/Design We conduct an intervention study in a sample of 268 knowledge-workers who engage in different lunch break activities for 15-minutes per day, two weeks in a row. We randomly assign participants to three experimental conditions: 1) exposure to nature, 2) relaxation and 3) control group (lunch break spent as usual). Online questionnaires before and after the intervention assess long term changes regarding recovery processes and the major outcome variables. Before, during and after the intervention, SMS and paper-pencil questionnaires measure the same constructs four times a day with fewer items. We also measure blood pressure and collect saliva samples to map cortisol excretion across the intervention period. A timed experimental task (i.e., the Alternative Uses Task) is used to examine differences in creativity between the three groups after the intervention period. Discussion By combining the knowledge of work and environmental psychology about recovery and restorative experiences, by merging three recovery perspectives (settings, processes, and outcomes) and by using data triangulation, we produce valid results that broaden our view on mechanisms underlying recovery and enhance our understanding about their links to psychological, behavioural and physiological outcomes, resulting in a more comprehensive picture of work stress recovery in general. Trial registration Protocol Registration System NCT02124837. Registered 24 April 2014. PMID:24885178



Getting more for your money: designing community needs assessments to build collaboration and capacity in hospital system community benefit work.  


Most community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are unilateral in nature and fail to include a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, limiting them in their scope. Nonprofit hospitals are required to conduct CHNAs every 3 years to determine where community prevention dollars should be spent. In 2010, a CBPR CHNA approach was conducted with four hospital systems in Northern California. Merging concepts from organization development, the approach included (a) goal determination, (b) use of a guiding framework, (c) creation of a container in which to interact, (d) established feedback loops, and (e) intentional trust-building exercises. The approach was to build lasting relationships between hospital systems that would extend beyond the CHNA. Results using this approach revealed that members representing all four hospital systems (a) began to meet regularly after the CHNA was completed, (b) increased collaboration with other community organizations, (c) expanded their level of intraorganization partnerships, (d) enjoyed the process, (e) felt that their professional knowledge expanded, and (f) felt connected professionally and personally with other hospital representatives. As a result, other joint projects are underway. The results of this study indicate that using CBPR to design a CHNA can build sustained collaborative relationships between study participants that continue. PMID:23271715

Ainsworth, Dale; Diaz, Heather; Schmidtlein, Mathew C