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1

Narrativity and multimodality in social work: designing the 'future positive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrativity inspires re-professionalization of social work and might be a way of framing new competencies and professions in social work. Interviews and role-playing online simu- lations serve as per formative arenas to explore individual and group development scenar- ios. Multimodality and modern digital devices vitalize practical research and social and cultural exchange. Introduction: narrativity and multimodality in social work For

Kees J. M. van Haaster

2

Designing real terrorism futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2003, the Policy Analysis Market (PAM) was described as terrorism futures, and immediately cancelled. While PAM was not in fact designed to be terrorism futures, I here consider five design issues with implementing and using real terrorism futures: combinatorics, manipulation, moral hazard, hiding prices, and decision selection bias. As neither these nor other problems seem insurmountable, terrorism futures

Robin D. Hanson

2006-01-01

3

Accelerator design concept for future neutrino facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the work of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The main goal of the activity was to reach consensus on a baseline design for a Neutrino Factory complex, including proton driver parameters, choice of target, front-end design, acceleration system design, and decay ring geometry.

M. Apollonio; J. S. Berg; A. Blondel; A. Bogacz; S. Brooks; J.-E. Campagne; D. Caspar; C. Cavata; P. Chimenti; J. Cobb; M. Dracos; R. Edgecock; I. Efthymiopoulos; A. Fabich; R. Fernow; F. Filthaut; J. Gallardo; R. Garoby; S. Geer; F. Gerigk; G. Hanson; R. Johnson; C. Johnstone; D. Kaplan; E. Keil; H. Kirk; A. Klier; A. Kurup; J. Lettry; K. Long; S. Machida; K. McDonald; F. Méot; Y. Mori; D. Neuffer; V. Palladino; R. Palmer; K. Paul; A. Poklonskiy; M. Popovic; C. Prior; G. Rees; C. Rossi; T. Rovelli; R. Sandström; R. Seviour; P. Sievers; N. Simos; Y. Torun; M. Vretenar; K. Yoshimura; M. S. Zisman

2009-01-01

4

Working Together against Future Shock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends that educational administrators involve faculty and staff in decision making. Cites approaches used at Greenfield Community College to develop, implement, and evaluate future institutional goals and objectives. Includes utilization of data sources such as Community College Goal Inventory, Student Development Data, community needs…

DiCarlo, Robert D.

1981-01-01

5

The Implied Character Curriculum in Vocational and Nonvocational English Classes: Designing Social Futures for Working Class Students and Their Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combines data from three case studies of teachers moving from their university teacher education programs into their first jobs, with data collected through observations and interviews totaling six observation cycles over the 2 years of data collection. The curricula for working class students that the three teachers taught represent a…

Smagorinsky, Peter; Boggs, George L.; Jakubiak, Cori; Wilson, Amy A.

2010-01-01

6

Designing the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Netherlands has a tradition in public spatial planning and design. In the past 20 years, we have seen an increasing role for the market in this field, and more recently, growing attention for sustainability. Sustainability has become an economic factor. Not only at the building level, but also on the level of large-scale area development projects. More and more

Friso De Zeeuw; Agnes Franzen; Kristel Aalbers; Anke Van Hal; Birgit Dulski

2010-01-01

7

The Future of Work and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate about work-family relationships must focus on the nature of family life, the place of women in the new economy, the needs of children, and the future of an aging population. Because the workplace has limited capacity to meet work-family needs, partnerships with government services are needed. (JOW)

Edgar, Don

1999-01-01

8

Adult Learning and the Future of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

Singh, Madhu, Ed.

9

Bridging to the Future: What Works?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses three levels of "what works" in enabling education--namely, current and successful engagement, transition and future participation, and managing uncertainties. It points to the importance of high quality programs that get the students involved with learning, effectively preparing them for further study and providing the…

Anderson, Helen

2007-01-01

10

Accelerator Design Concept for Future Neutrino Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the findings of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The work of the group took place at three plenary meetings along with three workshops, and an oral summary report was presented at the NuFact06 workshop held at UC-Irvine in August, 2006. The goal was to reach consensus on a baseline design for a Neutrino Factory complex. One aspect of this endeavor was to examine critically the advantages and disadvantages of the various Neutrino Factory schemes that have been proposed in recent years.

ISS Accelerator Working Group; Zisman, Michael S; Berg, J. S.; Blondel, A.; Brooks, S.; Campagne, J.-E.; Caspar, D.; Cevata, C.; Chimenti, P.; Cobb, J.; Dracos, M.; Edgecock, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Fernow, R.; Filthaut, F.; Gallardo, J.; Garoby, R.; Geer, S.; Gerigk, F.; Hanson, G.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, C.; Kaplan, D.; Keil, E.; Kirk, H.; Klier, A.; Kurup, A.; Lettry, J.; Long, K.; Machida, S.; McDonald, K.; Meot, F.; Mori, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Poklonskiy, A.; Popovic, M.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, T.; Sandstrom, R.; Sevior, R.; Sievers, P.; Simos, N.; Torun, Y.; Vretenar, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Zisman, Michael S

2008-02-03

11

Molecular Nanotechnology and Designs of Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in the scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental molecular nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approach to the concepts of design and simulation of atomically precise materials in a variety of interdisciplinary areas will be presented. The concepts of hypothetical molecular machines and assemblers as explained in Drexler's and Merckle's already published work and Han et. al's WWW distributed molecular gears will be explained.

Srivastava, Deepak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

12

Making the Future Total Force Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force is implementing Future Total Force (FTF) as one method of transformation. Through FTF the Air Force will better meet the challenges of a shrinking budget aging aircraft fleet and emerging missions by integrating (or associating) different co...

S. G. Buckman

2006-01-01

13

Humanoids Designed to do Work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA began with the challenge of building a robot fo r doing assembly, maintenance, and diagnostic work in the Og environment of space. A robot with human form was then chosen as the best means of achieving that mission. The goal was not to build a machine to look like a human, but rather, to build a system that could do the same work. Robonaut could be inserted into the existing space environment, designed for a population of astronauts, and be able to perform many of the same tasks, with the same tools, and use the same interfaces. Rather than change that world to accommodate the robot, instead Robonaut accepts that it exists for humans, and must conform to it. While it would be easier to build a robot if all the interfaces could be changed, this is not the reality of space at present, where NASA has invested billions of dollars building spacecraft like the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. It is not possible to go back in time, and redesign those systems to accommodate full automation, but a robot can be built that adapts to them. This paper describes that design process, and the res ultant solution, that NASA has named Robonaut.

Ambrose, Robert; Askew, Scott; Bluethmann, William; Diftler, Myron

2001-01-01

14

What future is there for work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to explore five lines of enquiry and action that mainly appeal to freedom and knowledge: developing forms of activity that put an emphasis on free commitment, such as NGOs, for example; fostering the building of creative knowledge-based societies; designing a new social contract founded on the right to lifelong learning for all; underpinning globalization by

Jérôme Bindé

2005-01-01

15

Design Work in Contexts - Contexts in Design Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a descriptive approach to design research is adopted. Design processes are conceived as social processes of interpretation. A reconstructive approach is suggested to describe design processes in terms of interaction. The concept of context and frame is employed for reconstructive analysis of design processes. Investigations of deictic expressions in design conversation are used to refine the analysis

Friedrich Glock

16

Guideline for Work Station Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a workstation design process, starting with an analysis of the activities performed, then deals with environmental, building design, space planning and furniture issues required for designing workstations suitable for a range of offic...

A. I. Rubin G. Gillette

1989-01-01

17

Designing the Classroom of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores different K-6 classroom designs that address the changing learning-space needs of students. The hexagonal modular design is described as one answer to a classroom that is flexible as well as accommodating to educational technology, now and into the future. (GR)

Gomez, Raymond

1999-01-01

18

Connecting Work and Learning: Design Engineers Learning at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper seeks to investigate design engineers' and product developers' learning through their work. The aim was to approach designers' work practice and their learning in the course of it as perceived by the designers themselves. The aim is also to examine their learning through the various individual and social processes, which take…

Collin, Kaija

2006-01-01

19

The paradox of understanding work for design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the organization of work has become an important element in the design of systems and artefacts for work settings. However, although studies of work have had an influence on design, there is still some concern about the nature of the relationship between the study of work and design. Concern has been variously expressed in terms of gaps between social

John D. Mccarthy

2000-01-01

20

The Work Design Method for Human Friendly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize “the product life cycle with respect for human nature". we ought to make work design so that work environment should be configured to be sound in mind and body, with due consideration of not only physical but also mental factors from the viewpoint of workers. The former includes too heavy work, unreasonable working posture, local fatigue of the body, the safety, and working comfort, and the latter includes work motivation, work worthiness, stress, etc. For the purpose of evaluating the degree of working comfort and safety at human-oriented production lines, we acknowledged, for the work design, the effectiveness of the work designing technique with working time variation duly considered. And, we formulated a model for a mental factor experienced by workers from the degree of working delays. This study covers a work design technique we developed with the effect of the factor as the value of evaluation.

Harada, Narumi; Sasaki, Masatoshi; Ichikawa, Masami

21

An Evaluation Model for Graphic Design Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study is to explore and develop a model for the evaluation of graphic design works. A total of 25 graphic design works constituting with five circles in different sizes and locations were assessed with 75 designers in 10 evaluation criteria of graphic design by a 9-point scale system. A factor analysis was used to reduce the number of

Yin-Tzu Chen; Dengchuan Cai; HsinFu Huang; Jane Kuo

22

Designing a Package that Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams act as engineers and brainstorm, design, build and test their ideas for packaging to protect a raw egg shipped in a 9 x 12-in envelope. They follow the steps of the engineering design process and aim for a successful solution with no breakage, low weight and recyled/reuse materials. Students come to understand the basics of engineering associated with the packaging of items to preserve, market and safely transport goods.

K-12 Outreach Office,

23

Designing the University of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the future physical layout of the university in view of the profound social and cultural changes of our time that are affecting the structure of higher education in general and universities in particular. We suggest that the basic architectural prototypes of university design should be re-examined in view of these changes.…

Hashimshony, Rifca; Haina, Jacov

2006-01-01

24

Humanoids Designed to do Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA began with the challenge of building a robot fo r doing assembly, maintenance, and diagnostic work in the Og environment of space. A robot with human form was then chosen as the best means of achieving that mission. The goal was not to build a machin...

M. Diftler R. Ambrose S. Askew W. Bluethmann

2001-01-01

25

Alternative Technology, Self-Sufficiency and the Future of Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report studies ways to improve peoples' social welfare while using fewer resources. The report addresses technological choice and research design; work, self-exploitation, and economic growth; alternative work and alternative production; practical di...

P. Read

1980-01-01

26

Executive Committee Working Group Future Large Scale Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 10 years ago the IAU Executive Committee created a Working Group on Future Large Scale Facilities, but its activities have fallen somewhat into abeyance in the last few years. It has been decided to revive the group, and Roger Davies (Oxford) has agreed to chair it.

Davies, Roger; Corbett, I.; Ekers, R.; Green, R.; Iye, M.; Kraan-Korteweg, R.; Ruiz, M. T.; Tacconi, L.; Tarenghi, M.; Wilson, C.; Zhao, G.

2012-04-01

27

Design rationale for a remote work vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The remote work vehicle (RWV) is a mobile, teleoperated, electrohydraulic robot designed for aggressive, radiological decontamination work. The RWV performs tasks such as washdown, sampling, material packaging and transport, surfacing, and demolition. This paper discusses the design rationale that shaped the development of the RWV with respect to capability, reliability, operability, decontaminability, extensibility, and maintainability. To meet an important subset of nuclear damage recovery tasks, the design embraced these often competing ideals.

Whittaker, W.L.

1986-01-01

28

Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

2005-01-01

29

Design and Management of Work Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for the project, Design and Management of Work Teams. The report describes the contributions of the project to (a) basic theory about group performance, (b) the development of research methodologies suitable for studying group tas...

J. R. Hackman

1986-01-01

30

Designing for Our Future in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, the disciplines of architecture and human factors have been increasingly recognized as specialties that have focused upon "human-centered design" in the development of spacecraft and surface habitats. These specialties have been instrumental in the conceptual design of overall spacecraft configurations and layouts, as well as habitability outfitting hardware, such as the galley, hygiene facility, sleep quarters, or the layout of displays and controls. From the human-centered perspective, this approach to design assists in the mitigation of risk when designing for an extreme environment such as space. It takes into account the human s physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations, the human s performance in the context of human space flight, the human s interaction with machines that are both physically and cognitively complex, the activities required of the human to accomplish the goals of missions, and the use of design practices that promote products to enable human activity. It is this latter aspect - the use of design practices that promote products to enable human activity - that is the focus of the approach used by the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) in collaboration with the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). During the past few years, there has been a growing recognition of the value added by utilizing industrial designers to further the conceptual development of space hardware, that when used in conjunction with architecture and human factors, provides a robust solution to the design challenge. The "Design for Extreme Environments" Studio at RISD has taken suggested design topics from the NASA JSC HHFB and asked the students to investigate solutions to these challenges. The topics have demanded that the student pay particular attention to a variety of aspects of the space environment and understand how the human responds to each. The student must then adapt the design to these responses. The studio environment has been one way to introduce these challenges, but providing for an "in-residence" opportunity at JSC has given the students a broader vision and set of experiences. The accompanying presentation highlights the studio as well as in-residence work that has been accomplished.

Connolly, Janis

2007-01-01

31

The future of work: Changing patterns of workforce management and their impact on the workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a year-long research project undertaken by the authors and a group of sponsoring corporations to explore the future of work and thereby the workplace. Experiences, ideas and data were shared to address questions about the changing nature of the workforce itself, new workplace designs, new technology capabilities and the economics of supporting and leveraging knowledge workers.

James Ware; Charles Grantham

2003-01-01

32

Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

Quincy, Michael L.

2009-01-01

33

Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation.  

PubMed

In the near future, workforces will increasingly consist of older workers. At the same time, research has demonstrated that work-related growth motives decrease with age. Although this finding is consistent with life span theories, such as the selection optimization and compensation (SOC) model, we know relatively little about the process variables that bring about this change in work motivation. Therefore, we use a 4-wave study design to examine the mediating role of future time perspective and promotion focus in the negative association between age and work-related growth motives. Consistent with the SOC model, we found that future time perspective was negatively associated with age, which, in turn, was associated with lower promotion focus, lower work-related growth motive strength, and lower motivation to continue working. These findings have important theoretical implications for the literature on aging and work motivation, and practical implications for how to motivate older workers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24956000

Kooij, Dorien T A M; Bal, P Matthijs; Kanfer, Ruth

2014-06-01

34

The Future Outlook for School Facilities Planning and Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School design is influenced by four major factors: the education program, the community site, education technology, and building technology. Schools of the future are discussed in relation to the factors affecting school design. It is probable that future schools will be involved in a broader spectrum of programs and will serve a more diverse…

Brubaker, C. William

35

Present and Future IGS Ionosphere Working Group Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the Ionosphere Working Group of the International GNSS Service (IGS) generates two types of ionospheric products: final and rapid, respectively. This IGS Iono WG started the routine generation of ionosphere vertical total electron content (TEC) maps in June 1998. There are currently four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) for ionosphere products: CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe, University of Berne, Switzerland), ESA/ESOC (European Space Operations Center of ESA, Darmstadt, Germany), JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, U.S.A), and gAGE/UPC (Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain). These centres provide products computed with different approaches. The products are transmitted to an IGS Ionosphere Product Coordinator, who produces a weighted combined product. Presently the weights are defined by the IAAC global TEC maps evaluation carried out by 1 UPC center. From January 2008, this coordination is carried out by the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of the Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland). The IGS produces a Final Ionosphere product in IONEX format with resolution of 5 degrees in longitude and 2.5 degrees in latitude with a latency of 10 days, and a rapid solution with a latency of 1 day. During a period of about 10 years of continuous IGS ionosphere operation, the techniques used by the IAACs and the strategies of combination have improved in such a way that the combined IGS Ionosphere TEC maps are now significantly more accurate and robust. The purpose of this paper is, on one hand, to show the present performance of the combined final and rapid IGS Ionosphere TEC maps, and on the other hand to summarize the present and future related activities within the IGS Ionosphere WG.

Krankowski, Andrzej

36

Foodservice design--planning for the future.  

PubMed

An independent foodservice consultant performs the design functions and puts the specifications and plans out for a competitive bid to dealers. A foodservice equipment dealer will order and install equipment and handle concerns after installation. Planning and forethought on the part of the foodservice director and consultant can assist the food-service designer in coordinating the functions to create an efficient kitchen. PMID:9336578

Guyott, C

1997-10-01

37

Safety by design and future developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the giant leaps that technology has taken in the past few years, some professions are still largely artistic. A good example of this is the profession of design. Designers produce products that are efficient, attractive, practical, but not safe. This is because most Universities around the world fail to include safety and health issues into their curriculum. To overcome that flaw, a rule-based tool was designed to assist designers in pointing out the unsafe conditions in their designs. This tool, that utilizes expert systems technologies, took five years to reach its current version. The tool is called TEXPERT. The latest version of TEXPERT underwent a number of changes and continued growth. This year's efforts resulted in the selection of a focus area and investigations into the selection of two technologies (demolition and decontamination- D&D) by which to validate the program. Validation and expansion of the rule-base continued with an emphasis on those components necessary for D&D. Research in object-oriented prototypes, determination of report-format and approach, and development of an initial visual project builder interface were also accomplished. Latest accomplishments included the development of new components, two-way interactions, and the implementation of a maintainable component database that the user interface can use to build the current library that will be available in the menu system.

Akladios, Magdy; McMullin, Dianne; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran; Becker, Paul E.; Carr, Michael; Lobo, Paul; Farmani, Maryam; Decker, Andrew

2001-10-01

38

Challenge of Future EW System Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic warfare (EW) has emerged as a critical driving force in modern warfare. New generations of weapon systems directly impact EW requirements and strategies. Modern combat aircraft are faced with a drastic change of a possible threat scenario consisting of a mix of Western and Eastern weapon systems. The deployment of advanced pulse doppler radar systems in A/A and G/A application augmented by extensive electro-optic capabilities, directed energy weapons (laser or particle beam), and electromagnetic/shockwave weapons requires a detailed reassessment of NATO EW processes. The complexity and diversity of future threat scenarios necessitate changes in NATO EW system concepts, and an update of existing equipment including modifications of tactics and combinations of EW resources to improve survivability.

1994-05-01

39

Optimizing Organization Design for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of planning organization design within the higher education environment stresses the goal of integrating structure and process to maintain stability while increasing organizational flexibility. Considers organization culture, organization structure and processes, networked organizations, a networked organization in action, and personal…

Creth, Sheila

2000-01-01

40

The Future of Working Wisconsin. Proceedings from "The Future of Working Wisconsin" Conference (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, February 24-26, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are among the 45 papers included in this proceedings: "Labor Force Changes in the United States: Implications for Education and Training" (Kutscher); "Industry, Employment, and Family Income: Wisconsin's Status" (Stoner); "Future Demographic and Social Trends" (Zach); "International Business in Wisconsin's Future" (Shank);…

Wacker, Gabrielle Banick, Ed.

41

Virtual Teams and Human Work Interaction Design - Learning to Work in and Designing for Virtual Teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundaries and work processes for how virtual teams interact are undergoing changes, from a tool and stand-alone application orientation, to the use of multiple generic platforms chosen and redesigned to the specific context. These are often at the same time designed both by professional software developers and the individual members of the virtual teams, rather than determined on a single organizational level. There may be no impact of the technology per se on individuals, groups or organizations, as the technology for virtual teams rather enhance situation ambiguity and disrupt existing task-artifact cycles. This ambiguous situation calls for new methods for empirical work analysis and interaction design that can help us understand how organizations, teams and individuals learn to organize, design and work in virtual teams in various networked contexts.

Orngreen, Rikke; Clemmensen, Torkil; Pejtersen, Annelise Mark

42

Design Considerations for Future RF Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheRFdesignparadigmwillchangesignificantlyasCMOS technology scales and integration levels rise to accommo- date multi-band, multi-mode transceivers and baseband processors. This paper describes technology scaling issues such as low supply voltages, high gate leakage currents, and low transistor output impedances. Also, design tech- niques for low-voltage mixers are presented, and stacked and nested inductors are proposed to achieve compact lay- outs for multi-band systems.

Behzad Razavi

2007-01-01

43

30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. 71.208...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions....

2013-07-01

44

Do Computerised Training Programmes Designed to Improve Working Memory Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical review of working memory training research during the last 10 years is provided. Particular attention is given to research that has attempted to investigate the efficacy of commercially marketed computerised training programmes such as "Cogmed" and "Jungle Memory". Claimed benefits are questioned on the basis that research methodologies…

Apter, Brian J. B.

2012-01-01

45

Course 2010. The Future of Work in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three articles come from the series "Course 2010--A Decade in View" published in the Handelsblatt (Duesseldorf and Frankfurt/Main), an influential German business newspaper. "The Labor Market: With Flexibility into the Service Society" (Elga Lehari) states that the key to more employment in future is a service society with an industrial…

Lehari, Elga; Stehr, Christoph; Lemmer, Ruth

1999-01-01

46

Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryFuture water management will shift from building new water supply systems to better operating existing ones. The variation of water values in time and space will increasingly motivate efforts to address water scarcity and reduce water conflicts. Hydro-economic models represent spatially distributed water resource systems, infrastructure, management options and economic values in an integrated manner. In these tools water allocations and management are either driven by the economic value of water or economically evaluated to provide policy insights and reveal opportunities for better management. A central concept is that water demands are not fixed requirements but rather functions where quantities of water use at different times have varying total and marginal economic values. This paper reviews techniques to characterize the economic value of water use and include such values in mathematical models. We identify the key steps in model design and diverse problems, formulations, levels of integration, spatial and temporal scales, and solution techniques addressed and used by over 80 hydro-economic modeling efforts dating back 45-years from 23 countries. We list current limitations of the approach, suggest directions for future work, and recommend ways to improve policy relevance.

Harou, Julien J.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rosenberg, David E.; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Lund, Jay R.; Howitt, Richard E.

2009-09-01

47

Guidelines for Children's Work in Agriculture: Implications for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to assist parents in assigning developmentally appropriate and safe farm work to their children aged 7–16 years. Since their release in 1999, a growing body of evidence has accumulated regarding the content and application of these guidelines to populations of working children on farms. The purpose of this paper

Barbara Marlenga; Barbara C. Lee; William Pickett

2012-01-01

48

Skills for Work in the Future: A Youth Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a 2004 International Labour Organization (ILO) report, young people represent 130 million of the world's 550 million working poor who are unable to lift themselves and their families above the equivalent of the $1 per day poverty line. These young people struggle to survive, often performing work under unsatisfactory conditions in the…

Lyngdoh, Bremley W. B.

2005-01-01

49

Ecological interface design for petrochemical applications: supporting operator adaptation, continuous learning, and distributed, collaborative work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future support systems for operators of petrochemical refineries will have to support operator adaptation to unanticipated events, foster continuous learning, and facilitate distributed, collaborative work. This paper describes Ecological Interface Design, a candidate framework for human–computer interface design that has the potential to fulfill these diverse demands. Support for adaptation and continuous learning is demonstrated though the design of a

Greg A. Jamieson; Kim J. Vicente

2001-01-01

50

Relational Modes between Industrial Design and Engineering Design - a Conceptual Model for Interdisciplinary Design Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus on customer and market needs has initialized changes in product development work, which involve integration of industrial design and engineering design functions. Interdisciplinary teams are considered a prerequisite in order to achieve collaboration, and a necessity to meet market demands in new products. However, interdisciplinary teams are inherently associated with collaborative shortcomings. In this work, relations between industrial designers

Sara PERSSON; Anders WARELL

51

Report of the Working Design Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering study group in the LOUISA workshop was responsible for producing a preliminary general design for an optical synthetic aperture telescope on the Moon. This design is intended to be a test case for focusing continuing design studies. The scope of the design included consideration of the array geometry, individual telescopes, metrology, site attributes, and construction. However, no attempt was made to go into further depth in the design than to cover the essential characteristics of the instrument. The starting point for the array design was the lunar optical array discussed by Burke (1985). His array geometry followed the design and correlation procedure of the 27-element Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes near Socorro, New Mexico.

1992-01-01

52

KEY MEASUREMENTS IN THE FUTURE - Working Group Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental basis of cosmic-ray astrophysics consists of detailed measurements of the cosmic-ray intensity arriving near earth, of observations of photons in all wavelength bands generated by cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium or in the cosmic-ray sources, and of laboratory studies of high energy particle interactions. In addition, a large body of astronomical information on the composition of stellar atmospheres and of the interstellar medium, including interstellar dust grains, is required to bring cosmic-ray data into context with subjects such as nucleosynthesis and evolution of the galaxy. This report will summarize some of these observational questions, will discuss specific experimental needs in current research, and will review some of the key measurements that can be expected for the near future. This review will neither be complete nor attempt to establish observational priorities. However, it will illustrate the variety of observational activities that are required to achieve progress.

Müller, D.; Connel, J. J.; Decourchelle, A.; Mewaldt, R.; Reynolds, S.; Strong, A.; Völk, H.; Wiedenbeck, M.

2001-10-01

53

Work organization interventions: state of knowledge and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Changes taking place in the modern workplace, such as more flexible and lean production technologies, flatter management structures, and nontraditional employment practices fundamentally alter work organization factors and raise concerns about potentially negative influences on worker health and safety. These changes raise concerns about adverse effects on worker safety and health and call attention to the need for interventions

Steven L. Sauter; Lawrence R. Murphy

2004-01-01

54

Present and Future IGS Ionosphere Working Group Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays the Ionosphere Working Group of the International GNSS Service (IGS) generates two types of ionospheric products: final and rapid, respectively. This IGS Iono WG started the routine generation of ionosphere vertical total electron content (TEC) maps in June 1998. There are currently four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) for ionosphere products: CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe, University

Andrzej Krankowski

2008-01-01

55

Creating Online Worlds: The Future of Student Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 20th century, student work was dominated by paper-print assignments, particularly essays. This was a reflection of the dominant media technology of that century--books, magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. But those days are gone. In the 21st century, the dominant media technology of today's students is the Internet. In addition to…

Riegle, Rodney P.

2007-01-01

56

Black Graduate Students' Choice of Future Work Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study to determine job-related factors that are associated with Black graduate students' individual decisions to select one work setting over another. Data were obtained from Black graduate students in the late 1960s from a predominantly White university campus and a predominantly Black university campus. (Author/JLF)

Daniel, Jessica Henderson

1980-01-01

57

Professional Learning between Past Experience and Future Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the professionalization of human service work. It analyses learning processes and identity development in the emerging profession of child care with concrete examples from empirical research, based on a life history approach. It discusses examples of careers mainly based on students' life experience, pointing out that their…

Weber, Kirsten

2010-01-01

58

The Importance of Future Time Perspective in Theories of Work Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to foresee and anticipate, to make plans for and organize future possibilities, represents one of the most outstanding traits of individuals. Theories of work motivation, however, appear to have ignored the construct of future time perspective. In this article, the relationships between future time perspective, the capacity to plan activities, and proximate goals that intervene between one's present

Gerard H. Seijts

1998-01-01

59

Effects of Self-Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, and Perceptions of Future Work Environment on Preservice Teacher Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…

Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.

2014-01-01

60

Intranet Development and Design that Works  

SciTech Connect

Making information available and easy to find is the objective of designing a good web site. A company's Intranet typically provides a great deal of information to its employees in an effort to help them better perform their jobs. If the information is available but is difficult to locate, the usefulness of this information is diminished. Sandia National Laboratories performed a redesign of its home page and has obtained a successful design which enables its employees to locate information quickly and efficiently. Three phases of usability testing were conducted to develop and optimize the home page. This paper will discuss the redesign of the Intranet home page and describe how usability studies were used to help ensure a usable design.

BACA,BOBBY G.; CASSIDY,ANDREA L.

1999-09-09

61

Guide Design Specification for Bridge Temporary Works.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the collapse of the Route 198 bridge over the Baltimore/Washington Parkway in 1989, the FHWA established the temporary works research program. The program was guided by the Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forming Task Group as formed by the FHWA. The ...

J. F. Duntemann L. E. Dunn S. Gill R. G. Lukas M. K. Kaler

1993-01-01

62

Solution for future command and control: human-centered design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only way to deal with the increased complexities of the future in command and control, the huge amounts of data available, reduced manpower and cost goals, and training in tactical operations is to follow a human centered design process. It is time we design the hardware/software system to support the people instead of asking the people to compensate for the hardware/software system. This will only be accomplished by institutionalizing an integrated human systems engineering process that fully accounts for every person in the system. Use of this process will be critical to future complex system designs and in particular to integrated command centers. In addition to engineers following the process, engineering environments must facilitate a human systems engineering approach. A human systems engineering process and a prototype engineering environment, the Human Centered Design Environment which is currently under development, are described.

Perry, Amie A.; Crisp, Harry E.; McKneely, Jennifer A.; Wallace, Daniel F.

2000-11-01

63

Supporting social awareness @ work design and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last year we have been designing and studying a computer based tool intended to strengthen social group awareness within a research laboratory. While awareness has been a subject of previous research it is still unclear how it should be conceptualized and how it can be provided for a CSCW system. In order to investigate this, and hence to

Konrad Tollmar; Ovidiu Sandor; Anna Schömer

1996-01-01

64

Designing programs that check their work  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It designs program checkers for a few specific and carefully chosen problems in the class P of problems solvable in polynomial time. It also applies methods of modern cryptography, especially the idea of a probabilistic interactive proof,

Manuel Blum; S. Kanna

1989-01-01

65

Designing programs that check their work  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. That is, given a program and an instance on which the program is run, the checker certifies whether the output of the program on that instance is correct. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It designs program checkers for a few specific and

Manuel Blum; Sampath Kannan

1995-01-01

66

Centaur: NASA's Mobile Humanoid Designed for Field Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's future lunar and martian missions will require a suite of advanced robotic systems to complete tasks during precursor visits and to assist humans while present on the surface. The Centaur is a new mobile, dexterous manipulation system designed with this future role in mind. Centaur combines the sophisticated upper body dexterity of NASA's humanoid, Robonaut, with a rugged and

Joshua S. Mehling; Philip Strawser; Lyndon Bridgwater; W. K. Verdeyen; Roger Rovekamp

2007-01-01

67

Designing the coal preparation plant of the future  

SciTech Connect

How can we design more efficient plants and what will plants look like in the future? What are the new techniques for designing plant layouts, monitoring performance, and building in preventive maintenance? What challenges face the industry and how can operators capitalize on opportunities to maximise yield, reduce costs, and improve efficiency? More than a dozen experts address these and other issues, offering cutting-edge highlights and compelling case histories from industry leaders through the world in 15 chapters.

Arnold, B.J.; Klima, M.S.; Bethell, P.J. (eds.)

2007-07-01

68

The Locales Framework: Understanding and Designing for Cooperative Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key challenge for the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) community is how best tounderstand work for the purposes of design, and how best to design systems for the purposes of work.The lack of pervasive use of CSCW technologies despite widespread growth of networked computers,and over twelve years of CSCW research, indicates that we are yet to answer the challenge

Geraldine Ann Fitzpatrick

1998-01-01

69

Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

1984-01-01

70

Economic and technical criteria for designing future off-shore HVDC grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the scope of a recently launched European Research Project, a team of experts from public laboratories and TSO is in charge of defining the concepts and methodological approaches to design and analyse the technical and economic feasibility of future HVDC grids. This work aims at identifying, assessing and comparing several possible HVDC network topologies, with appropriate control and protection

K. Bell; D. Cirio; A. M. Denis; L. He; C. C. Liu; G. Migliavacca; C. Moreira; P. Panciatici

2010-01-01

71

Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions  

PubMed Central

For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses.

Herr, Hugh

2009-01-01

72

Incorporating work factors in design for disassembly in product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to present a methodology to design products for disassembly. This would facilitate end-of-life product disassembly with a view to maximizing material usage in the supply chain at a low cost to the environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology presented in the paper draws on fundamentals related to task analysis and motion time measurement. The methodology was

Anoop Desai; Anil Mital

2005-01-01

73

Design Guidelines for Glare-free Daylit Work Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong focus on lighting quality and productivity as well as a renewed interest in energy efficiency in recent years has highlighted the lack of appropriate design guidance for architects, interior and lighting designers for creating glare-free daylit work environments, especially for offices. Well-developed design guidelines based on visual experience and careful monitoring of the design process from the start

Werner Osterhaus

74

New Hopes Effects on Children's Future Orientation and Employment Experiences. MDRC Working Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on New Hopes impacts on childrens future orientation (i.e., attitudes and expectancies about work, involvement in employment and career preparation activities) and employment experiences (e.g., duration and intensity of employment) eig...

K. M. Purtell R. Kaplan V. C. McLoyd

2008-01-01

75

Interconnect IP Node for Future System-on-Chip Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interconnect IP (intellectual Property) node architecture for flexible on-chip communication is introduced. This architecture is targeted for communication in future gigatransistor SoC (System-on-Chip) designs. The interconnect IP will be used as a testing platform when the efficiency of network topologies and routing schemes are investigated for the on-chip environment. The interconnect node uses packet based communication and forms a

Ilkka Saastamoinen; David A. Sigüenza-tortosa; Jari Nurmi

2002-01-01

76

Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design.  

PubMed

The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight. PMID:14700327

McAuley, John W

2003-12-01

77

1. GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE HOMESTEAD WORKS, DESIGNED BY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE HOMESTEAD WORKS, DESIGNED BY HOFFMAN & CRUMPTON OF PITTSBURGH. THE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED TO SHOWCASE THE ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBILITIES OF STEEL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

78

Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.

2003-01-01

79

Towards Design Guidelines for Work Related Learning Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to produce design guidelines based on insights from both practice and theory that will enable teachers and educational developers to execute the design, implementation and evaluation of their work-related learning arrangements with stakeholders involved. Design/methodology/approach: The first study reported in…

Lappia, Josephine H.

2011-01-01

80

Applying Learning Design to Work-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning design is currently slanted to reflect a course-based approach to learning. This article explores whether the concept of learning design could be applied to support the informal aspects of work-based learning (WBL). It also discusses the characteristics of WBL and presents a WBL-specific learning design that highlights the key features…

Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Heinz Ulrich

2011-01-01

81

FeatherSail - Design, Development and Future Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To the present day, the idea of using solar sails for space propulsion is still just a concept, but one that provides a great potential for future space exploration missions. Several notable solar propulsion missions and experiments have been performed and more are still in the development stage. Solar Sailing is a method of space flight propulsion, which utilizes the light photons to propel spacecrafts through the vacuum of space. This concept will be tested in the near future with the launch of the NanoSail-D satellite. NanoSail-D is a nano-class satellite, <10kg, which will deploy a thin lightweight sheet of reflective material used to propel the satellite in its low earth orbit. Using the features of the NanoSail-D architecture, a second-generation solar sail design concept, dubbed FeatherSail, has been developed. The goal of the FeatherSail project is to create a sail vehicle with the ability to provide steering from the sails and increase the areal density. The FeatherSail design will utilize the NanoSail-D based extendable boom technology with only one sail on each set of booms. This design also allows each of the four sails to feather as much as ninety degrees. The FeatherSail concept uses deployable solar arrays to generate the power necessary for deep space missions. In addition, recent developments in low power, low temperature Silicon-Germanium electronics provide the capability for long duration deep space missions. It is envisioned that the FeatherSail conceptual design will provide the impetus for future sail vehicles, which may someday visit distant places that mankind has only observed.

Alhorn, Dean C.; Scheierl, J. M.

2010-01-01

82

Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women--history, current issues and future research directions.  

PubMed

According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion. PMID:12064551

Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko

2002-04-01

83

Adolescent Future Expectations of Work, Education, Family, and Community: Development of a New Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of a measure of adolescent future expectations associated with work, education, family, health, and church/community participation is presented. The 25-item measure was administered to a sample of 389 7th- to 12th-grade urban poor and working-class Chilean students. Results of an exploratory principal axis factor…

McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

2008-01-01

84

Engagement in Academic Work: The Role of Learning Goals, Future Consequences, Pleasing Others, and Perceived Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement in academic work was viewed from a multiple goals perspective. Two studies were conducted in which high school math students completed an instrument measuring five goals students might have for doing academic work (learning goals, performance goals, obtaining future consequences, pleasing the teacher, and pleasing the family), perceived math ability, self-regulatory activities, strategies (deep or shallow) used when studying

Raymond B. Miller; Barbara A. Greene; Gregory P. Montalvo; Bhuvaneswari Ravindran; Joe D. Nichols

1996-01-01

85

The Web's Impact on Social Work Education: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the ways in which social work educators who are interested in Web technology but not expert in its applications can use the World Wide Web. Current opportunities and challenges in integrating technology into social work education are discussed, and future directions in the use of technology are explored. (EV)

Sandell, Karen S.; Hayes, Sherman

2002-01-01

86

A Comparison of Candidate Seal Designs for Future Docking Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, and other destinations. A key component of this system is the seal at the main docking interface which inhibits the loss of cabin air once docking is complete. Depending on the mission, the seal must be able to dock in either a seal-on-flange or seal-on-seal configuration. Seal-on-flange mating would occur when a docking system equipped with a seal docks to a system with a flat metal flange. This would occur when a vehicle docks to a node on the International Space Station. Seal-on-seal mating would occur when two docking systems equipped with seals dock to each other. Two types of seal designs were identified for this application: Gask-O-seals and multi-piece seals. Both types of seals had a pair of seal bulbs to satisfy the redundancy requirement. A series of performance assessments and comparisons were made between the candidate seal designs indicating that they meet the requirements for leak rate and compression and adhesion loads under a range of operating conditions. Other design factors such as part count, integration into the docking system tunnel, seal-on-seal mating, and cost were also considered leading to the selection of the multi-piece seal design for the new docking system. The results of this study can be used by designers of future docking systems and other habitable volumes to select the seal design best-suited for their particular application.

Dunlap, Patrick, H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce, M.

2012-01-01

87

CO2 Car Design Project with SolidWorks Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides information about using SolidWorks to design a CO2 car. The booklet is quite extensive and includes sections on what SolidWorks is, exploring and assembling the car, using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, visualization and rendering and more. It would be useful for classes learning SolidWorks software in this context. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-06-20

88

Engineering firm has designed refinery of the future  

SciTech Connect

Four years ago, JGC Corp. organized a project team called ``Refinery Engineering for the Future in the Twenty-First Century,`` or REF-21. The purpose of the team was to forecast the environment facing the refining industry in Japan, long-range energy supply and demand, population and economic growth, traffic system trends, and technology and science progress through the middle of the twenty-first century. The REF-21 team also was charged with developing a conceptual design for the future refinery. The team proposed four types of configurations for the so-called new-generation refineries. These schemes included some new technologies that it deemed commercializable by 2000. JGC evaluated these new-generation refinery schemes in terms of overall yields, energy efficiencies, emissions, and economics, as compared with existing refineries. JGC also has developed an amenity design program (ADP), and is applying it to a refinery in Japan to produce a new-concept operation center. Through amenity design, JGC intends to improve the operating environment for employees in order to enhance overall productivity.

Inomata, Makoto; Sato, Kyohei; Yamada, Yu; Sasaki, Hajime [JGC Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1997-04-28

89

Design of a Method for Disassembly Works on Recycle Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a new framework for designing disassembly methods. In recent years, environ- mental problems have become global issues. Recycling of used products or resources is recognized as a matter of significance since it may help reduce the risk of exhausting natural resources. Considering possible exhaustion of limited natural resources in the near future, reuse of products would gain

Toshiyuki Matsumoto; Yuko Yahata; Keisuke Shida

90

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Design, Clinical Application, and Future Challenges  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new technology that recently has been shown to improve survival and quality of life in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not surgical candidates [1]. The development and design of transcatheter valves has been ongoing for the past 20 years, and TAVR has now been approved by the FDA as a treatment for aortic stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates. In the United States, there are currently two transcatheter valves available: the Edwards Sapien Valve and the Medtronic CoreValve. While similar in some design elements, they also have characteristic differences that affect both the mechanism of delivery as well as performance in patients. This review aims to take a closer look at the development of this new technology, review the published clinical results, and look toward the future of transcatheter valve therapeutics and the challenges therein.

Forrest, John K.

2012-01-01

91

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: design, clinical application, and future challenges.  

PubMed

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new technology that recently has been shown to improve survival and quality of life in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not surgical candidates. The development and design of transcatheter valves has been ongoing for the past 20 years, and TAVR has now been approved by the FDA as a treatment for aortic stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates. In the United States, there are currently two transcatheter valves available: the Edwards Sapien Valve and the Medtronic CoreValve. While similar in some design elements, they also have characteristic differences that affect both the mechanism of delivery as well as performance in patients. This review aims to take a closer look at the development of this new technology, review the published clinical results, and look toward the future of transcatheter valve therapeutics and the challenges therein. PMID:22737052

Forrest, John K

2012-06-01

92

Contradictions in Portfolio Careers: Work Design and Client Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to explore "Portfolio work", an emerging form of flexible self-employment, which has been identified as significant but under-researched. This paper also seeks to explore the challenges and benefits of portfolio work from the perspective of individuals' experiences. Design/methodology/approach: The argument draws from a…

Fenwick, Tara J.

2006-01-01

93

Design. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students understand the importance of industrial designers and the stages of the industrial design process. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to…

Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

94

Contradictions in portfolio careers: work design and client relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to explore “Portfolio work”, an emerging form of flexible self-employment, which has been identified as significant but under-researched. This paper also seeks to explore the challenges and benefits of portfolio work from the perspective of individuals' experiences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The argument draws from a qualitative study involving 31 individuals practising portfolio work in two different

Tara J. Fenwick

2006-01-01

95

Usability Work in Professional Website Design: Insights from Practitioners’ Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study aims to gain insight into how usability practitioners work in professional web design. This is done\\u000a through interviews and a grounded analysis. The description reported here refers to the wider influence of the commercial\\u000a context on usability work. This brings to the fore such issues as the client’s influence on work, negotiation between clients\\u000a and practitioners, the

Dominic Furniss; Ann Blandford; Paul Curzon

96

Structural maturation and brain activity predict future working memory capacity during childhood development.  

PubMed

Human working memory capacity develops during childhood and is a strong predictor of future academic performance, in particular, achievements in mathematics and reading. Predicting working memory development is important for the early identification of children at risk for poor cognitive and academic development. Here we show that structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data explain variance in children's working memory capacity 2 years later, which was unique variance in addition to that predicted using cognitive tests. While current working memory capacity correlated with frontoparietal cortical activity, the future capacity could be inferred from structure and activity in basal ganglia and thalamus. This gives a novel insight into the neural mechanisms of childhood development and supports the idea that neuroimaging can have a unique role in predicting children's cognitive development. PMID:24478343

Ullman, Henrik; Almeida, Rita; Klingberg, Torkel

2014-01-29

97

Mexican American 7(th) Graders' Future Work and Family Plans: Associations with Cultural Experiences and Adjustment.  

PubMed

We describe Mexican American 7(th) graders' expectations for future work and family roles and investigate links between patterns of future expectations and adolescents' cultural experiences and adjustment. Adolescents participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Five unique patterns of adolescents' future expectations were identified (N = 246): Career Oriented, Independent, Family Oriented, Early, and Inconsistent. Career Oriented adolescents had the highest socioeconomic status and contact with the U.S. (e.g., generation status) whereas Family Oriented adolescents had the lowest. Cultural orientations, values, and involvement also varied across groups. For example, Career Oriented adolescents reported significantly higher familism values compared to Inconsistent adolescents. Clusters also differed on adjustment: Career Oriented and Family Oriented adolescents reported higher parental warmth and less risky behavior compared to Independent and Inconsistent adolescents. Findings underscore the multi-faceted nature of adolescents' future expectations and the diversity in cultural experiences among Mexican origin youth. PMID:23338812

Cansler, Emily; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Simpkins, Sandra D

2012-06-01

98

Working memory capacity does not always support future-oriented mind-wandering.  

PubMed

To evaluate the claim that mind-wandering demands executive resources, and more specifically that people with better executive control will have the resources to engage in more future-oriented thought than will those with poorer executive control, we reanalyzed thought-report data from 2 independently conducted studies (J. C. McVay & M. J. Kane, 2012, Why does working memory capacity predict variation in reading comprehension? On the influence of mind wandering and executive attention, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 141, pp. 302-320; N. Unsworth & B. D. McMillan, in press, Mind-wandering and reading comprehension: Examining the roles of working memory capacity, interest, motivation, and topic experience, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition) on working memory capacity (WMC), mind-wandering, and reading comprehension. Both of these individual-differences studies assessed large samples of university subjects' WMC abilities via multiple tasks and probed their immediate thought content while reading; in reporting any task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs), subjects indicated whether those thoughts were about the future or the past, if applicable. In contrast to previously published findings indicating that higher WMC subjects mind-wandered about the future more than did lower WMC subjects (B. Baird, J. Smallwood, & J. W. Schooler, 2011, Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering, Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 20, pp. 1604-1611), we found only weak to modest negative correlations between WMC and future-oriented TUTs. If anything, our findings suggest that higher WMC subjects' TUTs were somewhat less often future-oriented than were lower WMC subjects'. Either WMC is not truly associated with mind-wandering about the future, or we have identified some important boundary conditions around that association. PMID:23458550

McVay, Jennifer C; Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D; Kane, Michael J

2013-03-01

99

Design study on future accelerator magnets using largely keystoned cables  

SciTech Connect

In the near future, superconducting magnets with a small beam aperture will be required for high energy proton colliders. When coils are designed to be self arched over a small beam pipe, it simplifies the magnet construction both in the winding procedure and in the field quality control. Fabrication of these coils requires cables with large keystone angles. A new structure of brain-in-strands is devised to produce these cables. Two types of magnet coils are studied for use of these cables. The straight section of a magnet has been fabricated as a preliminary test. Strand positions have all been measured on the cross section of the coil. Magnetic field analysis is made on the basis of the position data of the strands.

Ishibashi, K.; Kamezawa, K.; Katase, A.; Terashima, A.; Sakakibara, Y.; Funahashi, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.

1989-03-01

100

Breast motion and sports brassiere design. Implications for future research.  

PubMed

Exercise usually results in a large displacement of the breasts, often leading to breast pain. Although breast pain is a common concern of exercising females, little research has been conducted in the area of breast pain. It has been suggested that a cause of breast pain is excessive breast motion. As the female breast does not contain strong intrinsic structural support, this breast motion is difficult to reduce. It is suggested that the primary anatomical support for the breast is the Cooper's ligaments; however, their true functional properties are unknown. Because of the lack of internal breast support it has been suggested that the skin covering the breast may also act as a support structure for the breast, but this has not been quantified. In an attempt to reduce breast motion, external breast supports (brassieres) have been developed. This article discusses components of current sports brassieres with implications for future research required to improve brassiere design and performance. PMID:10367331

Page, K A; Steele, J R

1999-04-01

101

Designing and managing healthy work for older workers.  

PubMed

Throughout many countries in the developed world, largely because of increasing life expectancy, the population is ageing. One of the economic implications of this demographic change is that workers may need to work longer and retire later than they have done in recent years. Much needs to be done to ensure that work remains a positive experience for workers throughout their career trajectories, and that it does not damage their health. The major contemporary challenges to health at work are those associated with the way work and work organizations are designed and managed. This is especially true for older workers. This paper focuses on the relationships between age and work performance, between age and work-related health, and between age and work-related stress. It concludes that there remains considerable scope for designing optimal work systems to harness the potential and protect the health of older workers. This important initiative will require a co-ordinated and multidisciplinary occupational health strategy. PMID:11198670

Griffiths, A

2000-09-01

102

[Favorable and effective instructional design (ID) for the future neurologist].  

PubMed

Recently, there have been many drastic changes in the educational technology for the medical fields in Japan. The educational style has shifted from the classical, which weighs knowledge, to the American, which weighs skill or performance. These trends would come from theoretical transition in pedagogics, bringing out the tremendous progress in the instructional designs, which effectively facilitated the information and communication technology (ICT). On the contrary, Neurology, as a pedagogic, is more characteristic both in the quality and the quantity of knowledge, rather than skill or performance. It has resulted in occurring many discrepancies among the educational parts of Neurology, that may be one of reasons for medical students or postgraduate trainees, having been growing up in full of ICT, had some against images of difficulty in learning this subject. So it might be more necessary for us that we should hurry to create the authentic context in the educational design of Neurology, then construct the stepwise off-the-job training system honestly along with it, on which we should aim to increase familiarity of learning neurological diseases or skills for these younger people, the future neurologists. And the important tip is that we can utilize "games", the products of ICT, without any hesitation. PMID:21921557

Doyu, Manabu

2010-11-01

103

Classroom Teachers Working with Software Designers: The Wazzu Widgets Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results of a year-long project involving K-12 teachers working with student software designers to create "learning objects"--small, computer-based tools (known as "widgets") for concepts identified by the teachers as "difficult to learn." This educational software development project was facilitated by members of Washington…

Brown, Abbie; Miller, Darcy

104

Considerations in the Design of the Work and Learning Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that educational disadvantage, underachievement, and dropping out are problems that originate with schools as well as students, this document describes the Work and Learning Center in Madison, Wisconsin, that was designed to meet the needs of high school dropouts. The first section gives disadvantaged students' perspectives on the school…

Stone, Calvin R.

105

Medical Resident Work Schedules: Design and Evaluation by Stimulation Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society has demanded reform in medical resident work scheduling; consequently, hospitals are implementing changes having organizational, clinical, financial, social, emotional, and educational consequences for physician training and patient care. We report the use of simulation modeling as an approach to evaluate the outcomes of alternative designs prior to implementation. Mobile resources such as physicians with complex job descriptions and patients

Robert S. Dittus; Robert W. Klein; David J. DeBrota; Mark A. Dame; John F. Fitzgerald

1996-01-01

106

Future-Time Perspective: Analysis of a Facet-Designed Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future-time perspective for adolescents and young adults is directed towards several objects and may extend into the far or the near future. Differences in this perspective can affect motivational qualities influencing investment in one's future. A future-time perspective questionnaire was developed along these lines using facet design. It contains an object facet with the elements school and professional career, personal

Marlies E. A. Stouthard; Thea T. D. Peetsma

1999-01-01

107

Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

Newman, Dava

2003-01-01

108

Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.  

PubMed

Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities. PMID:24739774

Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

2014-04-01

109

RELATIONS BETWEEN WORK GROUP CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTIVENESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DESIGNING EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

productivity, employee satisfaction, and manager judgments. Data were collected from 391 employees, 70 managers, and archival records for 80 work groups in a financial organization. Results showed that all three effectiveness criteria were predicted by the characteristics, and nearly all characteristics predicted some of the effectiveness criteria. The job design and process themes were slightly more predictive than the interdependence,

MICHAEL A. CAMPION; GINA J. MEDSKER; A. CATHERINE HIGGS

1993-01-01

110

Working stress design method for reinforced soil walls  

SciTech Connect

A method for the internal design of reinforced soil walls based on working stresses is developed and evaluated using measurements from five full-scale structures containing a range of reinforcement types. It is shown that, in general, the stiffer the reinforcement system and the higher the stresses induced during compaction, the higher are the tensile stresses that must be resisted by the reinforcements. Unique features of this method, compared to currently used reinforced soil wall design methods, are that it can be applied to all types of reinforcement systems, reinforcement and soil stiffness properties are considered, and backfill compaction stresses are taken explicitly into account. The method can be applied either analytically or using design charts. A design example is included.

Ehrlich, M. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Mitchell, J.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

111

Remember the future II: meta-analyses and functional overlap of working memory and delay discounting.  

PubMed

Previously we showed that working memory training decreased the discounting of future rewards in stimulant addicts without affecting a go/no-go task. While a relationship between delay discounting and working memory is consistent with other studies, the unique brain regions of plausible causality between these two abilities have yet to be determined. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed on foci from studies of delay discounting (DD = 449), working memory (WM = 452), finger tapping (finger tapping = 450), and response inhibition (RI = 450). Activity maps from relatively less (finger tapping) and more (RI) demanding executive tasks were contrasted with maps of DD and WM. Overlap analysis identified unique functional coincidence between DD and WM. The anterior cingulate cortex was engaged by all tasks. Finger tapping largely engaged motor-related brain areas. In addition to motor-related areas, RI engaged frontal brain regions. The right lateral prefrontal cortex was engaged by RI, DD, and WM and was contrasted out of overlap maps. A functional cluster in the posterior portion of the left lateral prefrontal cortex emerged as the largest location of unique overlap between DD and WM. A portion of the left lateral prefrontal cortex is a unique location where delay discounting and working memory processes overlap in the brain. This area, therefore, represents a therapeutic target for improving behaviors that rely on the integration of the recent past with the foreseeable future. PMID:24041504

Wesley, Michael J; Bickel, Warren K

2014-03-15

112

Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen. PMID:24391302

Brigden, Grania; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick P J; Balasegaram, Manica

2014-01-01

113

Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen.

Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick PJ; Balasegaram, Manica

2014-01-01

114

Working time design for industrial forest plantations in East Kalimantan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to clarify physiological loads under tropical conditions and to establish a proper working\\u000a time design for tropical forestry operations. The research was conducted in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 1995. In this research,\\u000a physiological loads and thermal conditions were investigated under various conditions,i.e., in forests and nurseries, on roads and at logged-over areas. Using the

Seca Gandaseca; Tetsuhiko Yoshimura; Toshiaki Yamamoto; Kouichi Kanzaki

1997-01-01

115

30 CFR 20.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...future changes in lamp design. 20.14 Section...future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the manufacturer...make any change in the design of the lamp, the manufacturer...and current recognition by a laboratory...

2013-07-01

116

30 CFR 22.11 - Instructions on handling future changes in design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...handling future changes in design. 22.11 Section...handling future changes in design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the manufacturer...make any changes in the design, the manufacturer should...and current recognition by a laboratory...

2013-07-01

117

30 CFR 23.14 - Instructions for handling future changes in design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...handling future changes in design. 23.14 Section...handling future changes in design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the manufacturer...making any changes in the design he shall obtain MSHA's...and current recognition by a laboratory...

2013-07-01

118

30 CFR 19.13 - Instructions for handling future changes in lamp design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...future changes in lamp design. 19.13 Section...future changes in lamp design. All approvals are granted with the understanding that the manufacturer...make any change in the design of the lamp, he should...and current recognition by a laboratory...

2013-07-01

119

Work-Based Learning in the UK: Scenarios for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aims to consider scenarios created by work-based learning (WBL) providers in the Tees Valley in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The context of WBL is examined in relation to the notion of the skills gap. The method of scenario development is described. Findings: A key task of WBL is to raise the skills levels of young people. WBL…

Mohamud, Mohamed; Jennings, Chris; Rix, Mike; Gold, Jeff

2006-01-01

120

Spatial Patterns and Design Policies for Future American Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes plans for future urban development which take into account energy needs, mass transportation, technological innovations, high density settlement along the rapid transit spine, and rational decision making. (Author/DB)

Dutt, Ashok K.; Costa, Frank J.

1977-01-01

121

Models of Change: The Future of Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses design and design education in the context of four major social and environmental concerns identified by Bruce Archer in 1973: overpopulation; pollution; depletion of natural resources; control. It argues for the social and economic importance of design education in primary and secondary schools. It identifies "designerly

Baynes, Ken; Baynes, Brochocka

2010-01-01

122

Design options for improving protective gloves for industrial assembly work.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of wearing two new designs of cotton glove on several hand performance capabilities and compared them against the effects of barehanded, single-layered and double cotton glove conditions when working with hand tools (screwdriver and pliers). The new glove designs were based on the findings of subjective hand discomfort assessments for this type of work and aimed to match the glove thickness to the localised pressure and sensitivity in different areas of the hand as well as to provide adequate dexterity for fine manipulative tasks. The results showed that the first prototype glove and the barehanded condition were comparable and provided better dexterity and higher handgrip strength than double thickness gloves. The results support the hypothesis that selective thickness in different areas of the hand could be applied by glove manufacturers to improve the glove design, so that it can protect the hands from the environment and at the same time allow optimal hand performance capabilities. PMID:24636726

Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

2014-07-01

123

Bridge Design Project: Using SolidWorks to design, test and build structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides information about using SolidWorks to design bridges in the classroom. These materials would be useful for any class learning about bridge design, as they cover the basics such as trusses, beams, loads, stress, yield strength and other concepts which are essential to understanding what makes a sound bridge. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-06-24

124

Robonaut: a robot designed to work with humans in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Robotics Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing robotic systems to assist astronauts in space. One such system, Robonaut, is a humanoid robot with the dexterity approaching that of a suited astronaut. Robonaut currently has two dexterous arms and hands, a three degree-of-freedom articulating waist, and a two degree-of-freedom neck used as a camera and sensor platform. In contrast to other space manipulator systems, Robonaut is designed to work within existing corridors and use the same tools as space walking astronauts. Robonaut is envisioned as working with astronauts, both autonomously and by teleoperation, performing a variety of tasks including, routine maintenance, setting up and breaking down worksites, assisting crew members while outside of spacecraft, and serving in a rapid response capacity.

Bluethmann, William; Ambrose, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Askew, Scott; Huber, Eric; Goza, Michael; Rehnmark, Fredrik; Lovchik, Chris; Magruder, Darby

2003-01-01

125

Viking dynamics experience with application to future payload design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and test techniques are discussed. Areas in which hindsight indicated erroneous, redundant, or unnecessarily severe design and test specifications are identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in the dynamic design and criteria philosophy, aimed at reducing costs for payloads.

Barrett, S.; Rader, W. P.; Payne, K. R.

1978-01-01

126

Audio gunshot detection and localization systems: History, basic design, and future possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, law enforcement organizations have increasingly utilized audio detection and localization systems to identify potential gunshot incidents and to respond accordingly. These systems have grown from simple microphone configurations used to estimate location into complex arrays that seem to pinpoint gunfire to within mere feet of its actual occurrence. Such technology comes from a long and dynamic history of developing equipment dating back to the First World War. Additionally, though basic designs require little in terms of programming or engineering experience, the mere presence of this tool invokes a firestorm of debate amongst economists, law enforcement groups, and the general public, which leads to questions about future possibilities for its use. The following pages will retell the history of these systems from theoretical conception to current capabilities. This work will also dissect these systems to reveal fundamental elements of their inner workings, in order to build a basic demonstrative system. Finally, this work will discuss some legal and moral points of dissension, and will explore these systems’ roles in society now and in the future, in additional applications as well.

Graves, Jordan R.

127

The 21st century substation design: Vision of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the 21st century substation design requirements, which should meet the following criteria: improved reliability, cost, interoperability, reconfigurability, security, controllability and flexibility. Such criteria require designs that use new methodologies quite different from the existing philosophy. The design strategies are focused on reducing cost while maintaining the performance, or maintaining cost while improving performance. Based on the considerations

Mladen Kezunovic; Yufan Guan; Chenyan Guo; Mohsen Ghavami

2010-01-01

128

Keynote lecture: a perspective on the future of design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersonic vehicles are, by necessity, highly integrated flying machines. They also have inherently high performance and economic uncertainties. Combined, these characteristics render conventional practices inadequate for designing hypersonic vehicles. As advancing technology enables more sophisticated design tools, and computer speed continues to grow exponentially, systems will be designed in an ever more integrated fashion to wring the most out of

Kevin Bowcutt

2003-01-01

129

Photovoltaic Concentrators: Performance and Reliability Data and Future Design Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will summarize the status and discuss likely future directions of photovoltaic concentrator technology. A current commercial Si cell module has a peak efficiency of 15.5%, and 17% has been reached for an experimental module. Advanced cells and ...

M. W. Edenburn E. C. Boes

1984-01-01

130

Interactive design and analysis of future large spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive computer aided design program used to perform systems level design and analysis of large spacecraft concepts is presented. Emphasis is on rapid design, analysis of integrated spacecraft, and automatic spacecraft modeling for lattice structures. Capabilities and performance of multidiscipline applications modules, the executive and data management software, and graphics display features are reviewed. A single user at an interactive terminal create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of Earth orbiting spacecraft with relative ease. Data generated in the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of an Earth-orbiting large diameter antenna satellite are used to illustrate current capabilities. Computer run time statistics for the individual modules quantify the speed at which modeling, analysis, and design evaluation of integrated spacecraft concepts is accomplished in a user interactive computing environment.

Garrett, L. B.

1981-01-01

131

The Robonaut 2 Hand - Designed to do Work with Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second generation Robonaut hand has many advantages over its predecessor. This mechatronic device is more dexterous and has improved force control and sensing giving it the capability to grasp and actuate a wider range of tools. It can achieve higher peak forces at higher speeds than the original. Developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA, the hand is designed to more closely approximate a human hand. Having a more anthropomorphic design allows the hand to attain a larger set of useful grasps for working with human interfaces. Key to the hand s improved performance is the use of lower friction drive elements and a redistribution of components from the hand to the forearm, permitting more sensing in the fingers and palm where it is most important. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the hand. Lessons learned during the development and initial operations along with planned refinements to make it more effective are presented.

Bridgwater, L. B.; Ihrke, C. A.; Diftler, M. A.; Abdallah, M. E.; Radford, N. A.; Rogers, J. M.; Yayathi, S.; Askew, R. S.; Linn, D. M.

2011-01-01

132

Engineering firm has designed refinery of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four years ago, JGC Corp. organized a project team called ``Refinery Engineering for the Future in the Twenty-First Century,`` or REF-21. The purpose of the team was to forecast the environment facing the refining industry in Japan, long-range energy supply and demand, population and economic growth, traffic system trends, and technology and science progress through the middle of the twenty-first

Makoto Inomata; Kyohei Sato; Yu Yamada; Hajime Sasaki

1997-01-01

133

After its first half-century, NASA celebrates and considers the future of its work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two halves of NASA merge at half-centuryhttp://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26948872/NASA at 50: Johnson Space Center being put to the testhttp://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/headline/metro/6028850.html50 Years in Space: NASA's Roadmap to 2058http://www.space.com/news/081001-nasa50-road-ahead.htmlThe Hubble Space Telescope [Real Player, Macromedia Flash Player]http://hubble.nasa.gov/NASA Human Space Flight [Macromedia Flash Player, pdf]http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/home/index.htmlFor fifty years, the work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has fascinated children and adults both here in the United States and around the world. NASA officially opened its doors for business on October 1, 1958 and since that time they have sponsored hundreds of research missions that made household names of people like Alan Shepard, John Glenn, Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin. In recent years, the agency has weathered a number of criticisms, including some pointed critiques of the space shuttle program. One of the current programs that NASA is working on involves bringing robotic and human exploration together, rather than keeping them separated, which has been the practice for most of their history. Currently, NASA has a number of long-range plans to fix the Hubble Space Telescope, finish the international space station, and also return to the moon. Of course, one long-standing question that remains unanswered (and also quite controversial) is whether or not involving humans in spaceflight at all is worth the risk and expense. In a recent interview, physicist Robert Park remarked that manned spaceflight is an "old-fashioned way" to do things. In response, NASA administrator Michael Griffin noted, "Human spaceflight is about expanding the range of human action. And I think that matters." The first link will take users to a piece from this Wednesday's Voice of America that discusses both the past accomplishments of NASA and their future challenges. The second link will whisk users away to a thoughtful piece by MSNBC's Alan Boyle on NASA's attempts to bring together the work of both robots and humans for future ventures and missions. The third link will take visitors to an article from this Monday's Houston Chronicle on the future of the Johnson Space Center, which is more commonly known to millions around the world as "Mission Control". Moving on, the fourth link leads to a fine piece from aerospace consultant Jim Banke on what can be expected from NASA in their next fifty years. The fifth link leads to the homepage of the Hubble Space Telescope. Here visitors can read about this tremendous piece of technology, view images, and also learn about its future missions. Finally, the last link leads to NASA's Human Space Flight website, where visitors can learn about future voyages to the moon and Mars.

Grinnell, Max

134

Schools for the Future: Designs for Learning Communities. Building Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin provides guidance on school building design in Britain for the 21st century, including issues such as increased use of information and communication technology, opening up the school to the wider community, more flexible learning patterns, inclusion of special educational needs pupils in mainstream schools, sustainability, and design

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

135

The Future of Management as Design: A Thought Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Management practices and education are presently in a stage of reappraisal and a growing number of scholars and experts are suggesting that managers should be taught and adopt the approach and methodologies of designers. The purpose of this paper is to imagine the impact of this move and to try and foresee whether "management as design"…

Bouchard, Veronique; del Forno, Leon

2012-01-01

136

School Libraries: A Design Recipe for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses design elements of a 21st century school library, including space, books and shelving, seats, tables, technology (computers, scanners, projectors), building materials (wood, metal, plastic, paint, glass, fibers), and light and color. A sidebar describes the L!BRARY initiative to creatively design, professionally staff, and…

Myerberg, Henry

2002-01-01

137

COMPUTER-AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN—PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of computers in architectural design had its infancy in the early 1960's, however, its potential has and is taking longer to realise than was first thought. New approaches to design coupled with dramatic reductions in the price of hardware have increased the range and applicability of computers in architecture. Today we are witnessing the introduction of computer-aided drafting

John S. Gero

1983-01-01

138

Intervening to reduce the future burden of occupational cancer in britain: what could work?  

PubMed

In Britain, 14 carcinogenic agents and occupational circumstances currently account for 86% of estimated occupation attributable cancer. The future burden associated with these carcinogens has been forecast, using attributable fractions for forecast scenarios representing patterns of past and predicted future exposure, and exposure levels representing the introduction of new occupational exposure limits, increased levels of compliance with these limits and other reductions in worker exposure. Without intervention, occupational attributable cancers are forecast to remain at more than 10,000 by 2060. With modest intervention over 2,600, or with stricter interventions more than 8,200 cancers could be avoided by 2060 although because of long latency no impact will be seen until at least 10 years after intervention. Effective interventions assessed in this study include reducing workplace exposure limits and improving compliance with these limits. Cancers associated with asbestos, diesel engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, work as a painter, radon, and solar radiation are forecast to continue, with construction remaining the prime industry of concern. Although exposure levels to the established carcinogens are falling, workers are remaining exposed at low levels at which there is still a cancer risk, although the aging population also contributes to rising cancer numbers, These forecasts can be used to assess the relative costs to society of different occupational carcinogenic agents, and the relative merits and savings associated with alternative intervention strategies. The methods are adaptable for different data circumstances, other types of interventions and could be extended to environmental carcinogens and other chronic diseases. PMID:22961776

Hutchings, Sally; Cherrie, John W; Van Tongeren, Martie; Rushton, Lesley

2012-10-01

139

Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

2013-01-01

140

Career choice and future design of dental students in China and Japan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare career choice and future plans of dental students in China and Japan. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire. Significant differences were detected for eight items between the two countries. Regarding motivation towards career choice, 41% of Japanese students indicated positive motives related to helping others, achieving self-worth and health-care related interests, whereas Chinese students indicated that their choice was mainly for financial and prestige reasons, and for 32% of them, dentistry was a passive choice. More Chinese dental students (74%) wanted further education compared with Japanese students (22%). The majority of Japanese students (56.9%) planned to work as general dentists. Conversely, Chinese students were more likely to specialise (50%). More than 50% of Japanese students wanted to work in dental offices, but the majority of Chinese students (65%) preferred university hospital. We found it is strange that nearly one-fourth of the Chinese students did not want to be a clinical dentist mainly because of the poor health-care environment. This study provides a description of the perspectives of Japanese and Chinese dental students and enables a better understanding of career choices and future course design issues. PMID:24571728

Yan, Xu; Zhang, Xinwen; Jinno, Yohei; Tachibana, Keishu; Gao, Jie; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ai, Hongjun; Shen, Yong

2014-04-01

141

DESIGN OF SMALL AUTOMATION WORK CELL SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of automation systems into many of the facilities dealing with the production, use and disposition of nuclear materials has been an ongoing objective. Many previous attempts have been made, using a variety of monolithic and, in some cases, modular technologies. Many of these attempts were less than successful, owing to the difficulty of the problem, the lack of maturity of the technology, and over optimism about the capabilities of a particular system. Consequently, it is not surprising that suggestions that automation can reduce worker Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) levels are often met with skepticism and caution. The development of effective demonstrations of these technologies is of vital importance if automation is to become an acceptable option for nuclear material processing environments. The University of Texas Robotics Research Group (UTRRG) has been pursuing the development of technologies to support modular small automation systems (each of less than 5 degrees-of-freedom) and the design of those systems for more than two decades. Properly designed and implemented, these technologies have a potential to reduce the worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful development of systems for these applications requires the development of technologies that meet the requirements of the applications. These application requirements form a general set of rules that applicable technologies and approaches need to adhere to, but in and of themselves are generally insufficient for the design of a specific automation system. For the design of an appropriate system, the associated task specifications and relationships need to be defined. These task specifications also provide a means by which appropriate technology demonstrations can be defined. Based on the requirements and specifications of the operations of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) pilot line at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which are considered to be representative of nuclear material handling glove box operations, the UTRRG has developed three task demonstration concepts to evaluate modular small automation systems. These demonstrations, utilizing 2 to 3 degree-of-freedom systems, include container movement, material transfer via pouring, and container loading. Based on an analysis of the ARIES pilot line specifications, these three simple demonstrations are considered to be similar to approximately 50% of the tasks in the ARIES pilot line. Since these task demonstrations functionally represent basic tasks, they are representative of the current potential of modular small automation technology to a wide spectrum of hazardous applications extending beyond the ARIES pilot line. The selection of these three demonstrations, their design and their effectiveness in demonstrating the potential of modular small automation technology are discussed.

C. TURNER; J. PEHL; ET AL

2000-12-01

142

Designing the STS-134 Re-Rendezvous: A Preparation for Future Crewed Rendezvous Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation to provide the capability for the Orion spacecraft, also known as the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), to rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft, a new suite of relative navigation sensors are in development and were tested on one of the final Space Shuttle missions to ISS. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) commissioned a flight test of prototypes of the Orion relative navigation sensors on STS-134, in order to test their performance in the space environment during the nominal rendezvous and docking, as well as a re-rendezvous dedicated to testing the prototype sensors following the undocking of the Space Shuttle orbiter at the end of the mission. Unlike the rendezvous and docking at the beginning of the mission, the re-rendezvous profile replicates the newly designed Orion coelliptic approach trajectory, something never before attempted with the shuttle orbiter. Therefore, there were a number of new parameters that needed to be conceived of, designed, and tested for this rerendezvous to make the flight test successful. Additionally, all of this work had to be integrated with the normal operations of the ISS and shuttle and had to conform to the constraints of the mission and vehicles. The result of this work is a separation and rerendezvous trajectory design that would not only prove the design of the relative navigation sensors for the Orion vehicle, but also would serve as a proof of concept for the Orion rendezvous trajectory itself. This document presents the analysis and decision making process involved in attaining the final STS-134 re-rendezvous design.

Stuit, Timothy D.

2011-01-01

143

Designer colloids in structured food for the future.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the understanding of colloids has enabled the design of food products that are healthier and tastier, in line with consumer expectations.?Specifically, emulsion design and hydrocolloid structuring?can be used to address the issue of fat reduction in foods by allowing?the production of reduced fat products that provide similar sensory?attributes. Additionally, various techniques for encapsulating molecules, such as flavour, nutraceuticals or drugs, are?now being developed. The application of such techniques in food?products can improve micronutrient bioavailability by means of?targeted and controlled delivery, increasing the nutritional value.?Colloidal structures can also be designed to enhance consumer?experience, mimic fat or control satiety. Such novel improvements, as?well as their potential translation into commercial food products, are highlighted?in this paper, which focuses primarily on the areas of emulsion technologies and?hydrocolloids. PMID:23716173

Douaire, Maelle; Norton, Ian T

2013-10-01

144

Designing a methodology for future air travel scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all-subsonic future fleet. The methodology, procedures, and recommendations for the development of future HSCT and the subsonic fleet scenarios used for this evaluation are discussed.

Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

1992-01-01

145

'Create the future': an environment for excellence in teaching future-oriented Industrial Design Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the University of Twente started a new course on Industrial Design Engineering. This paper describes the insights that have been employed in developing the curriculum, and in developing the environment in which the educational activities are facilitated. The University of Twente has a broad experience with project-oriented education [1], and because one of the goals of the curriculum

A. O. Eger; D. Lutters; Houten van F. J. A. M

2004-01-01

146

Distributed algorithmic mechanism design: recent results and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Algorithmic Mechanism Design (DAMD) combines theoretical computer science's traditional focus on computational tractability with its more recent interest in incentive compatibility and distributed computing. The Internet's decentralized nature, in which distributed computation and autonomous agents prevail, makes DAMD a very natural approach for many Internet problems. This paper first outlines the basics of DAMD and then reviews previous DAMD

Joan Feigenbaum; Scott Shenker

2002-01-01

147

Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

2011-01-01

148

Current Status and Future Works of Neutron Scattering Laboratory at BATAN in Serpong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current status of neutron beam instruments using neutrons produced by the Multi Purpose Research Reactor-30MWth (MPR 30, RSG GA Siwabessy) located in Serpong is presented. Description of the reactor as the neutron source is mentioned briefly. There are six neutron beam tubes coming from the beryllium reflector surrounding half of the reactor core providing neutrons in the experimental hall of the reactor (XHR). Four of them are dedicated to R&D in materials science using neutron scattering techniques. Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF), Triple Axis Spectrometer (TAS) and Residual Stress Measurement (RSM) Diffractometer are installed respectively at beam tubes S2, S4 and S6. The largest neutron beam tube (S5) is exploited to accommodate two neutron guide tubes that transfer the neutrons to a neighbouring building called neutron guide hall (NGH). There are three other neutron beam instruments installed in this building, namely Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) Spectrometer (SMARTer), High Resolution SANS (HRSANS) Spectrometer and High Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD). In the XHR, a Four Circle and Texture Diffractometer (FCD/TD) is attached to one of the neutron guide tubes. These seven instruments were installed to utilize the neutrons for materials science research, and recently the RSM diffractometer has shown its capabilities in identifying different amount of stress left due to different treatments of welding in fuel cladding, while the SANS spectrometer is now gaining capabilities in identifying different sizes and shapes of macromolecules in polymers as well as investigations of magnetic samples. In the mean time, non-destructive tests using the NRF is gathering more confidence from some latest real time measurements eventhough there are still some shortcomings in the components and their alignments. Future works including improvement of each facility and its components, even replacement of some parts are necessary and have to be carried out carefully. A plan for developing a neutron reflectometer at one of the neutron guide in the Neutron Guide Hall is also part of the near future activities

Ikram, A.

2008-03-01

149

Interim measure work plan/design for Agra, Kansas.  

SciTech Connect

This Interim Measure Work Plan/Design (IMWP/D) is supplemental to the Argonne document Interim Measure Conceptual Design for Remediation of Source Area Contamination at Agra, Kansas. The IMWP/D includes information required by Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Policy BER-RS-029, Policy and Scope of Work for Interim Measures. Specific to Policy BER-RS-029 is the requirement for several documents that will ensure that an adequate amount and type of data are collected for implementation of the IMWP/D and that data quality and safe conditions are prevailed. Such information is included in the IMWP/D as follows: Appendix A: Data Acquisition Plan--Design Testing Requirements; Appendix B: Basis of Design; Appendix C: Permits; Appendix D: Quality Assurance Project Plan; Appendix E: Health and Safety Plan; and Appendix F: Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Schedule. The proposed remedial technology for this project is the installation of five large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) in a source area that has been identified on the property formerly used for grain storage by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The goal of the LDB technology is the remediation of the source area by removal of mass quantities of contaminated soil from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. Secondary to the soil remediation is the remediation of groundwater at and adjacent to the source areas. The LDB technology serves the following purposes: (1) The physical removal of contaminated soil from the identified source area. (2) Replacement of less permeable native materials (silty clay, clayey silt, and silty sand) with more permeable materials to facilitate the capture of volatilized contaminants in the vertical borehole. (3) Removal of contaminants volatilized by air sparging (AS) and extracted from the vadose zone by soil vapor extraction (SVE). (4) Volatilization of contaminants from portions of the affected aquifer that can be accessed from the former CCC/USDA property. The primary objective of the proposed removal action is removal of mass quantities of carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area, to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. This objective will be the basis for evaluating system performance. The scope of action outlined in the IMWP/D is limited to the five treatment zones defined by the LDB/SVE/AS locations. Surrounding soils and groundwater will benefit; however, remedial benefits to groundwater will be limited to the area of influence associated with the five treatment zones. While treatment should be aggressive in the vicinity of the LDB locations, the heterogeneity, clay content, and low permeability of the soils will place inherent limits on the area of influence.

LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

2008-11-18

150

FRACSAT: Automated design synthesis for future space architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the algorithmic basis and development of FRACSAT (FRACtionated Spacecraft Architecture Toolkit), a new approach to conceptual design, cost-benefit analysis, and detailed trade studies for space systems. It provides an automated capability for exploration of candidate spacecraft architectures, leading users to near-optimal solutions with respect to user-defined requirements, risks, and program uncertainties. FRACSAT utilizes a sophisticated planning algorithm (PlanVisioner) to perform a quasi-exhaustive search for candidate architectures, constructing candidates from an extensible model-based representation of space system components and functions. These candidates are then evaluated with emphasis on the business case, computing the expected design utility and system costs as well as risk, presenting the user with a greatly reduced selection of candidates. The user may further refine the search according to cost or benefit uncertainty, adaptability, or other performance metrics as needed.

Mackey, R.; Uckun, S.; Do, Minh; Shah, J.

151

Integrating Motivational, Social, and Contextual Work Design Features: A Meta-Analytic Summary and Theoretical Extension of the Work Design Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors developed and meta-analytically examined hypotheses designed to test and extend work design theory by integrating motivational, social, and work context characteristics. Results from a summary of 259 studies and 219,625 participants showed that 14 work characteristics explained, on average, 43% of the variance in the 19 worker attitudes and behaviors examined. For example, motivational characteristics explained 25% of

Stephen E. Humphrey; Jennifer D. Nahrgang; Frederick P. Morgeson

2007-01-01

152

A Full Course Banquet: Designing a Single Group Work Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first course in group work was taught in 1923 and was followed by a growing recognition in social work education of the importance of preparing students to work with groups. Unfortunately by the end of the 1970s group work located within a generalist curriculum had all but disappeared. This article presents a single course elective that…

Lazar, Ana

2007-01-01

153

Legally compatible design of digital dactyloscopy in future surveillance scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovation in multimedia systems impacts on our society. For example surveillance camera systems combine video and audio information. Currently a new sensor for capturing fingerprint traces is being researched. It combines greyscale images to determine the intensity of the image signal, on one hand, and topographic information to determine fingerprint texture on a variety of surface materials, on the other. This research proposes new application areas which will be analyzed from a technical-legal view point. It assesses how technology design can promote legal criteria of German and European privacy and data protection. For this we focus on one technology goal as an example.

Pocs, Matthias; Schott, Maik; Hildebrandt, Mario

2012-05-01

154

An advanced SAR design for future land missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple swath C-band SAR with swath width greater than 350 km is proposed. Swaths are contiguous across the coverage region and it is possible to realise coverage of 20 to 45 deg by the use of two swaths. Operation may be on either or both of these swaths. Platform resource limitations restrict the overall performance envelope and hence it is possible to select the particular mode of operation to optimize against the selected performance criteria. Means of extending the design to provide dual frequency operation are discussed.

Sawyer, F. G.; Brown, M. A.

1986-08-01

155

IMP J summary technical report. [guidance for design and fabrication of future spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IMP J Summary Technical Report provides technical and administrative guidance for design, fabrication, integration, testing, and prelaunch activity on future spacecraft programs. General problems encountered on the IMP J program are described, and a recommendation is offered for these problems on future programs.

1973-01-01

156

A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

2009-01-01

157

Student Engagement and Its Relation to Quality Work Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to find out which instructional activities students find most engaging, and what design qualities, including technology, are included in those activities. Local middle school teachers designed lessons using the design qualities in Philip Schlechty's WOW framework (2002). Students assessed their own level of engagement in those lessons, and observers took notes of lessons and

Elizabeth R. Bowen; Jane Zahner; Linda Starnes; Kathy Rohacek

158

Designing future underwater vehicles: principles and mechanisms of the weakly electric fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future underwater vehicles will be increasingly called upon to work in cluttered environments and to interact with their surroundings. These vehicles will need sensors that work efficiently at short range and be highly maneuverable at low speed. To obtain insights into principles and mechanisms of low-speed operation in cluttered environments, we examine a fish that excels in this regime, the

Malcolm A. MacIver; Ebraheem Fontaine; Joel W. Burdick

2004-01-01

159

Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

2003-01-29

160

Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

2009-01-01

161

Design of a modular digital computer system, DRL 4. [for meeting future requirements of spaceborne computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design is reported of an advanced modular computer system designated the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System, which anticipates requirements for higher computing capacity and reliability for future spaceborne computers. Subjects discussed include: an overview of the architecture, mission analysis, synchronous and nonsynchronous scheduling control, reliability, and data transmission.

1972-01-01

162

Designing and Assessing Productive Group Work in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A history teacher examines what is successful and not successful in group work in his high school classroom and gives concrete suggestions for improving group practice. Topics discussed include preparing students for group work, supporting collaboration, inviting critical analysis, and assessing both group and individual performance. (Contains 2…

Vaca, Javier; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

2011-01-01

163

Understanding the What Works Clearinghouse Standards for Regression Discontinuity Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regression discontinuity designs (RDDs) are considered to be one of the strongest nonexperimental designs available for the purpose of identifying the effects of an intervention. RDD can be used in situations in which assignment to a treatment group is based on a cutoff value on a continuous assignment variable. The impact of the intervention is…

Deke, John; Constantine, Jill

2011-01-01

164

Motivational Design. IDD&E Working Paper No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews four categories of models of motivational design, which is an aspect of instructional design that refers specifically to strategies, principles, and processes for making instruction appealing. Grounded in psychological theories of human behavior, the models in the first three categories discussed are based on person-centered…

Keller, John M.

165

PRIVACY IN THE WORK PLACE: THE IMPACT OF BUILDING DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of building design on privacy in two office environments at Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Inc., U.S.A. The findings offer a range of design resources that Facility Management at Gulfstream can utilize to manage privacy for their office workers. In a broader context, the theoretical considerations presented in this study, though still in their formative stage, offer

Virginia W. Kupritz

1998-01-01

166

Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

2011-01-01

167

Working  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new special section in the New York Times, Working, features articles on the American worker. For example, the current issue contains stories on the contrast between the recent trend in layoffs and employers's complaints that they are unable to fill job openings; what is "retaining and motivating...the American worker"; and the shortage of qualified legal talent. The site also offers a great deal of career and job advice such as an article on non-traditional jobs, job forecasts, and office design. Interviews include an audio piece with Robert B. Reich, the former US Secretary of Labor. And of course, what would a newspaper section on work be without a link to the Dilbert comic strip?

168

Futurity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Futurity website features "the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada and Australia." Currently, some of the participating universities include Boston University, Duke University, McGill University, and the University of Sheffield. Visitors to the homepage will note that there are four areas on the site: Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Technology, and Society & Culture. Recently profiled news items include a compelling new discovery from New York University about the reality of a tractor beam that can pull microscopic particles. The Society & Culture section is a real find, as it contains engaging pieces like "Is zero tolerance too hard on students?" and "Big banks loom over finance 'ecosystem'." Also, visitors can browse news items by school or by topic area. Finally, the Week's Most Discussed area is a great way to learn about compelling new stories from around the globe.

169

Using LogicWorks to Teach Logic Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a computer simulation to teach logic design using a Macintosh computer which allows circuits to be built piece by piece. Describes features of the simulation and presents several schematics drawn by the software. (MVL)

Spoerri, Peter

1988-01-01

170

An Overview of the Total Lightning Jump Algorithm: Past, Present and Future Work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid increases in total lightning prior to the onset of severe and hazardous weather have been observed for several decades. These rapid increases are known as lightning jumps and can precede the occurrence of severe weather by tens of minutes. Over the past decade, a significant effort has been made to quantify lightning jump behavior in relation to its utility as a predictor of severe and hazardous weather. Based on a study of 34 thunderstorms that occurred in the Tennessee Valley, early work conducted in our group at Huntsville determined that it was indeed possible to create a reasonable operational lightning jump algorithm (LJA) based on a statistical framework relying on the variance behavior of the lightning trending signal. We the expanded this framework and tested several variance-related LJA configurations on a much larger sample of 87 severe and non severe thunderstorms. This study determined that a configuration named the "2(sigma)" algorithm had the most promise in development of the operational LJA with a probability of detection (POD) of 87%, a false alarm rate (FAR) of 33%, a Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of 0.75. The 2(sigma) algorithm was then tested on an even larger sample of 711 thunderstorms of all types from four regions of the country where total lightning measurement capability existed. The result was very encouraging.Despite the larger number of storms and the inclusion of different regions of the country, the POD remained high (79%), the FAR was low (36%) and HSS was solid (0.71). Average lead time from jump to severe weather occurrence was 20.65 minutes, with a standard deviation of +/- 15 minutes. Also, trends in total lightning were compared to cloud to ground (CG) lightning trends, and it was determined that total lightning trends had a higher POD (79% vs 66%), lower FAR (36% vs 54 %) and a better HSS (0.71 vs 0.55). From the 711-storm case study it was determined that a majority of missed events were due to severe weather producing thunderstorms in low flashing environments. The latest efforts have been geared toward examining these low flashing storms in order to adjust the algorithm for such storms, thus enhancing the capability of the LJA. Future work will test the algorithm in real time using current satellite and radar based cell tracking methods, as well as, comparing total lightning jump occurrence to both satellite based and ground base observations of thunderstorms to create correlations between lightning jumps and the observed structures within thunderstorms. Finally this algorithm will need to be tested using Geostationary Lightning Mapper proxy data to transition the algorithm from VHF ground based lightning measurements to lower frequency space-based lightning measurements.

Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Deierling, Wiebke; Kessinger, Cathy

2011-01-01

171

New Challenges for Designers of Fault Tolerant Embedded Systems Based on Future Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major challenges that will be faced by designers of embedded systems based on future technologies are discussed. While\\u000a providing many benefits, those technologies bring along several problems, such as higher defect rates, higher sensitivity\\u000a to radiation induced transient faults, and the possibility of occurrence of multiple simultaneous faults and long duration\\u000a transients. The main characteristics of future technologies are

Luigi Carro; Carlos Arthur Lang Lisbôa

2009-01-01

172

Working in the Future. The Thinkahead Project Forum #3 (San Francisco, California, September 21, 1989). FIERI Forum Transcripts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains an edited transcript of a forum held as part of a research project called Thinkahead, which was designed to serve as a catalyst for developing educational models that will prepare people to think more critically and creatively in the world of the future. The forum participants, all business people concerned about the ways in…

Whitman Inst., San Francisco, CA.

173

Work-Family Attitudes and Beliefs: Implications for Future Air Force Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our surroundings are rich with environmental and associated paradigm shifts that influence work and family. There are many potential consequences of these shifts. These changes impact the very nucleus of work and family, and often result in conflict with ...

S. K. Johnson

2001-01-01

174

Participatory Design With Seniors: Design of Future Services and Iterative Refinements of Interactive eHealth Services for Old Citizens  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing social isolation among the elderly today. This will be an even larger issue in the future with growing numbers of elderly and less resources, for example, in terms of economy and staff. Loneliness and social isolation can, however, be addressed in several ways using different interactive eHealth services. Objective This case study investigated novel eHealth services for the elderly, and their usage of a social interactive device designed especially for them. Methods In this work, we used an innovative mobile communication device connected to the television (TV), which worked as a remotely controlled large interactive screen. The device was tested by 8 volunteers who visited a senior center. They were between 65 and 80 years of age and lived in their own homes. Throughout the 1.5 year-long project, 7 design workshops were held with the seniors and the staff at the center. During these workshops, demands and preferences regarding existing and new services were gathered. At the end of the project the participants’ experience of the device and of the services was elaborated in 3 workshops to get ideas for improved or new meaningful services. During the data analyses and development process, what seniors thought would be useful in relation to what was feasible was prioritized by the development company. Results Regarding daily usage, the seniors reported that they mainly used the service for receiving information from the senior center and for communication with other participants in the group or with younger relatives. They also read information about events at the senior center and they liked to perform a weekly sent out workout exercise. Further, they played games such as Memory and Sudoku using the device. The service development focused on three categories of services: cognitive activities, social activities, and physical activities. A cognitive activity service that would be meaningful to develop was a game for practicing working memory. In the social activities category, the seniors wanted different quizzes and multi-player games. For physical activities, the seniors desired more workout exercises and suggestions for guided walking routes. A new category, “information and news”, was suggested since they lacked services like senior-customized global and local news. Conclusions This study showed the importance of input from a group of seniors when designing new services for elderly citizens. Besides input to interactive eHealth service development for seniors, this study showed the importance of a social context around such work. The seniors were very engaged throughout the project and workshops were frequently visited and the seniors became friends. The high amount of input from the seniors could be explained in terms of social inclusion; they belonged to a group and each member was considered important for the work. The friendly workshop atmosphere facilitated new ideas and redesign of the services.

2013-01-01

175

Optimal Trajectory Correction Maneuver Design Using the B-Plane Targeting Method for Future Korean Mars Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM) design algorithm has been developed using the B-plane targeting method for future Korean Mars missions. For every mission phase, trajectory informations can also be obtained using this developed algorithms which are essential to design optimal TCM strategy. The information were computed under minimum requiring perturbations to design Mars missions. Spacecraft can not be reached at designed aim point because of unexpected trajectory errors, caused by many perturbations and errors due to operating impulsive maneuvers during the cruising phase of missions. To maintain spacecraft's appropriate trajectory and deliver it to the designed aim point, B-plane targeting techniques are needed. A software NPSOL is used to solve this optimization problem, with the performance index of minimizing total amount of TCM's magnitude. And also executing time of maneuvers can be controlled for the user defined maneuver number (1˜5) of TCMs. The constraints, the Mars arrival B-plane boundary conditions, are formulated for the problem. Results of this work show the ability to design and analyze overall Mars missions, from the Earth launch phase to Mars arrival phase including capture orbit status for future Korean Mars missions.

Song, Young-Joo; Park, Eun-Seo; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Park, Sang-Young; Choi, Kyu-Hong; Yoon, Jae-Cheol; Yim, Jo Ryeong; Choi, Joon-Min; Kim, Byung-Kyo

2005-12-01

176

Workflow Agents vs. Expert Systems: Problem Solving Methods in Work Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1980s, a community of artificial intelligence researchers became interested in formalizing problem solving methods as part of an effort called "second generation expert systems" (2nd GES). How do the motivations and results of this research relate to building tools for the workplace today? We provide an historical review of how the theory of expertise has developed, a progress report on a tool for designing and implementing model-based automation (Brahms), and a concrete example how we apply 2nd GES concepts today in an agent-based system for space flight operations (OCAMS). Brahms incorporates an ontology for modeling work practices, what people are doing in the course of a day, characterized as "activities." OCAMS was developed using a simulation-to-implementation methodology, in which a prototype tool was embedded in a simulation of future work practices. OCAMS uses model-based methods to interactively plan its actions and keep track of the work to be done. The problem solving methods of practice are interactive, employing reasoning for and through action in the real world. Analogously, it is as if a medical expert system were charged not just with interpreting culture results, but actually interacting with a patient. Our perspective shifts from building a "problem solving" (expert) system to building an actor in the world. The reusable components in work system designs include entire "problem solvers" (e.g., a planning subsystem), interoperability frameworks, and workflow agents that use and revise models dynamically in a network of people and tools. Consequently, the research focus shifts so "problem solving methods" include ways of knowing that models do not fit the world, and ways of interacting with other agents and people to gain or verify information and (ultimately) adapt rules and procedures to resolve problematic situations.

Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Seah, Chin

2009-01-01

177

Design-Based Practice: A New Perspective for Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as an alternative to traditional social work practice and has ignited a new round in the decades-old debate about the relationship between knowledge and practice in the field. This article identifies several limitations inherent in the EBP perspective and argues that it would be unfortunate if EBP were to…

Cohen, Burton J.

2011-01-01

178

Work practices of system administrators: implications for tool design  

Microsoft Academic Search

System administrators are specialized workers and computer users. As skilled workers in complex and high-risk environments, intuition tells us this unique user group may have requirements of the systems and software they use that differ from the requirements of regular computer users. An examination of system administrator work practices sheds light on the system attributes and characteristics they need to

Nicole F. Velasquez; Suzanne P. Weisband

2008-01-01

179

Involving Assessment Buddies in the Assessment of Design Project Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the impact of a specially developed assessment and feedback system implemented within a second year industrial design module at Coventry University, UK. The "Assessment Buddy" system was developed in response to the need for a successful assessment and feedback method that could cope with the complexities of a creative…

Osmond, Jane; Clough, Brian

2012-01-01

180

Long-pulse laser design and experimental work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long pulse laser starts to have a prominent role in many applications. So, How to design and calculate the parameters of the high power long-pulse solid-state laser is illustrated, experimentally and arithmetically. How to design a pumping chamber is illustrated, with a double-ellipse cavity. Optical resonator losses are got experimentally in details. Efficiency factor and system slope efficiency are calculated experimentally. Illustration for how to get the optimum mirror reflectivity is mentioned. Beam waist and beam divergence also studied experimentally. The designed system has 10J output energy with pulse width 20msec for efficiency factor 1.1% and a combined loss 0.181 inside resonator. Average system efficiency, gain coefficient and fluorescence power for four different output mirror reflectivity are 0.328%, 0.00994cm-1 and 144.92W respectively. 6KW/cm2 power density inside resonator is obtained which corresponds to 585W maximum output power. An optimum mirror reflectivity 57% is for 208.2KW input power. The beam waist and beam divergence are recorded to be 0.66cm and 8.86mrad. Calculations show that, 11.7J output energy can be obtained by more optimization based on the designed system.

Helal, Osama; Yong, Tan; Yunfeng, Ding; Cai, HongXing

2013-09-01

181

Work design and analysis for space-based manufacturing: a case analysis of initial design issues.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present research was to investigate the nature of potential manufacturing tasks humans may execute in a space environment. The success of space-based manufacturing (SBM) is suggested to be a precursor to permanent human presence in space. A working hypothesis for this study was that human work in the SBM environment would be substantially different from terrestrial manufacturing work. To investigate this hypothesis, a case analysis approach was developed that employed a function allocation and task analysis of a representative SBM process: the production of tailored industrial crystals. This research approach was chosen as the current state of engineering design for SBM is in the conceptual and early flow sheeting phases of a system life cycle. Results of the task analysis and function allocation process suggest response to corrective maintenance functions and to abnormal system conditions should be allocated to humans as opposed to automation. These results are discussed in relation to human factors engineering challenges associated with long-duration human presence in an SBM environment. PMID:12554403

Casler, J G; Cook, J R

2003-01-15

182

Considerations for design of future research and development interactive image analysis systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future interactive image analysis systems must provide for the increased processing requirements imposed by a thermal channel to LANDSAT-3 and the increased number of spectral channels with significantly higher spatial resolution provided by the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper. Other design considerations must include the rapidly changing technology in memories and special purpose processors, as well as the analyst-machine interface and the human factors involved. The centralized and distributed system approaches are examined in relation to the optimum design configuration of future systems.

Wilkinson, T. B. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

183

The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

1999-01-01

184

Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.  

PubMed

There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? PMID:23608710

Zink, Klaus J

2014-01-01

185

Career/Technology Centers That Work: An Enhanced "High Schools That Work" Design for Technology Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"High Schools That Work" is an effort-based school improvement initiative founded on the conviction that most students can master rigorous career/technical and academic studies if school leaders and teachers create an environment that motivates students to make the effort to succeed. HSTW is the nation's first large-scale effort to engage state,…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

2007-01-01

186

[Current situation and future issues of work-related diseases in Japan].  

PubMed

According to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, more than 1,000 workers are killed by occupational accidents and diseases every year, in Japan. The number of workers, who took more than 3 days of sick leave with work-related diseases, reaches 7,000-8,000 every year. Prevention of work-related diseases is essential to maintain and promote workers' health and to ensure quality of their working life. It is required that not only occupational health care staff but also clinicians pay more attention to the detection and prevention of work-related diseases. PMID:24605517

Itani, Toru

2014-02-01

187

Investing in the Future: Addressing Work/Life Issues of Employees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of Extension employees identified the most critical work/life challenges as a heavy workload, evening and weekend commitments, and lack of control or job autonomy. Only 40% were aware of benefits and programs offered concerning work/life balance. Recommendations included reducing the workload and time requirements of county-based…

Kutilek, Linda M.; Conklin, Nikki L.; Gunderson, Gail

2002-01-01

188

Preparing School Social Work for the Future: An Update of School Social Workers' Tasks in Iowa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors begin this article by highlighting clinical social casework as a historic trend in school social work practice. They then identify two major shifts in current education policy related to school social work practice. One shift is an emphasis on a multilevel intervention approach, and the other is the differentiation between academic and…

Peckover, Christopher A.; Vasquez, Matthew L.; Van Housen, Stephanie L.; Saunders, Jeanne A.; Allen, Larry

2013-01-01

189

Imagining the Future: Growing Up Working Class; Teaching in the University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author describes his own understanding of the process on how he moved from being a working-class boy who experienced school as a digression from his real interest--sports--to someone who had made education his life work. In particular, he describes his own changing gender, race, and class identity within the context of an…

Hursh, David

2003-01-01

190

The Future of Work: Insights, Views, Prospects. Basis-Info: Social Policy. IN Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people must prepare themselves for lifelong learning and frequent job changes. Optimists predict a new world of work with many creative, interesting, satisfying jobs; pessimists believe society will finally run out of work and foresee unemployment and social downgrading for a majority of people. There are indications at present of both…

Bechtel, Michael

191

The future of fixed target physics: Snowmass E5 working group summary  

SciTech Connect

Fixed target experimentation remains a vigorous and important tool. In many cases it provides the best technique to study elementary physics. Here the authors explore several areas, where, in the near future, fixed target experiments have the potential to alter the understanding of physics. These include, but are clearly not limited to, high precision tests of CP violation in the Kaon sector, ultra-precise determination of the weak mixing angle and its evolution, and lepton flavor violation.

Krishna Kumar et al.

2002-12-10

192

Design Principles of Worked Examples: A Review of the Empirical Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers investigated the efficacy of using worked examples in classroom instruction and provided evidence in the effectiveness of worked example instruction in mathematics, computer programming, physics, and etc. However, there are limited studies in worked example design. The purpose of this study is to generate the instructional design

Shen, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Hui-Chun

2009-01-01

193

7?Redesigning Work Design Theories: The Rise of Relational and Proactive Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars assume that the fundamental questions about work design have been answered. However, a global shift from manufacturing economies to service and knowledge economies has dramatically altered the nature of work in organizations. To keep pace with these important and rapid changes, work design theory and research is undergoing a transformation. We trace the highlights of two emerging viewpoints

Adam M. Grant; Sharon K. Parker

2009-01-01

194

The design of low frequency underwater acoustic projectors: present status and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulties that dominate low-frequency projector design problems in sonar and oceanographic applications are discussed. These are related to the size of the projector, the low radiation resistance, the acoustic interaction effects in arrays, and the requirements due to deep submergence. Low-frequency projectors are described and compared, and future trends associated with transducer shapes and dimensions and with the type

Jean-Noel Decarpigny; Bernard Hamonic

1991-01-01

195

Looking Back to Imagine the Future: Connecting with the Radical Past in Technologies of School Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why look back to imagine the future? Given the almost universal consensus that higher level technology-enhanced learning should lead in the design of school buildings, what place is there for low-level (non-digital) technologies in education? What can we learn from revisiting schools that were at one time seen to be internationally pioneering in…

Burke, Catherine

2014-01-01

196

Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy

2006-01-01

197

The "LARSE" Project - Working Toward a Safer Future for Los Angeles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Los Angeles region is underlain by a network of active faults, including many that are deep and do not break the Earth's surface. These hidden faults include the previously unknown one responsible for the devastating January 1994 Northridge earthquake, the costliest quake in U.S. history. So that structures can be built or strengthened to withstand the quakes that are certain in the future, the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is locating hidden earthquake hazards beneath the region to help scientists determine where the strongest shaking will occur.

Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Similia, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

1999-01-01

198

Designing Computerized Decision Support That Works for Clinicians and Families  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based decision-making is central to the practice of pediatrics. Clinical trials and other biomedical research provide a foundation for this process, and practice guidelines, drawing from their results, inform the optimal management of an increasing number of childhood health problems. However, many clinicians fail to adhere to guidelines. Clinical decision support delivered using health information technology, often in the form of electronic health records, provides a tool to deliver evidence-based information to the point of care and has the potential to overcome barriers to evidence-based practice. An increasing literature now informs how these systems should be designed and implemented to most effectively improve outcomes in pediatrics. Through the examples of computerized physician order entry, as well as the impact of alerts at the point of care on immunization rates, the delivery of evidence-based asthma care, and the follow-up of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the following review addresses strategies for success in using these tools. The following review argues that, as decision support evolves, the clinician should no longer be the sole target of information and alerts. Through the Internet and other technologies, families are increasingly seeking health information and gathering input to guide health decisions. By enlisting clinical decision support systems to deliver evidence-based information to both clinicians and families, help families express their preferences and goals, and connect families to the medical home, clinical decision support may ultimately be most effective in improving outcomes.

Fiks, Alexander G.

2011-01-01

199

Designing computerized decision support that works for clinicians and families.  

PubMed

Evidence-based decision-making is central to the practice of pediatrics. Clinical trials and other biomedical research provide a foundation for this process, and practice guidelines, drawing from their results, inform the optimal management of an increasing number of childhood health problems. However, many clinicians fail to adhere to guidelines. Clinical decision support delivered using health information technology, often in the form of electronic health records, provides a tool to deliver evidence-based information to the point of care and has the potential to overcome barriers to evidence-based practice. An increasing literature now informs how these systems should be designed and implemented to most effectively improve outcomes in pediatrics. Through the examples of computerized physician order entry, as well as the impact of alerts at the point of care on immunization rates, the delivery of evidence-based asthma care, and the follow-up of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the following review addresses strategies for success in using these tools. The following review argues that, as decision support evolves, the clinician should no longer be the sole target of information and alerts. Through the Internet and other technologies, families are increasingly seeking health information and gathering input to guide health decisions. By enlisting clinical decision support systems to deliver evidence-based information to both clinicians and families, help families express their preferences and goals, and connect families to the medical home, clinical decision support may ultimately be most effective in improving outcomes. PMID:21315295

Fiks, Alexander G

2011-03-01

200

In the spirit of Flexner: working toward a collective vision for the future of medical education in Canada.  

PubMed

The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada launched the Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC) Project in 2007. The FMEC Project's overarching goal was to comprehensively examine the current state of undergraduate medical education, concentrating on its alignment with current and future societal needs. Like Flexner's work, the FMEC Project used a process of reflection and renewal; unlike Flexner's work, the FMEC Project used multiple techniques to gather information, including literature reviews, key informant interviews, international visits, and a series of consultations with stakeholders and expert groups. The project's final report, The Future of Medical Education in Canada: A Collective Vision, put forth 10 recommendations that summarized priority areas for academic medicine and medical training in Canada at the start of the 21st century. The current article reviews FMEC Project recommendations in relation to the priorities set out by Flexner in 1910. In some areas, such as the scientific basis of medical education, there is striking congruence between Flexner's views and today's collective vision. In other areas, such as community-based learning, opinion appears to have shifted markedly over the past century, and concepts such as interprofessionalism may represent distinctly modern domains. While Flexnerian themes tend to center on the notion of medicine as science, present-day priorities converge on the link between academic medicine and societal needs. By looking back on Flexner's work, we can see where his vision has taken us. As well, we see more clearly the new frontiers that academic medicine will continue to explore. PMID:20107365

Busing, Nick; Slade, Steve; Rosenfield, Jay; Gold, Irving; Maskill, Susan

2010-02-01

201

Continuing Design Work for the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project: Interim Report No. 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research activities of North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and two subcontractors, Flueck Associates and Sierra Hydrotech, during the period October 1981 through September 1982 are described. This work was concerned with the continuing design work o...

R. D. Elliott D. A. Griffith J. A. Flueck J. F. Hannaford

1982-01-01

202

What Types of Designs Are We Using in Social Work Research and Evaluation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses a void in the literature about social work research and evaluation (R&E) designs, in particular related to the quality of its published work. Data were collected by reviewing three empirically oriented journals, "Research on Social Work Practice", "Journal of Social Service Research", and "Social Work Research" over three…

Holosko, Michael J.

2010-01-01

203

Current and future heat stress in Nicaraguan work places under a changing climate.  

PubMed

While climate change continues to increase ambient temperatures, the resulting heat stress exposure to workers in non-climate controlled settings is not well characterized, particularly in low and middle income countries. This preliminary report describes current heat stress in Nicaraguan work places and estimates occupational heat stress in 2050. From over 400 measurements of heat exposure using wet bulb globe temperature, more than 10% of all measurements exceeded the safety threshold for the combination of light work and rest at the ratio of 25:75. By 2050, that percentage of "over-heated" days is projected to increase to over 15%. These findings support the idea that common working conditions in Nicaragua already represent a threat to the health and safety of the workers and that climate change driven trends could mean either a necessary curbing of economic productivity or an increased threat to worker health and safety. PMID:23411762

Sheffield, Perry E; Herrera, Juan Gabriel Ruiz; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord; Romero, Luis E Blanco

2013-01-01

204

Spectrum and orbit conservation as a factor in future mobile satellite system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Access to the radio spectrum and geostationary orbit is essential to current and future mobile satellite systems. This access is difficult to obtain for current systems, and may be even more so for larger future systems. In this environment, satellite systems that minimize the amount of spectrum orbit resource required to meet a specific traffic requirement are essential. Several spectrum conservation techniques are discussed, some of which are complementary to designing the system at minimum cost. All may need to be implemented to the limits of technological feasibility if network growth is not to be constrained because of the lack of available spectrum-orbit resource.

Bowen, Robert R.

1990-01-01

205

Spectrum and orbit conservation as a factor in future mobile satellite system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to the radio spectrum and geostationary orbit is essential to current and future mobile satellite systems. This access is difficult to obtain for current systems, and may be even more so for larger future systems. In this environment, satellite systems that minimize the amount of spectrum orbit resource required to meet a specific traffic requirement are essential. Several spectrum conservation techniques are discussed, some of which are complementary to designing the system at minimum cost. All may need to be implemented to the limits of technological feasibility if network growth is not to be constrained because of the lack of available spectrum-orbit resource.

Bowen, Robert R.

206

Powering the future: how Hamilton Health Sciences put cogeneration to work for healthcare.  

PubMed

The absolute necessity of a stable and uninterrupted power supply within hospitals makes many of these facilities uniquely suited to cogeneration plants. Hamilton Health Sciences recently completed the largest hospital cogeneration project ever undertaken in the country. Spanning three acute care hospitals and generating a combined total of 22.75 megawatts of electricity, Hamilton Health Sciences' cogeneration plants address energy supply issues by offering a clean and reliable power source completely within the hospital's control, and provide the organization with the potential to generate its own revenue into the future by selling excess electricity back to the province. The following article highlights Hamilton Health Sciences' approach to the project, including some important lessons learned, and may serve as an example for other publicly funded institutions interested in implementing similar projects. PMID:17491571

MacLeod, William B; Martin, Murray T

2007-01-01

207

A Review of the Empirical Generations at Work Research: Implications for School Leaders and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most schools currently employ three generations of teachers and leaders: Baby Boomers (1946-65), Generation X (1966-80) and Generation Y (1981-2003). However, the implications for school leaders of multi-generational schools remain relatively unexplored. This paper examines the empirical multi-disciplinary generations at work evidence to identify…

Edge, Karen

2014-01-01

208

A Future for the Vanishing Present: New Work for Basic Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines concerns regarding the current external and internal attacks on Basic Writing in relation to the entire field of composition studies. Argues that new "recognition work" is needed in Basic Writing. Exemplifies the possibility of developing the capacity to see local communities not as places to export composition's beneficence, but as…

Miller, Susan

2000-01-01

209

The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.

210

What Adolescents Can Tell Us: Technology and the Future of Social Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use and usefulness of Information Technology (IT) is rapidly growing around the world, especially among the youth. IT has been shown to impact learning styles, communication, and social relationships in many ways. Recently, significant discussion has arisen around the importance of IT in higher education and more specifically, social work education. This study qualitatively assesses 128 youth aged 13–14

Brian K. Ahmedani; Rena D. Harold; Victoria A. Fitton; Erica D. Shifflet Gibson

2010-01-01

211

The Effects of High School Work Experience on Future Economic Attainment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to track the earnings histories of high school students over a period of 12 years, starting in either their freshman or sophomore year of high school. Contrary to some previous research, the analysis failed to uncover any evidence of harmful effects of working during high school. Instead, jobs…

Ruhm, Christopher J.

212

Creating Markets or Decent Jobs? Group Training and the Future of Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group training organisations act as intermediaries between enterprises and apprentices and trainees to facilitate on- and off-the-job training. This report examines the role of the group training organisations (GTOs) in Australia's labour market. The authors find that GTOs, at their best, help promote sustainable work-based learning solutions by…

Buchanan, John; Evesson, Justine

2004-01-01

213

Balancing Work and Family in Cooperative Extension: History, Effective Programs, and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on stress, burnout, and family-work balance among extension agents in several states identified factors influencing stress. Effective stress management techniques were derived from successful extension workshops. Also needed are systemic changes in policies and in practices that contribute to high stress. (SK)

Fetsch, Robert J.; Kennington, Mary S.

1997-01-01

214

Working Notes from the 1992 AAAI Workshop on Automating Software Design. Theme: Domain Specific Software Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this workshop is to identify different architectural approaches to building domain-specific software design systems and to explore issues unique to domain-specific (vs. general-purpose) software design. Some general issues that cut across the particular software design domain include: (1) knowledge representation, acquisition, and maintenance; (2) specialized software design techniques; and (3) user interaction and user interface.

Keller, Richard M. (editor); Barstow, David; Lowry, Michael R.; Tong, Christopher H.

1992-01-01

215

The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a critical appraisal of resilience, a construct connoting the maintenance of positive adaptation by individuals despite experiences of significant adversity. As empirical research on resilience has burgeoned in recent years, criticisms have been levied at work in this area. These critiques have generally focused on ambiguities in definitions and central terminology; heterogeneity in risks experienced and competence achieved by individuals viewed as resilient; instability of the phenomenon of resilience; and concerns regarding the usefulness of resilience as a theoretical construct. We address each identified criticism in turn, proposing solutions for those we view as legitimate and clarifying misunderstandings surrounding those we believe to be less valid. We conclude that work on resilience possesses substantial potential for augmenting the understanding of processes affecting at-risk individuals. Realization of the potential embodied by this construct, however, will remain constrained without continued scientific attention to some of the serious conceptual and methodological pitfalls that have been noted by skeptics and proponents alike.

Luthar, Suniya S.; Cicchetti, Dante; Becker, Bronwyn

2007-01-01

216

Challenges and Futures for Social Work and Social Policy Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research contributes both to policy and practice frameworks. It is used to explore key areas, to produce constructive analyses,\\u000a to contribute to evidence-based policy and practice and to inform evaluative activity. In the fields of social policy and\\u000a so-cial work, practitioners are also increasingly undertaking research both to inform their practice and to generate and test\\u000a out policies. In this

Barbara Fawcett; Susan Goodwin; Ruth Phillips

217

Elastography: current status, future prospects, and making it work for you.  

PubMed

Elastography has emerged as a useful adjunct tool for ultrasound diagnosis. Elastograms are images of tissue stiffness and may be in color, grayscale, or a combination of the two. The first and most common application of elastography is for the diagnosis of breast lesions where studies have shown an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 to 0.95 for distinguishing cancer from benign lesions. The technique is also useful for the diagnosis of complex cysts, although different scanners may vary in how they display such lesions. Recent advances in elastography include quantification using strain ratios, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and shear wave velocity estimation. These are useful not only for characterizing focal masses but also for diagnosing diffuse organ diseases such as liver cirrhosis. Other near term potential applications for elastography include characterization of thyroid nodules and lymph node evaluation for metastatic disease. Prostate cancer detection is also a potential application, but obtaining high-quality elastograms may be difficult. This area is evolving. Other promising applications include atheromatous plaque and arterial wall evaluation, venous thrombus evaluation, graft rejection, and monitoring of tumor ablation therapy. When contemplating the acquisition of a system with elastography in this rapidly evolving field, a clear picture of the manufacturer's plans for future upgrades (including quantification) should be obtained. PMID:21873855

Garra, Brian S

2011-09-01

218

Work Design Theory: A Review and Critique with Implications for Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these…

Torraco, Richard J.

2005-01-01

219

Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

Lewis, J. L.

1979-01-01

220

On the Optimal Design, Performance, and Reliability of Future Carbon Nanotube-Based Interconnect Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop comprehensive modeling and design techniques for carbon nanotube (CNT)-based interconnects, which we utilize to examine the performance, reliability, and fabrication requirements for future nanotube-based interconnect solutions. We create a generalized model for CNT-based interconnect systems that achieves a high degree of accuracy compared to experimental CNT measurements. Leveraging the model, we develop the first closed-form

Arthur Nieuwoudt; Yehia Massoud

2008-01-01

221

Status and Plans for the Accelerator Working Group of the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) is to produce a design report for a neutrino factory in 2013. I report the status of the accelerator design and plans for future studies.

Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Building 901A, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

2010-03-30

222

Past, present, and future design of urban drainage systems with focus on Danish experiences.  

PubMed

Climate change will influence the water cycle substantially, and extreme precipitation will become more frequent in many regions in the years to come. How should this fact be incorporated into design of urban drainage systems, if at all? And how important is climate change compared to other changes over time? Based on an analysis of the underlying key drivers of changes that are expected to affect urban drainage systems the current problems and their predicted development over time are presented. One key issue is management of risk and uncertainties and therefore a framework for design and analysis of urban structures in light of present and future uncertainties is presented. PMID:21278476

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

2011-01-01

223

A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables.

PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

2010-01-01

224

Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

1999-07-01

225

Working group summary: Machine design for the {mu}{sup +} - {mu}{sup {minus}} collider  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the discussions of the working group on Machine Design. The scope of the working group included the entire accelerator system from beam cooling to the collider and the collider ring itself. Particular topics that were discussed in some detail included acceleration options, magnet designs (including the accelerator arcs and collider ring), instabilities, particularly in the collider ring, and lattice issues, particularly in the interaction regions (IRs). Considerable challenges remain in defining a complete machine design for the collider.

Hirata, K.; Neuffer, D.; Autin, B. [and others

1995-10-01

226

Continuing Design, Review, and Analysis Work for the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work was concerned with the continuing design, review, and analysis work on the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project (SCPP) being sponsored by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Northern Sierra Nevada of California. Work was conducted in the review and rev...

R. D. Elliott D. A. Griffith J. A. Flueck J. F. Hannaford

1983-01-01

227

Making Judgements about Students Making Work: Lecturers’ Assessment Practices in Art and Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study explores the assessment practices in two higher education art and design departments. The key aim of this research was to explore art and design studio assessment practices as lived and experienced by art and design lecturers. This work draws on two bodies of pre-existing research. Firstly this study adopted methodological…

Orr, Susan; Bloxham, Sue

2013-01-01

228

Work design and management in the manufacturing sector: development and validation of the Work Organisation Assessment Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a new context?specific questionnaire for the assessment of work and organisational factors. The Work Organisation Assessment Questionnaire (WOAQ) was developed as part of a risk assessment and risk reduction methodology for hazards inherent in the design and management of work in the manufacturing sector. Method Two studies were conducted. Data were collected from 524 white? and blue?collar employees from a range of manufacturing companies. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out on 28 items that described the most commonly reported failures of work design and management in companies in the manufacturing sector. Concurrent validity data were also collected. A reliability study was conducted with a further 156 employees. Results Principal component analysis, with varimax rotation, revealed a strong 28?item, five factor structure. The factors were named: quality of relationships with management, reward and recognition, workload, quality of relationships with colleagues, and quality of physical environment. Analyses also revealed a more general summative factor. Results indicated that the questionnaire has good internal consistency and test?retest reliability and validity. Being associated with poor employee health and changes in health related behaviour, the WOAQ factors are possible hazards. It is argued that the strength of those associations offers some estimation of risk. Feedback from the organisations involved indicated that the WOAQ was easy to use and meaningful for them as part of their risk assessment procedures. Conclusions The studies reported here describe a model of the hazards to employee health and health related behaviour inherent in the design and management of work in the manufacturing sector. It offers an instrument for their assessment. The scales derived which form the WOAQ were shown to be reliable, valid, and meaningful to the user population.

Griffiths, A; Cox, T; Karanika, M; Khan, S; Tomas, J-M

2006-01-01

229

Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

NONE

2000-08-01

230

Work in progress — Use-value and functionality versus aesthetics and experience: Inculcation of design ideologies in engineering and industrial design students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares how different student teams with engineering and industrial design backgrounds approach design problems and create design solutions. We collected data by observing team meetings throughout the design process. While students in both disciplines were essentially designing solutions for clients' future needs, the design prompts were vastly different as was their subsequent approach. Preliminary results show engineering teams

Andrea Goncher; Aditya Johri; Akshay Sharma

2010-01-01

231

Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These web pages introduce the concept of work and its relation to energy. An example of electric work and energy using the example of a Van de Graaff Generator. These pages are part of "From Stargazers to Starships", an extensive web site that introduces topics in physics and astronomy using space exploration and space science. Translations are available in French and Spanish.

Stern, David

2006-07-16

232

A scoping review of malaria forecasting: past work and future directions  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a growing body of literature on malaria forecasting methods and the objective of our review is to identify and assess methods, including predictors, used to forecast malaria. Design Scoping review. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study. Information sources Search strategies were developed and the following databases were searched: CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Web of Science. Key journals and websites were also manually searched. Eligibility criteria for included studies We included studies that forecasted incidence, prevalence or epidemics of malaria over time. A description of the forecasting model and an assessment of the forecast accuracy of the model were requirements for inclusion. Studies were restricted to human populations and to autochthonous transmission settings. Results We identified 29 different studies that met our inclusion criteria for this review. The forecasting approaches included statistical modelling, mathematical modelling and machine learning methods. Climate-related predictors were used consistently in forecasting models, with the most common predictors being rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and the normalised difference vegetation index. Model evaluation was typically based on a reserved portion of data and accuracy was measured in a variety of ways including mean-squared error and correlation coefficients. We could not compare the forecast accuracy of models from the different studies as the evaluation measures differed across the studies. Conclusions Applying different forecasting methods to the same data, exploring the predictive ability of non-environmental variables, including transmission reducing interventions and using common forecast accuracy measures will allow malaria researchers to compare and improve models and methods, which should improve the quality of malaria forecasting.

Zinszer, Kate; Verma, Aman D; Charland, Katia; Brewer, Timothy F; Brownstein, John S; Sun, Zhuoyu; Buckeridge, David L

2012-01-01

233

A Conceptual Design of an Adaptive and Collaborative E-Work Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging work models increasingly take the form of loosely structured, often self-organising networks of nimble and virtual knowledge work teams within and between organisations. To model such work patterns requires a different approach from that of traditional workflow management systems. This paper presents the conceptual design of a prototype adaptive and collaborative e-Work environment - e-Workbench, which we are currently

Obinna Anya; Hissam Tawfik; Atulya Nagar

2007-01-01

234

Metalloprotein and Metallo-DNA/RNAzyme Design: Current Approaches, Success Measures and Future Challenges  

PubMed Central

Specific metal-binding sites have been found in not only proteins, but also DNA and RNA molecules. Together, these metalloenzymes consist of a major portion of the enzyme family and can catalyze some of the most difficult biological functions. Designing these metalloenzymes can be both challenging and rewarding, as it can provide deeper insights into the structure and function of proteins and provide cheaper and more stable alternatives for biochemical and biotechnological applications. Towards this goal, both rational and combinatorial approaches have been used. The rational approach is good for designing metalloenzymes that are well characterized, such as heme proteins, while the combinatorial approach is better at designing those whose structures are poorly understood, such as metallo-DNA/RNAzymes. Among the rational approaches, de novo design is at its best when metal-binding sites reside in a scaffold whose structure has been designed de novo (e.g., ?-helical bundles). Otherwise, design using native scaffolds can be equally effective, allowing more choices of scaffolds whose structural stability is often more resistant to multiple mutations. In addition, computational and empirical designs have both enjoyed successes. Due to the limitation in defining structural parameters for metal-binding sites, a computational approach is restricted to mostly metal-binding sites that are well defined, such as mononuclear or homonuclear centers. An empirical approach, even though it is less restrictive in the metal-binding sites to be designed, depends heavily on one’s knowledge and choice of templates and targets. An emerging approach is a combination of both computational and empirical approaches. The success of these approaches can be measured not only by threedimensional structural comparison between the designed and target enzymes, but also by the total amount of insight obtained from the design process and studies of the designed enzymes. One of the biggest advantages of designed metalloenzymes is the potential of placing two different metal-binding sites in the same protein framework for comparison. A final measure of success is how one can utilize the insight gained from the intellectual exercise to design new metalloenzymes, including those with unprecedented structures and functions. Future challenges include designing more complex metalloenzymes such as heteronuclear metal centers with strong nanomolar or lower, affinities. A key to meeting this challenge is to focus on the design of not only primary but also secondary coordination spheres using a combination of improved computer programs, experimental design and high-resolution crystallography.

Lu, Yi

2008-01-01

235

Parents' views on how health professionals should work with them now to get the best for their child in the future.  

PubMed

Background? Pregnancy and the first years of life are important times for future child well-being. Early identification of families and children who might be likely to experience poorer outcomes could enable health professionals and parents to work together to promote each child's well-being. Little is known about the acceptability and feasibility of such an approach to parents. Objective? To investigate parents' views about how health professionals should identify and work with families who may benefit from additional input to maximize their children's future health and well-being. Design? A qualitative study using focus groups. Setting and participants? Eleven focus groups were conducted with a total of 54 parents; 42 mothers and 12 fathers living in the north of England. Results? Parents welcomed the idea of preventive services. They strongly believed that everyone should have access to services to enhance child well-being whilst recognizing that some families need additional support. Making judgements about who should receive additional services based on specific criteria evoked powerful emotions because of the implication of failure. Parents projected a belief in themselves as 'good parents' even in adverse circumstances. Conclusions? Targeted additional preventive services can be acceptable and welcome if health professionals introduce them sensitively, in the context of an existing relationship, providing parents are active participants. PMID:22512709

Marshall, Joyce L; Green, Josephine M; Spiby, Helen

2014-08-01

236

Lessons Learned and Technical Standards: A Logical Marriage for Future Space Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive database of engineering lessons learned that corresponds with relevant technical standards will be a valuable asset to those engaged in studies on future space vehicle developments, especially for structures, materials, propulsion, control, operations and associated elements. In addition, this will enable the capturing of technology developments applicable to the design, development, and operation of future space vehicles as planned in the Space Launch Initiative. Using the time-honored tradition of passing on lessons learned while utilizing the newest information technology, NASA has launched an intensive effort to link lessons learned acquired through various Internet databases with applicable technical standards. This paper will discuss the importance of lessons learned, the difficulty in finding relevant lessons learned while engaged in a space vehicle development, and the new NASA effort to relate them to technical standards that can help alleviate this difficulty.

Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

237

Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions  

PubMed Central

Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the option of carrying batteries to the metabolic cost of harvesting the energy, and examined the advantages of methods for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.

2011-01-01

238

Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

2007-10-01

239

Continuing Design Work for the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project: Interim Report No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was concerned with continuing design work on the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project (SCPP) being sponsored by the Bureau of Reclamation in the northern Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. Seeding scenarios are presented for aerial curtain ...

R. D. Elliott D. A. Griffith J. A. Flueck J. A. Hannaford

1981-01-01

240

Airborne Remote Sensors Applied to Engineering Geology and Civil Works Design Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluate...

R. H. Gelnett

1975-01-01

241

Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requ...

M. Ehinger M. Schanfein S. J. Johnson

2011-01-01

242

Design-led Regeneration? Evaluating the Design Outcomes of Cardiff Bay and their Implications for Future Regeneration and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design-led regeneration has been promoted in the UK since 1999 with varying degrees of success, and it is an increasingly important tool in the drive for greater urban competitiveness, at least in local government rhetoric. This paper focuses on experience in Cardiff, the Capital of Wales, and in particular the regeneration of Cardiff Bay over the last two decades. Unique

JOHN PUNTER

2007-01-01

243

Design of biomass briquetting open molding shaping machine working in natural condition and high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to avoid the problem of former biomass shaping machine in the process of using, a new kind of biomass Briquetting open molding shaping machine working in natural conditions and high pressure was designed. The paper describes the main structure and working principle, analyzes and identifies the structure and parameters of the key components. The availability of machine has

Haiying Zhang; Guosheng Yu; Wengang Yan; Xiaohu Liu

2011-01-01

244

Effect of work station design on sitting posture in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare muscular activity levels and sitting posture displayed by 10 children (mean age =4·7 years) when performing tracing tasks while seated at a traditional work station (level desk top, 5 backward sloping seat) and at an ergonomically designed work station (15 sloping desk top, 15 forward sloping seat). EMG profiles of latissimus dorsi

M. MARSCHALL; A. C. HARRINGTON; J. R. STEELE

1995-01-01

245

Students Designed and Built a Full-Scale Working Replica of the MSL Curiosity Rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNES (France) decided to build a full-scale working replica of the MSL Rover, in partnership with CNRS and the Toulouse educational district. More than 200 students and 30 teachers from 15 technical schools worked on the design and construction of this replica.

A. Gaboriaud; S. Maurice; M. Cabane; M. Rubaud; S. Rivola; S. Canceill; A. Escande; L. Barthes; G. Roualdes; M. Exbrayat; L. Grasset; A. Serfass Denis

2010-01-01

246

Partnerships and Learning Communities in Work-Integrated Learning: Designing a Community Services Student Placement Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes and analyses the design and implementation of a higher education student placement program in the community services sector. Principally ideas about partnerships and social learning informed the design. The placement program represents a significant innovation in work-integrated learning, achieved through collaboration between…

Harris, Lisa; Jones, Martyn; Coutts, Sally

2010-01-01

247

43 CFR 3186.3 - Model for designation of successor unit operator by working interest owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Model for designation of successor unit operator by working...ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Model Forms § 3186.3 Model for designation of successor unit operator by...

2013-10-01

248

Modelling work practices: input to the design of a physician's workstation.  

PubMed Central

To ensure tight coupling between users' work practices and the system's model of these practices, designers need methods to generate accurate descriptions of what users actually do. This paper illustrates how we model physicians' information needs and translate knowledge about these needs into design specifications.

Fafchamps, D.; Young, C. Y.; Tang, P. C.

1991-01-01

249

Analysing our qualms about "designing" future persons: autonomy, freedom of choice, and interfering with nature.  

PubMed

Actually possible and conceivable future uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and germ-line genetic intervention in assisted reproduction seem to offer increasing possibilities of choosing the kind of persons that will be brought to existence. Many are troubled by the idea of these technologies being used for enhancement purposes. How can we make sense of this worry? Why are our thoughts about therapeutic genetic interventions and non-genetic enhancement (for instance education) not accompanied by the same intuitive uneasiness? I argue that the concepts of autonomy and freedom of choice, typically invoked to delimit the morally acceptable uses of reproductive technologies, cannot fully answer these questions. Instead, I suggest that an alternative answer might begin with reflections on the notion of interfering with nature. Drawing on Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology and Hans Jonas's moral philosophy, I outline an argument that attempts to capture what might be particularly troubling about the idea of "designing" future persons. At the core of the argument is the suggestion that enhancing selections and modifications on embryos might be bound up with an instrumentalising, non-responsive perspective on the future persons into which they are intended to grow. PMID:17310307

Malmqvist, Erik

2007-12-01

250

[Therapeutic trial design issues for future disease-modifying therapy of multiple system atrophy].  

PubMed

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is clinically characterized by various combinations of cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction and pyramidal signs. MSA is known as a sporadic disease, however, multiplex families with MSA suggest a genetic predisposition to MSA. The advanced genome research will clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms of MSA, and the disease-modifying therapy of MSA may be available in the future. To clarify the natural history of MSA for the future therapeutic trials, and to elucidate the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of MSA, JAMSAC (Japan MSA research consortium), a nationwide consortium, was established in 2003. In the view of the future therapeutic trial for MSA, it is essential to design appropriate end point, sample size, duration of the trial. And inclusion criteria are also important for effective therapeutic trial. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 225 MSA patients using unified multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS). As inclusion criteria, we employed additional criteria based on specific MRI findings to recruit earlier stage patients. Sample size estimation from the longitudinal study suggested we need sensitive outcome measures beside UMSARS. JAMSAC is planning to a longitudinal study for natural history of MSA in Japan. PMID:22277413

Ichikawa, Yaeko; Goto, Jun; Nakahara, Yasuo; Mitsui, Jun; Tsuji, Shoji

2011-11-01

251

"Beam me up, scotty": designing the future of nursing professional development.  

PubMed

Experts in nursing education, such as Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, and Day (2010), as well as the Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Nursing (2011), agree that 21st-century nursing education must change. However, the focus is often on academic education rather than practice education. Today's nurses deserve exceptional practice education that is built on 21st-century learning principles, technologies, and methods as they pursue lifelong, behavior-forming learning. This requires four key shifts: (1) using synergistic, collaborative, learner-centered methods; (2) infusing technology into learning and teaching; (3) designing professional development rooted in instructional design best practices; and (4) performing comprehensive evaluations of professional development. This article explores the necessity for change and encourages nursing professional development specialists to boldly go where they have never gone before. PMID:22966774

Yoder, S Leah; Terhorst, Raymond

2012-10-01

252

Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume I. The Future of Food Service 1985-1990. Service Management Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a study on the future of the food service industry, volume I of this three-volume report contains a series of scenarios intended to make 10- to 15-year projections into the future of the food service industry and to serve as a basis for replanning the vocational-technical curricula in the food service area. The scenarios are "canonical…

Powers, Thomas F.

253

The Iterative Design Process in Research and Development: A Work Experience Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The iterative design process is one of many strategies used in new product development. Top-down development strategies, like waterfall development, place a heavy emphasis on planning and simulation. The iterative process, on the other hand, is better suited to the management of small to medium scale projects. Over the past four months, I have worked with engineers at Johnson Space Center on a multitude of electronics projects. By describing the work I have done these last few months, analyzing the factors that have driven design decisions, and examining the testing and verification process, I will demonstrate that iterative design is the obvious choice for research and development projects.

Sullivan, George F. III

2013-01-01

254

Working group summary: Machine design for the {mu}{sup +}{minus}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the discussions of the working group on Machine Design. The scope of the working group included the entire accelerator system from beam cooling to the collider and the collider ring itself. Particular topics that were discussed in some detail included acceleration options, magnet designs (including the accelerator arcs and collider ring), instabilities, particularly in the collider ring, and lattice issues, particularly in the interaction regions (IRs). Considerable challenges remain in defining a complete machine design for the collider. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Hirata, K.; Neuffer, D.; Autin, B.; Chen, P.; Cheng, W.; Cline, D.; Dahl, P.; Gallardo, J.; Green, M.; Johnstone, C.; Kahn, S.; Morgan, G.; Ng, K.; Parsah, Z.; Peters, J.; Summers, D.; Tollestrup, A.; Trbojevic, D.

1996-05-01

255

Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.  

PubMed

A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings. PMID:18462704

Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

2008-07-01

256

Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Agents and Their Potential for Future Design and Synthesis Environment, held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, September 16-17, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of intelligent agents technology and to identify the potential of software agents for use in future design and synthesis environment. The presentations covered the current status of agent technology and several applications of intelligent software agents. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

257

Experiences in using role-playing, computer game and physical acting to enhance user involvement in design of future applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of information technology in everyday life is increasing and getting more and more ambient in our daily environments. The environments are supposed to be intelligent, adaptive, intuitive, interactive and proactive in the future. User participation for future concept building is essential but challenging when designing appliances that might be unfamiliar in their appearance, functionality and impressiveness compared to

Veikko Ikonen

2004-01-01

258

Issues in Designing the Future Grid: A Webinar Series (January-May 2012) supporting the Future Grid Initiative  

DOE Data Explorer

A systematic transformation of today’s electric grid is underway. The grid is evolving from a network architecture with relatively few large, hierarchically-connected, tightly synchronized energy resources supplying large, medium, and very many small passive consumers. It is evolving toward a network driven by many distributed and concentrated, highly variable energy resources mixed with large central generation sources, energy storage and responsive users. The effective transformation of the grid requires decisions based on identification and solution of major operating, planning, workforce, economic and public policy challenges. PSERC is conducting the DOE-funded project "The Future Grid to Enable Sustainable Energy Systems to: 1) investigate the requirements of an electric grid with high penetrations of sustainable energy systems and heavy reliance on cyber systems for sensing and communication; and 2) stimulate discussion among the academic, industry and government communities on what it will take to shape the future grid for the mid-twenty-first century. As a part of this Future Grid Initiative, PSERC is encouraging discussion on solutions to what can be called broad analysis needs. A broad analysis need covers questions that are typically well beyond the scope of typical academic research projects in terms of size and definition. The questions are not strictly engineering ones; they also involve issues of policy, economics, stakeholder perspectives, societal impacts, among others. The broad analysis topics were addressed in a workshop held on December 7, 2011. In the future, there will be publicly available white papers, a webinar series (announced here), and a public forum to be held June 27-28, 2012 in Washington DC.

259

Anticipating the use of future things: towards a framework for prospective use analysis in innovation design projects.  

PubMed

Anticipation of future product use is a persistent issue in User-Centered Design. In this paper, we argue that one obstacle to early integration of use analysis in innovation design is overreliance on retrospective use analysis, i.e. that which is based on clear references to existing products or activities. In contrast, innovation design projects are full of uncertainty, leading to a need for prospective analysis. After having described some limitations of prospective use analysis, we contend that creativity tools may be used to assist the anticipation of future product use, by allowing designers to approach the variability of situations of future use in a structured manner rather than by "muddling through". We illustrate the expected benefits of this approach with two case studies, and describe some prospects for future research and practice in ergonomics. PMID:23680450

Nelson, Julien; Buisine, Stéphanie; Aoussat, Améziane

2013-11-01

260

MICE -- Absorber and focus coil safety working group design document: Preliminary design and assessments  

SciTech Connect

A Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly the discovery of leptonic CP violation. it is also the first step toward a muon collider. To develop a stored-muon-beam facility to serve as a Neutrino Factory, it is necessary to ''cool'' a muon beam (decrease its phase-space volume). The short lifetime of the muon, 2.2 {micro}s at rest, eliminates all currently demonstrated cooling techniques and requires that a new, heretofore untried, technique--ionization cooling--be employed. Although ionization cooling of muons has never been demonstrated in practice, it has been shown by end-to-end simulation and design studies to be an important factor both for the performance and for the cost of a Neutrino Factory. This motivates an international program of R and D, including an experimental demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The aims of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment are: (1) to show that it is possible to design, engineer and build a section of cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory; and (2) to place it in a muon beam and measure its performance in various modes of operation and beam conditions, thereby investigating the limits and practicality of cooling. The MICE collaboration has designed an experiment in which a section of an ionization cooling channel is exposed to a muon beam. This cooling channel assembles liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing energy loss and high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to re-accelerate the particles, all tightly contained in a magnetic channel. It reduces the beam transverse emittance by > 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. The layout of the experiment is shown. They utilize one complete magnetic cell of the cooling channel, comprising three absorber-focus-coil (AFC) modules and two RF-coupling-coil (RFCC) modules. Spectrometers placed before and after the cooling section shown, perform the measurements of beam transmission and emittance reduction with an absolute precision of {+-} 0.1%. The detector solenoids each have separate coils (matching coils) to tailor the optics smoothly between the cooling channel and detector modules.

Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael

2003-12-04

261

A Guide to Designing Future Ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this follow-up work to the high energy physics Community Summer Study 2013 (aka SNOWMASS), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage IV cosmic microwave background polarization experiment under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties of cosmological parameters in ??CDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark energy equation of state, dark matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the baryon acoustic oscillation signal as measured by Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1? constraints: ?(M ?) = 15 meV, ?(N eff) = 0.0156, dark energy figure of merit = 303, ?(p ann) = 0.00588 × 3 × 10-26 cm3 s-1 GeV-1, ?(? K ) = 0.00074, ?(ns ) = 0.00110, ?(? s ) = 0.00145, and ?(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependencies of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

Wu, W. L. K.; Errard, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; McDonald, P.; Slosar, A.; Zahn, O.

2014-06-01

262

Work domain analysis for enhancing collaborations: a study of the management of microsystems design.  

PubMed

Collaboration is an important process that enables organisations to achieve goals or solve problems and, in design processes, is an important factor for accomplishing interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary tasks. An understanding of the functional configuration of organisations could therefore offer a useful insight into collaborations of designers. This study makes use of work domain analysis (WDA) to analyse the management of design by organisations within the microsystems technology (MST) domain. The WDA considers the functional configuration of MST companies in terms of management constraints and boundaries. This study also makes use of the WDA to suggest ways of establishing collaborative design and enhancing collaboration between organisations. Practitioner Summary: The results of this methodical analysis offer useful insights for managing design functions. This study also presents recommendations for enhancing collaboration in organisations. The ability to manage and collaborate in design functions is valuable for improving the productivity, cost-effectiveness and time-to-market systems. PMID:22506645

Durugbo, Christopher

2012-01-01

263

Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. PMID:22920806

Thompson, Debbe

2012-07-01

264

Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between “fun-ness” and “seriousness.” The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field.

Thompson, Debbe

2012-01-01

265

Alloy Design Strategies and Future Trends in High-Entropy Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are newly emerging advanced materials. In contrast to conventional alloys, HEAs contain multiple principal elements, often five or more in equimolar or near-equimolar ratios. The basic principle behind HEAs is that solid-solution phases are relatively stabilized by their significantly high entropy of mixing compared to intermetallic compounds, especially at high temperatures. This makes them feasibly synthesized, processed, analyzed, and manipulated, and as well provides many opportunities for us. There are huge numbers of possible compositions and combinations of properties in the HEA field. Wise alloy design strategies for suitable compositions and processes to fit the requirements for either academic studies or industrial applications thus become especially important. In this article, four core effects were emphasized, several misconceptions on HEAs were clarified, and several routes for future HEA research and development were suggested.

Yeh, Jien-Wei

2013-12-01

266

Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.  

PubMed

Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect. PMID:22316902

Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

2012-01-01

267

Voice disorders in teachers and the general population: effects on work performance, attendance, and future career choices.  

PubMed

To examine the frequency and adverse effects of voice disorders on job performance and attendance in teachers and the general population, 2,401 participants from Iowa and Utah (n1 = 1,243 teachers and n2 = 1,279 nonteachers) were randomly selected and were interviewed by telephone using a voice disorder questionnaire. Teachers were significantly more likely than nonteachers to have experienced multiple voice symptoms and signs including hoarseness, discomfort, and increased effort while using their voice, tiring or experiencing a change in voice quality after short use, difficulty projecting their voice, trouble speaking or singing softly, and a loss of their singing range (all odds ratios [ORs] p <.05). Furthermore, teachers consistently attributed these voice symptoms to their occupation and were significantly more likely to indicate that their voice limited their ability to perform certain tasks at work, and had reduced activities or interactions as a result. Teachers, as compared with nonteachers, had missed more workdays over the preceding year because of voice problems and were more likely to consider changing occupations because of their voice (all comparisons p <.05). These findings strongly suggest that occupationally related voice dysfunction in teachers can have significant adverse effects on job performance, attendance, and future career choices. PMID:15212567

Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Thibeault, Susan; Gray, Steven D; Smith, Elaine M

2004-06-01

268

Designing future dark energy space missions. I. Building realistic galaxy spectro-photometric catalogs and their first applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Future dark energy space missions such as JDEM and EUCLID are being designed to survey the galaxy population to trace the geometry of the universe and the growth of structure, which both depend on the cosmological model. To reach the goal of high precision cosmology they need to evaluate the capabilities of different instrument designs based on realistic mock

S. Jouvel; J.-P. Kneib; O. Ilbert; G. Bernstein; S. Arnouts; T. Dahlen; A. Ealet; B. Milliard; H. Aussel; P. Capak; A. Koekemoer; V. Le Brun; H. McCracken; M. Salvato; N. Scoville

2009-01-01

269

Designing Future Dark Energy Space Mission: I. Building Realistic Galaxy Spectro-Photometric Catalogs and their first applic ations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Future dark energy space missions such as JDEM and EUCLID are being designed to survey the galaxy population to trace the geometry of the universe and the growth of structure, which both depend on the cosmological model. To reach the goal of high precision cosmology they need to evaluate the capabilities of different instrument designs based on realistic mock

S. Jouvel; J. P. Kneib; O. Ilbert; G. Bernstein; S. Arnouts; T. Dahlen; A. Ealet; B. Milliard; H. Aussel; P. Capak; H. McCracken; M. Salvato; N. Scoville

270

Conception, design, and development of the RRV (remote reconnaissance vehicle) and the RWV (remote work vehicle)  

SciTech Connect

Remote technology is sought for a variety of activities in the nuclear industry where radiation and other aspects of the work environment pose hazards to or preclude a human work force. Exposure-related costs and instances of necessity motivate the use and development of remote technology. The remote work vehicle (RWV) and the remote reconnaissance vehicle (RRV) are teleoperated systems developed for such uses. This paper considers design and development of these systems with emphasis on responding to a specific need: recovery of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) containment basement.

Champeny, L.; Whittaker, W.L.

1988-01-01

271

Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume III. Technical Papers on the Future of the Food Service Industry. Service Management Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third and final volume of a study on the future of the food service industry contains the technical papers on which the information in the previous two volumes was based. The papers were written by various members of the Pennsylvania State University departments of economics, food science, nutrition, social psychology, and engineering and by…

Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

272

An Integration of Contemporary Theories of Work Motivation: A Proposed Model and Partial Test with Implications for Job Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this research was a comprehensive model of work motivation, performance, and satisfaction based on contemporary theories of work motivation and models of job design. General motivation theories and specific theories of work motiva...

P. F. Daspit

1978-01-01

273

Design of a professional development and support program for future photonics industry team leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona's Collaboration to Advance Teaching Technology and Science (CATTS) program sponsored by the National Science Foundation has found a successful way to unite public and charter school students and teachers, university science outreach programs, graduate and undergraduate students, and university faculty for the betterment of science education. A key aspect of this success has been the ability of the project to assist stakeholders in understanding the different cultural perspectives of all of the participants. The success of this program has led us to create a template for a professional development and support program emphasizing the degree of cross-cultural understanding appropriate for today's multinational photonics industry. This template is designed to give future photonics technical, managerial, and manufacturing leaders training in a variety of areas that can enhance their productivity and ability to lead teams. The design would be appropriate for photonics research and development teams, sales and marketing teams, teams with diverse members new college hires, and newly emplaced managers. This education template would also be appropriate for students in photonics industry technician and graduate- level programs. This type of program is not a substitute for other forms of professional managerial training, but rather augments such programs with material that can aid in a more global perspective.

Hall-Wallace, Michelle; Regens, Nancy L.; Pompea, Stephen M.

2002-05-01

274

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Outer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Outer edge of turntable shaped by concrete. Outer wheel and rail. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-1-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

275

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition, turntable ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition, turntable platform traveled on concentric circular rails, this one the inner rail. Radioactive parts storage area in background. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

276

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Detail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Detail of radially placed steel beams supporting rotating platform. Part of shielded locomotive at upper right. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-1-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

277

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Detail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. Detail of platform wheels and structural steel beams resting upon wheel. Wood deck above steel beams. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-4-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

278

Research and practice on leaning environment design for PST course based on working process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional synthetic training (PST) is an important part in engineering education. It intends to enhance integrative experiment and designing experiment for students. It covers a wide range of professional courses and overcomes the drawbacks of traditional teaching, such as attention to the experiments of their own independent course and theorems verification. PST course based on working process contributes to taking

Xin Yu; Yu Bai; Hong Yu Sheng

2009-01-01

279

Mechanization of Work Design in Call Centers: An Empirical Examination of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call centers are increasingly catching the attention of practitioners and academic researchers studying work design and labor processes. While the former - typically adopting a technology-oriented viewpoint - tend to depict such centers as high-tech, organic organizations, filled with skilled, co-operative and sophisticated people, the latter - at least those with a more critical view of organizational reality - seem

Marcia Carvalho de Azevedo; Miguel P. Caldas; Fundação Getúlio Vargas

280

The challenges of designing and implementing a cross?cultural unit of work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the challenges that were experienced as I engaged in an action research project in which I designed and enacted a cross?cultural unit of work entitled ‘Maintaining Health’. George has advocated the use of traditional knowledge as a strategy for increasing the relevance of science curricula within the Trinidad and Tobago context. My intention therefore was to

Susan Herbert

2006-01-01

281

Architectural and engineering design work for the Nevada Cancer Institute facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to complete the architectural and engineering design, program planning, and other preliminary work necessary to construct the new Nevada Cancer Institute facility. These goals were accomplished with the construction of a new building of approximately 119,000 gross square feet. The facility houses the diagnostic and radio therapeutic treatment laboratories, radiation oncology treatment facility, physician

Heather Murren

2004-01-01

282

Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume II. Centralized Food Service Systems. Service Management Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume II of a three-volume study on the future of the food service industry considers the effects that centralized food production will have on the future of food production systems. Based on information from the Fair Acres Project and the Michigan State University Vegetable Processing Center, the authors describe the operations of a centralized…

Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

283

A buddhist perspective on industrial engineering and the design of work.  

PubMed

The modern way of life is highly dependent upon the production of goods by industrial organizations that are in turn dependent upon their workers for their ongoing operations. Even though more than a century has passed since the dawn of the industrial revolution, many dangerous aspects of work, both physical and mental, remain in the workplace today. Using Buddhist philosophical principles, this paper suggests that although many sources of the problem reside within the larger society, the industrial engineer is still a key factor in bettering work and providing a workplace suitable for their fellow workers. Drawing on these insights, we present a number of work design guidelines that industrial engineers who abide by Buddhist principles could practice to help overcome some of the many sufferings produced by modern work. PMID:24048817

Lee, Wei-Tau; Blumenthal, James A; Funk, Kenneth H

2014-06-01

284

The Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems: Present Challenges and Future Promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are used in the SE community to address the need for managing the development of complex systems. A key feature of the MBSE approach is the use of a model to capture the requirements, architecture, behavior, operating environment and other key aspects of the system. The focus on the model differentiates MBSE from traditional SE techniques that may have a document centric approach. In an effort to assess the benefit of utilizing MBSE on its flight projects, NASA Langley has implemented a pilot program to apply MBSE techniques during the early phase of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X). MISSE-X is a Technology Demonstration Mission being developed by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist i . Designed to be installed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS), MISSE-X will host experiments that advance the technology readiness of materials and devices needed for future space exploration. As a follow-on to the highly successful series of previous MISSE experiments on ISS, MISSE-X benefits from a significant interest by the

Bloebaum, Christina L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

2012-01-01

285

75 FR 67364 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Clinton Engineering Works...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Designate a Class of Employees From Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, TN, To Be Included...designate a class of employees from Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to...is as follows: Facility: Clinton Engineering Works. Location: Oak Ridge,...

2010-11-02

286

Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

Gelnett, R. H.

1975-01-01

287

Cognitive work analysis and the analysis, design, and evaluation of human-computer interactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a short conceptual and visual introduction to some of the basic principles of cognitive work analysis (CWA). CWA is an approach to the analysis, design, and evaluation of human-computer interactive systems-particularly of complex, high-technology sociotechnical systems. The paper also introduces the following five symposium papers, which provide detailed examples of CWA being used in research at the

Penelope Sanderson

1998-01-01

288

Designing Future Dark Energy Space Mission: I. Building Realistic Galaxy Spectro-Photometric Catalogs and their first applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future dark energy space missions such as JDEM and EUCLID are being designed\\u000ato survey the galaxy population to trace the geometry of the universe and the\\u000agrowth of structure, which both depend on the cosmological model. To reach the\\u000agoal of high precision cosmology they need to evaluate the capabilities of\\u000adifferent instrument designs based on realistic mock catalog.

S. Jouvel; J. P. Kneib; O. Ilbert; G. Bernstein; S. Arnouts; T. Dahlen; A. Ealet; B. Milliard; H. Aussel; P. Capak; A. Koekemoer; V. Le Brun; H. McCracken; M. Salvato; N. Scoville

2009-01-01

289

Why Social Work, and What Does the Future Hold?: The Narratives of Recently Graduated Hispanic and African-American Male BSW and MSW Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employing a focus group interview, this exploratory study investigated the influences on the social work career choice of recently graduated (spring 2007) Hispanic and African-American male BSW and MSW students (N = 7). Also investigated were the views of these men regarding entering a female majority profession and their future in the profession.…

Warde, Bryan

2009-01-01

290

Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: plant design  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of a central coal gasification plant was initiated in November 1979 by PGW under a grant provided by the Department of Energy through NPI-RA-21. The objective of that study was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing, distributing, selling, and using coal gas for industrial applications in Philadelphia. The study was completed in October 1980 and served as the basis for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. It resulted in the identification of (1) users for the gas, (2) selection of a commercially proven gasification process, (3) a conceptual system design and cost estimate, and (4) a financial analysis. The specific tasks and their results are summarized. As a result of the Conceptual Design and Feasibility Study (or Phase I), PGW determined that the Coal Gasification Project can serve as a point of industrial growth and stability in Philadelphia. PGW looks upon this project as making a significant contribution to the energy supply of Philadelphia and has entered into Phase II of the project which is the definitive design stage. The objective of this work is to develop a definitive design and cost estimate for the gasification system selected for conceptual design. The objectives are accomplished by establishing process criteria for the design. In transition from conceptual to definitive design, process suppliers in areas such as gasification and desulfurization were requested to supply coal- and product gas-specific heat and material balances. The net result is a process description with process flow drawings to be used as the basis for design.

Not Available

1981-12-01

291

NASA's Design and Development of a Field Goniometer Instrument Using Solid Works  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA suffering severe funding cutbacks, engineers at NASA are required to produce state-of-the-art hardware with limited personnel and financial resources. In light of these constraints, the new NASA mandate is to build better, faster and cheaper. In April of 1998, Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program contracted to the Systems Engineering Division at NASA Ames Research Center to develop a device known as a Field Goniometer. A Field Goniometer is a device that measures bi-directional reflectance of a target, such as vegetation, relative to the sun and an imaging system in an aircraft or spacecraft. The device is able to provide a spectral fingerprint of the surface it is measuring in wavelengths from 350nm-2500nm using a hyperspectral imager. To accomplish this project, several obstacles had to be overcome. First, the design had to be completed in less than four months. Second, due to the complexity of the design, the use of solid modeling was highly desirable but most of the group's solid modelers were assigned to other jobs. Third, the amount of funding available from the customer was one half to one third the funding typically expended for a job of this nature. Our choices for this project were to design with standard 2-D CAD systems currently used in-house or train additional engineers on our existing solids package or purchase a new solid model package. The use of a 2D CAD system was very undesirable due to the complexity of the design. Using our existing solids modeler would have required a learning curve for our engineers that would be incompatible with our schedule. Prior to this project, a member of our design group researched the solid modeling industry and decided to purchase SolidWorks. After examining the product for ease of use, modeling capability, training time required and cost, we decided our highest probability of success would be to design with Solidworks. During the design phase, our fabrication group was able to provide input at the very early stages, which added significant benefit to the final product. Fabrication cost and schedule savings have been realized by having complex part geometries translated directly from the SolidWorks design models to Surfcam and other computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. This direct model translation capability optimized the fabrication processes. The end result was that we were able to successfully complete the project on time and on budget. Other advantages of using SolidWorks, as cited by the design team, include a rapid negotiation of the initial learning curve, the ability to develop solid model hardware prototypes (used to communicate the design intent to both the customer and the fabricator), and the ability to work as a team collaborating on a large, complex model. These types of tools and efforts represent our response to NASA's challenge to produce higher quality products within shorter design and fabrication times.

Turner, Mark; Sasaki, Glen; Jennings, Ernest (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

292

Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Lessons from Clinical Trials, Outcome Measures, and Future Study Design  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary involvement including interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc). This article reviews the current evidence based medicine regarding available therapies for SSc-ILD ; discusses the lessons learned from recent SSc-ILD randomized controlled trials (RCTs); and proposes outcome measures and recommendations for design of future RCTs for SSc-ILD.

Khanna, Dinesh; Seibold, James R.; Wells, Athol; Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick; Denton, Chris; Furst, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

293

On the use of systems technologies and a systematic approach for the synthesis and the design of future biorefineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems technologies emerge with a powerful potential to support the deployment and design of future biorefineries. The chemical industry experiences a steady growth in the use of renewables induced by the gradual depletion of oil, uncertainties in energy supplies and a commanding requirement to reduce GHG emissions and save the planet. Renewables introduce an impressive range of options with biorefining

Antonis C. Kokossis; Aidong Yang

2010-01-01

294

The Future of STEM Curriculum and Instructional Design: A Research and Development Agenda for Learning Designers. Report of a Workshop Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009-10 a series of Workshops was organized to focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning design for young students and adolescents. The objective was to provide visionary leadership to the education community by: (a) identifying and analyzing the needs and opportunities for future STEM curriculum development and…

Center for the Study of Mathematics Curriculum, 2012

2012-01-01

295

Unpacking Neighborhood Influences on Education Outcomes: Setting the Stage for Future Research. NBER Working Paper No. 16055  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We motivate future neighborhood research through a simple model that considers youth educational outcomes as a function of neighborhood context, neighborhood exposure, individual vulnerability to neighborhood effects, and non-neighborhood educational inputs--with a focus on effect heterogeneity. Research using this approach would require three…

Harding, David J.; Gennetian, Lisa; Winship, Christopher; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.

2010-01-01

296

The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

Bernhardt, Annette

297

Design, conduct and analysis of surveys on work-related asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surveys on work-related asthma serve public health investigation, research on exposure-response relations, screening for pre-clinical\\u000a disease, and demonstrations of effectiveness of interventions. Hypotheses dictate survey design, which include cross-sectional,\\u000a case-control, cohort, and intervention studies. Tools for characterizing medical risk factors and outcomes include questionnaires,\\u000a spirometry, tests of bronchial hyperreactivity, exhaled indices, induced sputum, immunological tests, and nasal inflammatory\\u000a indices. An

Kathleen Kreiss; Dick Heederik

298

MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

2014-05-01

299

Learning through Work: Designing and Implementing Quality Worksite Learning for High School Students. School-to-Work Transition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical assistance guide is written to help practitioners and policymakers involve large numbers of employers in providing high quality learning experiences in the workplace. Section I discusses the challenge of the school-to-work transition and guiding principles for new efforts. Section II focuses on strategies for recruiting and…

Goldberger, Susan; And Others

300

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1995-01-01

301

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1995-09-01

302

Making the Past Relevant to Future Generations. The Work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides the context and outlines the barriers and opportunities for developing promising Holocaust education programmes in Latin America, especially working with diverse communities and societies. In particular, the conflictual history of Latin American and recent democratization processes present opportunities for educational work. It…

Chyrikins, Mariela; Vieyra, Magdalena

2010-01-01

303

Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions

Julie Cwikel; Elizabeth Hoban

2005-01-01

304

Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and Their Impact on the Research, Training, and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and their impact on the Research, Training and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 18 and 19, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to new computing paradigms, including grid computing, pervasive computing, high-productivity computing, and the IBM-led autonomic computing; and b) identify future directions for research that have high potential for future aerospace workforce environments. The format of the workshop included twenty-one, half-hour overview-type presentations and three exhibits by vendors.

Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

2003-01-01

305

Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.  

PubMed

Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy. PMID:23685851

Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord

2013-01-01

306

New Challenges for Participation in Participatory Design in Family, Clinical and Other Asymmetrical, Non-work Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals for participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations.

Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Hedvall, Per-Olof

307

Summary Report of the Series of Joint NSF-EU Working Groups on Future Directions for Digital Libraries Research: October 12, 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Union and the National Science Foundation have been collaborating on a joint international project to identify future research directions and funding priorities for digital libraries. Five working groups were established to explore specific research areas: Intellectual Property and Economics, Global Resource Discovery, Interoperability, Metadata, and Multilingual Information Access. At their most recent workshop in October 1998, the five working groups presented recommendations based on their studies, the results of which are outlined in this Summary Report (available in HTML, Word, and .pdf). The final reports from each of the five working groups are expected to be published in early 1999. The collaborative work on digital libraries by the National Science Foundation and the European Union is described briefly in the Summary of Research Agenda. Also included here are links to European digital library research and initiatives.

1998-01-01

308

The Future Compatible Campus. Planning, Designing, and Implementing Information Technology in the Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 16 monographs centers around the theme the "future compatible campus," which is based on the premise that higher education will become a "connected campus" in a technology-enabled environment consisting of three components: connected learning, connected service to the community; and connected management. In Part 1, titled "The…

Oblinger, Diana G., Ed.; Rush, Sean C., Ed.

309

Why the Future Doesn't Come from Machines: Unfounded Prophecies and the Design of Naturoids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological imagination and actual technological achievements have always been two very different things. Sudden and unpredictable events always seem to intervene between our visions regarding possible futures and the subsequent concrete realizations. Thus, our ideas and projects are continually being redirected. In the field of…

Negrotti, Massimo

2008-01-01

310

How to improve the design of the electrical system in future wind power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIS paper presents three topics which are important for better performance of future wind farms. The topics are investigated in three coordinated Ph.D. projects ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Aalborg University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of all projects is to improve the understanding of the main electrical components in wind farms, based on available information,

I. Arana; L. Kocewiak; J. Holbøll; C. L. Bak; A. H. Nielsen; A. Jensen; J. Hjerrild; T. Sørensen

311

Designing IB Curricula for Future Global Careerists: A Boundaryless Career Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New career realities appear to be reshaping the necessary tools, skills and attitudes individuals must possess in order to establish a successful career in the international business arena. In particular, the boundaryless career perspective provides an interesting point of departure from which to analyze the kinds of competences future global…

Suutari, Vesa; Smale, Adam

2008-01-01

312

Design of an ultra low power CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a continuously increasing demand, neutron electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are still far from being completely established because their development is a very difficult task. A low-noise, ultra low power consumption CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter has been implemented in a 0.35 ?m CMOS technology. The prototype is composed of a pixel array for detection of

Y. Zhang; Ch. Hu-Guo; D. Husson; Y. Hu

2011-01-01

313

APPLICATION OF SYSTEMATIC INNOVATION TREND PREDICTION TOOLS TO THE DESIGN OF FUTURE BEARING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes how an evolved and expanded version of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ has been used to predict the future evolution of bearing and lubrication systems. The paper describes some of the predictable trends of technical system evolution uncovered after over 1500 person years of study of the global patent database, and how they have been

Darrell MANN

314

Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. With the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe, different observational probes have been proposed to investigate the presence of dark energy, including possible modifications to the gravitation laws by accurately measuring the expansion of the Universe and the growth of structures. We need to optimize the return from future dark energy surveys to obtain the best results

S. Jouvel; J.-P. Kneib; G. Bernstein; O. Ilbert; P. Jelinsky; B. Milliard; A. Ealet; C. Schimd; T. Dahlen; S. Arnouts

2011-01-01

315

Public Health Preparedness and Response to Chemical and Radiological Incidents: Functions, Practices, and Areas for Future Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 66 page report released in August 2009 looks into the world of public health emergency preparedness, and for those persons who work in the fields of emergency response policy, public health, or security studies, this work will be most timely. Authored by five researchers at the RAND Corporation this technical report looks into "the roles of the public health service in emergency preparedness and its response to chemical and radiological incidents." The report is divided into four chapters, two appendices, and a references section. As events like nuclear plant accidents, chemical terrorism, and other related occurrences can have tremendous implications for public health, the report is most valuable.

Latourrette, Tom

316

A multidisciplinary intervention to facilitate return to work in cancer patients: intervention protocol and design of a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Returning to work can be problematic for cancer survivors due to suboptimal workplace support, a heavy workload, decreased physical functioning and fatigue. The timely and permanent return to work (RtW) of cancer patients favourably influences quality of life and economic independence. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at timely and enduring RtW are lacking. The objectives of this article are (1) to describe the protocol of an intervention aimed at RtW of cancer patients, comprising of counselling by an oncological occupational physician and supervised physical exercise in a clinical setting during treatment and (2) to present the design of the study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of this intervention. Methods and analysis The intervention comprises three counselling sessions with an oncological occupational physician and a 12-week moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise programme, starting at the onset of chemotherapy. The intervention is aimed at cancer patients treated with curative intent, aged 18–60 years, employed and on sick leave. It will take place in two large medical centres in the Netherlands. The feasibility of the intervention will be evaluated as follows: the number of sessions, topics discussed and exercises executed will be registered by care providers; patients' and care providers' opinions will be assessed by questionnaires and interviews, respectively; and the proportion of invited patients that participated will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination The study results will be used for optimising the intervention content and may serve as a foundation for future implementation. The Medical Ethics Committees of the Academic Medical Center and the participating medical centres approved the study protocol.

de Boer, Angela G E M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

2012-01-01

317

Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

Wernicki, M. Chris

1992-01-01

318

Possible Futures for Social Work with Children and Families in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable interest in recent years in comparing the operation of social work services for children and families internationally, particularly between Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Reviewing the respective policy environments and drawing on recent research experience in these three nations, the author…

Spratt, Trevor

2008-01-01

319

Future directions: advances and implications of virtual environments designed for pain management.  

PubMed

Pain symptoms have been addressed with a variety of therapeutic measures in the past, but as we look to the future, we begin encountering new options for patient care and individual health and well-being. Recent studies indicate that computer-generated graphic environments--virtual reality (VR)--can offer effective cognitive distractions for individuals suffering from pain arising from a variety of physical and psychological illnesses. Studies also indicate the effectiveness of VR for both chronic and acute pain conditions. Future possibilities for VR to address pain-related concerns include such diverse groups as military personnel, space exploration teams, the general labor force, and our ever increasing elderly population. VR also shows promise to help in such areas as drug abuse, at-home treatments, and athletic injuries. PMID:24892206

Wiederhold, Brenda K; Soomro, Ahmad; Riva, Giuseppe; Wiederhold, Mark D

2014-06-01

320

Designing Smart Health Care Technology into the Home of the Future  

SciTech Connect

This editorial paper presents a vision for intelligent health care in the home of the future, focusing on technologies with the highest potential payoff given targeted government funding over the next ten years. A secure, plug-and-play information framework provides the starting point for identifying technologies that must be developed before home-based devices can know their context and assimilate information to support care decisions.

Craft, R.L.; Warren, S.

1999-04-20

321

Experiments at the W.M. Keck Observatory to support the Thirty Meter Telescope design work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to validate various assumptions about the operating environment of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), to validate the modeling packages being used to guide the design work for the TMT and to directly investigate the expected operation of several subsystems we have embarked on an extensive campaign of environmental measurements at the Keck telescopes. We have measured and characterized the vibration environment around the observatory floor and at certain locations on the telescope over a range of operating conditions. Similarly the acoustic environment around the telescope and primary mirror has been characterized for frequencies above 2 Hz. The internal and external wind and temperature fields are being measured using combined sonic anemometer and PRT sensors. We are measuring the telescope position error and drive torque signals in order to investigate the wind induced telescope motions. A scintillometer mounted on the telescope is measuring the optical turbulence inside the telescope tube. This experimental work is supplemented by an extensive analysis of telescope and engineering sensor log files and measurements, primarily those of accelerometers located on the main telescope optics, primary mirror segment edge sensor error signals (residuals), telescope structure temperature measurements and the telescope status information.

Skidmore, Warren; Travouillon, Tony; Riddle, Reed; Kinoshita, Kyle; Johnston, Richard; Murg, Phil; Thompson, Hugh; Matsuda, Richard; Colavita, Mark; Tolleth, Grant; Goodrich, Robert; Chock, Elizabeth; Lewis, Hilton; Panteleev, Sergey

2010-07-01

322

Designs that fly: what the history of aeronautics tells us about the future of design-based research in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost two decades, there has been growing interest in what design-based research (DBR) can contribute to both educational practice and theory. Since its introduction into the literature, this orientation to educational research has repeatedly been likened to aeronautical engineering as a way to clarify its nature and argue its potential. This paper critically examines for the first time how

D. Kevin ONeill

2012-01-01

323

Building an Online Instructional Design Community: Origin, Development, and the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a Web site based at Brigham Young University that aims to make the latest practical knowledge associated with online learning easily available to all instructional designers through the development of an online community. Explains the IDEA (Instructional Design Exchange Area) Web site and discusses challenges of…

Cox, Suzy; Osguthorpe, Russell T.

2003-01-01

324

The Brownies' Book (1920-1921): Exploring the Past to Elucidate the Future of Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates culture-based instructional design in its purest form through "The Brownies' Book", a children's periodical produced from 1920 to 1921. Methodologies of examination include historical analysis and critical discourse analysis grounded in a Foucaultian framework. The findings extrapolated from the design of "The Brownies'…

Young, Patricia A.

2009-01-01

325

Preserving the Past, Enjoying the Present and Facing the Future: Interaction Design and Family Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital archives of personal memories are becoming increasingly technically feasible, but there remain significant interaction design challenges. These challenges must be addressed before these archives will present interactive experiences that are attractive and emotionally engaging. In this paper, we present a research and design study of the Living Memory Box, a device and service to assist families in preserving memories

Molly M. Stevens; Gregory D. Abowd; Khai N. Truong

326

Energy Functions in De Novo Protein Design: Current Challenges and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, a concerted effort to successfully capture specific tertiary packing interactions produced specific three-dimensional structures for many de novo designed proteins that are validated by nuclear magnetic resonance and/or X-ray crystallographic techniques. However, the success rate of computational design remains low. In this review, we provide an overview of experimentally validated, de novo designed proteins and compare four available programs, RosettaDesign, EGAD, Liang-Grishin, and RosettaDesign-SR, by assessing designed sequences computationally. Computational assessment includes the recovery of native sequences, the calculation of sizes of hydrophobic patches and total solvent-accessible surface area, and the prediction of structural properties such as intrinsic disorder, secondary structures, and three-dimensional structures. This computational assessment, together with a recent community-wide experiment in assessing scoring functions for interface design, suggests that the next-generation protein-design scoring function will come from the right balance of complementary interaction terms. Such balance may be found when more negative experimental data become available as part of a training set.

Li, Zhixiu; Yang, Yuedong; Zhan, Jian; Dai, Liang; Zhou, Yaoqi

2013-01-01

327

Guiding Principles for Designing and Growing a Campus Network for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers guidelines to help colleges and universities ensure a course of telecommunications network growth and renewal, provide continuous network upgrades, and maintain a position of flexibility. Discusses focuses on principles that guide network planning and design; how to apply principles to standard building blocks and network design; voice,…

Long, Philip E.

2000-01-01

328

Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely

S. Babidge; J. Cokley; F. Gordon; E. Louw

2005-01-01

329

Detection of changes in design discharges due to river engineering works by multilinear flow routing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of flood waves on alluvial reaches of rivers was often influenced by engineering works carried out mostly during the last century. This study presents a framework that can be used for estimation of changes in design floods in consequence of these works by detecting changes in the travel-time vs. peak discharge relationship and implementing them into a conceptual hydrologic flood routing model. The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on two case studies on the Morava and Danube Rivers in Slovakia. First empirical data on the travel time of the flood peaks were collected from a set of flood waves from periods before and after the river engineering works had been completed. The patterns observed in the travel-time vs. peak-discharge relationships from both periods were analysed. Next, a multilinear conceptual flow routing model was fitted to larger floods from both periods. The discrete state space representation of the Kalinin-Miljukov model was used as the basis for a multilinear discrete cascade flood routing model of the river reaches studied. The time distribution scheme of the model inputs was employed in the setup of the model. The travel-time parameter of the multilinear model was allowed to vary with the input discharge into the river reach according to a piecewise linear relationship. The shape and parameters of that relationship were estimated by optimisation on the flood waves from the pre- and post-river training periods with the help of a genetic algorithm using the performance of the multilinear model as the optimization criterion. The resulting travel-time vs. discharge relationships were compared against those detected in the empirical data. It was shown that changes in the flood peak travel-times detected by the genetic optimisation of the performance of the multilinear model on a small number of floods exhibit the same tendencies as found in the empirical data. Since the changes detected in the attenuation of floods peaks were included in the parameterisation of the multilinear model, the changes in design floods had been assessed by frequency analysis of flood peaks gained by the simulation of the attenuation of a series of historical flood waves for pre- and post-river training conditions.

Szolgay, J.; Daná?ová, M.; Šúrek, P.

2009-04-01

330

The Forgiving Building: A Library Building Consultants' Symposium on the Design, Construction, and Remodeling of Libraries to Support a High-Tech Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains contributions by seven library building consultants on designing a forgiving building, i.e., a building that can be modified easily and inexpensively to meet new conditions. Topics include (1) small library design; (2) academic library design; (3) adapting libraries to current and future needs; (4) designing space; (5) the changing…

Dahlgren, Anders C.; And Others

1987-01-01

331

The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

332

My Ideal City (mic): Virtual Environments to Design the Future Town  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIC is an EU funded project to explore the use of shared virtual environments as part of a public discussion on the issues of building the city of the future. An interactive exploration of four european cities - in the digital city models were translated urban places, family problems and citizens wishes - is a chance to see them in different ways and from different points of view, to imagine new scenarios to overcome barriers and stereotypes no longer effective. This paper describes the process from data to visualization of virtual cities and, in detail, the project of two interactive digital model (Trento and Lisbon).

Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.

2011-09-01

333

Meta-design: A Framework for the Future of End-User Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world that is not predictable, improvisation, evolution, and innovation are more than a luxury: they are a necessity.\\u000a The challenge of design is not a matter of getting rid of the emergent, but rather of including it and making it an opportunity\\u000a for more creative and more adequate solutions to problems.\\u000a \\u000a Meta-design is an emerging conceptual framework aimed

Gerhard Fischer; Elisa Giaccardi

334

Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

2005-01-01

335

The Implications of Encoder/Modulator/ Phased Array Designs for Future Broadband LEO Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we summarize the effects of modulation and channel coding on the design of wide angle scan, broadband, phased army antennas. In the paper we perform several trade studies. First, we investigate the amplifier back-off requirement as a function of variability of modulation envelope. Specifically, we contrast constant and non-constant envelope modulations, as well as single and multiple carrier schemes. Additionally, we address the issues an(f concerns of using pulse shaping filters with the above modulation types. Second, we quantify the effects of beam steering on the quality of data, recovery using selected modulation techniques. In particular, we show that the frequency response of the array introduces intersymbol interference for broadband signals and that the mode of operation for the beam steering controller may introduce additional burst or random errors. Finally, we show that the encoder/modulator design must be performed in conjunction with the phased array antenna design.

Vanderaar, Mark; Jensen, Chris A.; Terry, John D.

1997-01-01

336

Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)  

ScienceCinema

In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

None

2011-10-06

337

Future needs for inelastic analysis in design of high-temperature nuclear plant components. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The role that inelastic analyses play in the design of high-temperature nuclear plant components is described. The design methodology, which explicitly accounts for nonlinear material deformation and time-dependent failure modes, requires a significant level of realism in the prediction of structural response. Thus, material deformation and failure modeling are, along with computational procedures, key parts of the methodology. Each of these is briefly discussed along with validation by comparisons with benchmark structural tests, and problem areas and needs are discussed for each.

Corum, J.M.

1980-01-01

338

Is It Really Work? Primary School Pupils' Conceptions of Design and Technology as a National Curriculum Subject.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two British schools 16 eighth graders were interviewed about their perceptions of design and technology curriculum. They enjoyed the subject, especially the act of creation. For many, conceptions of "real work" and enjoyment were antithetical. Design and technology appear to provide opportunities for engaging learning activities. (SK)

Twyford, John; Burden, Robert

2000-01-01

339

Adaptive Designs in Clinical Drug Development—An Executive Summary of the PhRMA Working Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PhRMA Working Group on adaptive clinical trial designs has been formed to investigate and facilitate opportunities for wider acceptance and usage of adaptive designs and related methodologies. A White Paper summarizing the findings of the group is in preparation; this article is an Executive Summary for that full White Paper, and summarizes the findings and recommendations of the group.

Paul Gallo; Christy Chuang-Stein; Vladimir Dragalin; Brenda Gaydos; Michael Krams; José Pinheiro

2006-01-01

340

The neurointerventional procedure room of the future: predicting likely innovations in design and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multispecialty Occupational Health Group, as part of their work, have considered likely characteristics of the neurointerventional surgery operating room of tomorrow. Such rooms will be distinguished by certain architectural features and markedly increased information technology features. The novel architectural features will include system proximities, such as embedding the procedure room next to traditional operating rooms, anesthesia recovery units, intensive

Alexander Norbash; Lloyd W Klein; James Goldstein; David Haines; Stephen Balter; Lynne Fairobent; Donald L Miller

2011-01-01

341

Behavior Breakthroughs[TM]: Future Teachers Reflect on a Focused Game Designed to Teach ABA Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of a focused educational game. The game, "Behavior Breakthroughs"[TM], was created to teach people that work with children with autism, appropriate behavior management techniques. A group of undergraduate, teacher education students played the game and provided feedback on their experiences.

Lowdermilk, John; Martinez, Deborah; Pecina, Julie; Beccera, Lisa; Lowdermilk, Carey

2012-01-01

342

Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

NONE

1995-10-01

343

Ferritic-Martensitic steel Test Blanket Modules: Status and future needs for design criteria requirements and fabrication validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed are the two breeding blankets concepts for the DEMO reactor which have been selected by EU to be tested in ITER in the framework of the Test Blanket Module projects. They both use a 9%CrWVTa Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steel, called EUROFER, as structural material and helium as coolant. This paper gives an overview of the status of the EUROFER qualification program and discusses the future needs for design criteria requirements and fabrication validation.

Salavy, J.-F.; Aiello, G.; Aubert, P.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Daichendt, M.; De Dinechin, G.; Diegele, E.; Giancarli, L. M.; Lässer, R.; Neuberger, H.; Poitevin, Y.; Stephan, Y.; Rampal, G.; Rigal, E.

2009-04-01

344

Future higher performance O2/H2 engine combustion cycle alternatives. [design for rocket boosters and spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of current and projected advanced O2/H2 rocket engine configurations for high-efficiency engine designs is examined. Particular attention is given to engine cycle configurations, operating pressures, and performance characteristics which can be foreseen for the engine configurations past the 1980 era for single-stage-to-orbit boosters and advanced space engines. The discussion covers potential O2/H2 performance gains achievable, engine cycle improvements, and projected O2/H2 engine component efficiency, weight, and other improvements foreseen through future development.

Wagner, W. R.

1976-01-01

345

Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work.  

SciTech Connect

Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

2010-11-01

346

Plant Monitoring System Design: Italian BWR NPP and Future Trends in Man-Machine Interface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TMI accident sequence and daily operating experience, gained at Italian and other NPPs worldwide, have deeply affected the approach to the design of information channeling to the control room staff. It is now clear that most problems in plant operatio...

F. Maestri M. Sepielli

1987-01-01

347

DESIGNS FOR THE FUTURE: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ASSESSMENT OF CONDITION AND DIAGNOSIS OF IMPAIRMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

As the EPA, states, and tribes move towards a consolidated assessment and listing process to satisfy requirements of the Clean Water Act, multi-purpose monitoring designs will be needed to assess regional condition as well as predict site-specific probabilities of impairment. Th...

348

CURRENT WORLDWIDE SIDE IMPACT ACTIVITIES - DIVERGENCE VERSUS HARMONISATION AND THE POSSIBLE EFFECT ON FUTURE CAR DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car manufacturers design vehicles and side impact restraint systems to protect passengers from the risk of serious injury in the event of a side impact. In each of the major markets of the world, the side- impact testing requirements as set by the regulatory and the consumer interests are generally different. This paper will document and compare the international side

A. McNeill; J. Haberl; M Holzner; R. Schoeneburg; T. Strutz; U. Tautenhahn

349

Designing Teams for First-of-a-Kind, Complex Systems Using the Initial Phases of Cognitive Work Analysis: Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for team design based on cognitive work analysis (CWA). We first develop a rationale for this technique by discussing the limitations of conventional approaches for team design in light of the special characteristics of first-of-a-kind, complex systems. We then introduce the CWA-based technique for team design and provide a case study of how we used this

Neelam Naikar; Brett Pearce; Dominic Drumm; Penelope M. Sanderson

2003-01-01

350

Multi-shaped beams antennas design and technology for future communication satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  An overview of multi-shaped beams antennas for communication satellites is presented. Microwave technologies and relevant\\u000a techniques to perform beam reconfigurability are discussed by making reference to commercial satellites developed in the USA\\u000a and to recent studies which Selenia Spazio completed for ESA and Intelsat. Emphasis is given to the design of advanced antenna\\u000a configurations for the next generation of communication

Giulio Doro Altan; Francesco Rispoli

1989-01-01

351

Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems  

SciTech Connect

The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of advanced lightweight structures for new generation vehicles in the context of whole life performance parameters.

Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R. [CEIAT, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queens University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

352

Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of advanced lightweight structures for new generation vehicles in the context of whole life performance parameters.

Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

2011-05-01

353

Wavelength routing and optical burst switching in the design of future optical network architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelength-routed optical network (WRON) architectures potentially simplify routing and processing functions in high-capacity, high-bit rate WDM optical networks. With the inherent low latency these are relatively easy to design with a number of efficient routing and wavelength assignment protocols proposed to date. However, the pressure to optimise network resources and protocols for IP traffic has focused attention on network architectures

Polina Bayvel

2001-01-01

354

Fridge of the future: Designing a one-kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer  

SciTech Connect

An industry/government Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established to evaluate and test design concepts for a domestic refrigerator-freezer unit that represents approximately 60% of the US market. The goal of the CRADA was to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50 percent, the 1993 NAECA standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 I) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translated to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research was to facilitate the introduction of cost-efficient technologies by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. A 1996 model refrigerator-freezer was selected as the baseline unit for testing. Since the unit was required to meet the 1993 NAECA standards, the energy consumption was quite low (1.676 kWh/d), thus making further reductions in energy consumption very challenging. Among the energy saving features incorporated into the original design of the baseline unit were a low-wattage evaporator fan, increased insulation thicknesses, and liquid line flange heaters.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1998-03-01

355

Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

Ritterbusch, S.E.

2000-08-01

356

Design of an ultra low power CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

Despite a continuously increasing demand, neutron electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are still far from being completely established because their development is a very difficult task. A low-noise, ultra low power consumption CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter has been implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. The prototype is composed of a pixel array for detection of charged particles, and the readout electronics is integrated on the same substrate for signal processing. The excess electrons generated by an impinging particle are collected by the pixel array. The charge collection time and the efficiency are the crucial points of a CMOS detector. The 3-D device simulations using the commercially available Synopsys-SENTAURUS package address the detailed charge collection process. Within a time of 1.9 {mu}s, about 59% electrons created by the impact particle are collected in a cluster of 4 x 4 pixels with the pixel pitch of 80 {mu}m. A charge sensitive preamplifier (CSA) and a shaper are employed in the frond-end readout. The tests with electrical signals indicate that our prototype with a total active area of 2.56 x 2.56 mm{sup 2} performs an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of less than 400 e - and 314 {mu}W power consumption, leading to a promising prototype. (authors)

Zhang, Y.; Hu-Guo, C.; Husson, D.; Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridisplinaire Hubert Curien IPHC, Univ. of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 23 Rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

2011-07-01

357

Parents' Participation in a Work-Based Anti-Poverty Program Can Enhance Their Children's Future Orientation: Understanding Pathways of Influence  

PubMed Central

Planning and preparing for life after high school is a central developmental task of American adolescents, and may be even more critical for low-income youth who are less likely to attend a four year college. This study investigates factors that led to the effects of the New Hope Project, a work-based, anti-poverty program directed at parents on youths’ career-related thoughts and planning. The New Hope project was implemented in Milwaukee, WI, during the mid-1990s. 745 families participated (52% male children; 56% African American; 30% Latino, and 15% White non-Hispanic) and half were randomly selected to receive New Hope benefits, which included earnings supplements, job search assistance, and child and health care subsidies for three years. Importantly, effects on youths’ future orientation were found eight years after the program began (five years after benefits ended). The present study investigates what factors sustained these positive impacts over time. Results indicate that parental perceptions of reading performance mediate the effects of New Hope on youths’ cynicism about work. Additionally, parental perceptions of reading performance and youths’ educational expectations mediate the effects of New Hope on boys’ pessimism about future employment. These findings highlight the importance of youths’ educational development to their career-related thoughts and planning.

Purtell, Kelly M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

2012-01-01

358

Working on the Boundaries: Philosophies and Practices of the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While systems engineering process is a program formal management technique and contractually binding, the design process is the informal practice of achieving the design project requirements throughout all design phases of the systems engineering process. The design process and organization are systems and component dependent. Informal reviews include technical information meetings and concurrent engineering sessions, and formal technical discipline reviews are conducted through the systems engineering process. This paper discusses and references major philosophical principles in the design process, identifies its role in interacting systems and disciplines analyses and integrations, and illustrates the process application in experienced aerostructural designs.

Ryan, R.; Blair, J.; Townsend, J.; Verderaime, V.

1996-01-01

359

AGS SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY ACCELERATOR AND TARGET SYSTEM DESIGN (NEUTRINO WORKING GROUP REPORT-II).  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the design of the accelerator and target systems for the AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility. Under the direction of the Associate Laboratory Director Tom Kirk, BNL has established a Neutrino Working Group to explore the scientific case and facility requirements for a very long baseline neutrino experiment. Results of a study of the physics merit and detector performance was published in BNL-69395 in October 2002, where it was shown that a wide-band neutrino beam generated by a 1 MW proton beam from the AGS, coupled with a half megaton water Cerenkov detector located deep underground in the former Homestake mine in South Dakota would be able to measure the complete set of neutrino oscillation parameters: (1) precise determination of the oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 32}; (2) detection of the oscillation of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub e} and measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}; (3) measurement of {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} sin 2{theta}{sub 12} in a {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance mode, independent of the value of {theta}{sub 13}; (4) verification of matter enhancement and the sign of {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}; and (5) determination of the CP-violation parameter {delta}{sub CP} in the neutrino sector. This report details the performance requirements and conceptual design of the accelerator and the target systems for the production of a neutrino beam by a 1.0 MW proton beam from the AGS. The major components of this facility include a new 1.2 GeV superconducting linac, ramping the AGS at 2.5 Hz, and the new target station for 1.0 MW beam. It also calls for moderate increase, about 30%, of the AGS intensity per pulse. Special care is taken to account for all sources of proton beam loss plus shielding and collimation of stray beam halo particles to ensure equipment reliability and personal safety. A preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the accelerator upgrade and target system are also included.

DIWAN,M.; MARCIANO,W.; WENG,W.; RAPARIA,D.

2003-04-21

360

Designing out vulnerability, building in respect: violence, safety and sex work policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One recent finding about the prostitution market is the differences in the extent and nature of violence experienced between women who work on the street and those who work from indoor sex work venues.This paper brings together extensive qualitative fieldwork from two cities in the UK to unpack the intricacies in relation to violence and safety for indoor workers. Firstly,

Teela Sanders; Rosie Campbell

2007-01-01

361

A fast cardiac gamma camera with dynamic SPECT capabilities: design, system validation and future potential  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this study is to present the Discovery NM 530c (DNM), a cardiac SPECT camera, interfacing multi-pinhole collimators with solid-state modules, aiming at slashing acquisition time without jeopardizing quality. DNM resembles PET since it enables 3-D SPECT without detector motion. We further envision how these novel capabilities may help with current and future challenges of cardiac imaging. Methods DNM sensitivity, spatial resolution (SR) and energy resolution (ER), count rate response, cardiac uniformity and cardiac defect contrast were measured and compared to a dedicated cardiac, dual-head standard SPECT (S-SPECT) camera. Results DNM sensitivity was more than threefold higher while SR was notably better. Significantly, SR was the same for 99mTc and 201Tl. ER was improved on DNM and allowed good separation of 99mTc and 123I spectral peaks. Count rate remained linear on DNM up to 612 kcps, while S-SPECT showed severe dead time limitations. Phantom studies revealed comparable uniformity and defect contrast, notwithstanding significantly shorter acquisition time for the DNM. First patient images, including dynamic SPECT, are also presented. Conclusion DNM is raising the bar for expedition and upgrade of practice. It features high sensitivity as well as improved SR, temporal resolution and ER. It enables reduction of acquisition time and fast protocols. Importantly, it is potentially capable of dynamic 3-D acquisition. The new technology is potentially upgradeable and may become a milestone in the evolution of nuclear cardiology as it assumes its key role in molecular imaging of the heart.

Blevis, Ira M.; Tsukerman, Leonid; Shrem, Yigal; Kovalski, Gil; Volokh, Lana

2010-01-01

362

Designing Smart Health Care Technology into the Home of the Future  

SciTech Connect

The US health care industry is experiencing a substantial paradigm shift with regard to home care due to the convergence of several technology areas. Increasingly-capable telehealth systems and the internet are not only moving the point of care closer to the patient, but the patient can now assume a more active role in his or her own care. These technologies, coupled with (1) the migration of the health care industry to electronic patient records and (2) the emergence of a growing number of enabling health care technologies (e.g., novel biosensors, wearable devices, and intelligent software agents), demonstrate unprecedented potential for delivering highly automated, intelligent health care in the home. This editorial paper presents a vision for the implementation of intelligent health care technology in the home of the future, focusing on areas of research that have the highest potential payoff given targeted government funding over the next ten years. Here, intelligent health care technology means smart devices and systems that are aware of their context and can therefore assimilate information to support care decisions. A systems perspective is used to describe a framework under which devices can interact with one another in a plug-and-play manner. Within this infrastructure, traditionally passive sensors and devices will have read/write access to appropriate portions of an individual's electronic medical record. Through intelligent software agents, plug-and-play mechanisms, messaging standards, and user authentication tools, these smart home-based medical devices will be aware of their own capabilities, their relationship to the other devices in the home system, and the identity of the individual(s) from whom they acquire data. Information surety technology will be essential to maintain the confidentiality of patient-identifiable medical information and to protect the integrity of geographically dispersed electronic medical records with which each home-based system will interact.

Warren, S.; Craft, R.L.; Bosma, J.T.

1999-04-07

363

Work in progress — Exploiting high-altitude ballooning as a framework of ECE Senior Design projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senior Design is a challenging course for both students and the instructor and\\/or faculty advisors. To design the course that can create enjoyable learning environment and be effective in addressing the ABET criteria for student outcomes, we have adopted a high-altitude weather ballooning as the framework of projects for Senior Design. It is envisioned that the new framework better develops

Wookwon Lee; Fong K. Mak

2010-01-01

364

Human factors and ergonomic principles in building design for life and work activities: an applied methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though all human activities are executed in a built environment, only a few studies seem to be available about a building design methodology based on an ergonomic approach. The article presents a preliminary survey of some principles driven by human factors\\/ergonomics discipline, analysing the role they play in the architectural design process, in order to define a design methodology

Erminia Attaianese; Gabriella Duca

2012-01-01

365

Human factors and ergonomic principles in building design for life and work activities: an applied methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though all human activities are executed in a built environment, only a few studies seem to be available about a building design methodology based on an ergonomic approach. The article presents a preliminary survey of some principles driven by human factors\\/ergonomics discipline, analysing the role they play in the architectural design process, in order to define a design methodology

Erminia Attaianese; Gabriella Duca

2010-01-01

366

The Study of Health Coaching: The Ithaca Coaching Project, Research Design, and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Health coaching (HC) is a process holding tremendous potential as a complementary medical intervention to shape healthy behavior change and affect rates of chronic lifestyle diseases. Empirical knowledge of effectiveness for the HC process, however, is lacking. The purposes of this paper are to present the study protocol for the Ithaca Coaching Project while also addressing research design, methodological issues, and directions for HC research. This is one of the first large-scale, randomized control trials of HC for primary prevention examining impact on physical and emotional health status in an employee population. An additional intent for the project is to investigate self-determination theory as a theoretical framework for the coaching process. Participants (n=300) are recruited as part of a campus-wide wellness initiative and randomly assigned to one of three levels of client-centered HC or a control with standard wellness program care. Repeated measures analyses of covariance will be used to examine coaching effectiveness while path analyses will be used to examine relationships between coaching processes, self-determination variables, and health outcomes. There is a great need for well-designed HC studies that define coaching best practices, examine intervention effectiveness, provide cost:benefit analysis, and address scope of practice. This information will allow a clearer definition of HC to emerge and determination of if, and how, HC fits in modern-day healthcare. This is an exciting but critical time for HC research and for the practice of HC.

2013-01-01

367

Current Grid Generation Strategies and Future Requirements in Hypersonic Vehicle Design, Analysis and Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in computational power enable computational fluid dynamic modeling of increasingly complex configurations. A review of grid generation methodologies implemented in support of the computational work performed for the X-38 and X-33 are presented. In strategizing topological constructs and blocking structures factors considered are the geometric configuration, optimal grid size, numerical algorithms, accuracy requirements, physics of the problem at hand, computational expense, and the available computer hardware. Also addressed are grid refinement strategies, the effects of wall spacing, and convergence. The significance of grid is demonstrated through a comparison of computational and experimental results of the aeroheating environment experienced by the X-38 vehicle. Special topics on grid generation strategies are also addressed to model control surface deflections, and material mapping.

Papadopoulos, Periklis; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Prabhu, Dinesh; Loomis, Mark P.; Olynick, Dave; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

368

Instructional Design Approaches for Improving a Course in Productivity and Work Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the teaching styles of the professor, learning styles of the students, characteristics of the students, comparisons of Pearson's correlation coefficients between student grades earned in the course versus their cumulative grade point averages, and factors to consider for future Web-enhanced courses. The objectives of the…

Lowry, Pamela

2007-01-01

369

Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

2006-01-01

370

EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals' quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a worldwide leader. Evaluation and surveillance of the full cost of allergic diseases is still lacking and further progress is being stifled by the variety of health systems across Europe. This means that the general population remains unaware of the potential use of allergen specific immunotherapy and its potential benefits.We call upon Europe's policy-makers to coordinate actions and improve individual and public health in allergy by:Promoting awareness of the effectiveness of allergen specific immunotherapyUpdating national healthcare policies to support allergen specific immunotherapyPrioritising funding for allergen specific immunotherapy researchMonitoring the macroeconomic and health economic parameters of allergyReinforcing allergy teaching in medical disciplines and specialtiesThe effective implementation of the above policies has the potential for a major positive impact on European health and well-being in the next decade. PMID:23110958

Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Bousquet, Jean; Sheikh, Aziz; Frew, Anthony; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Malling, Hans J; Valenta, Rudolph; Bilo, Beatrice; Nieto, Antonio; Akdis, Cezmi; Just, Jocelyne; Vidal, Carmen; Varga, Eva M; Alvarez-Cuesta, Emilio; Bohle, Barbara; Bufe, Albrecht; Canonica, Walter G; Cardona, Victoria; Dahl, Ronald; Didier, Alain; Durham, Stephen R; Eng, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Jacobsen, Lars; Jutel, Marek; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Lötvall, Jan; Moreno, Carmen; Mosges, Ralph; Muraro, Antonella; Niggemann, Bodo; Pajno, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Rak, Sabina; Senna, Gianenrico; Senti, Gabriela; Valovirta, Erkka; van Hage, Marianne; Virchow, Johannes C; Wahn, Ulrich; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

2012-01-01

371

EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy. Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a worldwide leader. Evaluation and surveillance of the full cost of allergic diseases is still lacking and further progress is being stifled by the variety of health systems across Europe. This means that the general population remains unaware of the potential use of allergen specific immunotherapy and its potential benefits. We call upon Europe’s policy-makers to coordinate actions and improve individual and public health in allergy by: Promoting awareness of the effectiveness of allergen specific immunotherapy Updating national healthcare policies to support allergen specific immunotherapy Prioritising funding for allergen specific immunotherapy research Monitoring the macroeconomic and health economic parameters of allergy Reinforcing allergy teaching in medical disciplines and specialties The effective implementation of the above policies has the potential for a major positive impact on European health and well-being in the next decade.

2012-01-01

372

Preservice teachers: Future first responders in the evolution versus intelligent design battle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) states that evolution is the unifying theme from which all biological science is to be organized and it is the basic principle that guides the majority of biology curricula in the American public school systems today. Previous research indicates a widespread lack of acceptance by the American public of the veracity of this theory and even less agreement that it should be taught as the only theory of human origins in the public schools. Many studies have also documented students' difficulties in learning, or accepting, the theory of evolution. From the time of the Scopes trial in the 1920s, to landmark Supreme Court decisions in the seventies and eighties, the manner of how evolution should taught has been an issue of contention. The most recent challenge to evolution's putative privileged place is called the intelligent design movement which seeks recognition as a competing scientific theory in a way that scientific creationism was never able to be recognized. While there has been much research conducted on the issue of student and teacher acceptance of the theory of evolution, until recently there have been few documented studies of the preservice teacher. To help fill this gap a survey based quantitative study of 330 preservice teachers from both a public and private Southern California university credentialing program was conducted. Their positions regarding the teaching of evolution in the public schools as well as their own beliefs about the importance of the issue were assessed. Results revealed that a majority (52%) was against the teaching of the theory of evolution as the only scientific theory of origins and that over 38% believed that intelligent design should be taught as an alternate or competing theory. Factors that identified this latter group were strongly held religious beliefs, a conservative political ideology, a low level of acceptance of the scientific consensus for the validity about the theory of evolution, and a misunderstanding regarding the nature of science (NOS).

Strauss, Jeffrey M.

373

Oxygen diffusion barriers using a new sacrificial design concept for future high-density memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We emphasize the importance of the new design concept for diffusion barriers in high-density memory capacitors. RuTiN and RuTiO films are proposed as sacrificial oxygen diffusion barriers. They showed much lower sheet resistance up to 800 °C than various barriers including binary and ternary nitrides, reported by others. The contact resistance for both the Pt/RuTiN/TiSix/n++poly-plug/n+channel layer/Si and the Pt/RuTiO/RuTiN/TiSix/n++poly-plug/n+channel layer/Si contact structures, the most important electrical parameter for the diffusion barrier in the bottom-electrode structure of capacitors, exhibited values as low as 5 k?, even after annealing up to 750 °C. When each RuTiN and TiN film is inserted as a glue layer between the bottom electrode Pt layer in the CVD-BST simple stack-type structure, the thermal stability of the RuTiN glue layer is observed to be 150 °C higher than that of the TiN glue layer. Moreover, the capacitance of the PVD-BST simple stack-type structure with a TiN glue layer initially degrades after annealing at 500 °C, and thereafter failed completely. In the case of RuTiN and the RuTiO/RuTiN glue layers, however, the capacitance continuously increased up to 550 °C. These new experimental results accommodate the introduction of the sacrificial design concept of diffusion barriers against oxygen in high-density memory capacitors.

Yoon, D. S.; Roh, J. S.

374

Designing for Diagnosing: Introduction to the Special Issue on Diagnostic Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

When faced with anything out of the ordinary, faulty or suspicious, the work of determining and categorizing the trouble,\\u000a and scoping for what to do about it (if anything) often go hand in hand—this is diagnostic work. In all its expert and non-expert\\u000a forms diagnostic work is often both intellectual and embodied, collaborative and distributed, and ever more deeply entangled

Monika Büscher; Jacki O’Neill; John Rooksby

2009-01-01

375

Using apprenticeship communication flow as an ergonomic design input for future OR systems.  

PubMed

Removing the gallbladder is a relatively simple laparoscopic operation. Tissue trauma, caused by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, is usually minimal. Misidentifying the cystic duct and artery and the common hepatic duct represents the most severe complication. However, the Critical View of Safety (CVS) technique reduces the risk of trauma, by accomplishing a safe 360 degrees identification of the cystic duct origin at the gallbladder neck [5]. This technique is employed and trained at the Erasmus Medical Centre (EMC), Rotterdam, The Netherlands. This study presents the potential value of a training device which residents can use during practice. This training device must cover both user friendliness and information supply. The current information supply was studied subjectively; the CVS protocol and the users' experience were studied both objectively and subjectively. The results of these studies show that the present information supply is not satisfactory, that there is a CVS protocol which can be easily used in a training device, and that most actions defining the cystic duct during operation revert on users' experience. Therefore, it is desirable to design a new training device according to the experience of the target group and the protocols, and taking into account an optimal human-product interaction. PMID:16754501

Ten Kate; Lange; Kleinrensink; van Veelen; Goossens

2004-06-01

376

Enhancing the intrinsic work motivation of community nutrition educators: how supportive supervision and job design foster autonomy.  

PubMed

Mixed-methods research investigated the work motivation of paraprofessional community nutrition educators (CNEs) delivering a long-running public health nutrition program. In interviews, CNEs (n = 9) emphasized "freedom," supportive supervision, and "making a difference" as key sources of motivation. Community nutrition educator surveys (n = 115) confirmed high levels of autonomy, which was associated with supervisors' delegation and support, CNE decision-making on scheduling and curricula, and job satisfaction. Supervisors (n = 32) rated CNEs' job design as having inherently motivating characteristics comparable to professional jobs. Supervisory strategies can complement job design to create structured, supportive contexts that maintain fidelity, while granting autonomy to paraprofessionals to enhance intrinsic work motivation. PMID:21673524

Dickin, Katherine L; Dollahite, Jamie S; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

377

Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: Influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.  

PubMed

The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

2014-07-01

378

What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Standards for Evaluating Single Case Designs (SCDs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) seeks to provide educators, policymakers, researchers, and the public with a central and trusted source of scientific evidence for what works in education. The WWC was established in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES). It serves as a decision-making resource by…

Monahan, Shannon; Kratochwill, Thomas; Lipscomb, Stephen

2011-01-01

379

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Design as a Prevention Strategy. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are of serious concern to many organizations, including industry, insurance, and health care. They are also of immediate concern to the workers and their families who are adversely affected by these disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a substantial source of economic drain to these organizations. Sources of this drain include economic losses incurred from lost or decreased

Tyler Amell; Shrawan Kumar

2001-01-01

380

Worked Example: How Scientific Accuracy in Game Design Stimulates Scientific Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this worked example we present the importance of scientific accuracy in gaming environments that rely heavily on learning-based activities. This worked example focuses on WhyReef, a simulated coral reef in the virtual world of Whyville.net, which is targeted towards kids ages 8-16. Within WhyReef, kids are able to \\

Audrey Aronowsky; Beth Sanzenbacher; Johanna Thompson; Krystal Villanosa

2011-01-01

381

Design and Implementation of Self-Directed Work Teams in a Pre-Erection Outfitting Department.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the suitability of work teams in a shipbuilding pre-erection outfitting area. Of special interest is NASSCO'S attempt at implementing work teams in their pre-election outfitting area, the On-Block Department. Although the On-Block wor...

S. Salata, T. Caffo, D. Webb, S. Ehrlich, S. Kent

1992-01-01

382

KNOWLEDGE CREATION, COMMUNICATION AND ROLE OF IT IN SOFTWARE DESIGN AND RESEARCH WORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressure of companies to constantly create new knowledge to renew and innovate has grown invincible in current market situation. Accordingly, it has become necessary to understand the dynamics of knowledge work and the knowledge processes leading to knowledge creation. In this study, the knowledge processes and communication embedded in generation of new knowledge in knowledge work are studied. The

Laura Hyttinen

2003-01-01

383

Design and Implementation of an Integrated Computer Working Environment for Doing Mathematics and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…

Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton

2009-01-01

384

The Study of Surface Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Its Design, Efficiency, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a Surface Computer Supported Cooperative Work paradigm is proposed. Recently, multitouch technology has become widely available for human-computer interaction. We found it has great potential to facilitate more awareness of human-to-human interaction than personal computers (PCs) in colocated collaborative work. However, other…

Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Su, Jia-Han

2012-01-01

385

Reinforcement loads in geosynthetic walls and the case for a new working stress design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides a synthesis of work by the writers that has the objective of developing a new working stress method for the calculation of reinforcement loads in geosynthetic reinforced soil walls. As a precursor to this objective, careful back-analyses of a database of instrumented and monitored full-scale field and laboratory walls are used to demonstrate that the current American

Richard J. Bathurst; Tony M. Allen; Dave L. Walters

2005-01-01

386

The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena

2013-09-01

387

Cross-cultural user-interface design for work, home, play, and on the way  

Microsoft Academic Search

User interface design requires good visual design of metaphors, mental models, navigation, appearance, and interaction to represent data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Techniques of simplicity, clarity, and consistency can improve the communication effectiveness of user interfaces for the Web, mobile devices and information appliances, and performance (productivity) tools. In particular, the use of appropriate typography, layout, color, animation,

Aaron Marcus

2001-01-01

388

Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice. NBER Working Paper No. 13039  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Regression Discontinuity (RD) designs for evaluating causal effects of interventions, assignment to a treatment is determined at least partly by the value of an observed covariate lying on either side of a fixed threshold. These designs were first introduced in the evaluation literature by Thistlewaite and Campbell (1960). With the exception of…

Imbens, Guido; Lemieux, Thomas

2007-01-01

389

Work in progress — Undergraduate research course design at KFUPM, a basic starting experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we share our approach into the design of undergraduate research course at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The course design process, description and instruction delivery are discussed. The lessons learnt will be highlighted along with experiences and challenges from a first offering of the course during winter term of 2011. As a first assessment,

Amar Khoukhi; King Fahd

2011-01-01

390

The Design of Curriculum Guidelines for Educational Ladders Using Task Data. Working Paper No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Health Services Mobility Study is engaged in the development of generic methodology to analyze health occupations at the professional, technical, and aide level, with the aim of providing a data base that could result in the design of job ladders, curriculum guidelines for educational ladders, and the design of performance evaluation…

Gullion, Christina; Gilpatrick, Eleanor

391

Conceptualizing teamwork and group-work in architecture and related design disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the early findings of an Australian Learning Teaching Council (ALTC\\/OLT) funded project – “Enhancing and Assessing Group and Team Learning in Architecture and Related Design Contexts.” This is a two-year project investigating good practice in Australian higher education for the teaching of teamwork in the design disciplines, with a focus on architecture. Drawing upon a review

Richard Tucker; Neda Abbasi

392

Designing Effective Science Instruction: What Works in Science Classrooms (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science teachers, like all teachers, start each school year with high hopes and expectations for students to succeed. They plan their lessons, scramble to get the necessary equipment, and work hard to engage their students. However, despite good intention

Tweed, Anne

2009-10-13

393

Design for end-user acceptance: requirements for work clothing for fishermen in Mediterranean and northern fishing grounds.  

PubMed

Fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations, and as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world suffer fatal injuries or drowning at sea every year. Although fishermen in the European fishing fleet work in harsh and dangerous environments, many fishermen do not use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and poor functionality. This emphasizes the importance of designing work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) with functionality that matches the fishermen's needs. The aim of this study was to identify the requirements for work clothing in terms of comfort, protection, and safety for fishermen operating in northern fishing grounds and in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, we investigated whether fishermen in the Mediterranean prioritize work-clothing requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. Interviews and observations of fishermen provided us with the requirements for work clothing for fishermen. A questionnaire was then distributed to a selection of European fishermen. The study showed that fishermen operating in the Mediterranean prioritized their requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. There was good agreement on requirements regarding work comfort. Safety requirements, such as integrated buoyancy, were ranked as less important by the Mediterranean fishermen compared to fishermen in northern fishing grounds. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of work clothing and PPE for fishermen. Work clothing and PPE that fulfil the requirements are likely to obtain end-user acceptance and thus improve safety for fishermen at sea. PMID:22669810

Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjorsvik; Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Faerevik, Hilde; Reitan, Jarl; Holmen, Ingunn Marie; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

2012-01-01

394

Improvement and validation of design tools for antennas of space instruments working in terahertz frequency range  

Microsoft Academic Search

For validation of RF pattern performance the modelling and simulation of complex antennas is an important step in the design process. The availability of efficient design tools and processing capacity of state-of-the-art computers allows an increasing high reliability on the calculation results. For higher frequencies above Ka-Band and mainly in the mm-wave frequency range, additional parameters and higher data rates

Jürgen Hartmann; Jürgen Habersack; Hans-Jürgen Steiner

2009-01-01

395

Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program  

SciTech Connect

A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

1992-08-01

396

Collaborative Faculty Assessment of Service-Learning Student Work to Improve Student and Faculty Learning and Course Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates an approach for using university-wide service-learning student outcomes to assess student work for the purpose of improving service-learning student and faculty learning and course design. The author and a colleague used this approach to study the author's service-learning course. The results of this study generated an…

Shapiro, Daniel F.

2012-01-01

397

Design and aerodynamic performance evaluation of a high-work mixed flow turbine stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As axial and radial turbine designs have been pushed to their aerothermodynamic and mechanical limits, the mixed-flow turbine (MFT) concept has been projected to offer performance and durability improvements, especially when ceramic materials are considered. The objective of this NASA/U.S. Army sponsored mixed-flow turbine (AMFT) program was to determine the level of performance attainable with MFT technology within the mechanical constraints of 1997 projected ceramic material properties. The MFT geometry is similar to a radial turbine, exhibiting a large radius change from inlet to exit, but differing in that the inlet flowpath is not purely radial, nor axial, but mixed; it is the inlet geometry that gives rise to the name 'mixed-flow'. The 'mixed' orientation of the turbine inlet offers several advantages over radial designs by allowing a nonzero inlet blade angle yet maintaining radial-element blades. The oblique inlet not only improves the particle-impact survivability of the design, but improves the aerodynamic performance by reducing the incidence at the blade inlet. The difficulty, however, of using mixed-flow geometry lies in the scarcity of detailed data and documented design experience. This paper reports the design of a MFT stage designed with the intent to maximize aerodynamic performance by optimizing design parameters such as stage reaction, rotor incidence, flowpath shape, blade shape, vane geometry, and airfoil counts using 2-D, 3-D inviscid, and 3-D viscous computational fluid dynamics code. The aerodynamic optimization was accomplished while maintaining mechanical integrity with respect to vibration and stress levels in the rotor. A full-scale cold-flow rig test was performed with metallic hardware fabricated to the specifications of the hot ceramic geometry to evaluate the stage performance.

Neri, Remo N.; Elliott, Thomas J.; Marsh, David N.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

1994-01-01

398

Virtual patient design: exploring what works and why. A grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. Methods This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. Results We identified a central core phenomenon designated ‘learning from the VP’. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student–VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an ‘encoded object’, an e-learning artefact and as a ‘constructed activity’, with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. Conclusions This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding of how and why the delivery and design of VPs influence learning. The model may be of practical use to authors, institutions and researchers.

Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David

2013-01-01

399

Summary of Tertiary investigations in western Saudi Arabia, current work by the U.S. Geological Survey and recommended future studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1936, geologic work related to the Tertiary System in western Saudi Arabia began with a study of the Umm Gerad barite deposit by K. S. Twitchell. In 1944, a study focusing specifically on Tertiary rocks was conducted by Steineke and others near Jiddah. Small-scale mapping of Tertiary sequences began in 1950 in southwestern Saudi Arabia and later in northern 3audi Arabia as part of the Kingdom's early mapping program. These studies were part of a larger program being directed by the Government of Saudi Arabia in connection with mineral resource investigations. In the mid- to late-1960's, the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres discovered mineralized Tertiary rocks al Jabal Dhaylan and began a study, which continues to the present, of both the Tertiary rocks and the mineralization. Following a number of early local studies, in 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey began detailed study of the Tertiary layered rocks along the Red Sea coastal plain south of Jiddah. More recently, Riofinex and Seltrust have been exploring for selected commodities in Tertiary sequences of northwestern Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea coastal plain. Results of these studies, including work by the Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources and the Saudi government agency preceding it, are summarized in this report. Characteristics of the Tertiary rocks south of lat 23? N. and the Tertiary mineral deposits of western Saudi Arabia are also summarized. Recommendations are made for future geologic studies and mineral assessment of the Tertiary rocks of western Saudi Arabia.

Hadley, Donald G.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Coleman, Robert Griffin

1983-01-01

400

Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit features 40 activities that challenge students to assume the roles of workers at Lunar Nautics Space Systems, Inc., a fictional aerospace company specializing in mission management, lunar habitat and exploration design, and scientific research. The guide includes information to teach the basics on Newton's Laws of Motion, rocket design, microgravity, and the moon. Students design, test and analyze a model lunar lander, a robot, and a soda bottle rocket. They also build edible models, a solar oven to cook hot dogs, and a microgravity sled while underwater. Educators can use this guide in a variety of formats such as week-long day camps, after-school programs, a classroom unit or as supporting curriculum.

401

Why the first laser worked as designed (and is still kicking today)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theodore Maiman, the inventor of the laser, was both a physicist and an engineer. One can speculate that this combination of backgrounds was the main reason for the successful design, construction, and demonstration of the ruby laser in May 1960. The reasons for this success - as stated by Maiman in discussions with the present author - include some basic rules of elegant engineering design: understand what you want to make, understand the physics behind it, understand the nature of the materials to be used for fabrication, and finally, be a minimalist - simplify. Even now, the elegance and simplicity of the design of the first laser is evident upon viewing. The following text will try to gather and clarify all the components necessary for an invention such as the laser, classified by Nature magazine as one of twenty one most important inventions of twentieth century.

Rawicz, A. H.

2010-09-01

402

The Working Postures among Schoolchildren--Controlled Intervention Study on the Effects of Newly Designed Workstations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School workstations are often inappropriate in not offering an optimal sitting posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individually adjustable saddle-type chairs with wheels and desks with comfort curve and arm support on schoolchildren's working postures compared to conventional workstations. Methods:…

Saarni, Lea; Nygrd, Clas-H kan; Rimpel, Arja; Nummi, Tapio; Kaukiainen, Anneli

2007-01-01

403

The What Works Clearinghouse Single-Case Design Pilot Standards: Who Will Guard the Guards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we respond to Wolery's critique of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) pilot "Standards," which were developed by the current authors. We do so to provide additional information and clarify some points previously summarized in this journal. We also respond to several concerns raised by Maggin, Briesch, and Chafouleas…

Hitchcock, John H.; Horner, Robert H.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Levin, Joel R.; Odom, Samuel L.; Rindskopf, David M.; Shadish, William R.

2014-01-01

404

Design Criteria for Work-Based Learning: Merrill's First Principles of Instruction Expanded  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In multinational corporations, new models of learning are developing. A particular model with direct applications for challenges facing distributed workforces is one that combines the strengths of formal and informal learning while focusing on participants' work-based tasks. An operationalisation of this model in the context of the ongoing…

Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush

2005-01-01

405

EMPLOYMENT, HOURS OF WORK AND THE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF EARNED INCOME TAX CREDITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the optimal schedule of marginal tax rates and the de- sign of earned income tax credits. The analysis is based on a structural labour supply model which incorporates unobserved heterogeneity, fixed costs of work and the detailed non-convexities of the tax and transfer system. An analytical framework is developed that allows explicitly for an extensive margin

Richard Blundell; Andrew Shephard

406

Supporting the Development of Undergraduates' Experimental Design Skills and Investigating their Perceptions of Project Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project work represents a significant component of most Bioscience degrees. Conscious that students are not necessarily given adequate preparation for their final year project, we have investigated two core elements in the 3rd year of a 4-year Honours programme. One element, an investigative project on aspects of insect biology, has run for…

MacKenzie, Jane; Ruxton, Graeme

2006-01-01

407

Virginia Tech Research magazine features preventing natural disasters, discovering how the sun works, designing modern kitchens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes have sheltered viruses and parasites for millions of years. Now scientists with the Vector-Borne Infectious Disease Research Group at Virginia Tech are discovering how the mosquito's immune system works with the aim of helping mosquitoes rebuff invasion by viruses. Meanwhile, Christina George of Manassas, Va., a gutsy undergraduate, is helping establish a sustainable mosquito-borne virus surveillance center in Mali

Susan Trulove

408

Sketch Understanding in Design: Overview of Work at the MIT AI Lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been working on a variety of projects aimed at providing natural forms of interaction with computers, centered primarily around the use of sketch understanding. We argue that sketch understanding is a knowledge-based task, i.e., one that requires various degrees of understanding of the act of sketching, of the domain, and of the task being supported. In the long

Randall Davis

2002-01-01

409

Safety and accidents in the construction industry: A work design perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synoptic view of construction safety from a behavioural science perspective. It considers the different influences that have a bearing upon the formation and maintenance of operatives' attitudes and motivations towards safety and risk-taking at work. It summarizes these influences in terms of a ‘Potential Accident Subject’ model. The implications of this model for the development of

Philip J. Leather

1987-01-01

410

Designing task visualizations to support the coordination of work in software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development tools primarily focus on supporting the technical work. Yet no matter the tools employed, the process followed, or the size of the team, important aspects of development are non-technical, and largely unsupported. For example, increasing distribution of development teams highlights the issues of coordination and cooperation. This paper focuses on one area: managing change requests. Interviews with industry

Christine A. Halverson; Jason B. Ellis; Catalina Danis; Wendy A. Kellogg

2006-01-01

411

Designing New York's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The genius of Mayor Bloomberg's plan to develop a new applied sciences campus in New York City is that it acknowledges the increasingly pivotal role of academic institutions as drivers of local economic growth. At a time when large corporations may not be the reliable job producers they were in the past and cities like New York badly need to…

Giles, David

2012-01-01

412

Imagineering Future Learning Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational change can result in meaningful, holistic learning if communities educate constituents on the need for new societal and educational paradigms; begin a process of disorienting away from old school structures while orienting toward the new; develop a person-based educational philosophy; establish research and development learning…

Glines, Don

2000-01-01

413

Working for Social Change: Using Student-Centered Instructional Designs to Improve Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are being encouraged to implement new instructional designs in an era where new standards, which promote student-centered learning, are being utilized and all students are expected to be successful on standardized tests. Consequently, there is a need for further research on the effectiveness of student-centered instruction. For that…

Burley, M. A.

2009-01-01

414

Indiana University chemists' work will aid drug design to target cancer and inflammatory disease  

Cancer.gov

Chemists at Indiana University Bloomington have produced detailed descriptions of the structure and molecular properties of human folate receptor proteins, a key development for designing new drugs that can target cancer and inflammatory diseases without serious side effects. Indiana University is home to the Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center Cancer Center.

415

The Design of Performance Pay in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16710  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter analyzes the design of incentive schemes in education while reviewing empirical studies that evaluate performance pay programs for educators. Several themes emerge. First, it is difficult to use one assessment system to create both educator performance metrics and measures of student achievement. To mitigate incentives for coaching,…

Neal, Derek

2011-01-01

416

Working through meetings (tutorial session)(abstract only): a framework for designing meeting support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals and content: Through this tutorial, participants will: understand distinctions among various types of meetings and the role of various types of conversations in successful meetings; understand the importance of partnership for achieving team results in meetings; formulate plans for successful technological support for meetings. Participants will experience, through a series of connected exercises, an ad hoc meeting designed to

John Bennett; John Karat

1996-01-01

417

World Wide Web working whilst ignoring graphics: good news for web page designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many web pages are made up of blocks of text with surrounding graphics. In some cases these graphics are animated in a variety of different ways. A common task of web users is to search the text on a web page for some information of interest and, often, this is what such pages’ designers expect. Where information extraction from text

Dan Diaper; P. Waelend

2000-01-01

418

Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

2014-01-01

419

Beyond Knowing How to Make It Work: The Conceptual Foundations of Designing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilbert Ryle (1949) divided knowledge into "know that" and "know how", which is neatly appealing to many design and technology educators, and like many writers on developing the curriculum, Kahney (1993) made a distinction between declarative knowledge: "verbal knowledge, that is, the kind you get from books, instructions and being told what to…

Hope, Gill

2009-01-01

420

Cognitive Models of Scientific Work and Their Implications for the Design of Knowledge Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a sustained program that has involved the design of personally tailored information systems responsive to the needs of scientists performing common research and teaching tasks, this project focuses on the procedural and content requirements for accomplishing need diagnosis and presents these requirements as specifications for an…

Mavor, A. S.; And Others

421

International Workforce Initiatives: Definitions, Design Options, and Project Profiles. Working Paper Series. No. 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is intended for three primary audiences: international development professionals who want to define "workforce" for program design purposes, those who seek information about field activities, and those who want to reflect on the implementation of successful, high impact programs--whether they were broad-based or sector-specific…

Wright, J.W., Jr.

2010-01-01

422

Successful trilogy of geology teaching: computers, guided design, and field work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of lecture and laboratory methods are used in the Geology department at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, in many instances three other teaching techniques are being combined for more effective learning: computer analysis; guided design; and field studies. The integration of the three techniques make it possible for teachers to simultaneously accomplish two goals: 1) teaching

Grogger

1985-01-01

423

Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

2010-01-01

424

Introducing experimental design by evaluating efficacy of herbal remedies (Do herbal remedies really work?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases producing diarrhea as a major symptom.

Robert A. Smith; Laura Pontiggia; Carrie Waterman; Meghan Lichtenwalner

2010-01-01

425

Design of rocker switches for work-vehicles—an application of Kansei Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocker switches used in vehicles meet high demands partly due to the increased focus on customer satisfaction. Previous studies focused on ergonomics and usability rather than design for emotions and affection. The aim of this study was to determine how and to what extent engineering properties influence the perception of rocker switches. Secondary aims were to compare two types of

Simon Schütte; Jörgen Eklund

2005-01-01

426

The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

Kolb, G.J.

1991-01-01

427

The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

Kolb, G. J.

428

Industrial experience with design patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design pattern is a particular prose form of recording design information such that designs which have worked well in the past can be applied again in similar situations in the future. The availability of a collection of design patterns can help both the experienced and the novice designer recognize situations in which design reuse could or should occur. We

Kent Beck; Ron Crocker; Gerard Meszaros; John Vlissides; James O. Coplien; Lutz Dominick; Frances Paulisch

1996-01-01

429

Office Design in a Community CollegeEffect on Work and Communication Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have assessed how characteristics of the physical setting affect specific organizationally-valued behaviors. The present study compares the effects of open-private, closed-shared, and closed-private offices on faculty work patterns and faculty-student interaction. One hundred faculty and 356 students completed questionnaires. In addition, systematic observations of faculty offices over a several day period were conducted to assess occupancy rates as

Franklin D. Becker; Beverly Gield; Kenneth Gaylin; Susan Sayer

1983-01-01

430

Longitudinal design for sonographic measurement of median nerve swelling with controlled exposure to physical work using an animal model.  

PubMed

In the study described here, we examined the feasibility of a longitudinal design to measure sonographically swelling of the median nerve caused by controlled exposure to a work task and to evaluate the relationship of changes in morphology to diagnostic standards. Fifteen macaques, Macaca fascicularis, pinched a lever in various wrist positions at a self-regulated pace (8 h/d, 5 d/wk, 18-20 wk). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured every 2 wk from baseline through working and a 6-wk recovery. Trending across all subjects revealed that NCV slowed and CSA at the carpal tunnel increased in the working arm, whereas no changes were observed in CSA either at the forearm or for any measure in the non-working arm. There was a small negative correlation between NCV and CSA in the working arm. This study provides validation that swelling can be observed using a longitudinal design. Longitudinal human studies are needed to describe the trajectory of nerve swelling for early identification of median nerve pathology. PMID:24139197

Roll, Shawn C; Evans, Kevin D; Volz, Kevin R; Sommerich, Carolyn M

2013-12-01

431

Results from study of potential early commercial MHD power plants and from recent ETF design work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched

F. Hals; R. Kessler; D. Swallom; L. Westra; J. Zar; W. Morgan; C. Bozzuto

1980-01-01

432

Does Higher Education Reduce or Reproduce Social Class Differences? Schooling at Yale University, University of Connecticut, and University of New Haven, and Student Attitudes and Expectations Regarding Future Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of whether higher education reduces or reproduces structured social inequality was investigated by comparing the background, current educational experiences, and expectations regarding future work of freshmen and senior liberal arts students who attend upper, middle, and working class universities. Responses were received from 173 Yale…

Hoffnung, Robert J.; Sack, Allan L.

433

Past, Present, and Future Challenges in Earthquake Hazard Mitigation of Indonesia: A Collaborative Work of Geological Agency Indonesia and Geoscience Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, Indonesia has suffered from earthquakes disaster since four out of twelve of the world's large earthquakes with more than 1000 causalities occurred in Indonesia. The great Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004 followed by tsunami which cost 227,898 of lives has brought Indonesia and its active tectonic setting to the world's attention. Therefore the government of Indonesia encourages hazard mitigation efforts that are more focused on the pre-disaster phase. In response to government policy in earthquake disaster mitigation, Geological Agency Indonesia attempts to meet the need for rigorous earthquake hazard map throughout the country in provincial scale in 2014. A collaborative work with Geoscience Australia through short-term training missions; on-going training, mentoring, assistance and studying in Australia, under the auspices of Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) have accelerated the execution of these maps. Since 2010 to date of collaboration, by using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) method, provincial earthquake hazard maps of Central Java (2010), West Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and North Maluku (2011) have been published. In 2012, by the same method, the remaining provinces of Sulawesi Island, Papua, North Sumatera and Jambi will be published. In the end of 2014, all 33 Indonesian provinces hazard maps will be delivered. The future challenges are to work together with the stakeholders, to produce district scale maps and establish a national standard for earthquake hazard maps. Moreover, the most important consideration is to build the capacity to update, maintain and revise the maps as recent information available.

Hidayati, S.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Omang, A.; Griffin, J.; Horspool, N.; Robiana, R.; Sulaeman, C.

2012-12-01

434

Results from study of potential early commercial MHD power plants and from recent ETF design work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air. Performance calculations show that an overall power plant efficiency of the order of 44% can be reached with the use of oxygen enrichment.

Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

1980-06-01

435

Spoke cavity power coupler conceptual design work for the HEL-JTO beam exp.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report was to create a low-cost, modest-power RF coupler for a SRF spoke cavity beam test of electrons test to be done at LANL. Developing the design for this magnetically-coupled SRF spoke cavity testing coupler was basically straightforward since the cavity coupling port needed to be one of the 1.22-inch ID ports, and the power level was limited by the available RF to less than 400 W TW power. In addition, the coupler would be immersed in bath cryostat filled with liquid helium, and ultimately used in a pulsed mode to accelerate beam, thereby significantly relaxing the thermal loads on the coupler. Combining the above considerations with the level of resources available for this task, emphasis was placed on rapidly developing a robust, reliable design that would use commercially-available components as available to save design, engineering, and fabrication costs. Analysis was also kept to a minimum. As such, the design incorporates the following features: (1) Use of a commercially-available Type-N ceramic feedthrough. For the power and frequency range of the test, with the feedthrough immersed in LHe, it was felt the Type-N feedthrough would provide a robust, low-cost vacuum window solution. (2) The coupler outer conductors would be solid OFE copper that is brazed into two 2.75-inch CFF, with the cavity-sde flange being rotatable to allow minor Qx adjustments by rotating the coupler. The braze joint shown has the copper brazed into a groove in the SST to ensure maximum strength for successive thermal cyclings. The outer wall of the copper between the two flanges serves as the heat sink for depositing coupler heat to the liquid helium. (3) The inner conductor would be solid OFE copper brazed to the outer conductor at the top to ensure maximum thermal conductivity from the outer thermal sink area to the base of the feedthrough. A mass-reducing hole is placed down the center of the inner conductor to decrease thermal mass and weight. (4) This assembly would be mated to the Type-N feedthrough by pushing the pin from the feedthrough into a spring-loaded connector on the base of the inner conductor, then bolting the flanges together. (5) If the coupling needs to be greatly reduced, an additional 1/2-inch CFF can be inserted between the coupler and cavity flanges. Increasing the coupling can be done with a 3 stub tuner.

Rusnak, B

2007-10-09

436

U. S. , Canadian design codes differ for work on cased crossings  

SciTech Connect

A review of US and Canadian regulations and design codes for natural gas and liquid products pipelines has revealed differences for allowable longitudinal stress levels during operations that require pipeline movement. Pipeline casing maintenance operations often require such movement, and the review aimed at determining a maximum allowable stress level for casing maintenance operations or any line movement. Results of the review are reported in this first of two articles that deal with maintenance of cased pipeline crossings. The conclusion describes structural analysis of casing maintenance. Both articles are intended to provide the means to engineer an operation to meet all regulatory concerns.

Rosenfeld, M.J.; Maxey, W.A. (Kiefner and Associates Inc., Worthington, OH (United States))

1994-10-24

437

Participation in programs designed to improve employment outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities: evidence from the New York WORKS demonstration project.  

PubMed

The New York WORKS demonstration project was designed to improve employment outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability payments. This article shows how the individual characteristics of participants were related to outcomes at each stage of the multistage recruitment process used in the project and how those characteristics contributed to enrollment. The findings are important to program administrators who are interested in ensuring that SSI recipients receive equal access to employment-related services and who want to improve recruitment strategies for future demonstration projects. The New York WORKS recruitment process used administrative records from the Social Security Administration (SSA) to identify the population of over 68,000 SSI recipients with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disability in Erie County and New York City. Staff involved in the project documented the results of each stage of the recruitment process. The New York WORKS project included four stages: (1) the provision of information (sending a letter and information packet); (2) demonstrated awareness of the project (response to a letter containing an overview of the project); (3) expression of interest (indication of interest in the project, using a postmarked form returned to New York WORKS project staff); and (4) participation (actual enrollment in the program). The project staff members were also able to identify data from administrative records that described the characteristics of the population, including age, sex, type of psychiatric diagnosis, the number of months that the person collected benefits before the recruitment process, employment experience before the recruitment process, and annual earnings in the year before the recruitment process. The data on outcomes at each stage of the recruitment process and the characteristics of SSI recipients were analyzed using an empirical method recently suggested by Heckman and Smith. The analysis identified the relationship between the characteristics of SSI recipients and the outcomes at each stage of the recruitment process and demonstrated how those characteristics contributed to the overall likelihood of enrollment. Demographic characteristics, information about diagnosis, and characteristics related to work history had different effects on outcomes at different stages of the recruitment process. For example, younger SSI recipients were less likely to reply to the information letter but more likely to express an interest in the project and more likely to enroll, given that interest. This result suggests that there may be an information barrier for the younger group of SSI recipients during the early recruitment stages. There were also interesting differences by psychiatric diagnosis and by recent employment experience at each stage of the process. Most notably, persons with anxiety disorders were less likely to express an interest in the project and less likely to enroll in the project if they expressed an interest. This finding suggests that project administrators may need to examine more effective methods to accommodate persons with an anxiety disorder at the enrollment stage of the recruitment process. Persons with relatively low earnings in the year before the project were more likely to respond, to express interest in the project, and to enroll than were those with no earnings and those with relatively high earnings. This finding suggests that the recruitment strategy used by the New York WORKS project is more effective at enrolling a subset of the population that has some demonstrated work capacity and that, of those with a demonstrated work capacity, New York WORKS is enrolling those who are likely to have the most to gain from the project. This finding has implications for the development of sample designs for other demonstration projects, in particular the SSA-proposed mental health treatment study. A number of strategies may lead to improvements in future evaluations of participation in SSA projects and programs. For exampl

Ruiz-Quintanilla, S Antonio; Weathers, Robert R; Melburg, Valerie; Campbell, Kimberly; Madi, Nawaf

438

Lattice design for the future ERL-based electron hadron colliders eRHIC and LHeC  

SciTech Connect

We present a lattice design of a CW Electron Recovery Linacs (ERL) for future electron hadron colliders eRHIC and LHeC. In eRHIC, an six-pass ERL installed in the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) tunnel will collide 5-30 GeV polarized electrons with RHIC's 50-250 (325) GeV polarized protons or 20-100 (130) GeV/u heavy ions. In LHeC a stand-along, 3-pass 60 GeV CW ERL will collide polarized electrons with 7 TeV protons. After collision, electron beam energy is recovered and electrons are dumped at low energy. Two superconducting linacs are located in the two straight sections in both ERLs. The multiple arcs are made of Flexible Momentum Compaction lattice (FMC) allowing adjustable momentum compaction for electrons with different energies. The multiple arcs, placed above each other, are matched to the two linac's straight sections with splitters and combiners.

Trbojevic, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.; Kayran, D.; Tsoupas, N.

2011-03-28

439

Dependence of the mechanical behavior of alloys on their electron work function--An alternative parameter for materials design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we demonstrate that the electron work function (EWF) as an intrinsic parameter can provide information or clues in a simple or straightforward way for material design, modification, and development. A higher work function of a material represents a more stable electronic state, which consequently generates a higher resistance to any attempt of changing the electronic state and other corresponding states, e.g., changes in structure or microstructure caused by mechanical and electrochemical actions. Using Cu-Ni alloy as an example, we demonstrate the correlation between the EWF and Young's modulus of the material as well as its hardness. The properties of a material can be modified using elements with appropriate work functions. This is also applicable for tailoring inter-phase boundaries or interfaces.

Lu, Hao; Hua, Guomin; Li, Dongyang

2013-12-01

440

Development of design guidelines for seismically isolated nuclear reactors and research and development work performed by ENEA  

SciTech Connect

ENEA began work on seismic isolation in Italy in 1988 in cooperation with ISMES. Until now, work has been limited to horizontal systems and focused on high-damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings. Work consists of both the assessment of proposed design guidelines for isolated nuclear reactors (developed in collaboration with General Electric Company) and research and development (R and D) experimental and numerical studies, partly performed in support of the guideline development. Experiments include static and dynamic characterization of single bearings, analysis of a full-scale isolated structure and an actual building with in situ techniques, and shake table tests of scaled isolated structures. In this paper the main features of the guidelines document and R and D studies are described, and some initial measured data are presented.

Martelli, A.; Forni, M.; Indirli, M.; Masoni, P.; Spadoni, B. (ENEA, Dept. of Innovative Reactors, Bologna (IT)); Bonacina, G. (ISMES S.p.A., Seriate, Bergamo (IT)); Di Pasquale, G.; Sano, T. (ENEA, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection, Roma (IT)); Gluekler, E.L. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Nuclear Energy Div.)

1992-02-01

441

Understanding the psychological contract: a direction for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to review selected psychological contract literature to aid in developing understandings about the unique nature of today's work agreements and work environment. This conceptual paper aims to provide practical knowledge, future research directions and fill several gaps in knowledge about the contract. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides insights and directions for future psychological contract

Robert G. DelCampo

2007-01-01

442

Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George

1993-01-01

443

Report From the Working Group Conference on Multisite Trial Design for Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Project and related efforts have stimulated the initiation of several studies of pharmacologic treatments for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation may provide an excellent platform for the provision of new learning opportunities and the acquisition of new skills for patients who are engaged in pharmacologic trials to improve cognition. However, it is not clear how a cognitive remediation intervention would be employed in multisite clinical trials. A meeting of experts on cognitive remediation and related methodological topics was convened to address the feasibility and study design issues for the development of a multisite trial of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia called the Cognitive Remediation in the Schizophrenia Trials Network study. This report details the findings from this meeting, which included the following 4 conclusions. (1) A multisite trial of a cognitive remediation intervention using a network of diverse research sites would be of great scientific value. (2) Various interventions could be employed for this multisite trial. (3) Programs that do not address key motivational and interpersonal aspects of cognitive remediation may benefit from supplementation with “bridging groups” that allows patients to meet with others and to apply their newly acquired cognitive skills to everyday life. (4) Before a multisite efficacy trial is initiated, a pilot study could demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a trial using a cognitive remediation intervention.

Keefe, Richard S. E.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Medalia, Alice; Silverstein, Steven M.; Bell, Morris D.; Dickinson, Dwight; Ventura, Joseph; Marder, Stephen R.; Stroup, T. Scott

2011-01-01

444

Using ethnography to build a working system: rethinking basic design assumptions.  

PubMed Central

The problem of user acceptance of knowledge-based systems is a current concern in medical informatics. User acceptance should increase when system-builders understand both the needs of potential users and the context in which a system will be used. Ethnography is one source of such understanding. This paper describes the contribution of ethnography (and an anthropological perspective) during the first year of a three-year interdisciplinary project to build a patient education system on migraine. Systematic fieldwork is producing extensive data on the information needs of migraineurs. These data call into question some of the assumptions on which the project was based. While it is not easy to rethink our assumptions and their implications for design, using ethnography has enabled us to undertake this process relatively early in the project at a time when redesign costs are low. This should greatly improve our chances of building a system that meets the needs of real users, thus avoiding the troublesome problem of user acceptance.

Forsythe, D. E.

1992-01-01

445

Mechano-physical and biophysical properties of power-driven scalers: driving the future of powered instrument design and evaluation.  

PubMed

This review has highlighted the importance of standardizing future investigations to enable more meaningful interstudy comparisons to be made. This report also makes recommendations for factors that should be considered and incorporated into future investigations, both in vitro and in vivo, in order to achieve more standardization. These recommendations are listed below. PMID:19878470

Lea, Simon C; Walmsley, A Damien

2009-01-01

446

Designing a Specialist Post-Graduate Qualification and Continuing Professional Development Structure for the Health Librarian Workforce of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a grant received from the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA), Health Libraries Australia (HLA) is conducting a twelve-month research project with the goal of developing a system-wide approach to education for the future health librarianship workforce. The research has two main aims: to determine the future skills,…

Ritchie, Ann; Hallam, Gillian; Hamill, C.; Lewis, S.; Foti, M.; O'Connor, P.; Clark, C.

2010-01-01

447

Statement of work for conceptual design of solidified high-level waste interim storage system project (phase I)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has embarked upon a course to acquire Hanford Site tank waste treatment and immobilization services using privatized facilities. This plan contains a two phased approach. Phase I is a ``proof-of-principle/commercial demonstration- scale`` effort and Phase II is a full-scale production effort. In accordance with the planned approach, interim storage (IS) and disposal of various products from privatized facilities are to be DOE furnished. The path forward adopted for Phase I solidification HLW IS entails use of Vaults 2 and 3 in the Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building, to be located in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This Statement of Work describes the work scope to be performed by the Architect-Engineer to prepare a conceptual design for the solidified HLW IS System.

Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-17

448

Integration of design and manufacturing in a virtual enterprise using enterprise rules, intelligent agents, STEP, and work flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enterprise's ability to deliver new products quickly and efficiently to market is critical for competitive success. While manufactureres recognize the need for speed and flexibility to compete in this market place, companies do not have the time or capital to move to new automation technologies. The National Industrial Information Infrastructure Protocols Consortium's Solutions for MES Adaptable Replicable Technology (NIIIP SMART) subgroup is developing an information infrastructure to enable the integration and interoperation among Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Enterprise Information Systems within an enterprise or among enterprises. The goal of these developments is an adaptable, affordable, reconfigurable, integratable manufacturing system. Key innovative aspects of NIIIP SMART are: (1) Design of an industry standard object model that represents the diverse aspects of MES. (2) Design of a distributed object network to support real-time information sharing. (3) Product data exchange based on STEP and EXPRESS (ISO 10303). (4) Application of workflow and knowledge management technologies to enact manufacturing and business procedures and policy. (5) Application of intelligent agents to support emergent factories. This paper illustrates how these technologies have been incorporated into the NIIIP SMART system architecture to enable the integration and interoperation of existing tools and future MES applications in a 'plug and play' environment.

Gilman, Charles R.; Aparicio, Manuel; Barry, J.; Durniak, Timothy; Lam, Herman; Ramnath, Rajiv

1997-12-01

449

Open Question: Will the Properties of Electromigration and Thermomigration Have an Adverse Effect on the Future of Asynchronous Logic Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question is asked whether or not Electromigration and/or Thermomigration, phenomena that are both well known to cause the degradation of the physical structure of electronic circuits, will have serious consequences for the future research, development...

L. Lloyd

1997-01-01

450

Statement of work for sytem design and engineering of the spent nuclear fuel multi-cansiter overpack  

SciTech Connect

This Statement of Work (SOW) describes the work scope for the preparation of the Phase 2 (final) design for the Multiple Canister Overpack (MCO) equipment. The MCO is to be used as the radiological containment device for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, currently in wet storage in K East and West Basins, to be transported and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) until final disposal facilities are made available. The engineering services contractor will be requested to provide reports, studies, analyses, engineering, drawings, specifications, estimates and schedules. The overall goal of this task order is to do the following: 1. Prepare a fabrication specification, ASME Code exception report, a packaging, shipping and warehouse plan, and detailed fabrication drawings of the MCO in accordance with the MCO Performance Specification (HNF-S-0426, Rev. 3) for procurement activities by the SNF MCO Subproject. 2. Establish and maintain a comment data base on the comments, resolutions, changes to the design of the MCO. 3. Support fabrication activities through the review of vendor fabrication drawings and shop test reports.

Smith, K.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-03

451

How work context affects operating room processes: using data mining and computer simulation to analyze facility and process design.  

PubMed

The complexity of the operating room (OR) requires that both structural (eg, department layout) and behavioral (eg, staff interactions) patterns of work be considered when developing quality improvement strategies. In our study, we investigated how these contextual factors influence outpatient OR processes and the quality of care delivered. The study setting was a German university-affiliated hospital performing approximately 6000 outpatient surgeries annually. During the 3-year-study period, the hospital significantly changed its outpatient OR facility layout from a decentralized (ie, ORs in adjacent areas of the building) to a centralized (ie, ORs in immediate vicinity of each other) design. To study the impact of the facility change on OR processes, we used a mixed methods approach, including process analysis, process modeling, and social network analysis of staff interactions. The change in facility layout was seen to influence OR processes in ways that could substantially affect patient outcomes. For example, we found a potential for more errors during handovers in the new centralized design due to greater interdependency between tasks and staff. Utilization of the mixed methods approach in our analysis, as compared with that of a single assessment method, enabled a deeper understanding of the OR work context and its influence on outpatient OR processes. PMID:19851238

Baumgart, André; Denz, Christof; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander

2009-01-01

452

Working Drawings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication between members of the design team must be open, free, continuous, and complete. There is no place for guesswork\\u000a or thoughtless inclusions. Responsibility is imposed on everyone from the project architect to junior drafters. Working drawings\\u000a are the graphic communication between the designer and the contractor. Therefore, to convey the designer’s concept in full,\\u000a the working drawings must be

Ralph W. Liebing

453

Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy recommendations and research needs to derive strategies for strengthening resilience at the local and regional level and to design appropriate incentives.

Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

2014-05-01

454

Aviation in the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

Kayten, Gerald G.

1974-01-01

455

Arizona Teacher Working Conditions: Designing Schools for Educator and Student Success. Results of the 2006 Phase-In Teacher Working Conditions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools across the country face persistent teacher working condition challenges that are closely related to high teacher turnover rates and chronic difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers. Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ) research examining working conditions survey results in both North Carolina and South Carolina demonstrates…

Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

2006-01-01

456

Architecture Studio Archive: A Case Study in the Comprehensive Digital Capture and Repository of Student Design Work as an Aid to Teaching, Research, and Accreditation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Architecture Studio Archive" pilot sought to form a comprehensive digital archive of the diverse student work conducted in the first year of the Bachelor of Design in Architecture Degree at the University of Sydney. The design studio is the primary vehicle for teaching architectural design. It is a locus for creative activity, with students…

Anderson, Ross; Arndell, Michael; Christensen, Sten

2009-01-01

457

The Evolution of Art and Design Pedagogies in England: Influences of the Past, Challenges for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the historical evolution of instructional methods in art and design education in Britain to identify the influences that inform current practices and compare the latter against recent debates on what are design education and designer in the context of the global economy and the widespread use of information and communication…

Souleles, Nicos

2013-01-01

458

New Rules of Business for the Future of Community Colleges: Design of the Critical Issue Discussion Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Community College Futures Assembly, 3 critical discussion groups, each organized by an area of focus, conceptualized "New Rules" guiding the operation of community colleges. Utilizing 55 "New Rules for Business" provided by the keynote speaker Mark N. Vamos, each group identified 2-3 New Rules relevant to community college leadership in the…

Honeyman, David S.; Berry, James; Mullin, Christopher M.

2007-01-01

459

Designing Materials for the Language Lab of the Future: An Overview of the MIT Athena Language Learning Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the current status, the future plans and the reasoning behind a five-year, campus-wide educational experiment for the integration of computers into the foreign language curriculum at MIT. The project is to use artificial intelligence in natural processing and to include interactive video and interactive audio components. (Author/SED)

Kramsch, Claire; And Others

1985-01-01

460

Bureau of School Lunches Past, Present, Future: An Overview, Working Note No. 4 in a Series: School Food Service in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the early history, present status, and future trends of the Bureau of School Lunches of the New York City Board of Education. A review of its early history indicates that although various citizen groups and the Department of Welfare served lunches to needy children prior to 1946, it was the passage of the National School Lunch…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of the Deputy Chancellor.

461

"Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

2014-01-01

462

Using design - build projects to promote interdisciplinary design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of real world design is a collaboration of individuals from more than one discipline. To address this important future work environment, student disciplinary design projects were created. For the past seven years, teams of students from the first year engineering design graphics course in the Colleg