Science.gov

Sample records for future directions based

  1. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use. PMID:21214382

  2. Function-Based Intervention: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ferro, Jolenea B.

    2015-01-01

    The field of function-based intervention has changed the way behavioral support is provided to students with challenging behavior. Our goal is to identify and describe some key findings and practices that have facilitated this progress. We also pinpoint some areas for future research that are likely to contribute to further progress.

  3. Future directions for the development of Chlamydomonas-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Besides serving as a valuable model in biological sciences, Chamydomonas reinhardtii has been used during the last decade in the biotechnology arena to establish models for the low cost production of vaccines. Antigens from various pathogens including Plasmodium falciparum, foot and mouth disease virus, Staphylococcus aureus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) as well as some auto-antigens, have been produced in C. reinhardtii. Although some of them have been functionally characterized with promising results, this review identifies future directions for the advancement in the exploitation of this robust and safe vaccine production platform. The present analysis reflects that important immunological implications exist for this system and remain unexplored, including the possible adjuvant effects of algae biomolecules, the effect of bioencapsulation on immunogenicity and the possible development of whole-cell vaccines as an approach to trigger cytotoxic immune responses. Recently described molecular strategies that aim to optimize the expression of nuclear-encoded target antigens are also discussed. PMID:24053395

  4. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    2011-07-24

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  5. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  6. Site-Based Management: Retrospective Understandings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Joyce C.; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    This paper presents a retrospective view of how a school district implemented Site-Based Management (SBM). A pilot study examined the historical development of the site-based decision-making process so as to gain a better understanding of how a large urban school district implemented the process and to assess teachers' understanding of their roles…

  7. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  8. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: existing capabilities and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Aryal, Uma K.; Hengel, Shawna M.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Kelly, Ryan T.; Robinson, Errol W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-21

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides a means for identification, characterization, and quantification of biomolecules that are integral components of the processes essential for life. Characterization of proteins present in a biological system at the proteome and sub-proteomes (e.g., the phosphoproteome, proteoglycome, or degradome/peptidome) levels provides a foundation for understanding fundamental aspects as well as potentially a range of translational applications. Emerging technologies such as ion mobility separations coupled with mass spectrometry and microchip-based - proteome measurements combined with continued enhancement of MS instrumentation and separation techniques, such as reversed phase liquid chromatography and potentially capillary electrophoresis, show great promise for both broad undirected as well as targeted measurements and will be critical for e.g., the proteome-wide characterization of post translational modifications and identification, or the verification, and validation of potential biomarkers of disease. MS-based proteomics is also increasingly demonstrating great potential for contributing to our understanding of the dynamics, reactions, and roles proteins and peptides play advancing our understanding of biology on a system wide level for a wide range of applications, from investigations of microbial communities, bioremediation, and human health and disease states alike.

  9. Evidence base and future research directions in the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and costly condition. Awareness of valid and reliable patient history taking, physical examination and clinical testing is important for diagnostic accuracy. Stratified care which targets treatment to patient subgroups based on key characteristics is reliant upon accurate diagnostics. Models of stratified care that can potentially improve treatment effects include prognostic risk profiling for persistent LBP, likely response to specific treatment based on clinical prediction models or suspected underlying causal mechanisms. The focus of this editorial is to highlight current research status and future directions for LBP diagnostics and stratified care. PMID:27004162

  10. Future directions for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC.

  11. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Mark A.; Siscovick, David S.; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  12. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawley, Mark A; Siscovick, David S; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  13. Future direction of direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  14. Conclusions and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking, when done properly, offers a lot of promise for higher education units that want to improve how they do business. It is clear that much is known, but still more needs to be learned before it reaches its full potential as a useful tool. Readers of this issue of "New Directions for Institutional Research" have been treated to useful…

  15. Implementing Competency-Based Teacher Education: Future Directions for Vocational Teacher Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis; And Others

    Designed to provide direction for those who contemplate establishing a competency-based program for vocational teachers, this monograph contains major papers developed for the Institute on Competency-Based Teacher Education for Virginia Vocational and Technical Teacher Educators held in Blacksburg, November 23-26, 1975. Also included are two…

  16. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26674549

  17. Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Editor); Moos, Warren; VanSteenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The 'Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy' conference was inspired by the accomplishments of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission. The FUSE mission was launched in June 1999 and spent over eight years exploring the far-ultraviolet universe, gathering over 64 million seconds of high-resolution spectral data on nearly 3000 astronomical targets. The goal of this conference was not only to celebrate the accomplishments of FUSE, but to look toward the future and understand the major scientific drivers for the ultraviolet capabilities of the next generation fo space observatories. Invited speakers presented discussions based on measurements made by FUSE and other ultraviolet instruments, assessed their connection with measurements made with other techniques and, where appropriate, discussed the implications of low-z measurements for high-z phenomena. In addition to the oral presentations, many participants presented poster papers. The breadth of these presentation made it clear that much good science is still in progress with FUSE data and that these result will continue to have relevance in many scientific areas.

  18. Computer-based learning for ESRD patient education: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J K; Frisby, A J

    1995-07-01

    Computer use in everyday life has expanded human potential in virtually every possible arena. In health care, computer technology affects direct clinical care through diagnostics, treatment, monitoring, and documentation processes. Patient care systems use computer technology to manage billing, scheduling, and multiple other administrative functions. Computer technology for education of health care professionals has been primarily in selected undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs. Computer-based continuing education for health care professionals has been available for at least a decade, but computer-based patient education is just now beginning to emerge as a learning option. This article describes examples of patient education programs using different types of hardware and software and explores potential areas for further development of this area for end-stage renal disease patients and families. Computer technology is not a replacement for professional involvement in patient education, but rather offers a new arena of media to enhance and expand current teaching and learning resources. Computer-based learning is characterized by features representative of many highly regarded principles of adult education. Further, instructional design concepts used for program development are fundamentally sound for patient education. PMID:7614360

  19. Simulation-based driver and vehicle crew training: applications, efficacy and future directions.

    PubMed

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    Simulation is widely used as a training tool in many domains, and more recently the use of vehicle simulation as a tool for driver and vehicle crew training has become popular (de Winter et al., 2009; Pradhan et al., 2009). This paper presents an overview of how vehicle simulations are currently used to train driving-related procedural and higher-order cognitive skills, and team-based procedural and non-technical teamwork skills for vehicle crews, and evaluates whether there is evidence these training programs are effective. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of whether training achieves learning objectives and whether the attainment of those objectives enhances real world performance on target tasks. It was concluded that while some higher-order cognitive skills training programs have been shown to be effective, in general the adoption of simulation technology has far outstripped the pace of empirical research in this area. The paper concludes with a discussion of the issues that require consideration when developing and evaluating vehicle simulations for training purposes - based not only on what is known from the vehicle domain, but what can be inferred from other domains in which simulation is an established training approach, such as aviation (e.g. Jentsch et al., 2011) and medicine (e.g. McGaghie et al., 2010). STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Simulation has become a popular tool for driver and vehicle crew training in civilian and military settings. This review considers whether there is evidence that this training method leads to learning and the transfer of skills to real world performance. Evidence from other domains, such as aviation and medicine, is drawn upon to inform the design and evaluation of future vehicle simulation training systems. PMID:23122978

  20. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  1. Innovations and Future Directions for Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement: Commentary on the Special Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Hojnoski, Robin; Clarke, Ben; Owens, Brittany B.; Lilley, Patricia K.; Politylo, Bethany C.; White, Kara M.; Marcotte, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this extended commentary article is to frame the set of studies in the first of two issues and recommend areas of inquiry for future research. This special series issue features studies examining the technical qualities of formative assessment procedures that were developed to inform intervention. This article intends to emphasize…

  2. Developing Initiatives for Home-Based Child Care: Current Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Toni; Paulsell, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Home-based child care accounts for a significant share of the child care supply in the United States, especially for infants and toddlers. A synthesis of the home-based care research literature and information about recent home-based care quality initiatives points to a critical need for more systematic efforts to develop and test quality…

  3. The scientific challenges of NEPA: Future directions based on 20 years of experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.; Cannon, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    January 1, 1990, marked the 20th anniversary of the signing of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since this law was enacted, numerous institutions have assisted federal agencies in the implementation of NEPA, including the preparation of environmental impact statements and environmental assessments. The Ninth Oak Ridge National Laboratory Life Sciences Symposium was dedicated to the celebration of this anniversary. The symposium was held October 24--27, 1989, in Knoxville, Tennessee. The intent of the symposium was (1) to review what has been learned while performing NEPA assessments, (2) to summarize the state-of-the-art in methods and approaches, and (3) to define future opportunities and new approaches required to link high quality science to the decision-making process.

  4. The scientific challenges of NEPA: Future directions based on 20 years of experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.; Cannon, J.B.

    1989-12-31

    January 1, 1990, marked the 20th anniversary of the signing of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since this law was enacted, numerous institutions have assisted federal agencies in the implementation of NEPA, including the preparation of environmental impact statements and environmental assessments. The Ninth Oak Ridge National Laboratory Life Sciences Symposium was dedicated to the celebration of this anniversary. The symposium was held October 24--27, 1989, in Knoxville, Tennessee. The intent of the symposium was (1) to review what has been learned while performing NEPA assessments, (2) to summarize the state-of-the-art in methods and approaches, and (3) to define future opportunities and new approaches required to link high quality science to the decision-making process.

  5. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  6. Systematic Review of Couple-Based HIV Intervention and Prevention Studies: Advantages, Gaps, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of couple-based HIV biobehavioral (skills-building, VCT, and adherence) and biomedical (ART, circumcision) prevention and intervention studies designed to reduce sexual-and drug-risk behaviors and HIV transmission and acquisition. Of the 11,162 papers identified in the search, 93 peer-reviewed papers met the inclusion criteria and yielded a total of 33 studies conducted globally. Biobehavioral couple-based prevention and intervention studies have been efficacious in reducing sexual- and drug-risk behaviors, increasing access to HIV testing and care, and improving adherence. Biomedical couple-based studies were found to reduce HIV incidence among HIV-negative sex partners and viral load among HIV-positive partners. Despite much progress, couple-based HIV prevention and intervention studies remain limited; a number of methodological gaps exist and studies focusing on MSM, people who inject drugs, and sex workers are scarce. PMID:24980246

  7. Current issues and future directions in evidence-based child protection practices: a view from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan

    2013-10-01

    The constantly changing nature of social care practice necessitates continuous development of educational programs to prepare current practitioners. Basing social work practice on methodologically sound research evidence is an appealing prospect for the child protection services. However, Romania, once considered an Eastern European model for child welfare policy and practice, is somehow lagging behind. In this article the author gives a short overview of where the Romanian Child Protection System currently stands in terms of evidence-based practice. PMID:24066629

  8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence-based treatments and future directions for research

    PubMed Central

    Lack, Caleb W

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has moved from an almost untreatable, life-long psychiatric disorder to a highly manageable one. This is a very welcome change to the 1%-3% of children and adults with this disorder as, thanks to advances in both pharmacological and psychological therapies, prognosis for those afflicted with OCD is quite good in the long term, even though most have comorbid disorders that are also problematic. We still have far to go, however, until OCD can be described as either easily treatable or the effective treatments are widely known about among clinicians. This review focuses on the current state of the art in treatment for OCD and where we still are coming up short in our work as a scientific community. For example, while the impact of medications is quite strong for adults in reducing OCD symptoms, current drugs are only somewhat effective for children. In addition, there are unacceptably high relapse rates across both populations when treated with pharmacological alone. Even in the cognitive-behavioral treatments, which show higher effect sizes and lower relapse rates than drug therapies, drop-out rates are at a quarter of those who begin treatment. This means a sizable portion of the OCD population who do obtain effective treatments (which appears to be only a portion of the overall population) are not effectively treated. Suggestions for future avenues of research are also presented. These are primarily focused on (1) increased dissemination of effective therapies; (2) augmentation of treatments for those with residual symptoms, both for psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy; and (3) the impact of comorbid disorders on treatment outcome. PMID:24175173

  9. Response to Intervention in Canada: Definitions, the Evidence Base, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.; Andreou, Theresa; Brown, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Susanna; Gietz, Carmen; Bennett, Joanna L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on challenges with the traditional model of school psychology, response to intervention (RTI) has been advanced as a model of special education eligibility decision making and service delivery that may address the drawbacks of the traditional models of assessment and result in improved outcomes for students. In this article, the RTI model is…

  10. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  11. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  12. Strength-based Supervision: Frameworks, Current Practice, and Future Directions A Wu-wei Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Chen, Mei-Whei

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a method of counseling supervision similar to the wu-wei practice in Zen and Taoism. Suggests that this strength-based method and an understanding of isomorphy in supervisory relationships are the preferred practice for the supervision of family counselors. States that this model of supervision potentiates the person-of-the-counselor.…

  13. Future directions in aeropropulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Glassman, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Future directions in aeropropulsion technology that have been identified in a series of studies recently sponsored by the U.S. Government are discussed. Advanced vehicle concepts that could become possible by the turn of the century are presented along with some of their projected capabilities. Key building-block propulsion technologies that will contribute to making these vehicle concepts a reality are discussed along with projections of their status by the year 2000. Some pertinent highlights of the NASA aeropropulsion program are included in the discussion.

  14. Evidence-based Medicine in Facial Plastic Surgery: Current State and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Raj; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Tollefson, Travis T; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) encompasses the evaluation and application of best available evidence, incorporation of clinical experience, and emphasis on patient preference and values. Different scales are used to rate levels of evidence. Translating available data for interventions to clinical practice guidelines requires an assessment of both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation. Essential to the practice of EBM is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention through outcome measures. This article discusses principles essential to EBM, resources commonly used in EBM practice, and the strengths and limitations of EBM in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:27400841

  15. Network-Based Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease: Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime; Wu, Jinglong

    2014-01-01

    By 2050 it is estimated that the number of worldwide Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients will quadruple from the current number of 36 million people. To date, no single test, prior to postmortem examination, can confirm that a person suffers from AD. Therefore, there is a strong need for accurate and sensitive tools for the early diagnoses of AD. The complex etiology and multiple pathogenesis of AD call for a system-level understanding of the currently available biomarkers and the study of new biomarkers via network-based modeling of heterogeneous data types. In this review, we summarize recent research on the study of AD as a connectivity syndrome. We argue that a network-based approach in biomarker discovery will provide key insights to fully understand the network degeneration hypothesis (disease starts in specific network areas and progressively spreads to connected areas of the initial loci-networks) with a potential impact for early diagnosis and disease-modifying treatments. We introduce a new framework for the quantitative study of biomarkers that can help shorten the transition between academic research and clinical diagnosis in AD. PMID:24550828

  16. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  17. New Directions for Futures Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enzer, Selwyn

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the link between futures research and strategic planning is crucial to effective long-range planning and administration. Current trends and the latest developments in the methodology of futures research are discussed. (MLW)

  18. Future treatment directions for HPV-associated head and neck cancer based on radiobiological rationale and current clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Loredana G

    2016-07-01

    A relatively new entity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma located in the oropharynx and associated to the human papillomavirus (HPV) is on the rise. This cancer represents a distinct entity from the non-HPV tumours, holds different biological characteristics and responds differently to treatment. An outcome analysis of locoregionally-advanced oropharyngeal versus non-oropharyngeal cancers treated with chemo-radiotherapy revealed a statistically significant improvement for oropharyngeal cancers, which are thought to be due to their HPV-association. Consequently, more attention is paid to HPV-related head and neck cancers, given that HPV status serves as prognostic marker in oropharyngeal cancer patients. Yet, HPV positivity is a simplistic approach for risk stratification, thus more robust biomarkers are needed to fulfil this task. Despite differences in clinical response, HPV-related oral cancers undergo similar therapy to their non-HPV counterparts. This review discusses future treatment directions for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers based on radiobiological rationale and current clinical evidence. PMID:27221393

  19. Future Directions in Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Julie J.

    1995-01-01

    Trends that may impact future uses of the computer in speech-language pathology and audiology are addressed. These include broadened training applications, development of cross-platform computers, hardware and software developments in speech processing and recognition and in expert systems, and developments in telecommunications and distance…

  20. Museum Education Research: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Museum Education: Roundtable Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Six museum education and learning researchers discuss the need to study how people learn and behave in museums and what kind of current research studies should be undertaken. Mary Ellen Munley, in "Back to the Future: A Call for Coordinated Research Programs in Museums," describes the differences between the terms "evaluation,""audience research,"…

  1. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  2. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  3. Reflections, Perceptions, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    This response by the original author to critiques of his review of his own work in gifted education suggests possible new directions for the field. These include: the relationship between general and gifted education, the under representation of minority students as the "time bomb" of gifted education, achieving a balance between curricular…

  4. Future directions in meteorite research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Kerridge, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Information presently available on meteorite composition and history and the areas in meteorite research that should be covered in future in order to shed additional light on the earliest history of the solar system are discussed. Attention is given to the work needed in the classification schemes for chondrites, the question of the identification of parent bodies of the major meteorite and chondrite types, the igneous differentiation of certain asteroids, the effects of irradiation, the solar-system chronology, and issues concerning the early solar system. Other important areas discussed include the elemental composition of chondrites, the magnetic properties of meteorites, the composition and the petrology of chondrules, the properties of primitive material surviving in chondrites, the micrometeorites, the nebula, the presolar material in meteorites, the nucleosynthesis, and the nucleocosmochronology.

  5. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  6. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976

  7. Future directions of ecosystem science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill; Galvin, Kathleen A.

    1990-01-01

    , and global--have not replaced one another (Clark and Holling 1985). Instead, the effects are superimposed, creating what some perceive as impending global environmental crisis (Clark 1989, MacNeill 1989, WCED 1987). Public demands are developing for economic, political, social, and environmental efforts directed toward creating a state of global sustainability.

  8. Panel discussion of future needs and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    This is a brief summary of Session G at ECLOUD'04, a panel discussion on Future Needs and Future Directions. The various talks at the ECLOUD'04 workshop have largely dealt with the status and progress to date on important aspects of electron cloud effects (ECE) that affect accelerator performance. Goals of the panel discussion were to complement the program of talks with a discussion that provides a broad overview of major issues for the future; develops a sense of the priority needs for experiments, theory and simulations; and outlines the future plans at the various laboratories to better understand electron cloud effects and mitigation of their adverse impacts on accelerator performance.

  9. Community-Based Review of Research Across Diverse Community Contexts: Key Characteristics, Critical Issues, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Shore, Nancy; Ford, Angela; Wat, Eric; Brayboy, Missy; Isaacs, Mei-Ling; Park, Alice; Strelnick, Hal; Seifer, Sarena D

    2015-07-01

    A growing number of community-based organizations and community-academic partnerships are implementing processes to determine whether and how health research is conducted in their communities. These community-based research review processes (CRPs) can provide individual and community-level ethics protections, enhance the cultural relevance of study designs and competence of researchers, build community and academic research capacity, and shape research agendas that benefit diverse communities. To better understand how they are organized and function, representatives of 9 CRPs from across the United States convened in 2012 for a working meeting. In this article, we articulated and analyzed the models presented, offered guidance to communities that seek to establish a CRP, and made recommendations for future research, practice, and policy. PMID:25973834

  10. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Orwoll, Benjamin E.; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children. PMID:27313995

  11. A review of content-based image retrieval systems in medical applications-clinical benefits and future directions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henning; Michoux, Nicolas; Bandon, David; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2004-02-01

    content-based access methods into picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have been created. This article gives an overview of available literature in the field of content-based access to medical image data and on the technologies used in the field. Section 1 gives an introduction into generic content-based image retrieval and the technologies used. Section 2 explains the propositions for the use of image retrieval in medical practice and the various approaches. Example systems and application areas are described. Section 3 describes the techniques used in the implemented systems, their datasets and evaluations. Section 4 identifies possible clinical benefits of image retrieval systems in clinical practice as well as in research and education. New research directions are being defined that can prove to be useful. This article also identifies explanations to some of the outlined problems in the field as it looks like many propositions for systems are made from the medical domain and research prototypes are developed in computer science departments using medical datasets. Still, there are very few systems that seem to be used in clinical practice. It needs to be stated as well that the goal is not, in general, to replace text-based retrieval methods as they exist at the moment but to complement them with visual search tools. PMID:15036075

  12. Innovations and Future Directions for Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement: Commentary on the Special Series, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this extended commentary article is to frame the set of studies in the first of two issues and recommend areas of inquiry for future research. This special series issue features studies examining the technical qualities of formative assessment procedures that were developed to inform intervention. This article intends to emphasize…

  13. Geospatial Brokering - Challenges and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    An important feature of many brokers is to facilitate straightforward human access to scientific data while maintaining programmatic access to it for system solutions. Standards-based protocols are critical for this, and there are a number of protocols to choose from. In this discussion, we will present a web application solution that leverages certain protocols - e.g., OGC CSW, REST, and OpenSearch - to provide programmatic as well as human access to geospatial resources. We will also discuss managing resources to reduce duplication yet increase discoverability, federated search solutions, and architectures that combine human-friendly interfaces with powerful underlying data management. The changing requirements witnessed in brokering solutions over time, our recent experience participating in the EarthCube brokering hack-a-thon, and evolving interoperability standards provide insight to future technological and philosophical directions planned for geospatial broker solutions. There has been much change over the past decade, but with the unprecedented data collaboration of recent years, in many ways the challenges and opportunities are just beginning.

  14. Regenerative nanomedicine: current perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Koel; Kumar, Vishu; Kandasamy, Jayaprakash; RoyChoudhury, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has considerably accelerated the growth of regenerative medicine in recent years. Application of nanotechnology in regenerative medicine has revolutionized the designing of grafts and scaffolds which has resulted in new grafts/scaffold systems having significantly enhanced cellular and tissue regenerative properties. Since the cell–cell and cell-matrix interaction in biological systems takes place at the nanoscale level, the application of nanotechnology gives an edge in modifying the cellular function and/or matrix function in a more desired way to mimic the native tissue/organ. In this review, we focus on the nanotechnology-based recent advances and trends in regenerative medicine and discussed under individual organ systems including bone, cartilage, nerve, skin, teeth, myocardium, liver and eye. Recent studies that are related to the design of various types of nanostructured scaffolds and incorporation of nanomaterials into the matrices are reported. We have also documented reports where these materials and matrices have been compared for their better biocompatibility and efficacy in supporting the damaged tissue. In addition to the recent developments, future directions and possible challenges in translating the findings from bench to bedside are outlined. PMID:25214780

  15. Genetic Psychophysiology: advances, problems, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of historical advances and the current state of genetic psychophysiology, a rapidly developing interdisciplinary research linking genetics, brain, and human behavior, discusses methodological problems, and outlines future directions of research. The main goals of genetic psychophysiology are to elucidate the neural pathways and mechanisms mediating genetic influences on cognition and emotion, identify intermediate brain-based phenotypes for psychopathology, and provide a functional characterization of genes being discovered by large association studies of behavioral phenotypes. Since the initiation of this neurogenetic approach to human individual differences in the 1970s, numerous twin and family studies have provided strong evidence for heritability of diverse aspects of brain function including resting-state brain oscillations, functional connectivity, and event-related neural activity in a variety of cognitive and emotion processing tasks, as well as peripheral psychophysiological responses. These data indicate large differences in the presence and strength of genetic influences across measures and domains, permitting the selection of heritable characteristics for gene finding studies. More recently, candidate gene association studies began to implicate specific genetic variants in different aspects of neurocognition. However, great caution is needed in pursuing this line of research due to its demonstrated proneness to generate false-positive findings. Recent developments in methods for physiological signal analysis, hemodynamic imaging, and genomic technologies offer new exciting opportunities for the investigation of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the development of individual differences in behavior, both normal and abnormal. PMID:24739435

  16. Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.

    1992-03-01

    Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

  17. Standards-Based Classroom Assessments of English Proficiency: A Review of Issues, Current Developments, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llosa, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    With the United States' adoption of a standards-based approach to education, most attention has focused on the large-scale, high-stakes assessments intended to measure students' mastery of standards for accountability purposes. Less attention has been paid to the role of standards-based assessments in the classroom. The purpose of this paper is to…

  18. Chapter 9: Pedagogical Content Knowing for Model-Based Instruction in Physical Education and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn L.; Metzler, Michael W.; Gurvitch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to advance the concept of pedagogical content knowledge in a manner that would better align it with the integrative type of knowledge needed by teachers at all three stages (preservice teachers, induction teachers, and cooperating teachers), allowing them to use model-based instruction (MBI) most effectively in…

  19. Systematic review of catheter-based intra-arterial therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Duran, R; Chapiro, J; Schernthaner, R E

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial therapies (IATs) play a pivotal role in the management of patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies. The unique advantages of these treatments are their ability to selectively deliver a high dose of anticancer treatment while preserving healthy liver tissue. The proven efficacy of these catheter-based locoregional therapies in a highly systemic chemoresistant cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), along with the minimally invasive nature of these treatments, quickly yielded wide acceptance in the medical community and revolutionized the field of Interventional Oncology. In this article, we describe the clinical rationale and background of catheter-based IATs. We provide an overview of clinical achievements of these treatments alone and in combination with sorafenib in patients with HCC. PMID:25978585

  20. Clinical Decision Support-based Quality Measurement (CDS-QM) Framework: Prototype Implementation, Evaluation, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kukhareva, Polina V; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Shields, David E; Barfuss, Darryl T; Halley, Anne M; Tippetts, Tyler J; Warner, Phillip B; Bray, Bruce E; Staes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Electronic quality measurement (QM) and clinical decision support (CDS) are closely related but are typically implemented independently, resulting in significant duplication of effort. While it seems intuitive that technical approaches could be re-used across these two related use cases, such reuse is seldom reported in the literature, especially for standards-based approaches. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of using a standards-based CDS framework aligned with anticipated EHR certification criteria to implement electronic QM. The CDS-QM framework was used to automate a complex national quality measure (SCIP-VTE-2) at an academic healthcare system which had previously relied on time-consuming manual chart abstractions. Compared with 305 manually-reviewed reference cases, the recall of automated measurement was 100%. The precision was 96.3% (CI:92.6%-98.5%) for ascertaining the denominator and 96.2% (CI:92.3%-98.4%) for the numerator. We therefore validated that a standards-based CDS-QM framework can successfully enable automated QM, and we identified benefits and challenges with this approach. PMID:25954389

  1. Particle-Based Methods for Multiscale Modeling of Blood Flow in the Circulation and in Devices: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y.; Matsuki, N.; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-01-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport. PMID:20336827

  2. Inductive Output Tubes -- Status and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Invented in 1938, at the same time as the klystron, it took the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) more than 40 years to surface as a useful device. Its progress after that event was rapid. Though plagued by teething problems in the beginning, it has since replaced the klystron as a TV amplifier in UHF, and it holds its own against the solid-state competition in that application. The IOT also shows much promise as a high-power amplifier, but early developments in this direction have remained solitary events so far. The paper discusses the causes and the potential of the device for future high-power applications.

  3. Evidence-based Guidelines for Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening (PRSBS) for Colorectal Cancer: Lessons learned from the US Armed Forces: Consensus and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Itzhak; Langan, Russell C.; Summers, Thomas A.; Steele, Scott R.; Waldman, Scott A.; Backman, Vadim; Yee, Judy; Nissan, Aviram; Young, Patrick; Womeldorph, Craig; Mancusco, Paul; Mueller, Renee; Noto, Khristian; Grundfest, Warren; Bilchik, Anton J.; Protic, Mladjan; Daumer, Martin; Eberhardt, John; Man, Yan Gao; Brücher, Björn LDM; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States (U.S.), with estimates of 143,460 new cases and 51,690 deaths for the year 2012. Numerous organizations have published guidelines for CRC screening; however, these numerical estimates of incidence and disease-specific mortality have remained stable from years prior. Technological, genetic profiling, molecular and surgical advances in our modern era should allow us to improve risk stratification of patients with CRC and identify those who may benefit from preventive measures, early aggressive treatment, alternative treatment strategies, and/or frequent surveillance for the early detection of disease recurrence. To better negotiate future economic constraints and enhance patient outcomes, ultimately, we propose to apply the principals of personalized and precise cancer care to risk-stratify patients for CRC screening (Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening, PRSBS). We believe that genetic, molecular, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities impact oncological outcomes in general, those related to CRC, in particular. This document highlights evidence-based screening recommendations and risk stratification methods in response to our CRC working group private-public consensus meeting held in March 2012. Our aim was to address how we could improve CRC risk stratification-based screening, and to provide a vision for the future to achieving superior survival rates for patients diagnosed with CRC. PMID:23459409

  4. Catumaxomab: clinical development and future directions.

    PubMed

    Linke, Rolf; Klein, Anke; Seimetz, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Catumaxomab, a monoclonal bispecific trifunctional antibody, was approved in the European Union in April 2009 for the intraperitoneal treatment of patients with malignant ascites. The marketing authorization holder Fresenius Biotech GmbH developed catumaxomab (Removab(®)) together with its partner TRION Pharma GmbH, Germany. It is the first substance worldwide with a regulatory label for the treatment of malignant ascites due to epithelial carcinomas. Since the peritoneum is of mesothelial origin and therefore lacks EpCAM expression, the intraperitoneal administration of catumaxomab is an attractive targeted immunotherapeutic approach. Catumaxomab is able to destroy EpCAM positive tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity known as the main cause of malignant ascites. In addition, catumaxomab is a potential therapeutic option for several primary tumors since the EpCAM molecule is expressed on the majority of epithelial carcinomas. This review focuses on the clinical development of catumaxomab and indicates future directions. PMID:20190561

  5. Physical literacy: importance, assessment and future directions.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Susan; Collins, Dave; Button, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Physical literacy (PL) has become a major focus of physical education, physical activity and sports promotion worldwide. PL is a multifaceted conceptualisation of the skills required to fully realise potentials through embodied experience. Substantial financial investments in PL education by governments are underpinned by a wide range of anticipated benefits, including expectations of significant future savings to healthcare, improved physical and psychological well-being of the population, increased work-force productivity and raised levels of expertise in sport and exercise participation. However, disappointingly, scientific evidence showing the efficacy of PL interventions to successfully meet such high expectation is limited. We suggest that contradictions in research findings are due largely to limitations in movement assessment batteries and consequent discrepancies between measurements used to assess the immediate outcomes of PL programmes. Notably, there is no robust empirical tool for evidencing skill learning in the physical movement component of PL, education and this presents a serious limitation to the design of, and claims that can be made for, such interventions. Considering the parameters of proficient PL skills and the limitations of current evaluation instruments, possible future directions for developing empirical measures of PL movement skills are presented. PMID:24898813

  6. Phototherapy: current methods and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vreman, Hendrik J; Wong, Ronald J; Stevenson, David K

    2004-10-01

    Phototherapy is the most common therapeutic intervention used for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia. Although it has become a mainstay since its introduction in 1958, a better understanding of the photobiology of bilirubin, characteristics of the phototherapy devices, the efficacy and safety considerations of phototherapy applications, and improvements in spectroradiometers and phototherapy devices are necessary for more predictable and improved clinical practices and outcomes. A step forward in instituting consistent, uniform, and effective use of phototherapy is the recent American Academy of Pediatrics clinical guideline on the management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation, which outlines a clinical strategy for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia and contains direct recommendations for the application of phototherapy. This article reviews the parameters that determine the efficacy of phototherapy, briefly discusses current devices and methods used to deliver phototherapy, and speculates on future directions and studies that are still needed to complement our presently incomplete knowledge of the facets of this common mode of therapy. PMID:15686263

  7. Lactic Acidosis: Current Treatments and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-09-01

    Mortality rates associated with severe lactic acidosis (blood pH<7.2) due to sepsis or low-flow states are high. Eliminating the triggering conditions remains the most effective therapy. Although recommended by some, administration of sodium bicarbonate does not improve cardiovascular function or reduce mortality. This failure has been attributed to both reduction in serum calcium concentration and generation of excess carbon dioxide with intracellular acidification. In animal studies, hyperventilation and infusion of calcium during sodium bicarbonate administration improves cardiovascular function, suggesting that this approach could allow expression of the positive aspects of sodium bicarbonate. Other buffers, such as THAM or Carbicarb, or dialysis might also provide base with fewer untoward effects. Examination of these therapies in humans is warranted. The cellular injury associated with lactic acidosis is partly due to activation of NHE1, a cell-membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. In animal studies, selective NHE1 inhibitors improve cardiovascular function, ameliorate lactic acidosis, and reduce mortality, supporting future research into their possible use in humans. Two main mechanisms contribute to lactic acid accumulation in sepsis and low-flow states: tissue hypoxia and epinephrine-induced stimulation of aerobic glycolysis. Targeting these mechanisms could allow for more specific therapy. This Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case presents a patient with acute lactic acidosis and describes current and future approaches to treatment. PMID:27291485

  8. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  9. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    PubMed

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  10. Memory rehabilitation - recent developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Thöne, A I

    1996-01-01

    Memory impairment is a frequent effect of different forms of brain injuries and may be even more handicapping than severe physical problems. The purpose of this article is to critically review empirical studies on the effectiveness of different procedures of memory rehabilitation. Traditionally memory rehabilitation has focused on direct training of memory functioning. The problem of these programs is that training effects hardly generalize to patients' everyday life memory problems. As a consequence of this transfer problem, strategies have been developed (method of vanishing cues, errorless learning) which are restricted to the aim of teaching patients domain specific knowledge. Another aspect of memory rehabilitation concentrates on coping with memory impairment. This may be done by alleviating demands on the patient and by including external resources into the process of recovery. On the other hand, teaching the patient to actively cope with memory related difficulties, has recently become an essential objective of memory rehabilitation. In order to pursue this aim, traditional mnemonic techniques are embedded into training of problem solving abilities and metamemory knowledge. Future perspectives and questions open to research are outlined for each of the different procedures. PMID:21551841

  11. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Angelo S.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  12. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Angelo S; Mooney, David J

    2015-11-24

    Organ and tissue loss through disease and injury motivate the development of therapies that can regenerate tissues and decrease reliance on transplantations. Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Since the inception of the field several decades ago, a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including those designed for wound healing and orthopedics applications, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and are now commercially available. These therapies and other regenerative medicine approaches currently being studied in preclinical and clinical settings will be covered in this review. Specifically, developments in fabricating sophisticated grafts and tissue mimics and technologies for integrating grafts with host vasculature will be discussed. Enhancing the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the host by altering its environment, whether with cell injections or immune modulation, will be addressed, as well as methods for exploiting recently developed cell sources. Finally, we propose directions for current and future regenerative medicine therapies. PMID:26598661

  13. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  14. High performance computing: Clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Sterling, Thomas; Simon, Horst; Strohmaier, Erich

    2003-06-10

    Last year's paper by Bell and Gray [1] examined past trends in high performance computing and asserted likely future directions based on market forces. While many of the insights drawn from this perspective have merit and suggest elements governing likely future directions for HPC, there are a number of points put forth that we feel require further discussion and, in certain cases, suggest alternative, more likely views. One area of concern relates to the nature and use of key terms to describe and distinguish among classes of high end computing systems, in particular the authors use of ''cluster'' to relate to essentially all parallel computers derived through the integration of replicated components. The taxonomy implicit in their previous paper, while arguable and supported by some elements of our community, fails to provide the essential semantic discrimination critical to the effectiveness of descriptive terms as tools in managing the conceptual space of consideration. In this paper, we present a perspective that retains the descriptive richness while providing a unifying framework. A second area of discourse that calls for additional commentary is the likely future path of system evolution that will lead to effective and affordable Petaflops-scale computing including the future role of computer centers as facilities for supporting high performance computing environments. This paper addresses the key issues of taxonomy, future directions towards Petaflops computing, and the important role of computer centers in the 21st century.

  15. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  16. Obesity Pharmacotherapy: Current Perspectives and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The rising tide of obesity and its related disorders is one of the most pressing health concerns worldwide, yet existing medicines to combat the problem are disappointingly limited in number and effectiveness. Recent advances in mechanistic insights into the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight have revealed an expanding list of molecular targets for novel, rationally designed antiobesity pharmaceutical agents. Antiobesity drugs act via any of four mechanisms: 1) decreasing energy intake, 2) increasing energy expenditure or modulating lipid metabolism, 3) modulating fat stores or adipocyte differentiation, and 4) mimicking caloric restriction. Various novel drug candidates and targets directed against obesity are currently being explored. A few of them are also in the later phases of clinical trials. This review discusses the development of novel antiobesity drugs based on current understanding of energy homeostasis PMID:23092275

  17. Preparing Houston: lessons learned, future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, Mohammad; Mirhaji, Parsa; Lillibridge, Scott R.; Casscells, S. W.

    2003-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda terrorists committed a savage act against humanity when they used domestic jetliners to crash into buildings in New York City and Washington, DC, killing thousands of people. In October 2001, coming on the heels of this savagery was another act of barbarity, this time using anthrax, not jetliners, to take innocent lives. Each incident demonstrates the vulnerability of an open society, and Americans are left to wonder how such acts can be prevented. Now, Al Qaeda operatives are reportedly regrouping, recruiting, and changing their tactics to distribute money and messages to operatives around the world. Many experts believe that terrorist attacks are inevitable. No city is immune from attack, and no city is fully prepared to handle the residual impact of a potentially ravaging biological or chemical attack. A survey conducted by the Cable News Network (CNN) in January 2002, studied 30 major US cities, ranking them based on 6 statistical indices of vulnerability. Thirteen cities were deemed better prepared than Houston, 10 were in a similar state of preparedness, and only 6 were less prepared than Houston. Here, we discuss the measures which have taken place in Houston to make it a safer place and which plans are needed for future. Houston experience can be used as a model to develop similar plans for other cities nation-wide.

  18. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice. PMID:23816867

  19. Tissue engineering: current strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jennifer L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2011-04-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is a rapidly advancing part of regenerative medicine, and new discoveries in this field create new options for this type of therapy. For example, new types of stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells that can circumvent the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells, have been discovered. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous, adult cells have already entered the clinical setting, indicating that regenerative medicine holds much promise for the future. PMID:22111050

  20. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-01-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  1. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P.F.; Damm, U.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. PMID:23136460

  2. Possible future directions in crop yield forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines present and future possible applications of remote sensing to crop yield forecasting. It is concluded that there are ways in which Landsat data could be used to assist in crop yield forecasting using present technology. A framework for global crop yield forecasting which uses remote sensing, meteorological, field and ancillary data, as available, is proposed for the future.

  3. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    that has the data product description. Even though the development and maintenance of DOI landing pages would be the responsibility of the DAACs, ESDIS in consultation with the data providers is currently developing the landing page guidelines that specifies the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique process and system currently implemented by ESDIS for registering DOIs. In addition, the paper will summarize some of the early implementation shortcomings and how they were addressed, as well as the future directions of the ESDIS DOI system/process.

  4. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  5. Airframe Noise Studies: Review and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert G.; Miller, Gregory; Guo, Yueping; Yamamoto, Kingo

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the following information: 1) a review of airframe noise research performed under NASA's Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program up to the year 2000, 2) a comparison of the year 1992 airframe noise predictions with those using a year 2000 baseline, 3) an assessment of various airframe noise reduction concepts as applied to the year 2000 baseline predictions, and 4) prioritized recommendations for future airframe noise reduction work. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program was the software used for all noise predictions and assessments. For future work, the recommendations for the immediate future focus on the development of design tools sensitive to airframe noise treatment effects and on improving the basic understanding of noise generation by the landing gear as well as on its reduction.

  6. Beyond 2000: Future Directions for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    This paper provides adult educators with information they can use to produce perspectives for the future of adult education (AE). Part 1 provides a perspective on the past and present of AE that falls under the aegis of the Federal Adult Education Act of 1966 and subsequent amendments. It paints a picture of AE from the mid-1960s to the present…

  7. Evaluative Conditioning: Recent Developments and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Anne; Gawronski, Bertram; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is generally considered to be one of the routes via which likes and dislikes are acquired. We identify recent trends in EC research and speculate about the topics that will dominate future research on EC. Many of the recent developments in EC research were shaped by functional definitions of EC that refer only to…

  8. Interventional CMR: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) promises to enable radiation-free catheterization procedures and to enhance contemporary image guidance for structural heart and electrophysiological interventions. However, clinical translation of exciting pre-clinical interventions has been limited by availability of devices that are safe to use in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. We discuss challenges and solutions for clinical translation, including MR-conditional and MR-safe device design, and how to configure an interventional suite. We review the recent advances that have already enabled diagnostic MR right heart catheterization and simple electrophysiologic ablation to be performed in humans and explore future clinical applications. PMID:25894793

  9. Perspectives on Future Directions in Vocational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    Major research directions for vocational psychology include diversity, use of new technology, organizational career development, and work adjustment over the life span. Issues include the role of qualitative methods and the appropriate disciplinary focus--closer to or beyond psychology. A challenge is attracting new researchers to the topic of…

  10. Forecasting the Technological Future: Directions for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the popular acceptance of linking education instrumentally to high technology leads to contradictory outcomes (for example, Sweet 1984, Rumberger and Levin 1985). Education is better directed toward the more fundamental skills of criticism and reflection on these technological changes in society. (24 references) (CJH)

  11. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural–metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug–drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  12. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  13. Future Directions for the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R.; Pegasus Team

    1999-11-01

    The PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment is uniquely poised to explore the tokamak/spheromak transition regime in the near future. To this end, a new low-inductance toroidal field coil set will allow transient exploration of the Ip/ITF > 3 regime and associated plasma relaxation phenomena. The addition of a transformer and inline inductor to the ohmic power supply will increase the pulse length to 0.03-0.05 s and will couple 5-10x the present power to the plasma. The High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) antenna is complete and installation is planned for Fall 1999. The power supplies for the HHFW system have been tested up to 0.7 MW into dummy loads with future upgrades to 2 MW. Poloidal current injection via plasma guns is being tested for generating non-inductive target plasmas, thus reducing startup volt second consumption. If successful, a coaxial array of plasma guns will be used to initiate and drive the startup plasma, achieving non-inductive plasma currents 0.1-0.2 MA. Investigation of the viability of Electron Bernstein Wave heating in overdense ST plasmas is also planned, and may lead to an alternative method of non-inductive current ramp and sustainment.

  14. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article. PMID:18651820

  15. Future Directions of Evidence-Based Practice in Athletic Training: Perceived Strategies to Enhance the Use of Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Cailee E.; Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Wyant, Aimee L.; Hays, Danica G.; Pitney, William A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The shift to a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is a necessary step in both the optimization of patient care and the advancement of athletic trainers (ATs) as health care professionals. Whereas individuals have gained knowledge in this area, most ATs still are not practicing in an evidence-based manner. Exploring perceived strategies to enhance the use of EBP will help to determine the best approaches to assist ATs in applying EBP concepts to practice to improve patient care. Objective: To explore beneficial strategies and techniques ATs perceived would promote successful implementation of EBP within athletic training education and clinical practice. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Individual telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five ATs (12 educators, 13 clinicians; athletic training experience = 16.00 ± 9.41 years) were interviewed. Data Collection and Analysis: One phone interview was conducted with each participant. After the interview was transcribed, the data were analyzed and coded into common themes and categories. Triangulation of the data occurred via the use of multiple researchers and member checking to confirm the accuracy of the data. Results: Participants identified several components they perceived as essential for enhancing the use of EBP within the athletic training profession. These components included the need for more EBP resources, more processed information, focused workshops, peer discussion and mentorship, and continual repetition and exposure. Participants also indicated that ATs need to accept their professional responsibilities to foster EBP in their daily practices. Conclusions: The proper shift to a culture of EBP in athletic training will take both time and a persistent commitment by ATs to create strategies that will enhance the implementation of EBP across the profession. Researchers should focus on continuing to identify effective educational interventions for ATs

  16. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  17. Future Directions of Delirium Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher G.; Brummel, Nathan E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring advancements in the clinical and research realms to improve patient outcomes. Increased clinical recognition and utilization of delirium assessment tools, along with clarification of specific risk factors and presentations in varying patient populations, will be necessary in the future. To improve predictive models for outcomes, the continued development and implementation of delirium assessment tools and severity scoring systems will be required. The interplay between the pathophysiological pathways implicated in delirium and resulting clinical presentations and outcomes will need to guide the development of appropriate prevention and treatment protocols. Multicenter randomized controlled trials of interventional therapies will then need to be performed to test their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting. PMID:23040289

  18. Orbital debris: Technical issues and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    An international conference on orbital debris sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, NASA, and the Department of Defense, was held in Baltimore, Maryland, 16-19 Apr. 1990. Thirty-three papers were presented. The papers were grouped into the areas of measurements, modeling, and implications of orbital debris for space flight. New radar and optical measurements of orbital debris were presented that showed the existence of a large population of small debris. Modeling of potential future environments showed that runaway growth of the debris population from random collisions was a real possibility. New techniques for shielding against orbital debris and methods for removal of satellites from orbit were discussed.

  19. NASA's future directions in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

  20. Future directions in treatment of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Barani, Igor J.; Larson, David A.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases affect up to 30% of patients with cancer. Management of brain metastases continues to evolve with ever increasing focus on cognitive preservation and quality of life. This manuscript reviews current state of brain metastases management and discusses various treatment controversies with focus on future clinical trials. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) are discussed in context of multiple (4+ brain metastases) as well as new approaches combining radiation and targeted agents. A brief discussion of modified WBRT approaches, including hippocampal-avoidance WBRT (HA-WBRT) is included as well as a section on recently presented results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0614, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of menantine for prevention of neurocognitive injury after WBRT. Methods: A search of selected studies relevant to management of brain metastases was performed in PubMed as well as in various published meeting abstracts. This data was collated and analyzed in context of contemporary management and future clinical trial plans. This data is presented in tabular form and discussed extensively in the text. Results: The published data demonstrate continued evolution of clinical trials and management strategies designed to minimize and/or prevent cognitive decline following radiation therapy management of brain metastases. Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) and radiosurgery treatments for multiple brain metastases are discussed along with preliminary results of RTOG 0614, a trial of memantine therapy to prevent cognitive decline following WBRT. Trial results appear to support the use of memantine for prevention of cognitive decline. Conclusions: Different management strategies for multiple brain metastases (>4 brain metastases) are currently being evaluated in prospective clinical trials to minimize the likelihood of cognitive decline following WBRT. PMID

  1. Remote sensing using GNSS signals: Current status and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, G. P.; Gleason, S.

    2011-05-01

    The refracted, reflected and scattered signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) have been successfully used to remotely sense the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has demonstrated its potential to sense the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture) and the cryosphere. These new measurements, although in need of refinement and further validation in many cases, can be used to complement existing techniques and sensors, e.g., radiosonde, ionosonde, radar altimetry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This paper presents the current status and new developments of remote sensing using GNSS signals as well as its future directions and applications. Some notable emerging applications include monitoring sea ice, dangerous sea states, ocean eddy and storm surges. With the further improvement of the next generation multi -frequency GNSS systems and receivers and new space-based instruments utilizing GNSS reflections and refractions, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in various environment remote sensing fields in the near future.

  2. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  3. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  4. Alcoholic hepatitis: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashwani K; Kamath, Patrick S; Gores, Gregory J; Shah, Vijay H

    2014-04-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a distinct clinical syndrome among people with chronic and active alcohol abuse, with a potential for 30%-40% mortality at 1 month among those with severe disease. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are the current pharmacologic treatment options, but they provide only about 50% survival benefit. These agents are recommended for patients with modified discriminant function (mDF) ≥ 32 or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥ 18. The Lille score is used to determine response to steroids. Currently, a minimum of 6 months of abstinence from alcohol use is required for patients to receive a liver transplant, a requirement that cannot be met by patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis nonresponsive to steroids (Lille score ≥ 0.45). Data are emerging on the benefit of liver transplantation in select patients with first episode of severe alcoholic hepatitis. This review also focuses on recent treatment trials in alcoholic hepatitis including liver transplantation and its associated controversies, as well as possible future targets and pharmacologic treatment options for patients with alcoholic hepatitis that are being pursued through upcoming consortium studies. PMID:23811249

  5. Ecological traps: current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Robin; Swearer, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological traps, which occur when animals mistakenly prefer habitats where their fitness is lower than in other available habitats following rapid environmental change, have important conservation and management implications. Empirical research has focused largely on assessing the behavioural effects of traps, by studying a small number of geographically close habitat patches. Traps, however, have also been defined in terms of their population-level effects (i.e. as preferred habitats of sufficiently low quality to cause population declines), and this is the scale most relevant for management. We systematically review the ecological traps literature to (i) describe the geographical and taxonomic distribution of efforts to study traps, (ii) examine how different traps vary in the strength of their effects on preference and fitness, (iii) evaluate the robustness of methods being used to identify traps, and (iv) determine whether the information required to assess the population-level consequences of traps has been considered. We use our results to discuss key knowledge gaps, propose improved methods to study traps, and highlight fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:26865295

  6. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  7. Telehealth: current practices and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Yadin B.

    1996-02-01

    When we review the positive impact that the integration of ostensibly independent patient-care services have on the efficient management of quality care, education, and collaborative research, it is not surprising that telehealth deployment is on the rise. The forces that drive this phenomenon include: the need to manage the entire disease episode; the desire for wider geographically-distributed quality health care; the escalation of customer expectations; globalization of healthcare and its support services; an increase in patient and provider convenience; and the acceptance of the present technological community. At the Telehealth Center at the Texas Children's Hospital, current classifications of clinical applications are listed: (1) initial urgent evaluation of patients, (2) triage decisions and pretransfer arrangements, (3) medical and surgical follow-up and medication review, (4) consultation for primary care encounters, (5) real-time subspecialty care consultation and planning, (6) management of chronic diseases and conditions, (7) extended diagnostic work-ups, (8) review of diagnostic images, and (9) preventive medicine and patient education. The delivery of such services is associated with challenges and opportunities. As we move forward from limited data processing to an integrated communication system, from centralized main frame functions to personalized and location-independent workstations, and from hospitals to clinics and homecare, an increase in the minimum features provided by the equipment and the communication systems must accompany the widening variety of clinical applications. Future expansion of telehealth systems stands to revolutionize the delivery of services to the benefits of providers' networks, our economy, and patients through integration.

  8. Animal care guidelines and future directions.

    PubMed

    Webster, A B

    2007-06-01

    Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to

  9. Ocular tissue engineering: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Karamichos, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a concept that was first emerged in the early 1990s to provide solutions to severe injured tissues and/or organs [1]. The dream was to be able to restore and replace the damaged tissue with an engineered version which would ultimately help overcome problems such as donor shortages, graft rejections, and inflammatory responses following transplantation. While an incredible amount of progress has been made, suggesting that TE concept is viable, we are still not able to overcome major obstacles. In TE, there are two main strategies that researchers have adopted: (1) cell-based, where cells are been manipulated to create their own environment before transplanted to the host, and (2) scaffold-based, where an extracellular matrix is created to mimic in vivo structures. TE approaches for ocular tissues are available and have indeed come a long way, over the last decades; however more clinically relevant ocular tissue substitutes are needed. Figure 1 highlights the importance of TE in ocular applications and indicates the avenues available based on each tissue.[...]. PMID:25695336

  10. Future directions of nanometrology and nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Kevin W.

    2007-04-01

    Nanomanufacturing and nanometrology are key enablers for fulfilling the promise of nanotechnology. Nanomanufacturing (NM) capitalizes on the special material properties and processing capabilities at the nanoscale, and promotes integration of nanostructures to functional micro devices and meso/macroscale architectures and systems, as well as the interfacing issues across dimensional scales. Nanometrology provides the means to measure and characterize process and product performance and covers an expanse of topics including instrumentation, measurement approaches for off-line and in-process production applications, and standards. To meet the needs of this emerging manufacturing community it is important that research on scale-up of nanotechnology for high rate production, reliability, robustness, yield, efficiency and cost issues for manufacturing products and services be pursued. To achieve this, new research directions must include a systems approach that encompasses nanoscale materials and structures, fabrication and integration processes, production equipment and characterization of instrumentation, theory/ modeling/ simulation and control tools, biomimetic design and integration of multi-scale functional systems, three dimensional nanoscale metrology, production-hardened metrology, and other areas driven by industrial applications. Impact is expected in energy systems, electronics, medical/health, transportation, pharmaceutical, chemicals and defense sectors.

  11. [Future directions of cardiovascular surgery in China].

    PubMed

    Hu, S S

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved great progress both on scale and technology though development over the past thirty years. However, the technical predominance of cardiovascular surgery in therapies for some diseases has been weakened, along with developments of new drugs and interventional technology. Besides, the change of doctor-patient relationship result from internet medical information service and less attraction of cardiovascular surgery discipline to talents bring certain challenge to the development of cardiovascular surgery. Currently, cardiovascular surgeons should practice the "patient first" principle, carry out individual customized treatment and precision therapy, absorb the advantages of other subjects like intervention and imaging in order to achieve technological breakthroughs, create new treatment technologies and models with smaller trauma and better outcome, establish heart team to provide patient oriented treatment. Besides, cardiovascular surgeons should improve knowledge system by learning related technology and science, become hybrid doctors of research. Cardiovascular surgeons should pay high attention to critical effect of research on the disciplinary development, carry out question and demand oriented clinical studies, change the medical practice by virtue of research achievements, direct the treatment for cardiovascular diseases, and finally provide better health service and rebuild the predominance of cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27502127

  12. Palate Morphogenesis: Current Understanding and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    In the past, most scientists conducted their inquiries of nature via inductivism, the patient accumulation of “pieces of information” in the pious hope that the sum of the parts would clarify the whole. Increasingly, modern biology employs the tools of bioinformatics and systems biology in attempts to reveal the “big picture.” Most successful laboratories engaged in the pursuit of the secrets of embryonic development, particularly those whose research focus is craniofacial development, pursue a middle road where research efforts embrace, rather than abandon, what some have called the “pedestrian” qualities of inductivism, while increasingly employing modern data mining technologies. The secondary palate has provided an excellent paradigm that has enabled examination of a wide variety of developmental processes. Examination of cellular signal transduction, as it directs embryogenesis, has proven exceptionally revealing with regard to clarification of the “facts” of palatal ontogeny—at least the facts as we currently understand them. Herein, we review the most basic fundamentals of orofacial embryology and discuss how functioning of TGFβ, BMP, Shh, and Wnt signal transduction pathways contributes to palatal morphogenesis. Our current understanding of palate medial edge epithelial differentiation is also examined. We conclude with a discussion of how the rapidly expanding field of epigenetics, particularly regulation of gene expression by miRNAs and DNA methylation, is critical to control of cell and tissue differentiation, and how examination of these epigenetic processes has already begun to provide a better understanding of, and greater appreciation for, the complexities of palatal morphogenesis. PMID:20544696

  13. Future direction of renal positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zsolt; Xia, Jinsong; Mathews, William B; Brown, Phillip R

    2006-01-01

    remain localized at their origin for an extended period of time, new disease-specific molecular probes for PET studies of the kidneys need to be developed. Future applications of molecular renal imaging are likely to involve studies of tissue hypoxia and apoptosis in renovascular renal disease, renal cancer, and obstructive nephropathy, monitoring the molecular signatures of atherosclerotic plaques, measuring endothelial dysfunction and response to balloon revascularization and restenosis, molecular assessment of the nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine, anticancer drugs, and radiation therapy. New radioligands will enhance the staging and follow-up of renal and prostate cancer. Methods will be developed for investigation of the kinetics of drug-delivery systems and delivery and deposition of prodrugs, reporter gene technology, delivery of gene therapy (nuclear and mitochondrial), assessment of the delivery of cellular, viral, and nonviral vectors (liposomes, polycations, fusion proteins, electroporation, hematopoietic stems cells). Of particular importance will be investigations of stem cell kinetics, including local presence, bloodborne migration, activation, seeding, and its role in renal remodeling (psychological, pathological, and therapy induced). Methods also could be established for investigating the role of receptors and oncoproteins in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis; monitoring ras gene targeting in kidney diseases, assessing cell therapy devices (bioartificial filters, renal tubule assist devices, and bioarticial kidneys), and targeting of signal transduction moleculas with growth factors and cytokines. These potential new approaches are, at best, in an experimental stage, and more research will be needed for their implementation. PMID:16356795

  14. Metformin pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pawlyk, Aaron C; Giacomini, Kathleen M; McKeon, Catherine; Shuldiner, Alan R; Florez, Jose C

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its costs to the health care system continue to rise. Despite the availability of at least 10 drug classes for the treatment of T2D, metformin remains the most widely used first-line pharmacotherapy for its treatment; however, marked interindividual variability in response and few clinical or biomarker predictors of response reduce its optimal use. As clinical care moves toward precision medicine, a variety of broad discovery-based "omics" approaches will be required. Technical innovation, decreasing sequencing cost, and routine sample storage and processing has made pharmacogenomics the most widely applied discovery-based approach to date. This opens up the opportunity to understand the genetics underlying the interindividual variation in metformin responses in order for clinicians to prescribe specific treatments to given individuals for better efficacy and safety: metformin for those predicted to respond and alternative therapies for those predicted to be nonresponders or who are at increased risk for adverse side effects. Furthermore, understanding of the genetic determinants of metformin response may lead to the identification of novel targets and development of more effective agents for diabetes treatment. The goals of this workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases were to review the state of research on metformin pharmacogenomics, discuss the scientific and clinical hurdles to furthering our knowledge of the variability in patient responses to metformin, and consider how to effectively use this increased understanding to improve patient outcomes. PMID:25060887

  15. Penile cancer: current therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sonpavde, G.; Pagliaro, L. C.; Buonerba, C.; Dorff, T. B.; Lee, R. J.; Di Lorenzo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Penile cancer (PC) is a rare cancer in western countries, but is more common in parts of the developing world. Due to its rarity and the consequent lack of randomized trials, current therapy is based on retrospective studies and small prospective trials. Design Studies of PC therapy were searched in PubMed and abstracts at major conferences. Results PC is generally an aggressive malignancy characterized by early locoregional lymph node (LN) spread and later metastases in distant sites. Given the strong predictive value of LN involvement for overall survival, evaluating regional LNs is critical. Advanced LN involvement is increasingly being treated with multimodality therapy incorporating chemotherapy and/or radiation. A single superior cisplatin-based regimen has not been defined. Further advances may occur with a better collaboration on an international scale and comprehensive understanding of tumor biology. To this end, the preventive role of circumcision and understanding of the oncogenic roles of Human Papilloma Virus-16, and smoking may yield advances. Preliminary data suggest a role for agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor and angiogenesis. Conclusion Advances in therapy for PC will require efficient trial designs, synergistic collaboration, incentives to industry and the efforts of patient advocacy groups and venture philanthropists. PMID:23293117

  16. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance. PMID:22523606

  17. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies. PMID:27252281

  18. Current Concepts and Future Directions of CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Bredt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems for use in space were studied. Concepts of such systems include the use of higher plants and/or microalgae as sources of food, potable water and oxygen, and as sinks for carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Recycling of materials within the system will require processing of food organism and crew wastes using microbiological and/or physical chemical techniques. The dynamics of material flow within the system will require monitoring, control, stabilization and maintenance imposed by computers. Studies included higher plant and algal physiology, environmental responses, and control; flight experiments for testing responses of organisms to weightlessness and increased radiation levels; and development of ground based facilities for the study of recycling within a bioregenerative life support system.

  19. Future directions in the simulation of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneham, Marshall

    2005-03-01

    Nanotechnology forces us to rethink conventional solid state physics. Quantum phenomena are commonplace. A system with 101 atoms may be very different from one with just 100. Key biomolecules may resemble spaghetti more than silicon; viscosity often dominates over inertia. Statistical physics is often not carrier statistics; equilibrium may be irrelevant, though the kinetics of non-equilibrium processes can be crucial. Even when nanoscale issues concern structure (rather than functionality), a new viewpoint is needed. Important features, like elasticity and electrostatic energies, have clear macroscopic analogies, but different issues arise, reflecting the reproducibility of quantum dots or the accuracy of self-organisation. Concepts like epitaxy and templating are usually micro- or meso-structural, but emerge again in modelling for the nanoscale. Unexpected analogies between biomolecule and semiconductor systems appear. My examples will include quantum dots and possible silicon-based, room temperature, quantum information processing, and will emphasise new opportunities in nanoscale science.

  20. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution. PMID:12174483

  1. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  2. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Smrithi S.; Uppal, Medha; Randhawa, Subeena; Cheema, Mehar S.; Aghdam, Nima; Usala, Rachel L.; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms, and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ- and tissue-specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic IR. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure. PMID:26870697

  3. LDL cholesterol: controversies and future therapeutic directions.

    PubMed

    Ridker, Paul M

    2014-08-16

    Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe. Several novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of people with genetic defects that result in loss of function within the LDL receptor, a major determinant of inherited hyperlipidaemias. Moreover, the usefulness of monoclonal antibodies that extend the LDL-receptor lifecycle (and thus result in substantial lowering of LDL cholesterol below the levels achieved with statins alone) is being assessed in phase 3 trials that will enrol more than 60,000 at-risk patients worldwide. These trials represent an exceptionally rapid translation of genetic observations into clinical practice and will address core questions of how low LDL cholesterol can be safely reduced, whether the mechanism of LDL-cholesterol lowering matters, and whether ever more aggressive lipid-lowering provides a safe, long-term mechanism to prevent atherothrombotic complications. PMID:25131980

  4. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  5. Proteomic and other mass spectrometry based "omics" biomarker discovery and validation in pediatric venous thromboembolism and arterial ischemic stroke: current state, unmet needs, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Neil A; Everett, Allen D; Graham, David; Bernard, Timothy J; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike

    2014-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) are increasingly-recognized health conditions in children, with both acute and chronic sequelae. Risk factors for, and pathogenesis of, VTE are readily related to three principal factors, consisting of venous stasis, endothelial damage, and the hypercoagulable state (i.e. thrombophilia), termed the triad of Virchow. In children, greater than 90% of VTE are provoked by an overt clinical risk factor, the most common of which is a central venous catheter. Risk factors for childhood-onset (beyond the neonatal period) AIS include sickle cell disease, infection, cerebral arteriopathy, and congenital cardiac disease. In perinatal AIS, risk factors are less well-defined, and have been hypothesized to include maternal-fetal conditions. While some acquired and inherited thrombophilias have been associated with increased risk of incident and/or recurrent VTE and AIS, knowledge of other diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of VTE/AIS in children remains quite limited. To date, very few published studies have employed plasma mass spectrometry-based "omics" approaches (proteomics, lipidomics or metabolomics). Ongoing and future research efforts involving multicenter prospective study-derived plasma biobanks in pediatric VTE (such as the Kids-DOTT trial) and AIS (including VIPS) along with new multi-omics-compatible sample processing methods offer fertile opportunities for discovery and validation of both novel risk factors and prognostic markers, with great potential to achieve improved prognostic stratification in these diseases. PMID:25379629

  6. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO2). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA). There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes. PMID:25400399

  7. Mass Communication Research; Major Issues and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, W. Phillips, Ed.; Yu, Frederick T. C., Ed.

    The papers in this edited volume on the directions in mass communication research deal with two broad questions: What is the current state of knowledge with respect to the area in question? And what might be the most fruitful directions for future research? The nine articles include: (1) an attempt to structure the field of mass communication; (2)…

  8. DNA barcoding to fishes: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Manojit; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Patra, Bidhan Chandra; Sharma, Garima; Seo, Eun-Min; Nam, Ju-Suk; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2016-07-01

    DNA barcoding appears to be a promising approach for taxonomic identification, characterization, and discovery of newer species, facilitating biodiversity studies. It helps researchers to appreciate genetic and evolutionary associations by collection of molecular, morphological, and distributional data. Fish DNA barcoding, based on the sequencing of a uniform area of Cytochrome C Oxidase type I (COI) gene, has received significant interest as an accurate tool for species identification, authentication, and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this review article was to investigate recent global status, approaches, and future direction of DNA barcoding in fisheries sectors. We have tried to highlight its possible impacts, complications, and validation issues at species levels for biodiversity analysis. Moreover, an effort has been put forward to understand issues related to various marker genes associated with barcode process as primer sequences and have concluded barcode promotion as an indispensable tool of molecular biology for the development of taxonomic support systems. PMID:26057011

  9. Reducing hospital readmission rates: current strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kripalani, Sunil; Theobald, Cecelia N; Anctil, Beth; Vasilevskis, Eduard E

    2014-01-01

    New financial penalties for institutions with high readmission rates have intensified efforts to reduce rehospitalization. Several interventions that involve multiple components (e.g., patient needs assessment, medication reconciliation, patient education, arranging timely outpatient appointments, and providing telephone follow-up) have successfully reduced readmission rates for patients discharged to home. The effect of interventions on readmission rates is related to the number of components implemented; single-component interventions are unlikely to reduce readmissions significantly. For patients discharged to postacute care facilities, multicomponent interventions have reduced readmissions through enhanced communication, medication safety, advanced care planning, and enhanced training to manage medical conditions that commonly precipitate readmission. To help hospitals direct resources and services to patients with greater likelihood of readmission, risk-stratification methods are available. Future work should better define the roles of home-based services, information technology, mental health care, caregiver support, community partnerships, and new transitional care personnel. PMID:24160939

  10. Future Directions for Surgical Trial Designs in Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Relton, Clare

    2016-07-01

    Should patients undergo surgical intervention as soon as they receive a diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), or should they wait until pharmacologic treatment fails? This article describes some of the challenges encountered in surgical trials for TN, and provides some guidance for future trials in this area. One future direction for TN research is to use the innovative "cohort multiple RCT design," This article describes some of the challenges encountered in surgical trials for TN, and provides some guidance for future trials in this area. One future direction for TN research is to use the innovative "cohort multiple RCT design," which enables multiple trials to be embedded within a single cohort of patients with TN diagnosis, providing an efficient and effective approach to the testing of multiple interventions for TN with each other and with usual care. PMID:27325002

  11. Future directions for H sub x O sub y detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosley, David R. (Editor); Hoell, James M. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The activities and recommendations of the NASA workshop on the Future Directions for H sub x O sub y detection are given. The objective of this workshop was to access future directions for the measurement of the OH radical as well as other H sub x O sub y species. The workshop discussions were focused by two broad questions: (1) What are the capabilities of potential measurement methods? and (2) Will the results from the most promising method be useful in furthering understanding of tropospheric chemistry?

  12. Issues and Future Direction of Physical Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgbor, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the issues that influenced the development of physical education in Nigerian schools after the country's political independence in 1960. Negative forces, which affected the tempo of growth, are discussed, and suggestions for the future direction of physical education in Nigeria, particularly given its importance in national…

  13. Current capabilities and future directions in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A summary of significant findings is given, followed by specific recommendations for future directions of emphasis for computational fluid dynamics development. The discussion is organized into three application areas: external aerodynamics, hypersonics, and propulsion - and followed by a turbulence modeling synopsis.

  14. Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Timothy; Hung, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies presents theoretical studies and practical solutions for engineers, educational professionals, and graduate students in the research areas of e-learning, distance education, and instructional design. This book provides readers with cutting-edge solutions and research directions…

  15. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  16. Future Directions for a Learning Society--1984 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rexford G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Future Directions for a Learning Society is a program being conducted by the College Board with funds from the Exxon Corporation to study, plan, demonstrate, and develop new services in the area of adult, lifelong, recurrent, and continuing education. The initiatives and strategic actions of the program are outlined. (JMF)

  17. Commentary on ``Future directions: Building technologies and design tools``

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  18. Commentary on Future directions: Building technologies and design tools''

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  19. Future Directions for EC Teacher Educators: 10 Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Colin

    2010-01-01

    In this two-part series, the author's task is to draw out some themes from the Working Forum for Teacher Educators, held in Auckland, New Zealand on April 30-May 2, 2008. Earlier he identified ten concerns relating to future directions in early childhood teacher education. In this article, he suggests ten principles for early childhood teacher…

  20. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  1. Information-time based futures pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Simon; Wang, Jai Jen

    2009-09-01

    This study follows Clark [P.K. Clark, A subordinated stochastic process model with finite variance for speculative prices, Econometrica 41 (1973) 135-155] and Chang, Chang and Lim [C.W. Chang, S.K. Chang, K.G. Lim, Information-time option pricing: Theory and empirical evidence, Journal of Financial Economics 48 (1998) 211-242] to subordinate an information-time based directing process into calendar-time based parent processes. A closed-form futures pricing formula is derived after taking into account the information-time setting and the stochasticity of the spot price, interest rate, and convenience yield. According to the empirical results on the TAIEX and TFETX data from 1998/7/21 to 2003/12/31, the information-time based model performs better than its calendar-time based counterpart and the cost of carry model, especially when the information arrival intensity estimates become larger.

  2. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future. PMID:24212951

  3. Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

  4. Recent Advances in PV Research and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Satyen K.

    1998-04-01

    The photovoltaic technology is making a major thrust in the commercial arena with 1997 worldwide production of PV modules reaching over 125 MW and growing at the rate of 20-25semiconductor materials and devices are emerging as strong contenders for PV applications even though silicon is still the 'work-horse' of the industry. Ultra-high efficiency solar cells fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys like gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) are finding applications in space technology. Enormous progress has also been made on various thin-film solar cell technologies, which offer the promise for substantially reducing the cost of PV systems. Some of the leading contenders are amorphous and polycrystalline silicon, compound semiconductor thin films such as copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) based alloys, and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. Exciting new developments are happening in the use of nano-particle semiconductor materials like titanium dioxide (TiO2) for low-cost PV devices. Intense research on these and other materials and devices is making a strong impact on the technology. In this presentation, a brief overview of recent advances in PV research will b e made and the trends and opportunities for future research directions will be identified.

  5. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  6. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  7. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  8. Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0. PMID:19183518

  9. Future Directions of Inquiry in Adapted Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Sketches some future trends of inquiry in adapted physical activity. These include investigation into ethics in adapted physical activity. Empirically based issues of inquiry include physical activity as a dependent measure, diverse and changing populations, theoretical and applied research, nomothetic and idiographic research perspectives,…

  10. Direct Monitoring of Turbidity Currents: New Insights, Challenging Preconceptions and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, M. A.; Talling, P. J.; Cartigny, M.; Vardy, M. E.; Azpiroz, M.; Hunt, J.; Sumner, E.; Hizzett, J.; Vellinga, A.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Turbidity currents are, volumetrically, the most important process for the transportation of sediment on the face of our planet. The combination of large volume and fast speeds can damage globally important seafloor cables and offshore structures and may transport sediment over hundreds of kilometres. Despite their significance for sediment flux and as geohazards, very few examples of direct monitoring of real-world turbidity currents exist. Until recently, there has been a reliance on depositional records, scaled-down experiments and numerical models to understand the nature of turbidity currents. The results of direct monitoring obtained over the past few years now provide us with ground-breaking insights into the real-world behaviour of full-scale turbidity currents. We present results of recent flow monitoring acquired using an array of acoustic and geophysical tools, from multiple sites worldwide, including the deep-sea Congo Canyon, Canadian fjords, and a dredging experiment offshore Holland. This advent in turbidity current monitoring, largely driven by step-changes in technology, has reinforced some existing interpretations, but also challenges some preconceptions. Our results are based on monitoring using multibeam sonars, sub-bottom and acoustic Doppler current profilers. First, we provide insights into the triggering of flows that include landslides, tidal and wave effects, and other more cryptic events with no clear initiation point. Second, the influence of dense layers at the base of flows is shown to be important for sediment transport and bedform migration; however, most acoustic techniques struggle to penetrate. Initial results from a novel Chirp profiler provide imaging of the lowermost part of the flow. Third, the morphology of the flow and its development through time are shown to deviate from that observed in classical flume tank experiments. Finally, we summarise some future directions for flow monitoring to push forward our understanding of

  11. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    future directions in MPI about a decade after its first appearance. PMID:25960650

  12. MILESTONES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CAESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical

  13. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  14. Panel on future directions in parallel computer architecture

    SciTech Connect

    VanTilborg, A.M. )

    1989-06-01

    One of the program highlights of the 15th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, held May 30 - June 2, 1988 in Honolulu, was a panel session on future directions in parallel computer architecture. The panel was organized and chaired by the author, and was comprised of Prof. Jack Dennis (NASA Ames Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science), Prof. H.T. Kung (Carnegie Mellon), and Dr. Burton Smith (Tera Computer Company). The objective of the panel was to identify the likely trajectory of future parallel computer system progress, particularly from the sandpoint of marketplace acceptance. Approximately 250 attendees participated in the session, in which each panelist began with a ten minute viewgraph explanation of his views, followed by an open and sometimes lively exchange with the audience and fellow panelists. The session ran for ninety minutes.

  15. Future Directions in the Biology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Daniel M; Dasari, Arvind; Yao, James C

    2016-07-01

    The neuroendocrine field is experiencing an ever-accelerating expansion of data about the makeup of these tumors whose biology has long been opaque. Genome sequencing and epigenetic data regarding copy number variations, methylation events, and expression profiling are increasingly available for small bowel and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, in addition to building larger and more robust genetic and epigenetic datasets, the remaining challenge is moving beyond the data toward meaningful information, knowledge, and wisdom. Herein, we will offer perspectives on the existing data and thoughts on future directions. PMID:27295529

  16. Evolution of posttraumatic stress disorder and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ray, Susan L

    2008-08-01

    The knowledge that trauma can cause long-term physiological and psychological problems has been recognized for centuries. Today, such suffering would be classified as the characteristic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nurses in all practice settings are increasingly caring for individuals suffering from military trauma, natural disasters, and interpersonal violence such as childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, intimate partner violence, and collective violence. This article discusses how the diagnosis of PTSD evolved over the course of history, limitations of the PTSD diagnostic category, and additional diagnostic categories for trauma. Implications for nursing practice and future directions for research are explored. PMID:18640541

  17. Computational fluid dynamics - Current capabilities and directions for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made great strides in the detailed simulation of complex fluid flows, including some of those not before understood. It is now being routinely applied to some rather complicated problems and starting to affect the design cycle of aerospace flight vehicles and their components. It is being used to complement, and is being complemented by, experimental studies. Several examples are presented in the paper to illustrate the current state of the art. Included is a discussion of the barriers to accomplishing the basic objective of numerical simulation. In addition, the directions for the future in the discipline of computational fluid dynamics are addressed.

  18. Management of asthma in adults: current therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Green, R; Brightling, C; Pavord, I; Wardlaw, A

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence worldwide and results in significant use of healthcare resources. Although most patients with asthma can be adequately treated with inhaled corticosteroids, an important number of patients require additional therapy and an increasing number of options are available. A further minority of patients develop severe persistent asthma which remains difficult to manage despite current pharmacological therapies. This review discusses the various treatment options currently available for each stage of asthma severity, highlights some of the limitations of current management, and outlines directions which may improve the management of asthma in the future. PMID:12782771

  19. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  20. Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    For over a century, technologists and scientists have actively sought the development of exoskeletons and orthoses designed to augment human economy, strength, and endurance. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeletal and orthotic design that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been truly impressive. In this commentary, I first classify exoskeletons and orthoses into devices that act in series and in parallel to a human limb, providing a few examples within each category. This classification is then followed by a discussion of major design challenges and future research directions critical to the field of exoskeletons and orthoses. PMID:19538735

  1. Myxosporean parasites in Australian frogs: Importance, implications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites have been identified in amphibians around the world yet very little is known about their diversity, biology and host impact. Several species of Australian frogs have recently been shown to be affected by myxosporidiosis caused by two new Cystodiscus species. In this manuscript, we review what is known about the myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis that produce myxospores in gallbladders of Australian frogs and Myxobolus fallax and Myxobolus hylae that produce spores in gonads and the potential impact of these parasites on the conservation of Australian frogs. By doing so, we aim to highlight the importance of amphibian myxosporean parasites, suggest directions for future research and argue that the lessons learned about these parasites in Australia are directly transferable to amphibians around the world. PMID:24533318

  2. Suggested future directions in high-speed transition experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Historical developments in the area of high-speed experimental transition research are outlined, and future directions in this area as determined by the panel membership are listed. The directions include measurement and modeling of initial disturbance fields, both in ground facilities and flight, for all modes; development of advanced high-speed instrumentation for disturbance field measurements, measurements of the details of receptivity in multitudinous flows; further development and use of high-speed quiet tunnels; stability and transition studies for multitudinous flows; detailed studies of the transitional region for boundary layers, free flows, vortices separated flows, corner flows, etc.; and studies of flow-chemistry effects on transition phenomena. Applied research such areas as the physics of perforated-surface suction stabilization and the resolution of anomalies in the existing high-speed database is also suggested.

  3. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  4. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the ionizing radiation dosimetry aboard LDEF provide a unique opportunity for assessing the accuracy of current space radiation models and in identifying needed improvements for future mission applications. Details are given of the LDEF data available for radiation model evaluations. The status is given of model comparisons with LDEF data, along with future directions of planned modeling efforts and data comparison assessments. The methodology is outlined which is related to modeling being used to help insure that the LDEF ionizing radiation results can be used to address ionizing radiation issues for future missions. In general, the LDEF radiation modeling has emphasized quick-look predictions using simplified methods to make comparisons with absorbed dose measurements and induced radioactivity measurements of emissions. Modeling and LDEF data comparisons related to linear energy transfer spectra are of importance for several reasons which are outlined. The planned modeling and LDEF data comparisons for LET spectra is discussed, including components of the LET spectra due to different environment sources, contribution from different production mechanisms, and spectra in plastic detectors vs silicon.

  5. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  6. Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

  7. Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J.; Boucher, Richard C.; Cutting, Garry R.; Engelhardt, John F.; Guggino, William B.; Karp, Christopher L.; Knowles, Michael R.; Kolls, Jay K.; LiPuma, John J.; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled “Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease” on September 21–22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene–environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease. PMID:22312017

  8. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  9. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider

    2016-07-01

    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  10. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  11. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

  12. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  13. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  14. Diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: History, challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Carmen; Andrew, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is one of the most common preventable causes of developmental disability, and is currently one of the most pressing public health concerns in Canada. FASD refers to the range of physical, mental, behavioural and learning disabilities that an individual may acquire as a result of maternal alcohol consumption. In the present paper, the history of the diagnostic approach to alcohol-related disorders over the past 35 years is reviewed. Research supporting the importance of early diagnosis for the long-term outcomes and management of individuals with FASD is presented, and challenges that have plagued efforts to efficiently diagnose individuals with FASD are discussed. Finally, the study reviews the future directions and implications regarding current diagnostic strategies. PMID:20357921

  15. Animal Models of Psychosis: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alexandra D.; Coto, Carlos A.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by disorganization, delusions and hallucinations. Animal models have become an increasingly important research tool in the effort to understand both the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. There are multiple animal models for psychosis, with each formed by the coupling of a manipulation and a measurement. In this manuscript we do not address the diseases of which psychosis is a prominent comorbidity. Instead, we summarize the current state of affairs and future directions for animal models of psychosis. To accomplish this, our manuscript will first discuss relevant behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. We then provide an overview of the different manipulations that are combined with these measurements to produce animal models. The strengths and limitations of each model will be addressed in order to evaluate its cross-species comparability. PMID:25215267

  16. Pediatric hospitalists in medical education: current roles and future directions.

    PubMed

    Heydarian, Cyrus; Maniscalco, Jennifer

    2012-05-01

    As the field of pediatric hospital medicine has evolved, pediatric hospitalists have become increasingly involved in medical student and resident education--providing direct education during clinical rotations, developing novel curricula to meet the demands of the new educational environment, occupying leadership roles in medical education, and more. The literature suggests that hospitalists possess the essential skills for teaching effectively, yet most hospitalists feel that additional training beyond residency is necessary to refine their knowledge and skills in education and in other essential domains. Several pediatric hospital medicine fellowships and continuing medical education activities have been developed in the last decade to meet this growing need. The recent publication of the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Core Competencies will help define the roles and expectations of practicing pediatric hospitalists, and will serve as a framework for future curriculum development in both graduate and continuing medical education. PMID:22483082

  17. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  18. [Cardiac MRI: technology, clinical applications, and future directions].

    PubMed

    Pesenti-Rossi, D; Peyrou, J; Baron, N; Allouch, P; Aubert, S; Boueri, Z; Livarek, B

    2013-11-01

    The field of cardiovascular MRI has evolved rapidly over the past decade, feeding new applications across a broad spectrum of clinical and research areas. Advances in magnet hardware technology, and key developments such as segmented k-space acquisitions, advanced motion encoding techniques, ultra-rapid perfusion imaging and delayed myocardial enhancement imaging have all contributed to a revolution in how patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease are diagnosed and treated. Actually, cardiac MRI is a widely accepted method as the "gold standard" for detection and characterization of many forms of cardiac diseases. The aim of this review is to present an overview of cardiac MRI technology, advances in clinical applications, and future directions. PMID:24035258

  19. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Conditional Pacemakers: Rationale, Development and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2012-01-01

    Pacemakers and other cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have long been considered an absolute contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a crucial and growing imaging modality. In the last 20 years, protocols have been developed to allow MR scanning of CIED patients with a low complication rate. However, this practice has remained limited to a relatively small number of centers, and many pacemaker patients continue to be denied access to clinically indicated imaging. The introduction of MRI conditional pacemakers has provided a widely applicable and satisfactory solution to this problem. Here, the interactions of pacemakers with the MR environment, the results of MR scanning in patients with conventional CIEDs, the development and clinical experience with MRI conditional devices, and future directions are reviewed. PMID:23071382

  1. Myocardial Viability and Revascularization: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pavan; Ivanov, Alexander; Ramasubbu, Kumudha

    2016-06-01

    The initial observation of functional recovery in dysfunctional myocardium following revascularization led to the introduction of the concept of hibernating myocardium. Since then, the pathophysiologic basis of hibernating myocardium has been well described. Multiple imaging modalities have been utilized to prospectively detect viable myocardium and thus predict its functional recovery following revascularization. It has been hypothesized that viability imaging will be instrumental in the selection of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy likely to benefit from revascularization. Multiple observational studies built a large body of evidence supporting this concept. However, data from prospective studies failed to substantiate utility of viability testing. This review aims to summarize the current literature and describe the role of viability imaging in current clinical practice as well as future directions. PMID:27115143

  2. Future Directions in Solar EUV/UV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the Sun provide a unique and powerful means to investigate plasma properties, such as density, temperature, abundance and flow speeds throughout the low solar atmosphere, from chromsphere to corona. In particular, with the SOHO mission, recent EUV/UV spectroscopic studies have paved the way for significant advances in numerous areas of solar physics research, such as active region structure and evolution, quiet Sun transient processes, mass ejection onset, and so on... and the wealth of data will guarantee that we will be reaping the rewards for some time to come. However, spectroscopy demands relatively high mass, high telemetry instrumentation, and the products are not readily understood by the non-specialist. Thus, with the new breed of lighter missions and a greater need to enhance public awareness, what is the future for solar EUV/UV spectroscopy? The NASA STEREO mission due for launch in 2004 is not expected to carry a spectrometer. The Japanese Solar-B mission will be carrying an EUV spectrometer. The need for such instruments for the possible ESA Solar Orbiter, the NASA Solar Probe and other future missions must be addressed. SOHO comes from mid-1980's technology so we can readily enhance our current performances with the use of multilayers, improved CCD technology, multi-line-of-sight observations etc... So, as well as advertising the success of solar spectroscopy in recent years, an outline of possible directions willl be given which will underline the strong case for including such experiments in future solar missions.

  3. Risk stratification for wilms tumor: current approach and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dome, Jeffrey S; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, has provided a paradigm for progressive improvement in clinical outcomes achieved through serial cooperative group studies. With modern surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy approaches, the overall survival rate for patients with Wilms tumor has reached 90%. Remarkably, the increase in survival has been achieved with a reduction in therapy for most patient subgroups, leading not only to more survivors, but also to healthier survivors. A key contributor to improved outcomes has been the development of clinical and biologic prognostic markers that have enabled risk-directed therapy. Whereas the early cooperative group studies used only tumor stage for risk stratification, current Children's Oncology Group (COG) and International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols employ a multitude of prognostic factors to guide therapy. Prognostic factors used in the current generation of COG studies include stage, histology, patient age, tumor weight, completeness of lung nodule response, and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and 16q. Future COG studies seek to incorporate gain of chromosome 1q and methylation pattern of chromosome 11p15 into the risk classification schema. Prognostic factors used in the current SIOP studies include stage, histology, tumor volume, and responsiveness to therapy. Future SIOP studies seek to incorporate absolute blastemal volume and novel molecular markers for resistant blastema into the risk stratification approach. PMID:24857079

  4. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Au, Jennifer S.; Frenette, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  5. Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research. PMID:23857222

  6. Section III, Division 5 - Development and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; R I Jetter; James E Nestell; T. D. Burchell; T L Sham

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development. Portions of this paper were based on Chapter 17 of the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Fourth Edition, © ASME, 2012, Reference.

  7. Nanotechnology in ocular delivery: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Yasmin; Maurya, D P; Iqbal, Z; Aqil, M

    2011-06-01

    Our knowledge in the field of ocular drug delivery is rapidly expanding. An increase in the understanding of ocular drug absorption and disposition vis-à-vis developments in nanotechnology has led to the emergence of many of the nanotechnology-based ocular drug delivery systems including nanoparticles, microemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, light-sensitive nanocarrier systems, etc. The need to develop effective treatments for posterior eye segment diseases is more important than surface delivery. Treatment of blinding diseases of the eye, such as proliferative retinopathy or macular degeneration, requires effective and safe delivery of drugs to posterior eye segment tissues, and recent advances in nanotechnology have demonstrated successful outcomes. Nanoscientists should focus their efforts on nano-ophthalmology. This review describes the current status and progress made so far, and the course that needs to be pursued in the future. PMID:21695286

  8. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Kuttapitiya, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the predominant form of arthritis worldwide, resulting in a high degree of functional impairment and reduced quality of life owing to chronic pain. To date, there are no treatments that are known to modify disease progression of OA in the long term. Current treatments are largely based on the modulation of pain, including NSAIDs, opiates and, more recently, centrally acting pharmacotherapies to avert pain. This review will focus on the rationale for new avenues in pain modulation, including inhibition with anti-NGF antibodies and centrally acting analgesics. The authors also consider the potential for structure modification in cartilage/bone using growth factors and stem cell therapies. The possible mismatch between structural change and pain perception will also be discussed, introducing recent techniques that may assist in improved patient phenotyping of pain subsets in OA. Such developments could help further stratify subgroups and treatments for people with OA in future. PMID:25018771

  9. Eye nutrition in context: mechanisms, implementation, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, Robert B

    2013-07-01

    Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research. PMID:23857222

  10. Future directions for separation science in nuclear and radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent extraction and ion exchange have been the most widely used separation techniques in nuclear and radiochemistry since their development in the 1940s. Many successful separations processes based on these techniques have been used for decades in research laboratories, analytical laboratories, and industrial plants. Thus, it is easy to conclude that most of the fundamental and applied research that is needed in these areas has been done, and that further work in these ''mature'' fields is unlikely to be fruitful. A more careful review, however, reveals that significant problems remain to be solved, and that there is a demand for the development of new reagents, methods, and systems to solve the increasingly complex separations problems in the nuclear field. Specifically, new separation techniques based on developments in membrane technology and biotechnology that have occurred over the last 20 years should find extensive applications in radiochemical separations. Considerable research is needed in such areas as interfacial chemistry, the design and control of highly selective separation agents, critically evaluated data bases and mathematical models, and the fundamental chemistry of dilute solutions if these problems are to be solved and new techniques developed in a systematic way. Nonaqueous separation methods, such as pyrochemical and fluoride volatility processes, have traditionally played a more limited role in nuclear and radiochemistry, but recent developments in the chemistry and engineering of these processes promises to open up new areas of research and application in the future.

  11. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction, and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction. PMID:24731209

  12. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  13. Cognitive Training in Mental Disorders: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Rumsey, Judith; Sherrill, Joel; Wagner, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we review the conceptual basis, definitions, and evolution of cognitive training (CT) approaches for the treatment of mental disorders. Method We review the current state of the knowledge on CT in psychiatric illnesses, and its neural and behavioral targets, and summarize the factors that appear to relate to a successful response to CT, including learner characteristics that influence clinical outcome. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to the development and testing of CT approaches, with the goal of creating maximally efficient and effective approaches to training. Finally, we identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline key research directions for the future. Results While much of the early work has been conducted in schizophrenia, CT has more recently been applied to a widening range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, including attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. CT harnesses the inherent neuroplastic capacities of the brain, targeting neural system function across psychiatric disorders, and thus improving cognitive processes that play a role in emotion regulation, clinical symptoms, and adaptive community functioning. Conclusions CT offers considerable promise, especially given the limited efficacy of pharmacological interventions in ameliorating cognitive deficits. However, more work is needed to understand mechanisms underlying CT, predictors of response, generalization and real-world applicability, and approaches to dissemination in practice settings. PMID:24700194

  14. Nonintubated thoracoscopic surgery: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Hui; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become a common and globally accepted surgical approach for a variety of thoracic diseases. Conventionally, it is performed under tracheal intubation with double lumen tube or bronchial blocker to achieve single lung ventilation. Recently, VATS without tracheal intubation were reported to be feasible and safe in a series of VATS procedures, including management of pneumothorax, wedge resection of pulmonary tumors, excision of mediastinal tumors, lung volume reduction surgery, segmentectomy, and lobectomy. Patients undergoing nonintubated VATS are anesthetized using regional anesthesia in a spontaneously single lung breathing status after iatrogenic open pneumothorax. Conscious sedation is usually necessary for longer and intensively manipulating procedures and intraoperative cough reflex can be effectively inhibited with intrathoracic vagal blockade on the surgical side. The early outcomes of nonintubated VATS include a faster postoperative recovery and less complication rate comparing with its counterpart of intubated general anesthesia, by which may translate into a fast track VATS program. The future directions of nonintubated VATS should focus on its long-term outcomes, especially on oncological perspectives of survival in lung cancer patients. For now, it is still early to conclude the benefits of this technique, however, an educating and training program may be needed to enable both thoracic surgeons and anesthesiologists providing an alternative surgical option in their caring patients. PMID:24455169

  15. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nirupama; Needles, Andrew; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionizing irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of preclinical and clinical ultrasound systems , the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic. PMID:20541656

  16. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  17. Future directions in searching for eta-mesic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Quamrul; Liu, Lon-Chang

    2016-03-01

    Future directions in searching for eta-mesic nuclei: Q. Haider, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Fordham University, Bronx, N.Y. 10458, U.S.A. and L.C. Liu, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M 87545, U.S.A. Eta-mesic nucleus or the quasibound nuclear state of an eta (η) meson in a nucleus is caused by strong-interaction force alone. This new type of nuclear species, which extends the landscape of nuclear physics, has been extensively studied since its prediction in 1986. In experimental search for η-mesic nucleus, transfer reactions have been frequently employed. One such reaction has led to the observation of the η-mesic nucleus 25Mg η . However, searching quasibound η-nucleus states in lighter nuclei such as 3He, 4He, and 11B has not yet yielded positive results. Searching η-mesic nuclei in medium-mass nuclear systems other than 25Mg is highly valuable. In view of the aforementioned experimental results, we suggest searching for more η-mesic nuclei in target nuclei having a mass number A >= 12 . Bronx, N.Y. 10458.

  18. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  19. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  20. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  1. Past, present and future research directions with Pichia anomala.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda; Schnürer, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The first International Pichia anomala Symposium provided a survey of past, recent and ongoing research on this yeast. The research community working with this yeast has focussed on several areas. Based on molecular data, a revision of the taxonomy is required: the name P. anomala is no longer applicable, as the genus Pichia is polyphyletic. The current debate centres on whether the yeast should be designated as Wickerhamomyces anomalus or if the previous name, Hansenula anomala, should be re-instated. The anti-microbial activities of this yeast received considerable attention during the symposium. H. anomala has been extensively studied as a biopreservation agent in many different post-harvest systems. Several mechanisms account for its anti-microbial activities, including the production of killer proteins and toxic volatile metabolites. Anti-idiotypic antibodies generating an "internal image" of a killer protein have been found to possess therapeutic activity against a broad range of microorganisms. A great diversity of H. anomala strains was reported at the symposium. Strains have been isolated from several food and feed systems and even from the intestine and reproductive organs of a malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi). Feed and food supplemented with certain H. anomala strains show an improved quality due, for example, to the addition of advantageous proteins and phytase activity. However, a number of apparent opportunistic pathogenic strains have also been isolated. Strain differentiation, especially the recognition of potentially pathogenic isolates, is an important challenge for the future commercialisation of this yeast. Future industrial and agricultural application of this yeast also raises questions of the economics of large-scale production, its survival during storage (formulation) and of safety regulations, all of which require further investigation. PMID:20924674

  2. Virus Variation Resource--recent updates and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brister, J Rodney; Bao, Yiming; Zhdanov, Sergey A; Ostapchuck, Yuri; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Kiryutin, Boris; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Kimelman, Michael; Tatusova, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Virus Variation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/VirusVariation/) is a comprehensive, web-based resource designed to support the retrieval and display of large virus sequence datasets. The resource includes a value added database, a specialized search interface and a suite of sequence data displays. Virus-specific sequence annotation and database loading pipelines produce consistent protein and gene annotation and capture sequence descriptors from sequence records then map these metadata to a controlled vocabulary. The database supports a metadata driven, web-based search interface where sequences can be selected using a variety of biological and clinical criteria. Retrieved sequences can then be downloaded in a variety of formats or analyzed using a suite of tools and displays. Over the past 2 years, the pre-existing influenza and Dengue virus resources have been combined into a single construct and West Nile virus added to the resultant resource. A number of improvements were incorporated into the sequence annotation and database loading pipelines, and the virus-specific search interfaces were updated to support more advanced functions. Several new features have also been added to the sequence download options, and a new multiple sequence alignment viewer has been incorporated into the resource tool set. Together these enhancements should support enhanced usability and the inclusion of new viruses in the future. PMID:24304891

  3. Public participation in energy facility siting. Part 2; Future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlatch, E.E. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-08-01

    The first planning era for energy facility siting was typified by technological decision making in a climate of eminent domain. The second planning era, from 1970 to present, involves regulatory/adjudicatory decision making in a climate of adversarial proceedings. However, outcomes are not much different than in the first: Decisions are still largely made on technological grounds, sites are secretly selected and anonymously secured, and public participation has little effect on decisions. The result has been endgame litigation that delays needed projects increases cost, and polarizes participants. Utilities are understandably reluctant to plan large base-load plants, yet almost all projections of electricity use indicate that such plants will be needed after 1996, if not before. The author discusses how it is in the self-interest of all three principal actors---industry, environmental groups, and state and local government---to move beyond confrontation to a third planning era based on negotiation. Unassisted negotiation (open siting or open planning) and assisted negotiation (facilitation and mediation) promise to produce mutual gain for all parties through cooperative and creative problem solving. Most importantly, they lay the groundwork for future productive interaction.

  4. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  5. Candidate gravitational microlensing events for future direct lens imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C. B.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Park, H.; Han, C.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Udalski, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ ≳ 8 mas yr{sup –1}. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In ≲12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  6. Candidate Gravitational Microlensing Events for Future Direct Lens Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. B.; Park, H.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Han, C.; Gaudi, B. S.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Tsurumi, N.; Wada, K.; Yamai, N.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Almeida, L. A.; Bos, M.; Choi, J.-Y.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Friedmann, M.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jablonski, F.; Jung, Y. K.; Kaspi, S.; Lee, C.-U.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; Moorhouse, D.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Pogge, R. W.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Tan, T.-G.; Thornley, G.; Yee, J. C.; μFUN Collaboration; Allan, A.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Street, R. A.; RoboNet Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with μ >~ 8 mas yr-1. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In lsim12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  7. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  8. Therapeutic human papillomavirus vaccines: current clinical trials and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-Fu; Ma, Barbara; Monie, Archana; Tsen, Shaw-Wei; Wu, T-C

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. It is now evident that persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for the development and maintenance of cervical cancer. Thus, effective vaccination against HPV represents an opportunity to restrain cervical cancer and other important cancers. The FDA recently approved the HPV vaccine Gardasil for the preventive control of HPV, using HPV virus-like particles (VLP) to generate neutralizing antibodies against major capsid protein, L1. However, prophylactic HPV vaccines do not have therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. Furthermore, due to the considerable burden of HPV infections worldwide, it would take decades for preventive vaccines to affect the prevalence of cervical cancer. Thus, in order to speed up the control of cervical cancer and treat current infections, the continued development of therapeutic vaccines against HPV is critical. Therapeutic HPV vaccines can potentially eliminate pre-existing lesions and malignant tumors by generating cellular immunity against HPV-infected cells that express early viral proteins such as E6 and E7. Objective This review discusses the future directions of therapeutic HPV vaccine approaches for the treatment of established HPV-associated malignancies, with emphasis on current progress of HPV vaccine clinical trials. Methods Relevant literature is discussed. Results/conclusion Though their development has been challenging, many therapeutic HPV vaccines have been shown to induce HPV-specific antitumor immune responses in preclinical animal models and several promising strategies have been applied in clinical trials. With continued progress in the field of vaccine development, HPV therapeutic vaccines may provide a potentially promising approach for the control of lethal HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:18352847

  9. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

  10. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  11. Pediatric airway management: current practices and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Rani A; Haile, Dawit T; Farrell, Patrick T; Sharma, Anshuman

    2012-10-01

    Management of a pediatric airway can be a challenge, especially for the non-pediatric anesthesiologists. Structured algorithms for an unexpected difficult pediatric airway have been missing so far. A recent step wise algorithm, based on the Difficult Airway society (DAS) adult protocol, is a step in the right direction. There have been some exciting advances in development of pediatric extra-glottic devices for maintaining ventilation, and introduction of pediatric versions of new 'non line of sight' laryngoscopes and optical stylets. The exact role of these devices in routine and emergent situations is still evolving. Recent advances in simulation technology has become a valuable tool in imparting psychomotor and procedural skills to trainees and allied healthcare workers. Moving toward the goal of eliminating serious adverse events during the management of routine and difficult pediatric airway, authors propose that institutions develop a dedicated Difficult Airway Service comprising of a team of experts in advanced airway management. PMID:22967160

  12. Characterizing the food environment: Pitfalls and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam; Duncan, Glen E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E; Scharnhorst, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess a county population’s exposure to different types of food sources reported to affect both diet quality and obesity rates. Design: Food permit records obtained from the local health department served to establish the full census of food stores and restaurants. Employing prior categorization schemes which classified the relative healthfulness of food sources based on establishment type (i.e. supermarkets versus convenience stores, or full-service versus fast food restaurants), food establishments were assigned to the healthy, unhealthy, or undetermined groups. Setting: King County, WA. Subjects: Full census of food sources. Results: According to all categorization schemes, most food establishments in King County fell into the unhealthy and undetermined groups. The use of the food permit data showed that large stores, which included supermarkets as healthy food establishments, contained a sizeable number of bakery/delis, fish/meat, ethnic and standard quick service restaurants, and coffee shops, all food sources that, when housed in a separate venue or owned by a different business establishment, were classified as either unhealthy or of undetermined value to health. Conclusions: To fully assess the potential health effects of exposure to the extant food environment, future research would need to establish the health value of foods in the many such common establishments as individually owned grocery stores and ethnic food stores and restaurants. Within- venue exposure to foods should also be investigated. PMID:23570695

  13. Building Future Directions for Teacher Learning in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.

  14. Building Future Directions for Teacher Learning in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.

  15. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables. PMID:9143729

  16. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  17. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  18. Hydrological modelling of urbanized catchments: A review and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadore, Elga; Bronders, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the conceptual detail of hydrological models has dramatically increased as a result of improved computational techniques and the availability of spatially-distributed digital data. Nevertheless modelling spatially-distributed hydrological processes can be challenging, particularly in strongly heterogeneous urbanized areas. Multiple interactions occur between urban structures and the water system at various temporal and spatial scales. So far, no universal methodology exists for simulating the urban water system at catchment scale. This paper reviews the state of the art on the scientific knowledge and practice of modelling the urban hydrological system at the catchment scale, with the purpose of identifying current limitations and defining a blueprint for future modelling advances. We compare conceptual descriptions of urban physical hydrological processes on basis of a selection of 43 modelling approaches. The complexity of the urban water system at the catchment scale results in an incomplete understanding of the interaction between urban and natural hydrological systems, and in a high degree of uncertainty. Data availability is still a strong limitation since current modelling practice recognizes the need for high spatial and temporal resolution. Spatio-temporal gaps exist between the physical scales of hydrological processes and the resolution of applied models. Therefore urban hydrology is often simplified either as a study of surface runoff over impervious surfaces or hydraulics of piped systems. Many approaches target very specific objectives and the level of detail in representing physical processes is not consistent. Based on our analysis, we propose a blueprint for a highly complex integrated urban hydrological model. We regard flexibility, in terms of model structure and data assimilation, as the key characteristic for overcoming these limitations. We advocate the use of modular, process-based approaches, which are flexible and adaptable

  19. Some suggested future directions of quantitative resource assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Future quantitative assessments will be expected to estimate quantities, values, and locations of undiscovered mineral resources in a form that conveys both economic viability and uncertainty associated with the resources. Historically, declining metal prices point to the need for larger deposits over time. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the greatest opportunity for reducing uncertainty in assessments lies in lowering uncertainty associated with tonnage estimates. Of all errors possible in assessments, those affecting tonnage estimates are by far the most important. Selecting the correct deposit model is the most important way of controlling errors because the dominance of tonnage-deposit models are the best known predictor of tonnage. Much of the surface is covered with apparently barren rocks and sediments in many large regions. Because many exposed mineral deposits are believed to have been found, a prime concern is the presence of possible mineralized rock under cover. Assessments of areas with resources under cover must rely on extrapolation from surrounding areas, new geologic maps of rocks under cover, or analogy with other well-explored areas that can be considered training tracts. Cover has a profound effect on uncertainty and on methods and procedures of assessments because geology is seldom known and geophysical methods typically have attenuated responses. Many earlier assessment methods were based on relationships of geochemical and geophysical variables to deposits learned from deposits exposed on the surface-these will need to be relearned based on covered deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages of most deposit types are significantly different, and (2) deposit types are present in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral

  20. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    and Space Weather Prediction Center are using a combination of operational measurements and models to develop advanced now-cast and forecast space weather applications. Present and future capabilities include but are not limited to the Oval Variation Assessment Tracking Intensity and Online Now-casting (OVATION) Prime based auroral forecast and magnetopause location and geosynchronous crossing detection applications.

  1. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Davies, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    outcomes, but macrovascular outcomes and cardiovascular safety remain controversial with several glucose-lowering agents. Future directions in diabetes care include strategies such as the 'bionic pancreas', stem cell therapy and targeting the intestinal microbiome. All of these treatments are still being refined, and it may be several decades before they are clinically useful. Prevention and cure of diabetes is the Holy Grail but remain elusive due to lack of detailed understanding of the metabolic, genetic and immunological causes that underpin diabetes. Much progress has been made since the time of Prof MacLean 90 years ago, but there are still great strides to be taken before the life of the patient with diabetes improves even more significantly. PMID:26453594

  2. Modelling biological evolution: recent progress, current challenges and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is widely recognized as a powerful and convenient theoretical tool for investigating various aspects of biological evolution and explaining the existing genetic complexity of the real world. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the key mechanisms involved in the processes of species biodiversity, natural selection and inheritance, patterns of animal behaviour and coevolution of species in complex ecological systems is simply impossible by means of laboratory experiments and field observations alone. Mathematical models are so important because they provide wide-ranging exploration of the problem without a need for experiments with biological systems—which are usually expensive, often require long time and can be potentially dangerous. However, as the number of theoretical works on modelling biological evolution is constantly accelerating each year as different mathematical frameworks and various aspects of evolutionary problems are considered, it is often hard to avoid getting lost in such an immense flux of publications. The aim of this issue of Interface Focus is to provide a useful guide to important recent findings in some key areas in modelling biological evolution, to refine the existing challenges and to outline possible future directions. In particular, the following topics are addressed here by world-leading experts in the modelling of evolution: (i) the origins of biodiversity observed in ecosystems and communities; (ii) evolution of decision-making by animals and the optimal strategy of populations; (iii) links between evolutionary and ecological processes across different time scales; (iv) quantification of biological information in evolutionary models; and (v) linking theoretical models with empirical data. Most of the works presented here are in fact contributed papers from the international conference ‘Modelling Biological Evolution’ (MBE 2013), which took place in Leicester, UK, in May 2013 and brought together

  3. Treatment-resistant depression: therapeutic trends, challenges, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Khalid Saad

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with major depression respond to antidepressant treatment, but 10%–30% of them do not improve or show a partial response coupled with functional impairment, poor quality of life, suicide ideation and attempts, self-injurious behavior, and a high relapse rate. The aim of this paper is to review the therapeutic options for treating resistant major depressive disorder, as well as evaluating further therapeutic options. Methods In addition to Google Scholar and Quertle searches, a PubMed search using key words was conducted, and relevant articles published in English peer-reviewed journals (1990–2011) were retrieved. Only those papers that directly addressed treatment options for treatment-resistant depression were retained for extensive review. Results Treatment-resistant depression, a complex clinical problem caused by multiple risk factors, is targeted by integrated therapeutic strategies, which include optimization of medications, a combination of antidepressants, switching of antidepressants, and augmentation with non-antidepressants, psychosocial and cultural therapies, and somatic therapies including electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, deep brain stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and vagus nerve stimulation. As a corollary, more than a third of patients with treatment-resistant depression tend to achieve remission and the rest continue to suffer from residual symptoms. The latter group of patients needs further study to identify the most effective therapeutic modalities. Newer biomarker-based antidepressants and other drugs, together with non-drug strategies, are on the horizon to address further the multiple complex issues of treatment-resistant depression. Conclusion Treatment-resistant depression continues to challenge mental health care providers, and further relevant research involving newer drugs is warranted to improve the quality of life of patients

  4. Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Grosse, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by

  5. Divorce and Health: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social relationships play a vital role in health and wellbeing, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce and health outcomes. METHODS Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the paper integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. RESULTS The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10–15%) struggle quite substantially, and it appears that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques are discussed that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation. CONCLUSIONS To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: (a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes; (b) better studies of objective social behavior following separation; and, (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high risk adults. PMID:25829240

  6. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W.; Wilson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the edematous reaction in acute myocardial infarct (AMI) is not stable and warranted the use of edematous area in evaluating therapies. On the other hand, cine MRI demonstrated reproducible data on LV function in healthy volunteers and LV remodeling in patients. Noninvasive first pass perfusion, using exogenous tracer (gadolinium-based contrast media) and arterial spin labeling MRI, using endogenous tracer (water), are sensitive and useful techniques for evaluating myocardial perfusion and angiogenesis. Recently, new strategies have been developed to quantify myocardial viability using T1-mapping and equilibrium contrast enhanced MR techniques because existing delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) sequences are limited in detecting patchy microinfarct and diffuse fibrosis. These new techniques were successfully used for characterizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis associated with myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis heart failure, aortic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension). Diffusion MRI provides information regarding microscopic tissue structure, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) helps to characterize the myocardium and monitor the process of LV remodeling after AMI. Novel trends in hybrid imaging, such as cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI and optical imaging/MRI, are recently under intensive investigation. With the promise of higher spatial

  7. Microbicide acceptability research: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Myer, Landon; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Zena; Ramjee, Gita; Morar, Neetha S; Harrison, Polly F

    2005-01-01

    With growing recognition of the potential value of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention, the importance of the acceptability of this brand-new technology has been widely acknowledged. We review the current body of microbicide acceptability research, characterize the limitations in assessment approaches, and suggest strategies for improvement. Electronic databases and abstracts of recent meetings were searched for acceptability data regarding vaginal and rectal products that may be used for HIV prevention. Of the 61 studies reviewed, more than half assessed acceptability based primarily on the description of a hypothetical microbicide, or with the demonstration of a spermicide or lubricant. Physical characteristics of microbicidal products, their effects after insertion, and their effects on sensation during intercourse (for both partners) were the dimensions most frequently assessed (measured in 77%, 49% and 49% of studies, respectively). Attention to the social context of use was inadequate. As acceptability is likely to be a key determinant in the use-effectiveness of microbicides, in-depth understanding of the social processes that shape microbicide acceptability across diverse populations will become increasingly valuable. This includes exploring the effects that sexual partners, health care providers, and key opinion leaders have on the acceptability of microbicides among women and men, including youth and people living with HIV. Future research will benefit from studies of the acceptability of other contraceptive-barrier methods (especially the female condom), use of an agreed-upon operationalization of acceptability, use of acceptability assessments within clinical trials, expansion of measurement domains, and assessment of changes in perceptions of acceptability and use over time. Failure to understand the key factors associated with microbicide acceptability is likely to hinder the adoption and continued use of products that are effective in preventing HIV

  8. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Patel, Dilip R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief overview (research design, prevalence, risk factors, assessment, treatment, outcome, and obstacles to care) of the status of knowledge of eating disorders among adolescents. Offers recommendations for future research. (EV)

  9. Xi. Sleep and development: conclusions and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Literature on sleep and child development is growing in novel directions across several disciplines necessitating guiding conceptual principles and methodological tools. First, this volume presents a summary of discussions from an SRCD-sponsored multidisciplinary forum on sleep and development, which includes presentation of key issues and guiding recommendations for research priorities in this fast developing field. Second, enhancing accessibility to child development researchers, state of the science sleep assessment methodologies are presented with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. Third, seven empirical studies conducted with "typically" developing infants and children provide examples of relations between sleep and some of the many individual and familial factors that influence and are influenced by sleep. In the presentation of empirical findings, a developmental ecological systems perspective adapted to sleep was espoused to illustrate some of the multiple levels of influence in the study of child sleep and development. Collectively, studies in this volume build significantly on the literature through: (a) illustrating linkages between various sleep parameters (e.g., quality, sleeping arrangements) and other key developmental domains (e.g., attachment, parenting); (b) demonstration of longitudinal relations connecting sleep with development, which is scarce in this field; and (c) utilization of actigraphy-based assessments of sleep duration and quality, which are underutilized in the literature yet important for a more nuanced understanding of sleep and development. PMID:25704742

  10. Development and Translation of Histotripsy: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review 1) to outline the initial development of histotripsy, a non-invasive image guided focused ultrasound technology that mechanically homogenizes targeted tissues and 2) to describe the results of pre-clinical translational research directed towards urologic applications. Recent Findings Histotripsy tissue ablation is based on initiation and control of acoustic cavitation at a target point within the body. This unique mechanical mechanism of action is distinct when compared to conventional thermal ablative modalities. Features of histotripsy (non-thermal, noninvasive, high precision, real-time monitoring/feedback, tissue liquefaction) have prompted assessment of this technology as a potential ablative therapy for a number of organs and disease processes. Summary Ongoing research efforts to apply histotripsy to preclinical models of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, renal masses, and renal calculi have resulted in enhanced understanding of cavitation bioeffects, refinement of treatment systems, strategies to enhance treatment efficiency, and initiation of a pilot human clinical trial to assess the safety of histotripsy for BPH therapy. PMID:24231530

  11. Future of Condition Based Maintenance at Stennis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Cory A.; Smith, Joshua W.; Ladner, Gina H.; Killam, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the current state of condition based maintenance (CBM) at Stennis Space Center and set a bench mark for the future expansion of the CBM program. Condition based maintenance is the idea of maintaining an asset upon decreasing performance or when a failure is impending instead of at some arbitrary time regardless of condition. Special attention was paid to remote sensing and monitoring of assets around the center to cut maintenance costs and extend overall operational lifetime of those assets. It was found that 55 percent of the categories of assets which could actually utilize a remote CBM program are currently being partially monitored. CBM solutions that have been investigated and proposed for future deployment cover areas such as building integrity, oil analysis, power line and water pipe inspection.

  12. Foreword: planning for the future through advance directive instruments.

    PubMed

    Winick, B J

    1998-09-01

    The Foreword traces the development of advance directive instruments and discusses their legal enforceability and many benefits. Despite their advantages, advance directives remain underused and are frequently ignored by service providers. The contributors to this special issue discuss why this is so and offer and debate a variety of remedial proposals. They analyze the various legal, clinical, ethical, and practical issues presented by the use of advance directives for health and mental health care and examine new directions in their application. The Foreword describes the organization of this special issue, summarizes the articles it contains, and comments on their significance. PMID:12803208

  13. Early goal-directed resuscitation of patients with septic shock: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi G; Hartigan, Sarah M; Kashiouris, Markos G; Sessler, Curtis N; Bearman, Gonzalo M L

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit. Over a decade ago, early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) emerged as a novel approach for reducing sepsis mortality and was incorporated into guidelines published by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign. In addition to requiring early detection of sepsis and prompt initiation of antibiotics, the EGDT protocol requires invasive patient monitoring to guide resuscitation with intravenous fluids, vasopressors, red cell transfusions, and inotropes. The effect of these measures on patient outcomes, however, remains controversial. Recently, three large randomized trials were undertaken to re-examine the effect of EGDT on morbidity and mortality: the ProCESS trial in the United States, the ARISE trial in Australia and New Zealand, and the ProMISe trial in England. These trials showed that EGDT did not significantly decrease mortality in patients with septic shock compared with usual care. In particular, whereas early administration of antibiotics appeared to increase survival, tailoring resuscitation to static measurements of central venous pressure and central venous oxygen saturation did not confer survival benefit to most patients. In the following review, we examine these findings as well as other evidence from recent randomized trials of goal-directed resuscitation. We also discuss future areas of research and emerging paradigms in sepsis trials. PMID:26316210

  14. Global adjoint tomography: Perspectives, initial results and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, Ebru; Zhu, Hejun; Peter, Daniel; Tromp, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    with higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer-duration (180 min) simulations to accommodate high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves, respectively, which help improve data coverage. Our ultimate aim is to use data from all available networks and earthquakes within the magnitude range of our interest which requires a solid framework to manage big data sets during pre-processing (i.e., data requests and quality checks, processing data, window selections etc.) and post-processing (i.e., pre-conditioning and smoothing kernels). We discuss the current status and future of global adjoint tomography based on our initial results as well as practical issues, such as handling big data in inversions and on high-performance computing systems.

  15. Planning for the Future of Geo-Cybereducation: Outcomes of the Workshop, Challenges, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Inspired by the recommendations of the NSF report “Fostering Learning in the Networked World: The Cyberlearning Opportunity and Challenge” (NSF08204), the NSF National STEM Digital Learning program funded “Planning for the Future of Geocybereducation” Workshop sought to bring together leaders from the geoscience education community, from major geoscience research initiatives, and from the growing public- and private-sector geoscience information community. The objectives of the workshop were to begin conversations aimed at identifying best practices and tools for geoscience cyber-education, in the context of both the changing nature of learners and of rapidly evolving geo-information platforms, and to provide guidance to the NSF as to necessary future directions and needs for funding. 65 participants met and interacted live for the two-day workshop, with ongoing post-meeting virtual interactions via a collaborative workspace (www.geocybered.ning.com). Topics addressed included the rapidly changing character of learners, the growing capabilities of geoscience information systems and their affiliated tools, and effective models for collaboration among educators, researchers and geoinformation specialists. Discussions at the meeting focused on the implications of changing learners on the educational process, the challenges for teachers and administrators in keeping pace, and on the challenges of communication among these divergent professional communities. Ongoing virtual discussions and collaborations have produced a draft workshop document, and the workshop conveners are maintaining the workshop site as a venue for ongoing discussion and interaction. Several key challenges were evident from the workshop discussions and subsequent interactions: a) the development of most of the large geoinformatics and geoscience research efforts were not pursued with education as a significant objective, resulting in limited financial support for such activities after the

  16. Shared decision making in endocrinology: present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P

    2016-08-01

    In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the

  17. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  18. Virtual Learning Communities Centered within a Discipline: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Anita L.; Cook, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, Lenning and Ebbers (1999) envisioned that information and computer technology (ICT) could be used to create virtual learning communities (VLCs) as a "future" form of learning communities. Indeed, almost all academic departments--including psychology--depend heavily on the use of ICT to create and sustain connections among…

  19. Quality Principles and Empowered Learning: Current Practices and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thor, Linda M.

    This paper reviews the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) to learning and suggests where continuous quality improvement in education may lead in the future. Several issues in the application of TQM are discussed, including: the need for active participation and full support of faculty and staff, active and creative involvement of…

  20. Race and Child Welfare Services: Past Research and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mark E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews child welfare research studies and discusses empirical literature on relationships among race, services, and outcomes in selected child welfare domains. Provides summary of previous research. Presents conceptual and methodological considerations for future research on role of race in child welfare and development of culturally competent…

  1. Enter the Cyberpunk Librarian: Future Directions in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    "Cyberpunk librarian," a metaphor for librarians operating in cyberspace, is defined. This article describes the properties and culture of the electronic frontier, discusses the social impact of cyberspace, examines the role of libraries and librarians in the future. Argues that librarians can help shape a vision of cyberspace that benefits…

  2. Special Education Teacher Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Brownell, Mary T.; Billingsley, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an agenda for special education teacher education researchers, with particular attention to policy work and studies of innovations in pre-service preparation, induction and mentoring, and professional development. Because previous research is limited and unfocused, the foundation for future research is weak,…

  3. Directions for Future Research in Vocational Special Needs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Meers, Gary D.

    A two-phase empirical investigation identified, categorized, and prioritized research needs in vocational special education for the next 10 years. Phase 1 involved 18 university personnel in a three-round Delphi technique that generated 91 future research objectives. Research statements collected from Round 1 questionnaires were used to construct…

  4. Directions in Pharmacy Education for the Future Practice of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nappi, Jean M.

    1986-01-01

    Possible ways to influence the future practice of pharmacy include more shared responsibility with the pharmaceutical industry, increased attention to changes in disease patterns, attention to differential skills needed by different kinds of pharmacists, increased specialization, and emphasis on administrative and other business skills. (MSE)

  5. Refugee Issues: Current Status and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gary; And Others

    A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…

  6. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    future, a selective COX-2 inhibitor may be combined with other agent classes such as proapoptotic antioxidant micronutrients, receptor tyrosine kinase modulators, antiangiogenic modulators, antiproliferative/differentiating agents, NFkappaB modulators, IGF-1 modulators and other novel proapototic nonsteroidal drugs. A novel target for rational combinations is the hypermethylation of GST-PI leading to functional silencing of this key anticarcinogen defense enzyme in precursors (HGPIN) and prostate cancer. Factorial designs are well suited for evaluating the individual and combined effects of each agent in a single trial design. There are a number of moderate to high-risk cohorts and clinical models of primary and secondary prevention that can be employed in both short-term developmental (translational) trials for proof of biologic activity and in intermediate sized longer-term chemoprevention trials for proof of efficacy against prostate cancer. Strategic IEBs are needed to more efficiently monitor short-term biologic activity and validate efficacy. The emergence of new powerful tools such as gene chip cDNA microarrays for multiplex gene expression profiling and proteomic analysis of tissue based and secreted proteins will accelerate the identification of new molecular targets, strategic endpoints, cohorts at risk and the design of rational combination trials. PMID:12549768

  7. Future Directions in Emotion Dysregulation and Youth Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews central nervous system substrates and autonomic correlates of emotion dysregulation and offers several suggestions for future research. Studies conducted in the last two decades indicate that effective emotion regulation requires efficient top-down, cortically mediated regulation of bottom-up, subcortically mediated individual differences in trait impulsivity and trait anxiety. Without making critical distinctions between highly heritable individual differences in trait impulsivity and trait anxiety, versus less heritable and more socialized deficiencies in emotion regulation, progress in understanding the development of psychopathology among children and adolescents will be hampered. Future research can also be improved by measuring emotion dysregulation across multiple level of analysis, specifying physiological mechanisms through which operant reinforcement shapes emotional lability, improving the internal and external validity of psychophysiological measures, integrating emotion dysregulation into factor analytic and behavioral genetic models of psychopathology, identifying molecular genetic risk for emotion dysregulation, and expanding neuroimaging research on emotion dysregulation among children and adolescents. PMID:26016727

  8. [Future directions of neurology - breakthrough to the next stage ].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-11-01

    The 51st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Neurology was held in Tokyo (Tokyo International Forum) from Thursday, May 20 to Saturday, May 22, 2010 with as many as 5,471 attendants. Our Society has been celebrating its 50th anniversary during the period from 2009 through 2010. At the 51st Annual Meeting in 2010, we looked toward the future, as we celebrate our 50th anniversary together with distinguished guests closely related to our Society. The theme for the 51st Annual Meeting was set as "Future of Neurology-Breakthrough to the next stage-." As represented in the theme, I hope that the Annual Meeting provided an excellent opportunity for all of us to look ahead to the future of Neurology and our Society in the next half-century. We have achieved tremendous advances in better understanding neurological diseases and developing more efficacious treatment over the last half century. Great strides have been made in all areas, of which diagnostic imaging, molecular genetics, immunology and physiology are just a few examples, and understanding of diseases has similarly taken a great leap forward. In Japan, the aging of society coupled with the declining birthrate has placed ever-increasing expectations on neurologists to provide better care for dementia, cerebrovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Given this situation our Society is required to provide outstanding education in both the pre- and post-graduate context, and, furthermore, to ensure that excellent training programs are available for young neurologists preparing for Board certification. Looking towards the future of neurology, we should continue to anticipate new, ground-breaking achievements for better understanding neurological diseases and establishing more effective treatment through our ongoing endeavors. PMID:21921437

  9. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  10. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  11. The future of the juvenile court: promising new directions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, L P

    1996-01-01

    The juvenile court of the future will be a viable, but changed, institution largely because of society's need to hold parents accountable for their children's well-being and youths accountable for their actions. The author describes three current trends in juvenile court which will continue to impact the court in the future. First, more jurisdictions will refine and streamline their court structures, either through better coordination or by creating unified family courts. This will result in better handling and supervision of multiple cases involving the same family. Second, the use of a wide variety of alternative dispute resolution techniques will grow, and the court will assume a monitoring and oversight function over these mediated agreements. Third, private and voluntary efforts will be utilized to assist the court in providing services to children and families, as well as to mobilize community-wide efforts on behalf of children. Ideally, the juvenile court of the future will place itself squarely in the community and work with others concerned about the well-being of children and families to provide an appropriate and meaningful response to each child who comes within the court's purview. PMID:9117359

  12. Atherosclerosis: Recent trials, new targets and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Agewall, Stefan; Tawakol, Ahmed; Staels, Bart; Stein, Evan; Mentz, Robert J; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Zannad, Faiez; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represents the primary cause of death worldwide. Prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae is a central goal in the management of patients with established vascular disease or those at high-risk for vascular events. This paper provides a review of the contemporary pharmacological armamentarium targeting atherosclerosis and also highlights strategies to support future clinical trial design. Powering future trials targeting LDL-cholesterol to its absolute reduction and including patients with a higher LDL-C despite optimal medical therapy (or unable to tolerate statins) will increase the odds of meaningful results. Mendelian randomization studies may identify new causal risk factors for CVD that would help in the selection of the patients most likely to benefit from a specific new compound. Furthermore, imaging techniques integrating a morphological and functional assessment such as IVUS, OCT, PET/CT and PET/MRI may represent in a near future robust "soft" endpoints to support successful translation of early research into meaningful phase III clinical outcome trials. PMID:26002254

  13. Direct Reprogramming—The Future of Cardiac Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Stefanie A.; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Today, the only available curative therapy for end stage congestive heart failure (CHF) is heart transplantation. This therapeutic option is strongly limited by declining numbers of available donor hearts and by restricted long-term performance of the transplanted graft. The disastrous prognosis for CHF with its restricted therapeutic options has led scientists to develop different concepts of alternative regenerative treatment strategies including stem cell transplantation or stimulating cell proliferation of different cardiac cell types in situ. However, first clinical trials with overall inconsistent results were not encouraging, particularly in terms of functional outcome. Among other approaches, very promising ongoing pre-clinical research focuses on direct lineage conversion of scar fibroblasts into functional myocardium, termed “direct reprogramming” or “transdifferentiation.” This review seeks to summarize strategies for direct cardiac reprogramming including the application of different sets of transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules for an efficient generation of cardiomyogenic cells for regenerative purposes. PMID:26230692

  14. Archiving strategy for USGS EROS center and our future direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation and Science Center has the responsibility to acquire, manage, and preserve our Nation's land observations. These records are obtained primarily from airplanes and satellites dating back to the 1930s. The ability to compare landscapes from the past with current information enables change analysis at local and global scales. With new observations added daily, the records management challenges are daunting, involving petabytes of electronic data and tens of thousands of rolls of analog film. This paper focuses upon the appraisal and preservation functions employed to ensure that these records are available for current and future generations.

  15. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential. PMID:27588525

  16. Section III, Division 5 - Development And Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Dana K.; Jetter, Robert I; Nestell, James E.; Burchell, Timothy D; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development.

  17. Future directions for LDEF ionizing radiation modeling and assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    A calculational program utilizing data from radiation dosimetry measurements aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite to reduce the uncertainties in current models defining the ionizing radiation environment is in progress. Most of the effort to date has been on using LDEF radiation dose measurements to evaluate models defining the geomagnetically trapped radiation, which has provided results applicable to radiation design assessments being performed for Space Station Freedom. Plans for future data comparisons, model evaluations, and assessments using additional LDEF data sets (LET spectra, induced radioactivity, and particle spectra) are discussed.

  18. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role. PMID:26640331

  19. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  20. National Climate Program: Early achievements and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Activities of the National Climate Program since 1978 are reviewed, and outlines new directions which should be emphasized over the next five years or so. These are discussed under the subentities of climate system research; climate impacts; and climatic data, information, and services.

  1. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  2. Future Directions: Social Development in the Context of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies and cultures have become increasingly diverse and heterogeneous over the past decade. This diversity has a direct bearing on social justice in children's and adolescents' social development. Increased diversity can have positive consequences, such as the possibility for increased empathy, tolerance, perspective taking, and the…

  3. The MCMI-III: present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Millon, T; Davis, R D

    1997-02-01

    Both the original Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I; Millon, 1977) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987) were refined and strengthened on a regular basis by both theoretic logic and research data. This aspiration has continued. The new Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) has been further coordinated with the most recent official diagnostic schema, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) in an even more explicit way than before. Although the publication of the first version of the MCMI preceded the publication of the DSM-IV, its author played a major role in formulating the official manual's personality disorders, contributing thereby to their conceptual correspondence. The DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) was subsequently published in the same year as the MCMI-II; the inventory was modified in its final stages to make it as consonant as possible with the conceptual changes introduced in the then forthcoming official classification. The present version of the MCMI, the MCMI-III, strengthens these correspondences further by drawing on many of the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV to serve as the basis for drafting the inventory's items. This article reports on a select set of theoretical and empirical developments that are being carefully weighed for possible inclusion in future MCMIs, or as a guide in the refinement process of future MCMIs. PMID:16370772

  4. Questions for Surveys: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  5. Direct-write Bioprinting Three-Dimensional Biohybrid Systems for Future Regenerative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Carlos C.; Boland, Eugene D.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hoying, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine seeks to repair or replace dysfunctional tissues with engineered biological or biohybrid systems. Current clinical regenerative models utilize simple uniform tissue constructs formed with cells cultured onto biocompatible scaffolds. Future regenerative therapies will require the fabrication of complex three-dimensional constructs containing multiple cell types and extracellular matrices. We believe bioprinting technologies will provide a key role in the design and construction of future engineered tissues for cell-based and regenerative therapies. This review describes the current state-of-the-art bioprinting technologies, focusing on direct-write bioprinting. We describe a number of process and device considerations for successful bioprinting of composite biohybrid constructs. In addition, we have provided baseline direct-write printing parameters for a hydrogel system (Pluronic F127) often used in cardiovascular applications. Direct-write dispensed lines (gels with viscosities ranging from 30 mPa*s to greater than 600×106 mPa*s) were measured following mechanical and pneumatic printing via three commercially available needle sizes (20ga, 25ga, and 30ga). Example patterns containing microvascular cells and isolated microvessel fragments were also bioprinted into composite 3D structures. Cells and vessel fragments remained viable and maintained in vitro behavior after incorporation into biohybrid structures. Direct-write bioprinting of biologicals provides a unique method to design and fabricate complex, multi-component 3D structures for experimental use. We hope our design insights and baseline parameter descriptions of direct-write bioprinting will provide a useful foundation for colleagues to incorporate this 3D fabrication method into future regenerative therapies. PMID:21504055

  6. The future of direct-to-consumer clinical genetic tests

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Felix W.; Greely, Henry T.; Green, Robert C.; Hogarth, Stuart; Siegel, Sue

    2013-01-01

    In light of the meeting of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2011 to discuss the regulation of clinical direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests, we have invited five experts to consider the best means of overseeing the ordering and interpretation of these tests. Should these tests be regulated? If so, who, if anyone, should communicate results to consumers? PMID:21629275

  7. Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Westcott, Jil

    1987-01-01

    The technology of packet switching over multihop, multiple-access channels has evolved to the point at which its protocols can now support internetwork operation of medium-size networks whose nodes possess some degree of mobility. As regards the needs and challenges of the future operating environment, it is clear that these can be met only by enhancing the packet radio architecture and its protocols. Several enhancements that allow the organization of large, dynamic networks that can operate over multiple channels, adapt to varying conditions, and possess self-monitoring and self-control capabilities are discussed. As these areas are examined, the attendant issues and tradeoffs are discussed; in addition, some protocols and information regarding their performance are presented.

  8. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  9. Neoadjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Andrew D.; Datta, Jashodeep; Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Karakousis, Giorgos C.

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment for gastric cancer (GC), poor long-term outcomes with resection alone compel a multimodality approach to this disease. Multimodality strategies vary widely; while adjuvant approaches are typically favored in Asia and the United States (USA), a growing body of evidence supports neoadjuvant and/or perioperative strategies in locally advanced tumors. Neoadjuvant approaches are particularly attractive given the morbidity associated with surgical management of GC and the substantial risk of omission of adjuvant therapy. The specific advantages of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) compared to chemotherapy have not been well defined, particularly in the preoperative setting and trials aimed at determining the optimal elements and sequencing of therapy are underway. Future studies will also define the role of targeted and biologic therapies. PMID:26487948

  10. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  11. Progress and future directions in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Gross, Anthony R.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made great strides in the detailed simulation of complex fluid flows, including the fluid physics of flows heretofore not understood. It is now being routinely applied to some rather complicated problems, and starting to impact the design cycle of aerospace vehicles and their components. In addition, it is being used to complement and is being complemented by experimental studies. In this paper some major elements of contemporary CFD research, such as code validation, turbulence physics, and hypersonic flows are discussed, along with a review of the principal pacing items that currently govern CFD. Several examples are presented to illustrate the current state of the art. Finally, prospects for the future of the development and application of CFD are suggested.

  12. Dental hygiene practice: international profile and future directions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P M

    1992-12-01

    Results of an international survey on dental hygiene are reported. The survey was conducted in 1988 through the International Dental Hygienists' Federation as part of a project to establish and maintain an international database on the profession. Information was collected by mail from national dental hygienist associations, using a 40-item questionnaire developed for the purpose; preliminary tabulations were validated by the associations. Information is presented for 13 countries-Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Japan, Korea, The Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and the United Kingdom. Characteristics include historical development, numbers and distribution, education, regulation, scope of practice, employment settings and conditions, professional organisation, and perceived oral health and professional issues. The profiles and issues are examined in the light of broader socio-economic, demographic, epidemiological, technological and policy-related trends and changes. Implications for future health and organisational planning are noted. PMID:1286929

  13. Racial Differences in Allergic Sensitization: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities are present in many facets of health and disease. Allergy and asthma are no exceptions. Secondary results from cross-sectional and cohort studies have provided information on the scope of racial disparities in allergic sensitization in the United States. African American/Black individuals tend to be sensitized more frequently than White individuals. Little is known about rates in other race groups. Genetics are unlikely to be the sole or major cause of the observed differences. Home dust allergen and endotoxin levels cannot explain the differences. Studies that have been designed to specifically address the sources of these racial disparities are needed. A “Multilevel Framework” that considers the roles of the individual, family and community presents an excellent approach to guide design of future studies of the causes of these disparities. Understanding the causes of the disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:23435599

  14. Future directions in genetic counseling: practical and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    1998-06-01

    The accelerated discovery of gene mutations that lead to increased risk of disease has led to the rapid development of predictive genetic tests. These tests improve the accuracy of assigning risk, but at a time when intervention or prevention strategies are largely unproved. In coming years, however, data will become increasingly available to guide treatment of genetic diseases. Eventually genetic testing will be performed for common diseases as well as for rare genetic conditions. This will challenge genetic counseling practice. The ethical principles that now guide this practice take into account the personal nature of test decision making, the need to respect individual self-determination, and the importance of client confidentiality. Certain of these principles may have to be modified as genetic testing becomes more widespread in order to meet the changing needs of clients and society. This paper offers recommendations to ensure that genetic counselors will take a leading role in the future delivery of ethical genetic services. PMID:11657426

  15. Minireview: Endocrine Disruptors: Past Lessons and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Johnson, Anne F; Birnbaum, Linda S; Colborn, Theo; Guillette, Louis J; Crews, David P; Collins, Terry; Soto, Ana M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; McLachlan, John A; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2016-08-01

    Within the past few decades, the concept of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has risen from a position of total obscurity to become a focus of dialogue, debate, and concern among scientists, physicians, regulators, and the public. The emergence and development of this field of study has not always followed a smooth path, and researchers continue to wrestle with questions about the low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses seen with EDCs, their biological mechanisms of action, the true pervasiveness of these chemicals in our environment and in our bodies, and the extent of their effects on human and wildlife health. This review chronicles the development of the unique, multidisciplinary field of endocrine disruption, highlighting what we have learned about the threat of EDCs and lessons that could be relevant to other fields. It also offers perspectives on the future of the field and opportunities to better protect human health. PMID:27477640

  16. H1 Antihistamines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we compare and contrast the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of first-generation H1 antihistamines and second-generation H1 antihistamines. First-generation H1 antihistamines cross the blood-brain barrier, and in usual doses, they potentially cause sedation and impair cognitive function and psychomotor performance. These medications, some of which have been in use for more than 6 decades, have never been optimally investigated. Second-generation H1 antihistamines such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine cross the blood-brain barrier to a significantly smaller extent than their predecessors. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these medications have been extensively studied. They are therefore the H1 antihistamines of choice in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. In the future, clinically advantageous H1 antihistamines developed with the aid of molecular techniques might be available. PMID:23282578

  17. Geriatric epilepsy: research and clinical directions for the future.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Erik D; Hope, Omotola A; Martin, Roy C; Schmidt, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing awareness of the need for improved treatment and care of older adults with epilepsy. The present review article highlights key clinical and research issues in the emerging field of geriatric epilepsy. Drs. Martin and Schmidt explore the scope of the problems in the field, outline topic areas including cognitive health/dementia, and diagnostic challenges, and also present important research questions that should be considered for the future. As part of this presentation, we will highlight the work of two promising young investigators whose work holds great promise for the field of geriatric epilepsy. Dr. Roberson will discuss his work focusing on the relationship of epilepsy and cognitive impairment, particularly as it relates to Alzheimer's disease pathology including tau and its role in epileptiform activity. Dr. Hope will outline key issues, as well as her work, relating to defining and measuring quality care in geriatric epilepsy. PMID:21596624

  18. Molecular ecology of aquatic communities: Reflections and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Voytek, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1980s, many new molecular biology techniques were developed, providing new capabilities for studying the genetics and activities of organisms. Biologists and ecologists saw the promise that these techniques held for studying different aspects of organisms, both in culture and in the natural environment. In less than a decade, these techniques were adopted by a large number of researchers studying many types of organisms in diverse environments. Much of the molecular-level information acquired has been used to address questions of evolution, biogeography, population structure and biodiversity. At this juncture, molecular ecologists are poised to contribute to the study of the fundamental characteristics underlying aquatic community structure. The goal of this overview is to assess where we have been, where we are now and what the future holds for revealing the basis of community structure and function with molecular-level information.

  19. Future agents and treatment directions in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Ocio, Enrique M.; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Orlowski, Robert; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of bortezomib and IMIDs resulted in a revolution in the treatment of MM. Moreover, second-generation proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib) and IMIDs (pomalidomide) have recently been approved. Nevertheless, the incurability of this disease requires other drugs with different mechanisms of action to either prolong the survival of patients refractory to current therapies, or achieve cure. Active research has been done exploring the pathogenesis of MM and searching for novel druggable targets. In this regard, some of these novel agents seem promising, such as monoclonal antibodies (anti-CD38 - daratumumab or anti-CS1 - elotuzumab) or the kinesin protein inhibitor Arry-520. Other agents under investigation are kinase inhibitors, signaling pathways inhibitors or deacetylase inhibitors. With so many novel agents under investigation, future therapy in MM will probably involve the combined use of the already approved drugs with some of those newly discovered. PMID:24350987

  20. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  1. Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

  2. Low Anterior Resection Syndrome: Current Management and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Berger, Nicholas; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes for rectal cancer surgery have improved significantly over the past 20 years with increasing rates of survival and recurrence, specifically local recurrence. These gains have been realized during a period of time in which there has been an increasing emphasis on sphincter preservation. As we have become increasingly aggressive in avoiding resection of the anus, we have begun accepting bowel dysfunction as a normal outcome. Low anterior resection syndrome, defined as a constellation of symptoms including incontinence, frequency, urgency, or feelings of incomplete emptying, has a significant impact on quality of life and results in many patients opting for a permanent colostomy to avoid these symptoms. In this article, we will highlight the most recent clinical and basic science research on this topic and discuss areas of future investigation. PMID:27582649

  3. Progress and Future Directions in North American Carbon Cycle Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Anna; Huntzinger, Deborah; Shrestha, Gyami

    2013-05-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) convened its fourth biennial "All Investigators" meeting (AIM4, http://www.nacarbon.org/meeting_2013) to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North America and adjacent oceans and to chart a course for a more integrative and holistic approach to future research. The meeting was structured around the six decadal goals outlined in the new "A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan" (Michalak et al., University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 2011, available at http://www.carboncyclescience.gov) and focused on (1) diagnosis of the atmospheric carbon cycle, (2) drivers of anthropogenic emissions, (3) vulnerability of carbon stocks to change, (4) ecosystem impacts of change, (5) carbon management, and (6) decision support.

  4. Current treatment of craniosynostosis and future therapeutic directions.

    PubMed

    Wan, Derrick C; Kwan, Matthew D; Lorenz, H Peter; Longaker, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    Normal craniofacial development is contingent upon coordinated growth between the brain and overlying calvaria. Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, perturbs this natural framework, resulting in dramatic dysmorphology of the skull and face along with a multitude of associated functional abnormalities. Traditional approaches to the treatment of craniosynostosis have employed complex surgical remodeling of the skull vault and facial deformities all aimed at increasing the amount of intracranial volume and restoring a more normal craniofacial appearance. Significant morbidity and mortality, however, have plagued these procedures, driving dramatic evolution in our approach towards the treatment of pathologically fused sutures. Recent clinical and genetic studies have identified multiple forms of human craniosynostosis, each associated with mutations within various cytokine signaling pathways. Knowledge garnered from these investigations bear promise for the future development of alternative strategies to enhance or perhaps even replace contemporary approaches for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:18391503

  5. Therapeutic vaccines for prostate cancer: recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Julius; Madan, Ravi A

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, therapeutic cancer vaccines have emerged as a viable and promising treatment for prostate cancer. Beyond sipuleucel-T, phase III trials are evaluating multiple vaccine platforms in men with this disease. Growing data evaluating vaccine therapies suggests that these agents are more effective in patients with more indolent and possibly also earlier stages of disease. In addition, a wealth of preclinical data has shown that traditional prostate cancer treatments including anti androgens, cytotoxic and radiation therapies may provide immunologic synergy when given in combination with vaccine platforms. Building off this data, numerous clinical trials are evaluating therapeutic cancer vaccines in early stage prostate cancer and also in combination with traditional prostate cancer therapies. In addition, in order to optimize immune responses, ongoing trials are evaluating vaccines in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Preliminary data from these trials have been promising and are offering an exciting glimpse at the future of immunotherapy for this disease. PMID:26889831

  6. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenta; Okuyama, Ryuhei

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of skin cancer-related deaths. The recent development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches has led to great advances in melanoma therapy. Because melanoma cells often express tumor-specific neo-antigens, significant therapeutic effects are mediated via immunotherapy-induced activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however, the effects depend on the immune status of the patient. At present, various immunotherapies have been approved and new clinical trials are progressing. These immunotherapies act in several ways, including CTL brake release, induction of CTL activation, transfer of CTLs, and modification of the tumor microenvironment to facilitate CTL activation. In the near future, patient-tailored immunotherapies and combination therapies are expected. In addition, it is important to monitor the status of the patient's immune response when selecting the most effective immunotherapy strategy. PMID:27302423

  7. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  8. HCC and angiogenesis: possible targets and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Andrew X.; Duda, Dan G.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver tumor, is notoriously resistant to systemic therapies, and often recurs even after aggressive local therapies. HCCs rely on the formation of new blood vessels for growth, and VEGF is critical in this process. A hallmark of new vessel formation in tumors is their structural and functional abnormality. This leads to an abnormal tumor microenvironment characterized by low oxygen tension. The liver is perfused by both arterial and venous blood and the resulting abnormal microenvironment selects for more-aggressive malignancies. Anti-VEGF therapy with sorafenib was the first systemic therapy to demonstrate improved survival in patients with advanced-stage HCC. This important development in the treatment of HCC raises hope as well as critical questions on the future development of targeted agents including other antiangiogenic agents, which hold promise to further increase survival in this aggressive disease. PMID:21386818

  9. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  10. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  11. Neural mechanisms of rhythm perception: present findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to synchronize movements to the beat in music is a complex, and apparently uniquely human characteristic. Synchronizing movements to the beat requires beat perception, which entails prediction of future beats in rhythmic sequences of temporal intervals. Absolute timing mechanisms, where patterns of temporal intervals are encoded as a series of absolute durations, cannot fully explain beat perception. Beat perception seems better accounted for by relative timing mechanisms, where temporal intervals of a pattern are coded relative to a periodic beat interval. Evidence from behavioral, neuroimaging, brain stimulation and neuronal cell recording studies suggests a functional dissociation between the neural substrates of absolute and relative timing. This chapter reviews current findings on relative timing in the context of rhythm and beat perception. PMID:25358718

  12. Coparenting in a Family Context: Emerging Achievements, Current Dilemmas, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Philip A.; McHale, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews major themes emerging from family research and describes directions for future research. Finds strong support that whole-family functioning and quality of coparenting relationship add uniquely to individual differences in children's adaptation. Future research directions include extending research across diverse samples, increasing…

  13. Geographical Information Systems and Health: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and how they can be used. It reviews the current state of GIS use in health care before identifying the barriers to more pervasive use of GIS in health. Finally, it makes recommendations for the direction of health GIS research over the next decade and concludes with a call to action to health informatics researchers to stop ignoring a tool and methodology that has such immense potential for improving the health of our communities. PMID:22844644

  14. Percutaneous Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Lori K.; Argenziano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning field of catheter-based, percutaneous valve intervention takes an interdisciplinary approach to mitral valve regurgitation with the goal of maximizing clinical outcomes and minimizing procedure-associated morbidity. This exciting field continues to push the boundaries of technological innovation as it expands the armamentarium available to treat valvular disease. Around the world teams are working to create a catheter-based approach that is practical and durable. Several technologies are in various stages of development and clinical application. PMID:22443644

  15. [Social anxiety disorder: current status and future directions].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD; also known as social phobia) is characterized by fear of social situations involving performance or interaction. This disorder has been formally recognized as a distinct anxiety disorder since DSM-III was published in 1980. In Japan, a number of psychopathological and psychotherapeutic studies have been performed since the 1930s on a pathological condition similar to SAD, known as Taijin-kyofu (TK). TK, especially the convinced subtype of TK (c-TK; also known as the offensive subtype of TK), is described as a culture-bound syndrome similar to SAD. In proposed DSM-5 draft, it is suggested to add "offending others" to fear of being humiliating or embarrassing which were indicated in DSM-IV. It is interesting that fearing of making another person uncomfortable or "offending others" is consistent with symptom which has been investigated through c-TK in particular. The relation between SAD and TK will become clear in examination by new diagnostic criteria (DSM-5) more in future. PMID:23198595

  16. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study. PMID:26191057

  17. Future directions in high-pressure neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, M.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to manipulate structure and properties using pressure has been well known for many centuries. Diffraction provides the unique ability to observe these structural changes in fine detail on lengthscales spanning atomic to nanometre dimensions. Amongst the broad suite of diffraction tools available today, neutrons provide unique capabilities of fundamental importance. However, to date, the growth of neutron diffraction under extremes of pressure has been limited by the weakness of available sources. In recent years, substantial government investments have led to the construction of a new generation of neutron sources while existing facilities have been revitalized by upgrades. The timely convergence of these bright facilities with new pressure-cell technologies suggests that the field of high-pressure (HP) neutron science is on the cusp of substantial growth. Here, the history of HP neutron research is examined with the hope of gleaning an accurate prediction of where some of these revolutionary capabilities will lead in the near future. In particular, a dramatic expansion of current pressure-temperature range is likely, with corresponding increased scope for extreme-conditions science with neutron diffraction. This increase in coverage will be matched with improvements in data quality. Furthermore, we can also expect broad new capabilities beyond diffraction, including in neutron imaging, small angle scattering and inelastic spectroscopy.

  18. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport: a historical perspective and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate is the end-product of glycolysis, a major substrate for oxidative metabolism, and a branching point for glucose, lactate, fatty acid and amino acid synthesis. The mitochondrial enzymes that metabolize pyruvate are physically separated from cytosolic pyruvate pools and rely on a membrane transport system to shuttle pyruvate across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Despite long-standing acceptance that transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by a carrier-mediated process is required for the bulk of its metabolism, it has taken almost 40 years to determine the molecular identity of an IMM pyruvate carrier. Our current understanding is that two proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2, form a hetero-oligomeric complex in the IMM to facilitate pyruvate transport. This step is required for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and carboxylation – critical reactions in intermediary metabolism that are dysregulated in several common diseases. The identification of these transporter constituents opens the door to the identification of novel compounds that modulate MPC activity, with potential utility for treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other common causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review is to detail the historical, current and future research investigations concerning mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and discuss the possible consequences of altered pyruvate transport in various metabolic tissues. PMID:25748677

  19. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  20. Combinatorial optimization: Current successes and directions for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Karla L.

    2000-12-01

    Our ability to solve large, important combinatorial optimization problems has improved dramatically in the past decade. The availability of reliable software, extremely fast and inexpensive hardware and high-level languages that make the modeling of complex problems much faster have led to a much greater demand for optimization tools. This paper highlights the major breakthroughs and then describes some very exciting future opportunities. Previously, large research projects required major data collection efforts, expensive mainframes and substantial analyst manpower. Now, we can solve much larger problems on personal computers, much of the necessary data is routinely collected and tools exist to speed up both the modeling and the post-optimality analysis. With the information-technology revolution taking place currently, we now have the opportunity to have our tools embedded into supply-chain systems that determine production and distribution schedules, process-design and location-allocation decisions. These tools can be used industry-wide with only minor modifications being done by each user.

  1. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

  2. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  3. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  4. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  5. NK cell biology: An update and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kerry S.; Hasegawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a minor subset of normal lymphocytes that initiate innate immune responses toward tumor and virus-infected cells. They can mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity toward these abnormal cells and rapidly secrete numerous cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. Significant progress has been made in the past two decades to improve our understanding of NK cell biology. Here we review recent discoveries, including a better comprehension of the “education” of NK cells to achieve functional competence during their maturation and the discovery of “memory” responses by NK cells suggesting that they may also contribute to adaptive immunity. The improved understanding of NK cell biology has forged greater awareness that these cells play integral early roles in immune responses. In addition, several promising clinical therapies have been used to exploit NK cell functions in treating cancer patients. As our molecular understanding improves, these and future immunotherapies should continue to provide promising strategies to exploit the unique functions of NK cells to treat cancer, infections, and other pathological conditions. PMID:23906377

  6. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-01-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  7. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports. PMID:19153861

  8. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hayman, David T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:24747773

  9. The development, past achievements, and future directions of brain PET.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terry; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2012-07-01

    The early developments of brain positron emission tomography (PET), including the methodological advances that have driven progress, are outlined. The considerable past achievements of brain PET have been summarized in collaboration with contributing experts in specific clinical applications including cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, depression and anxiety, brain tumors, drug development, and the normal healthy brain. Despite a history of improving methodology and considerable achievements, brain PET research activity is not growing and appears to have diminished. Assessments of the reasons for decline are presented and strategies proposed for reinvigorating brain PET research. Central to this is widening the access to advanced PET procedures through the introduction of lower cost cyclotron and radiochemistry technologies. The support and expertize of the existing major PET centers, and the recruitment of new biologists, bio-mathematicians and chemists to the field would be important for such a revival. New future applications need to be identified, the scope of targets imaged broadened, and the developed expertize exploited in other areas of medical research. Such reinvigoration of the field would enable PET to continue making significant contributions to advance the understanding of the normal and diseased brain and support the development of advanced treatments. PMID:22434067

  10. Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations. PMID:10885165

  11. Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature of bone grafts and introduces tissue engineering as a strategy in this field of orthopedic surgery. We evaluated articles concerning bone grafts; analyzed characteristics, advantages, and limitations of the grafts; and provided explanations about bone-tissue engineering technologies. Many bone grafting materials are available to enhance bone healing and regeneration, from bone autografts to graft substitutes; they can be used alone or in combination. Autografts are the gold standard for this purpose, since they provide osteogenic cells, osteoinductive growth factors, and an osteoconductive scaffold, all essential for new bone growth. Autografts carry the limitations of morbidity at the harvesting site and limited availability. Allografts and xenografts carry the risk of disease transmission and rejection. Tissue engineering is a new and developing option that had been introduced to reduce limitations of bone grafts and improve the healing processes of the bone fractures and defects. The combined use of scaffolds, healing promoting factors, together with gene therapy, and, more recently, three-dimensional printing of tissue-engineered constructs may open new insights in the near future. PMID:24628910

  12. Testing evolutionary models of senescence: traditional approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Robins, Chloe; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-12-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the existence of senescence is a paradox. Why has senescence not been more effectively selected against given its associated decreases in Darwinian fitness? Why does senescence exist and how has it evolved? Three major theories offer explanations: (1) the theory of mutation accumulation suggested by PB Medawar; (2) the theory of antagonistic pleiotropy suggested by GC Williams; and (3) the disposable soma theory suggested by TBL Kirkwood. These three theories differ in the underlying causes of aging that they propose but are not mutually exclusive. This paper compares the specific biological predictions of each theory and discusses the methods and results of previous empirical tests. Lifespan is found to be the most frequently used estimate of senescence in evolutionary investigations. This measurement acts as a proxy for an individual's rate of senescence, but provides no information on an individual's senescent state or "biological age" throughout life. In the future, use of alternative longitudinal measures of senescence may facilitate investigation of previously neglected aspects of evolutionary models, such as intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity in the process of aging. DNA methylation data are newly proposed to measure biological aging and are suggested to be particularly useful for such investigations. PMID:25294044

  13. Neural prosthetic systems: current problems and future directions.

    PubMed

    Chestek, Cindy A; Cunningham, John P; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2009-01-01

    By decoding neural activity into useful behavioral commands, neural prosthetic systems seek to improve the lives of severely disabled human patients. Motor decoding algorithms, which map neural spiking data to control parameters of a device such as a prosthetic arm, have received particular attention in the literature. Here, we highlight several outstanding problems that exist in most current approaches to decode algorithm design. These include two problems that we argue will unlikely result in further dramatic increases in performance, specifically spike sorting and spiking models. We also discuss three issues that have been less examined in the literature, and we argue that addressing these issues may result in dramatic future increases in performance. These include: non-stationarity of recorded waveforms, limitations of a linear mappings between neural activity and movement kinematics, and the low signal to noise ratio of the neural data. We demonstrate these problems with data from 39 experimental sessions with a non-human primate performing reaches and with recent literature. In all, this study suggests that research in cortically-controlled prosthetic systems may require reprioritization to achieve performance that is acceptable for a clinically viable human system. PMID:19963796

  14. Future directions in high-pressure neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, M

    2015-04-22

    The ability to manipulate structure and properties using pressure has been well known for many centuries. Diffraction provides the unique ability to observe these structural changes in fine detail on lengthscales spanning atomic to nanometre dimensions. Amongst the broad suite of diffraction tools available today, neutrons provide unique capabilities of fundamental importance. However, to date, the growth of neutron diffraction under extremes of pressure has been limited by the weakness of available sources. In recent years, substantial government investments have led to the construction of a new generation of neutron sources while existing facilities have been revitalized by upgrades. The timely convergence of these bright facilities with new pressure-cell technologies suggests that the field of high-pressure (HP) neutron science is on the cusp of substantial growth. Here, the history of HP neutron research is examined with the hope of gleaning an accurate prediction of where some of these revolutionary capabilities will lead in the near future. In particular, a dramatic expansion of current pressure-temperature range is likely, with corresponding increased scope for extreme-conditions science with neutron diffraction. This increase in coverage will be matched with improvements in data quality. Furthermore, we can also expect broad new capabilities beyond diffraction, including in neutron imaging, small angle scattering and inelastic spectroscopy. PMID:25789450

  15. Flow and Noise Control: Review and Assessment of Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    Technologies for developing radically new aerovehicles that would combine quantum leaps in cost, safety, and performance benefits with environmental friendliness have appeared on the horizon. This report provides both an assessment of the current state-of-the-art in flow and noise control and a vision for the potential gains to be made, in terms of performance benefit for civil and military aircraft and a unique potential for noise reduction, via future advances in flow and noise technologies. This report outlines specific areas of research that will enable the breakthroughs necessary to bring this vision to reality. Recent developments in many topics within flow and noise control are reviewed. The flow control overview provides succinct summaries of various approaches for drag reduction and improved maneuvering. Both exterior and interior noise problems are examined, including dominant noise sources, physics of noise generation and propagation, and both established and proposed concepts for noise reduction. Synergy between flow and noise control is a focus and, more broadly, the need to pursue research in a more concurrent approach involving multiple disciplines. Also discussed are emerging technologies such as nanotechnology that may have a significant impact on the progress of flow and noise control.

  16. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  17. Future directions for research on the development of relational and physical peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Kamper, Kimberly E

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on peer victimization and associated constructs the field is poised to make a number of important discoveries and advances. More specifically, the study of peer victimization subtypes has rapidly increased since the seminal work of Crick and Grotpeter ( 1996 ) on relational and physical victimization. The current state of the field is briefly reviewed, and recommendations for future directions are provided to advance our literature. Critical future directions are discussed and include (a) broaden the range of adjustment outcomes and examine differential pathways associated with physical and relational peer victimization; (b) study peer victimization subtypes at multiple levels of influence including psychophysiological and gene-environment interactions; (c) study physical and relational victimization outside of friendships and links with other close relationship systems; (d) examine the role of culture on peer victimization subtypes; (e) focus on context including but not limited to socioeconomic status; (f) test the role of gender, gender identity, and gender-linked self-construals; (g) explore the impact of peer group processes; and (h) continue to develop evidence-based programs for physical and relational peer victimization. Finally, the adoption of a developmental psychopathology framework is stressed as a means by which we may advance our future study of peer victimization subtypes. PMID:25751392

  18. Direct immunofluorescence on hair follicles--present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Adina; Zurac, Sabina; Salavastru, Carmen M; Andrei, Razvan; Tebeica, Tiberiu; Staniceanu, Florica; Tiplica, George S

    2013-06-01

    Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is an important tool for evaluating bullous autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. We report 21 cases of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus that were investigated by performing DIF on scalp hair follicles. The study was done using a simplified technique of preparing the hairs for DIF testing. The anagen hairs tested positive in pemphigus vulgaris patients while the telogen hairs were negative. In bullous pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus cases hair DIF presented negative results.Hair DIF has the potential of taking the place of skin or mucosal DIF in pemphigus patients if performed on anagen hair follicles. The technique used to perform hair DIF is important in obtaining reliable results and eliminating the possibility of generating false-negative testing. Larger studies are needed in order to validate this method. PMID:23689693

  19. [Oral medicine in Israel: Current status and future directions].

    PubMed

    Aframian, D J; Vered, M

    2016-04-01

    The oral cavity-body relationships are bi-directional: oral diseases affect the welfare and health of the individual, while diseases and conditions of organs and tissues in the human body affect oral health. The global policy of the World Health Organization is to improve oral health in the 21st century as an integral part of promoting our general health. During the recent years the knowledge of the dental profession has grown exponentially and widened its fields of interest and this has led to impressive advances at both clinical and research levels. Oral medicine, which is a recognized, licensed specialty in Israel, is a definite example that reflects this process. In the last decade residency programs in oral medicine are in the process of constant increased demand. The authors discuss this trend and comment on the need to maintain excellence in this specialty. PMID:27480002

  20. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  1. Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dominic G; Bell, John C

    2013-01-01

    The optimal route for clinical delivery of oncolytic viruses is thought to be systemic intravenous injection; however, the immune system is armed with several highly efficient mechanisms to remove pathogens from the circulatory system. To overcome the challenges faced in trying to delivery oncolytic viruses specifically to tumors via the bloodstream, carrier cells have been investigated to determine their suitability as delivery vehicles for systemic administration of oncolytic viruses. Cell carriers protect viruses from neutralization, one of the most limiting aspects of oncolytic virus interaction with the immune system. Cell carriers can also possess inherent tumor tropism, thus directing the delivery of the virus more specifically to a tumor. With preclinical studies already demonstrating the success and feasibility of this approach with multiple oncolytic viruses, clinical evaluation of cell-mediated delivery of viruses is on the horizon. Meanwhile, ongoing preclinical studies are aimed at identifying new cellular vehicles for oncolytic viruses and improving current promising cell carrier platforms. PMID:27512657

  2. Some thoughts on future directions in margin research

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Looking through the abstracts of presentations for this symposium, the authors see a science in transition. The quarter century since plate tectonic theory provided geoscience with a guiding framework in which to carry forward research into global tectonic phenomenon has witnessed a flourishing of research into the structure and evolution of continental margins. Margin evolution can now be placed firmly within this theoretical construct, thereby providing one of the key elaborations of the original theory that has given it its strength and value. What, then, is the next stage Are they in a period of normal science characterized by the detailed verification of an established paradigm, or can they hope for a really new direction Two approaches seem to present themselves. One is to focus attention on anomalies-things that don't quite fit or are not very easily covered by the present paradigm. Volcanic passive margins don't fit very well within the simple kinematic statement of plate tectonics, nor do eustasy and its effect on sedimentary sequences. While study of these square pegs in the round hole of plate theory may not bring them to a new paradigm, they might well provide significant modifications to the current wisdom. Perhaps a more fruitful approach is to propose that they are at a point in the development of other science at which the era of verification of the plate tectonic paradigm is sufficiently mature (perhaps even at its end) that the proper direction now is to establish a rigorous physical basis for the phenomena that are kinematically described by plate theory. The objective should be to created a higher order theory and thereby illuminate these known phenomena. Numerical and analytical modeling of deformational processes, magma generation, and migration are making leading contributions to this endeavor.

  3. The Next 25 Years?: Future Scenarios and Future Directions for Education and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facer, K.; Sandford, R.

    2010-01-01

    The educational technology research field has been at the heart of debates about the future of education for the last quarter century. This paper explores the socio-technical developments that the next 25 years might bring and the implications of such developments for educators and for educational technology research. The paper begins by outlining…

  4. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  5. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Amy L.; Ball, Karen L.; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M.; Faughnan, Marie E.; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P.; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S.; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in “research silos” with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation, and HHT Foundation International. Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations. PMID:25221778

  6. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Akers, Amy L; Ball, Karen L; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M; Faughnan, Marie E; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A; McCulloch, Charles E; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L

    2013-04-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in "research silos" with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation, and HHT Foundation International. Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations. PMID:25221778

  7. The Status and Future Directions for the GRACE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapley, Byron; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Flechtner, Frank; Watkins, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for over 13 years. The mission objectives are to sense the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The primary mission objectives of GRACE are to measure: 1) the Earth's time-averaged gravity field over the mission life and 2) the monthly variations in the mean gravity field at wave lengths between 300 and 4000 km. The major cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequences which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. Measurements of continental aquifer mass change, polar ice mass change and ocean bottom currents are examples of paradigm shifting remote sensing observations enabled by the GRACE satellite measurements. In 2012, a complete reanalysis of the mission data, referred to as the RL05 data release, was initiated. The monthly solutions from this effort were released in mid-2013 with the mean fields following in 2014. Corrections to the original release along with alternate solution sets have been reported in 2014. This presentation will review some of the improvements achieved in the reanalysis and the impact of results from this reanalysis on the science investigations. The current mission status and the operations strategy, which are focused on extending the mission lifetime, will be discussed along with the impact of the operations on the future science data products. Finally, the challenges involved in achieving mission overlap with the GRACE Follow On Mission will be summarized.

  8. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  9. ISOLATED WETLANDS: STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC), the U.S. Supreme Court held that isolated, intrastate, non-navigable waters could not be protected under the Clean Water Act based solely on their use by migratory birds. The SWANCC decision ...

  10. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  11. Gifted Native American Students: Literature, Lessons, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Marcia; Fugate, C. Matthew; Wu, Jiaxi; Castellano, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    A national research agenda focused on gifted/creative/talented Native American students is needed, as this population remains one of the least researched, most overlooked, and most underserved in the field. Literature-based assumptions surrounding Native American students' talent development, culture and traditions, cognitive styles and…

  12. Systematic Treatment Selection (STS): A Review and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tam T.; Bertoni, Matteo; Charvat, Mylea; Gheytanchi, Anahita; Beutler, Larry E.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic Treatment Selection (STS) is a form of technical eclectism that develops and plans treatments using empirically founded principles of psychotherapy. It is a model that provides systematic guidelines for the utilization of different psychotherapeutic strategies based on patient qualities and problem characteristics. Historically, it…

  13. Future Research Directions for Multimorbidity Involving Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Salive, Marcel E

    2016-05-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, increases with age and may be found in approximately two-thirds of older adults in population studies, commonly including a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic diseases. This article offers a research agenda for cardiovascular disease from a patient-centered multimorbidity perspective. Definitional issues remain for multimorbidity, along with high interest in understanding the inter-relationships between aging, diseases, treatments, and organ dysfunction in the development and progression of multimorbidity. Clinical trials, practice-based and population-based observational studies, and linkages of big data can play a role in improving health outcomes among persons with multimorbidity. PMID:27113155

  14. Clinical practice guidelines: their use, misuse, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James O; Bozic, Kevin J; Glassman, Steven D; Jevsevar, David S; Weber, Kristy L

    2014-03-01

    Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to bring the best-quality evidence to orthopaedic surgeons and their patients. CPGs can improve quality by decreasing the variability in orthopaedic care, but they can also be misused through inappropriate development or application. The quality of a CPG is dependent on the strength of its evidence base, which is often deficient in orthopaedic publications. In addition, many surgeons express concern about legal liability associated with CPGs. Specific processes in CPG development and implementation can counter these potential problems. Other evidence tools, such as appropriate use criteria, also can help in the application of the proper treatment of patients by identifying those who are appropriate for specific procedures. Because payers, patients, and surgeons need access to the best evidence, CPGs will continue to be developed, and orthopaedic surgeons have the opportunity to ensure their proper development and implementation by understanding and participating in the process. PMID:24603823

  15. West Antarctic Surface Melt: Recent Context, Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, D. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Lampkin, D. J.; Karmosky, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    Surface melting on ice sheets and ice shelves is a physical threshold of much climatic and geophysical significance. Wetting reduces albedo and encourages additional melt, runoff may contribute to ice-sheet mass loss, and penetration of meltwater to the glacier bed can lubricate faster flow and thereby increase mass loss by calving. Meltwater is also a major factor in ice-shelf collapse through wedging open of crevasses. While fringing ice-shelf collapse along the Antarctic Peninsula is probably the best known example of the cryospheric response to a warming atmosphere (and ocean), surface melting is also present in inland portions of West Antarctica. In addition to potentially contributing to ice sheet dynamics, surface melt occurrence is a valuable proxy for changing atmospheric temperature conditions. Combining satellite remote sensing with atmospheric modeling, we diagnose the meteorological conditions associated with the December 1991/January 1992 surface melt event on the Ross Ice Shelf, the most extensive and longest such event in the period 1987-2008. Through this case study, we examine the utility and skill of our meteorological datasets (reanalyses, Polar WRF, selected CMIP5 GCMs) in the development of diagnostic tools for identifying surface melt as observed by satellite and simulated by regional and global models. To assess GCM model skill in the recent, and to better appraise future predictions to come in later work, we compare warm-season climatologies derived from several CMIP5-class model simulations against observations and the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Sub-daily temperatures are compared where both model output and in-situ observations are available. Trends in the surface climate for the historical period are also examined in order to assess which models simulate the most realistic changes. Self-organizing maps develop grids of generalized patterns organized by similarity to represent the continuum of synoptic weather states found in each model

  16. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  17. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma will be seen in the near future that will require urgent preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:27217802

  18. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chenyu; Murphy, George F.; Akaishi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The development of cutaneous pathological scars, namely, hypertrophic scars (HSs) and keloids, involves complex pathways, and the exact mechanisms by which they are initiated, evolved, and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. The generally held concepts that keloids and HSs represent “aberrant wound healing” or that they are “characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles” have done little to promote their accurate clinicopathological classification or to stimulate research into the specific causes of these scars and effective preventative therapies. To overcome this barrier, we review here the most recent findings regarding the pathology and pathogenesis of keloids and HSs. The aberrations of HSs and keloids in terms of the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of the wound healing process are described. In particular, the significant roles that the extracellular matrix and the epidermal and dermal layers of skin play in scar pathogenesis are examined. Finally, the current hypotheses of pathological scar etiology that should be tested by basic and clinical investigators are detailed. Therapies that have been found to be effective are described, including several that evolved directly from the aforementioned etiology hypotheses. A better understanding of pathological scar etiology and manifestations will improve the clinical and histopathological classification and treatment of these important lesions. PMID:25289219

  19. Fundamental issues, recent advances, and future directions in myodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hatze, H

    2002-12-01

    A state-of-the-art report is presented on recent progress in selected areas of myodynamics, but also on problems that severely hamper the further development of the discipline. Significant advances have been made in elucidating the force-producing interaction between actin and the myosin-S1-subunit, including the localization of the most probable molecular site of power stroke initiation. Concerning the architecture of the myostructures, strong experimental evidence has accumulated for numerous intra-, inter-, and extramuscular pathways for lateral force transmission in addition to the serial sarcomere-to-sarcomere myotendinous path. It is shown that contemporary muscle models are inadequate in most respects and lag far behind the requirements an appropriate myodynamic model should fulfil. A similar comment applies to the current approaches designed to solve the myoskeletal indeterminacy problem. These formulations neglect myodynamic properties and do not allow for the implementation of biologically realistic objective functions. The solutions currently obtained are highly unsatisfactory. New research directions to rectify these situations are suggested, also with regard to the identification of subject-specific myodynamic parameters. PMID:12435541

  20. Direct Laser Cladding , Current Status and Future Scope of Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisheit, A.; Gasser, A.; Backes, G.; Jambor, T.; Pirch, N.; Wissenbach, K.

    During the last decades Direct Laser Cladding has become an established technique in many industrial fields for applying wear and corrosion protection layers on metallic surfaces as well as for the repair of high value-added components. The most important application fields are die and tool making, turbine components for aero engines and power generation, machine components such as axes and gears, and oil drilling components. Continuous wave (CW) lasers with a power up to 18 kW are used on automated machines with three or more axes, enabling 3D cladding . The outstanding feature of DLC is the high precision which leads to a minimum heat input into the work piece and a very low distortion. Due to the high cooling rates a fine grained microstructure is achieved during solidification. A new development in laser cladding is micro cladding in a size range below 50 \\upmum especially for electronic and medical applications. Furthermore, additive manufacturing is coming again into focus as a clean and resource-efficient method to manufacture and modify functional prototypes as well as unique and small lot parts.

  1. HIV infection and stroke: current perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Laura A; Bryer, Alan; Emsley, Hedley CA; Khoo, Saye; Solomon, Tom; Connor, Myles D

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV infection can result in stroke via several mechanisms, including opportunistic infection, vasculopathy, cardioembolism, and coagulopathy. However, the occurrence of stroke and HIV infection might often be coincidental. HIV-associated vasculopathy describes various cerebrovascular changes, including stenosis and aneurysm formation, vasculitis, and accelerated atherosclerosis, and might be caused directly or indirectly by HIV infection, although the mechanisms are controversial. HIV and associated infections contribute to chronic inflammation. Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) are clearly beneficial, but can be atherogenic and could increase stroke risk. cART can prolong life, increasing the size of the ageing population at risk of stroke. Stroke management and prevention should include identification and treatment of the specific cause of stroke and stroke risk factors, and judicious adjustment of the cART regimen. Epidemiological, clinical, biological, and autopsy studies of risk, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated vasculopathy (particularly of arterial endothelial damage), the long-term effects of cART, and ideal stroke treatment in patients with HIV are needed, as are antiretrovirals that are without vascular risk. PMID:22995692

  2. Device innovation in neurosurgery: controversy, learning, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Babu, Maya A; Heary, Robert F; Nahed, Brian V

    2012-04-01

    Innovation in medicine has led to advances directly benefitting patients. Yet recent legislation has created intense scrutiny of the relationship between surgeons and industry. Critics argue that surgeon-held patents and royalties incentivize surgeon loyalty, influencing decision making as to which devices are used intraoperatively. We explored the potential for inventor-related conflicts of interest. We searched patent records from the United States Patent and Trademark Office for every diplomate recognized by the American Board of Neurological Surgeons (4868 neurosurgeons). We also searched physician payment registries of the 5 largest device makers; of these, Medtronic, DePuy, and Zimmer were the only companies with available registries. A total of 147 neurosurgeons (3.0%) hold a total of 582 patents; the number of patents held per neurosurgeon ranges from 1 to 53. The fields in which patents are held include tumor (125), spine (98), vascular (54), trauma (27), stereotaxy/image guidance (88), pain (19), peripheral nerve (2), electrical stimulation (63), and pediatrics (9); surgical instruments (59), drug delivery (17), and other (21) account for the remainder. The total amount of royalties received by neurosurgeons in 2010 is expected to be $13,223,000 (minimum: $7K, maximum: $8.261M). Despite public and legislative perceptions of widespread conflicts of interest, there are relatively few neurosurgeons who hold patents and receive significant royalties. PMID:21946505

  3. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation. PMID:11092063

  4. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  5. Databases for genetic services. Current usages and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meaney, F J

    1987-06-01

    Computer-based systems for the management of data in clinical genetics have become increasingly available for patient information storage and retrieval, evaluation and diagnosis, and pedigree data. The need for a national genetic services database has been recognized, and federal grants have provided funds for the development of state and regional databases for the evaluation of genetic services. Continuation of federal funding and the development of data systems that allow local, state, and regional needs to be met are essential for any progress to be made toward a national database. PMID:3668409

  6. Asthma and COPD proteomics: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Rosa; Pelaia, Girolamo; Preianò, Mariaimmacolata; Savino, Rocco

    2015-02-01

    Although asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD represent the two most common chronic respiratory diseases worldwide, the mechanisms underlying their pathobiology need to be further elucidated. Presently, differentiation of asthma and COPD are largely based on clinical and lung function parameters. However, the complexity of these multifactorial diseases may lead to misclassification and to inappropriate management strategies. Recently, tremendous progress in MS has extended the sensitivity, accuracy, and speed of analysis, enabling the identification of thousands of proteins per experiment. Beyond identification, MS has also greatly implemented quantitation issues allowing to assess qualitative-quantitative differences in protein profiles of different samples, in particular diseased versus normal. Herein, we provide a summary of recent proteomics-based investigations in the field of asthma/COPD, highlighting major issues related to sampling and processing procedures for proteomic analyses of specific airway and parenchymal specimens (induced sputum, exhaled breath condensate, epithelial lining fluid, bronchoalveolar and nasal lavage fluid), as well as blood-derived specimen (plasma and serum). Within such a context, together with current difficulties and limitations mainly due to lack of general standardization in preanalytical sampling procedure, our discussion will focus on the challenges and possible benefits of proteomic studies in phenotypic stratification of asthma and COPD. PMID:25504544

  7. Latest developments and future directions in dengue vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Thisyakorn, Chule

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease which is currently an expanding global health problem. The disease is caused by four closely related viruses, the dengue virus. There are no specific dengue therapeutics and prevention is currently limited to vector control measures. Development of an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine would therefore represent a major advance in the control of the disease and is considered a high public health priority. While a licensed dengue vaccine is not yet available, the scope and intensity of dengue vaccine development has increased dramatically in the last decade. The uniqueness of the dengue viruses and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever dengue virus, has progressed to phase III efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA and purified inactivated vaccine candidates, are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and virus-like particle-based vaccines, are under evaluation in preclinical studies. PMID:24757522

  8. Transient elastography in Canada: Current state and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Aljawad, Mohammed; Sirpal, Sanjeev; Yoshida, Eric M; Chandok, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient elastography (TE) is a safe and effective technology to noninvasively assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with numerous liver conditions. TE is not readily available to all Canadians, and data regarding how this technology is incorporated into clinical practice are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To describe TE practices in Canada, and to identify strategies to optimize access and usage. METHODS: All Canadian centres with TE devices were invited to complete a survey after obtaining purchasing data from the national distributor of the device. Descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: Forty-two devices were available in Canada as of January 2015. Seventy-one percent are used in academic settings, 74% are hospital based and 26% are in private clinics. The test is performed by trained nurses in 48% of centres, physicians in 19%, technicians in 9.5% and by any member of the health care team in 19%. Nineteen percent of centres provide satellite clinics to perform the test. While the majority of the centres perform the test at no additional cost to patients, 29% charge a variable fee. CONCLUSION: In Canada, most TE devices are used in academic and/or hospital-based settings, thus limiting access to this technology to many patients. A sizeable minority of centres mandate patients pay variable out-of-pocket fees. Satellite clinics offered by some centres could increase access, but are not widespread. The lack of uniformity with TE practices in Canada suggests that a national policy is needed. PMID:26069895

  9. Performance seeking control: Program overview and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A flight test evaluation of the performance-seeking control (PSC) algorithm on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control research aircraft was conducted for single-engine operation at subsonic and supersonic speeds. The model-based PSC system was developed with three optimization modes: minimum fuel flow at constant thrust, minimum turbine temperature at constant thrust, and maximum thrust at maximum dry and full afterburner throttle settings. Subsonic and supersonic flight testing were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility covering the three PSC optimization modes and over the full throttle range. Flight results show substantial benefits. In the maximum thrust mode, thrust increased up to 15 percent at subsonic and 10 percent at supersonic flight conditions. The minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode reduced temperatures by more than 100 F at high altitudes. The minimum fuel flow mode results decreased fuel consumption up to 2 percent in the subsonic regime and almost 10 percent supersonically. These results demonstrate that PSC technology can benefit the next generation of fighter or transport aircraft. NASA Dryden is developing an adaptive aircraft performance technology system that is measurement based and uses feedback to ensure optimality. This program will address the technical weaknesses identified in the PSC program and will increase performance gains.

  10. The human proteome project: Current state and future direction.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph; Corthals, Garry L; Costello, Catherine E; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, Gyorgy; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlen, Mathias; Hu, Cathy H; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2011-04-29

    After successful completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), HUPO has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP) which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the presence of about 30% undisclosed proteins out of 20,300 protein gene products, a systematic global effort is necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP groups employ the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge base. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing HUPO initiatives and a chromosome-based protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP with many national teams currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically-driven projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. HUPO urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators. PMID:21531903

  11. Robotic surgery for oropharynx cancer: promise, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, John R; Genden, Eric M

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown a rise in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer without a corresponding increase in oral cavity cancers. These diverging trends are explained by human papilloma virus, which preferentially affects the oropharynx. Cancers resulting from this viral infection bear a better prognosis than those that are smoking-related. Treatment of oropharyngeal cancers has typically involved the use of radiation and chemotherapy to avoid the morbidity of mandibular splitting surgery. The use of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has obviated the need for large-scale open approaches but still provides the pathologic staging data that is unavailable from non-surgical approaches. Although TORS is in its infancy, early functional and oncologic outcome data are promising. The complex management of oropharyngeal cancers should utilize the available treatment modalities to optimize outcomes and stratify patients to different treatment based on risk status. PMID:22311683

  12. Bio-ontologies: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Stevens, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, as a knowledge-based discipline, bioinformatics has been made more computationally amenable. After its beginnings as a technology advocated by computer scientists to overcome problems of heterogeneity, ontology has been taken up by biologists themselves as a means to consistently annotate features from genotype to phenotype. In medical informatics, artifacts called ontologies have been used for a longer period of time to produce controlled lexicons for coding schemes. In this article, we review the current position in ontologies and how they have become institutionalized within biomedicine. As the field has matured, the much older philosophical aspects of ontology have come into play. With this and the institutionalization of ontology has come greater formality. We review this trend and what benefits it might bring to ontologies and their use within biomedicine. PMID:16899495

  13. Future research directions in the use of biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, K; Kumar, R; Bykov, V J; Louhelainen, J; Vodicka, P

    1996-01-01

    Many DNA adduct studies have been carried out in occupational groups that have been at a risk of cancer based on epidemiological results relating to exposure decades ago. Even new epidemiological publications on cancer cannot accurately address the effective exposures after about 1970. This is one justification for biomarker studies. Another justification is exposures for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted or have provided inadequate results, in spite of suspicions raised by short-term or animal experiments. The modulation of environment carcinogenesis by host polymorphism in genes for xenobiotic metabolizing and DNA repair enzymes is currently under extensive investigation. The studies relating phenotype/genotype to cancer are presently extended to various end points that may be related to cancer such as DNA adducts and cytogenetic damage. Adjustment for a metabolic phenotype or genotype may also increase the precision in the measurement. Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may give clues to the etiology of cancer. PMID:8781364

  14. Future Directions, Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Klein; Jack Lance

    2006-07-01

    The renaissance of nuclear energy for electricity and hydrogen production and process heat for other potential applications is moving ahead rapidly. Both near- and far-term roles are envisioned for this important energy technology, and each of these roles will have its own particular technical challenges and opportunities. Numerous power producers world-wide are actively considering the construction of new nuclear power plants for the production of electricity in the near-term. The U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to develop both the next generation of nuclear power plants and the technology necessary to recycle used nuclear fuel. These exciting technologies will bring novel challenges to their developers and designers as they push the knowledge base in materials utilization, high temperatures and pressures, extended operating cycles, and extreme operating environments. Development of the techniques and methods to interrogate, understand, manage and control these devices will be crucial to enabling the full extension of these technologies.

  15. Aging, training, and the brain: A review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Cindy; Shah, Priti; Seidler, Rachael; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    As the population ages, the need for effective methods to maintain or even improve older adults’ cognitive performance becomes increasingly pressing. Here we provide a brief review of the major intervention approaches that have been the focus of past research with healthy older adults (strategy training, multi-modal interventions, cardiovascular exercise, and process-based training), and new approaches that incorporate neuroimaging. As outcome measures, neuroimaging data on intervention-related changes in volume, structural integrity, and functional activation can provide important insights into the nature and duration of an intervention's effects. Perhaps even more intriguingly, several recent studies have used neuroimaging data as a guide to identify core cognitive processes that can be trained in one task with effective transfer to other tasks that share the same underlying processes. Although many open questions remain, this research has greatly increased our understanding of how to promote successful aging of cognition and the brain. PMID:19876740

  16. Pituitary adenomas: historical perspective, surgical management and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533

  17. Youth, Technology, and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the USA and globally. In this report, we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention, and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population, or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the USA in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field-including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation. PMID:26385582

  18. Bed Bug Detection: Current Technologies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  19. Bed bug detection: current technologies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev; Feldlaufer, Mark F

    2013-04-01

    Technologies to detect bed bugs have not kept pace with their global resurgence. Early detection is critical to prevent infestations from spreading. Detection based exclusively on bites is inadequate, because reactions to insect bites are non-specific and often misdiagnosed. Visual inspections are commonly used and depend on identifying live bugs, exuviae, or fecal droplets. Visual inspections are inexpensive, but they are time-consuming and unreliable when only a few bugs are present. Use of a dog to detect bed bugs is gaining in popularity, but it can be expensive, may unintentionally advertise a bed bug problem, and is not foolproof. Passive monitors mimic natural harborages; they are discreet and typically use an adhesive to trap bugs. Active monitors generate carbon dioxide, heat, a pheromone, or a combination to attract bed bugs to a trap. New technologies using DNA analysis, mass spectrometry, and electronic noses are innovative but impractical and expensive for widespread use. PMID:23553226

  20. Adherence to Cardiovascular Medications: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kronish, Ian M; Ye, Siqin

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with cardiovascular disease and/or its major risk factors have poor adherence to their prescribed medications. Finding novel methods to help patients improve their adherence to existing evidence-based cardiovascular drug therapies has enormous potential to improve health outcomes while potentially reducing health care costs. The goal of this report is to provide a review of the current understanding of adherence to cardiovascular medications from the point of view of prescribing clinicians and cardiovascular researchers. Key topics addressed include: 1) definitions of medication adherence; 2) prevalence and impact of non-adherence; 3) methods for assessing medication adherence; 4) reasons for poor adherence; and 5) approaches to improving adherence to cardiovascular medications. For each of these topics, the report seeks to identify important gaps in knowledge and opportunities for advancing the field of cardiovascular adherence research. PMID:23621969

  1. Treatment of myasthenia gravis: current practice and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ciafaloni, Emma; Sanders, Donald B

    2002-09-01

    Myasthenia gravis is the best understood of the autoimmune diseases and a number of treatments are currently used to produce clinical improvement. However, due to the scarcity of evidence-based and comparative data, there is still no consensus on many therapeutic issues. Even a widely accepted treatment like thymectomy has never been proven effective by a well-designed trial. These are just some of the unanswered questions: What is the best treatment algorithm and safest long-term management of myasthenia gravis? What patients are likely to benefit from thymectomy? How long should myasthenia gravis patients be treated? Is it possible to discontinue immunotherapy once remission has been achieved? What are the risks associated with long-term immunosuppression? In this article, we review current therapeutic strategies and these unresolved questions about myasthenia gravis treatment. PMID:19810991

  2. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  3. CONSORT in China: past development and future direction.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian-Jiao; Leng, Hou-Fu; Zhong, Linda Ld; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was published in 1996, and first introduced to China in 2001. Although CONSORT has been widely accepted in high-quality international journals, we still need to have more investigation on how many Chinese journals have adopted the CONSORT Statement, and whether the quality of reporting has improved. A systematic search of the "Instructions to authors" in all Chinese medical journals in China Academic Journals (CAJ) Full-text Database was conducted up to February 2012 and only 7 journals officially listed the requirements of the CONSORT Statement. The research articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 from journals which had specifically adopted the CONSORT Statement, and from 30 top journals based on the Chinese Science Citation Index (CSCI) 2011 as the control group, were identified. The quality of both cohorts of articles was assessed using the revised CONSORT Checklist and Jadad scale. A total of 1221 Chinese medical journals was identified. Only seven journals stated clearly in the "Instructions to authors" that authors should adopt the CONSORT requirement in the clinical trial paper. None of these journals is among the control group in the CSCI 2011. In the selected years, a total of 171 articles from 7 journals which had adopted CONSORT and 232 articles in the control were identified as including RCT trials. The average scores according to the revised CONSORT Checklist were 29.47 for the CONSORT-adopting journals and 25.57 for the control group; while the average scores based on the Jadad scale were 2.53 for CONSORT-adopting journals and 1.97 for the control group. Few journals among Chinese medical journals have adopted the CONSORT Statement. The overall quality of RCT reports in the 7 journals which have adopted CONSORT was better than those in the top 30 journals which have not adopted CONSORT. The quality of RCT reports in Chinese

  4. Detecting biological responses to flow management: Missed opportunities; future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souchon, Y.; Sabaton, C.; Deibel, R.; Reiser, D.; Kershner, J.; Gard, M.; Katopodis, C.; Leonard, P.; Poff, N.L.; Miller, W.J.; Lamb, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusions of numerous stream restoration assessments all around the world are extremely clear and convergent: there has been insufficient appropriate monitoring to improve general knowledge and expertise. In the specialized field of instream flow alterations, we consider that there are several opportunities comparable to full-size experiments. Hundreds of water management decisions related to instream flow releases have been made by government agencies, native peoples, and non-governmental organizations around the world. These decisions are based on different methods and assumptions and many flow regimes have been adopted by formal or informal rules and regulations. Although, there have been significant advances in analytical capabilities, there has been very little validation monitoring of actual outcomes or research related to the response of aquatic dependent species to new flow regimes. In order to be able to detect these kinds of responses and to better guide decision, a general design template is proposed. The main steps of this template are described and discussed, in terms of objectives, hypotheses, variables, time scale, data management, and information, in the spirit of adaptive management. The adoption of such a framework is not always easy, due to differing interests of actors for the results, regarding the duration of monitoring, nature of funding and differential timetables between facilities managers and technicians. Nevertheless, implementation of such a framework could help researchers and practitioners to coordinate and federate their efforts to improve the general knowledge of the links between the habitat dynamics and biological aquatic responses. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  6. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  7. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension: mechanisms, management, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus, and back and neck pain, but the clinical presentation is highly variable. Although few studies have been done to support evidence-based management, several recent advances have the potential to enhance understanding of the causes of the disease and to guide treatment decisions. Investigators of the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) reported beneficial effects of acetazolamide in patients with mild visual loss. Studies have also established weight loss as an effective disease-modifying treatment, and further clinical trials to investigate new treatments are underway. The incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension is expected to increase as rates of obesity increase; efforts to reduce diagnostic delays and identify new, effective approaches to treatment will be key to meeting the needs of a growing number of patients. PMID:26700907

  8. Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

    1985-09-01

    Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

  9. Emergency medicine in Nepal: present practice and direction for future.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nishant Raj

    2016-12-01

    Emergency medicine is one of the youngest recognized specialties in Nepal, and its growth in clinical practice and academic development has been challenging. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of emergency medicine in Nepal based on review of the literature, personal observations and experience, and interviews with many Nepali and foreign emergency physicians. Most hospitals in Nepal have adopted a multi-specialist approach, where emergency room physicians are primarily general practitioners/family physicians or house officers. As physicians are receiving their training via various pathways, national standards in training and certification have not been developed. As a result, the scope of practice for emergency physicians and the quality of care vary greatly among hospitals. Difficult working conditions, physician recruitment, compensation, and academic enrichment remain major challenges in the development of emergency medicine. For the sustainable development of this specialty, more international guidance and local leadership is needed to standardize the training curriculum, to provide adequate funding opportunities for academic development and to promote the overall development of the emergency care system. PMID:27416937

  10. New directions: Atmospheric chemical mechanisms for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduwela, Ajith; Luecken, Deborah; Carter, William; Derwent, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric chemical reaction scheme, commonly referred to as the chemical mechanism, is the portion of an air quality model that represents the atmospheric chemistry of the pollutants. It is at the heart of every air quality model used in research and policy applications to predict and analyse the complex air pollutants: ozone, air toxics and PM2.5. The chemical mechanism should incorporate available information on chemical kinetics and reaction pathways and be the conduit through which the fundamental science of atmospheric chemistry is applied to solve real-world problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of policies developed to reduce exposure to harmful pollutants depend on how well the mechanisms reflect the actual chemistry. If the mechanism has reaction pathways that are incorrectly characterised or completely missing, the resulting predictions may underestimate emission reduction requirements needed to meet public health and ecosystem protection targets, or may overstate the emission reductions needed and cause unnecessary implementation costs. It is therefore essential that mechanisms utilise the best, most up-to-date atmospheric chemistry information available so that policy development is based on air quality model predictions that are robust, transparent and free from scientific challenge. We are concerned that this may not continue to be the case.

  11. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  12. Future Directions In Image Management: Medical And Practical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, J. J.; Eikman, E. A.; Shaff, M. I.; James, A. E.

    1983-05-01

    The volume of data produced by new imaging modalities has far outstripped the ability of most departments to effectively utilize the images produced. The problem is further exacerbated by the fact that the diagnostic procedures have become progressively less invasive and traumatic and are being applied to an ever larger patient population. The decrease in cost and the rise in technological capability of computer systems in recent years has provided imaging specialists with the opportunity to create network systems for the storage and recall of diagnostic images. This paper examines the philosophy of image storage from the standpoint of the medical, legal, and practical questions. A proposal is made that not all images are equal and that some deserve to be archived for longer periods than others. The practical problem of using a video display for diagnostic readout, aside from the classical questions of resolution and response time, is discussed. A proposal is also made that two data bases might be created; one which provides rapid access to the clinically relevant images (i.e., the two or three that demonstrate pathology) and one which may require much longer to access, but which contains all the archived data.

  13. Turbidite systems: State of the art and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Posamentier, H.; Mutti, E.

    1993-01-01

    The study of turbidite systems covering a wide range of physical scales has led to confus ion regarding the use of certain key terms and hence a breakdown in communication between workers involved in turbidite research. There are three fundamentally different scales and types of observations derived from the study of outcrop data (ancient systems), high-resolution seismic reflection and side scan sonar data (modern systems), and multichannel seismic reflection data (modern and older buried systems). Despite the variability of scale the same terms are used to describe features that may have little in common. Consequently, turbidite system terminology has become imprecise and even misleading in some cases, thus providing impediments to developing useful predictive models for processes, depositional environments, and lateral and vertical distribution of sand bodies within turbidite systems. To address this concern, we review the principal elements critical to deepwater systems: slump scars, submarine canyons, channels, channel fill deposits, overbank deposits, and lobes and discuss some of their recognition criteria with each different type of data base. Local and regional tectonic setting, relative sea level variations, and bottom current activity are probably the main factors that control size, external geometry, internal stratal configuration, and facies characteristics of both modern and ancient turbidite systems. These factors ultimately control the timing and bounding characteristics between stages of growth of deepwater systems. If comparison of elements from different turbidite deposits using various data types is carried out at similar physical and temporal scales, predictive models eventually may be improved.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  15. Intestine and multivisceral transplantation: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Mangus, Richard S; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal failure and associated parenteral nutrition-induced liver failure cause significant morbidity, mortality, and health care burden. Intestine transplantation is now considered to be the standard of care in patients with intestinal failure who fail intestinal rehabilitation. Intestinal failure-associated liver disease is an important sequela of intestinal failure, caused by parenteral lipids, requiring simultaneous liver-intestine transplant. Lipid minimization and, in recent years, the emergence of fish oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to reverse parenteral nutrition-associated hyperbilirubinemia, but not fibrosis. Significant progress in surgical techniques and immunosuppression has led to improved outcomes after intestine transplantation. Intestine in varying combination with liver, stomach, and pancreas, also referred to as multivisceral transplantation, is performed for patients with intestinal failure along with liver disease, surgical abdominal catastrophes, neuroendocrine and slow-growing tumors, and complete portomesenteric thrombosis with cirrhosis of the liver. Although acute and chronic rejection are major problems, long-term survivors have excellent quality of life and remain free of parenteral nutrition. PMID:25613179

  16. The Human Proteome Project: Current State and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph H.; Corthals, Garry L.; Costello, Catherine E.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, György; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlén, Mathias; Wu, Cathy H.; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2011-01-01

    After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators. PMID:21742803

  17. The human proteome project: current state and future direction.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph H; Corthals, Garry L; Costello, Catherine E; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, György; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlén, Mathias; Wu, Cathy H; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2011-07-01

    After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators. PMID:21742803

  18. Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers) were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity) and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical) stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure, bioavailability and toxicokinetics, and by developing more insight into the ecology of soil organisms to support better understanding of exposure and long-term consequences of chemical exposure at the individual, population and community level. Ecotoxicogenomics tools may also be helpful in this, but will require considerable further research before they can be applied in the practice of soil ecotoxicological risk assessment. PMID:22536114

  19. Progress and Future Directions in Confined Magnetic Fusion Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.

    2004-05-01

    The complexity of fusion plasmas makes the goal of integrated predictive simulation for optimization of fusion systems extremely challenging. Sophisticated computational models are under development for individual features of magnetically confined plasmas, enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. Simulation codes, particle- and continuum-based, are being developed to elucidate the ability of fusion devices to contain mass, heat and momentum. Rigorous benchmarking among different codes has resulted in increased confidence in the predictive capability. Advances made in extended MHD simulations of actual experiments have led to deeper understanding of the nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities that set the pressure limit of fusion devices. Simulation of the plasma edge, which controls the overall fusion performance, is especially difficult due to the wide range of spatial and temporal scales involved, as well as the need for a physics model that accurately describes collisionless and collisional plasma. We highlight encouraging progress in plasma microturbulence and extended MHD and a new challenge in simulation of the plasma edge.

  20. Advancements and future directions in enzyme technology for biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zisheng; Donaldson, Adam A; Ma, Xiaoxun

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal alternative to acid hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production, limited primarily by pre-treatment requirements and economic considerations arising from enzyme production costs and specific activities. The quest for cheaper and better enzymes has prompted years of bio-prospecting, strain optimization through genetic engineering, enzyme characterization for simple and complex lignocellulosic feedstock, and the development of pre-treatment strategies to mitigate inhibitory effects. The recent shift to systematic characterizations of de novo mixtures of purified proteins is a promising indicator of maturation within this field of study, facilitating progression towards feedstock assay-based rapid enzyme mixture optimization. It is imperative that international standards be developed to enable meaningful comparisons between these studies and the construction of a database of enzymatic activities and kinetics, aspects of which are explored here-in. Complementary efforts to improve the economic viability of enzymatic hydrolysis through process integration and reactor design are also considered, where membrane-confinement shows significant promise despite the associated technological challenges. Significant advancements in enzyme technology towards the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass should be expected within the next few years as systematic research in enzyme activities conforms to that of traditional reaction engineering. PMID:22306162

  1. Molecular diagnostics: future probe-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Peter; Cardy, Donald L N

    2004-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs) represent powerful tools in clinical microbiology, particularly in areas where traditional culture-based methods alone prove insufficient. A notable advantage is in reducing the time from taking samples to reporting results. This, and the specificity and sensitivity imparted by NAATs, can help to improve patient care. Both thermal and isothermal NAATs have been adapted to aid diagnosis in clinical laboratories. Current molecular diagnostic assays are generally high-tech, and are expensive to buy and perform. Easy-to-use NAATs are beginning to appear, not only facilitating acceptable throughput in clinical laboratories, but also allowing tests to move out of the laboratory, closer to the point of care. Demand for simpler, miniaturized equipment and assays, and the trend toward personalized medicine, is leading towards the development of fully integrated automation and home-use kits. The integration of diverse disciplines, such as genomics, molecular biology, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, microfabrication, and organic chemistry, is behind the emerging DNA microarray technology. Development of DNA microchips allows the simultaneous detection of potentially thousands of target sequences, not only favoring high throughput, but also the potential for genotyping patient subsets with respect to their response to particular drug types (pharmakogenomics). It is envisaged that the future of probe-based technologies will see the development of fully integrated assays and devices suitable for nonskilled users. PMID:15148419

  2. Genistein and Cancer: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Directions12

    PubMed Central

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)–associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety. PMID:26178025

  3. Cardiac PET perfusion tracers: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R S

    2014-09-01

    PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly being used for noninvasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by the shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. The availability of these tracers is limited by the need for an onsite ((15)O water and (13)N ammonia) or nearby ((13)N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators ((82)Rb). Owing to the short half-lives, such as 76 seconds for (82)Rb, 2.06 minutes for (15)O water, and 9.96 minutes for (13)N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible ((82)Rb and (15)O water) or not practical ((13)N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of (82)Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low myocardial extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an (18)F-labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of (18)F (109 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of (18)F would result in better image resolution. Flurpiridaz F 18 is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models and is the only (18)F-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Preclinical and clinical experience with Flurpiridaz F 18 demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast that was stable over time-important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Preclinical data from other (18)F-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

  4. Decompression to altitude: assumptions, experimental evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Philip P; Butler, Bruce D

    2009-02-01

    Although differences exist, hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures share common physiological, biochemical, and clinical features, and their comparison may provide further insight into the mechanisms of decompression stress. Although altitude decompression illness (DCI) has been experienced by high-altitude Air Force pilots and is common in ground-based experiments simulating decompression profiles of extravehicular activities (EVAs) or astronauts' space walks, no case has been reported during actual EVAs in the non-weight-bearing microgravity environment of orbital space missions. We are uncertain whether gravity influences decompression outcomes via nitrogen tissue washout or via alterations related to skeletal muscle activity. However, robust experimental evidence demonstrated the role of skeletal muscle exercise, activities, and/or movement in bubble formation and DCI occurrence. Dualism of effects of exercise, positive or negative, on bubble formation and DCI is a striking feature in hypobaric exposure. Therefore, the discussion and the structure of this review are centered on those highlighted unresolved topics about the relationship between muscle activity, decompression, and microgravity. This article also provides, in the context of altitude decompression, an overview of the role of denitrogenation, metabolic gases, gas micronuclei, stabilization of bubbles, biochemical pathways activated by bubbles, nitric oxide, oxygen, anthropometric or physiological variables, Doppler-detectable bubbles, and potential arterialization of bubbles. These findings and uncertainties will produce further physiological challenges to solve in order to line up for the programmed human return to the Moon, the preparation for human exploration of Mars, and the EVAs implementation in a non-zero gravity environment. PMID:19074573

  5. Future Directions of Structural Mass Spectrometry using Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    J Kiselar; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed over the last decade and has matured to a powerful method for analyzing protein structure and dynamics. It has been successfully applied in the analysis of protein structure, protein folding, protein dynamics, and protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Using synchrotron radiolysis, exposure of proteins to a 'white' X-ray beam for milliseconds provides sufficient oxidative modification to surface amino acid side chains, which can be easily detected and quantified by mass spectrometry. Thus, conformational changes in proteins or protein complexes can be examined using a time-resolved approach, which would be a valuable method for the study of macromolecular dynamics. In this review, we describe a new application of hydroxyl radical protein footprinting to probe the time evolution of the calcium-dependent conformational changes of gelsolin on the millisecond timescale. The data suggest a cooperative transition as multiple sites in different molecular subdomains have similar rates of conformational change. These findings demonstrate that time-resolved protein footprinting is suitable for studies of protein dynamics that occur over periods ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In this review, we also show how the structural resolution and sensitivity of the technology can be improved as well. The hydroxyl radical varies in its reactivity to different side chains by over two orders of magnitude, thus oxidation of amino acid side chains of lower reactivity are more rarely observed in such experiments. Here we demonstrate that the selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based method can be utilized for quantification of oxidized species, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This expansion of the set of oxidized residues of lower reactivity will improve the overall structural resolution of the technique. This approach is also suggested as a basis for developing hypothesis

  6. Genistein and cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety. PMID:26178025

  7. Cardiac PET Perfusion Tracers: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly used for non-invasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. Availability of these tracers is limited by need for an on-site (15O water and 13N ammonia) or nearby (13N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators (82Rb). Due to short half-lives ranging from 76sec for 82Rb, to 2.1min for 15O water and 10min for 13N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible (82Rb and 15O water) or is not practical (13N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of 82Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an 18F labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of 18F (108 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of 18F would result in better image resolution. 18F flurpiridaz is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models, and is the only F18-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Pre-clinical and clinical experience with 18F flurpiridaz demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast which was stable over time – important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Pre-clinical data from other 18F labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

  8. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA): Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Saá, Paula; Cervenakova, Larisa

    2015-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) most commonly known as prion diseases are invariably fatal neurological disorders that affect humans and animals. These disorders differ from other neurodegenerative conformational diseases caused by the accumulation in the brain of misfolded proteins, sometimes with amyloid properties, in their ability to infect susceptible species by various routes. While the infectious properties of amyloidogenic proteins, other than misfolded prion protein (PrP(TSE)), are currently under scrutiny, their potential to transmit from cell to cell, one of the intrinsic properties of the prion, has been recently shown in vitro and in vivo. Over the decades, various cell culture and laboratory animal models have been developed to study TSEs. These assays have been widely used in a variety of applications but showed to be time consuming and entailed elevated costs. Novel economic and fast alternatives became available with the development of in vitro assays that are based on the property of conformationally abnormal PrP(TSE) to recruit normal cellular PrP(C) to misfold. These include the cell-free conversion assay, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and quaking induced conversion assay (QuIC), of which the PMCA has been the only technology shown to generate infectious prions. Moreover, it allows indefinite amplification of PrP(TSE) with strain-specific biochemical and biological properties of the original molecules and under certain conditions may give rise to new spontaneously generated prions. The method also allows addressing the species barrier phenomena and assessing possible risks of animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Additionally, its unprecedented sensitivity has made possible the detection of as little as one infectious dose of PrP(TSE) and the biochemical identification of this protein in different tissues and biological fluids, including blood, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), semen, milk, urine and

  9. The Future of Satellite-based Lightning Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocippio, Dennis J.; Christian, Hugh J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The future of satellite-based optical lightning detection, beyond the end of the current TRMM mission, is discussed. Opportunities for new low-earth orbit missions are reviewed. The potential for geostationary observations is significant; such observations provide order-of-magnitude gains in sampling and data efficiency over existing satellite convective observations. The feasibility and performance (resolution, sensitivity) of geostationary measurements using current technology is discussed. In addition to direct and continuous hemispheric observation of lighting, geostationary measurements have the potential (through data assimilation) to dramatically improve short and medium range forecasts, offering benefits to prediction of NOx productions and/or vertical transport.

  10. The use of animals in agriculture and science: historical context, international considerations and future direction.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, A C D

    2005-08-01

    As the final contribution to this important World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) publication, this paper provides some relevant background and contextual information and identifies a number of strategically significant international activities that will influence the future direction of animal welfare internationally. The assumption of an animal welfare leadership role by the OIE, with the full support of its 167 Member Countries, is an international development of major strategic significance. As an inter-governmental organisation, the OIE is committed to a science-based approach to the development of animal welfare guidelines and standards and to working closely with all stakeholders. This paper covers the use of animals in both agriculture and science, reflecting the OIE's dual remit for both animal health and animal welfare and the importance of animal-based research and testing to the OIE's animal health and reference laboratory roles. PMID:16358528

  11. Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found with increasing prevalence, especially in elderly asymptomatic individuals. Although the overall risk of malignancy is very low, the presence of these pancreatic cysts is associated with a large degree of anxiety and further medical investigation due to concerns about malignancy. This review discusses the different cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and reports diagnostic strategies based on clinical features and imaging data. Surgical and nonsurgical management of the most common cystic neoplasms, based on the recently revised Sendai guidelines, is also discussed, with special reference to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; particularly the branch duct variant), which is the lesion most frequently identified incidentally. IPMN pathology, its risk for development into pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the pros and cons of current guidelines for management, and the potential role of endoscopic ultrasound in determining cancer risk are discussed. Finally, surgical treatment, strategies for surveillance of pancreatic cysts, and possible future directions are discussed. PMID:26343068

  12. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  13. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  14. 75 FR 9232 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future... Safety: Current Status and Future Directions. The purpose of the public workshop is to inform the public about current and potential measurements for assessing progress in food safety and...

  15. Genetic toxicology in the 21st century: Reflections and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A symposium at the 40th anniversary of the Environmental Mutagen Society, held from October 24–28, 2009 in St. Louis, MO, surveyed the current status and future directions of genetic toxicology. This article summarizes the presentations and provides a perspective on the future. A...

  16. Risk assessment of the impact of future volcanic eruptions on direct normal irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Blanc, Philippe; Vignola, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from Plinian volcanic eruptions affect the solar surface irradiance forcing by scattering the solar radiation as it passes through the Earth atmosphere. Since these aerosols have high single scattering albedos they mostly affect direct normal irradiances (DNI). The effect on global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is less because some of the scattered irradiance reaches the surface as diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and adds to the GHI. DNI is the essential input to concentrating solar thermal electric power (CSP/STE) and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) plants. Therefore, an assessment of the future potential variability in the DNI resource caused by Plinian volcanic eruptions is desirable. Based on investigations of the El Chichón and Pinatubo eruptions, the microphysical, and thereby optical, properties of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols are well known. Given these, radiative transfer computations of the DNI resource can be made. The DNI resource includes forward scattered irradiance within the acceptance angle of a given CSP/STE or CPV plant. The rarity of Plinian eruptions poses a challenge for assessing the statistical risk of future eruptions and its potential of risk in the electricity production. Here we present and discuss methods to account for these potential volcanic eruptions for technical and economical studies including scenarios with very high probability of exceedance (e.g. P99 scenarios) for risk assessment of DNI-based solar power projects.

  17. Future Scenarios for Fission Based Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.

    2005-04-01

    The coming century will see the exhaustion of standard fossil fuels, coal, gas and oil, which today represent 75% of the world energy production. Moreover, their use will have caused large-scale emission of greenhouse gases (GEG), and induced global climate change. This problem is exacerbated by a growing world energy demand. In this context, nuclear power is the only GEG-free energy source available today capable of responding significantly to this demand. Some scenarios consider a nuclear energy production of around 5 Gtoe in 2050, wich would represent a 20% share of the world energy supply. Present reactors generate energy from the fission of U-235 and require around 200 tons of natural Uranium to produce 1GWe.y of energy, equivalent to the fission of one ton of fissile material. In a scenario of a significant increase in nuclear energy generation, these standard reactors will consume the whole of the world's estimated Uranium reserves in a few decades. However, natural Uranium or Thorium ore, wich are not themselves fissile, can produce a fissile material after a neutron capture ( 239Pu and 233U respectively). In a breeder reactor, the mass of fissile material remains constant, and the fertile ore is the only material to be consumed. In this case, only 1 ton of natural ore is needed to produce 1GWe.y. Thus, the breeding concept allows optimal use of fertile ore and development of sustainable nuclear energy production for several thousand years into the future. Different sustainable nuclear reactor concepts are studied in the international forum "generation IV". Different types of coolant (Na, Pb and He) are studied for fast breeder reactors based on the Uranium cycle. The thermal Thorium cycle requires the use of a liquid fuel, which can be reprocessed online in order to extract the neutron poisons. This paper presents these different sustainable reactors, based on the Uranium or Thorium fuel cycles and will compare the different options in term of fissile

  18. Direct Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Scott, Terrance M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard P.

    2014-01-01

    Across the modern history of the field of special education and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), direct observation of student and educator behavior has been an essential component of the diagnostic process, student progress monitoring, and establishing functional and statistical relationships within research. This article provides an…

  19. Developing Self-Directed Executive Functioning: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Jane E.; Munakata, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    How do children become increasingly self-directed across development, achieving their goals without help from others? How might such developments be impacted by societal changes in how children spend their time? Children's abilities to achieve their goals are supported by developing executive functions (EFs), cognitive processes that predict…

  20. Invited Review: DNA-mediated artificial nanobiostructures: state of the art and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, R.

    2001-01-01

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-mediated assembly of nanometer and micrometer scale structures can have a profound impact in the fields of nanoelectronics and nanotechnology. Such structures can also find applications in microelectromechanical systems, hybrid bio-sensors, and the potential to continue the scaling of Moore's law beyond the 50 nm node. While engineers and scientists have been long aspiring to controllably and specifically manipulate structures at the micrometer and nanometer scale, nature has been performing these tasks and assembling structures with great accuracy and high efficiency using highly specific biological molecules such as DNA and proteins. This paper describes the motivations and fundamentals behind these assembly concepts, with a focus on DNA hybridization-mediated assembly, and presents the state of the art in this field. In addition, new ideas and directions for future research on DNA-mediated assembly of active devices and DNA-based molecular devices are also presented.

  1. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities. PMID:25830576

  2. International consensus on use of focused ultrasound for painful bone metastases: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Merel; ter Haar, Gail; Napoli, Alessandro; Hananel, Arik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Lövey, György; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Rieke, Viola; Majumdar, Sharmila; Marchetti, Luca; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-05-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), in particular magnetic resonance guided FUS (MRgFUS), is an emerging non-invasive thermal treatment modality in oncology that has recently proven to be effective for the palliation of metastatic bone pain. A consensus panel of internationally recognised experts in focused ultrasound critically reviewed all available data and developed consensus statements to increase awareness, accelerate the development, acceptance and adoption of FUS as a treatment for painful bone metastases and provide guidance towards broader application in oncology. In this review, evidence-based consensus statements are provided for (1) current treatment goals, (2) current indications, (3) technical considerations, (4) future directions including research priorities, and (5) economic and logistical considerations. PMID:25677840

  3. Measuring Masculinity in Research on Men of Color: Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:22401519

  4. Ground-based gravitational-wave detection: now and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Stanley E.

    2008-06-01

    In the past three years, the first generation of large gravitational-wave interferometers has begun operation near their design sensitivities, taking up the mantle from the bar detectors that pioneered the search for the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Even as the current ground-based interferometers were reaching their design sensitivities, plans were being laid for the future. Advances in technology and lessons learned from the first generation devices have pointed the way to an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity, as well as expanded frequency ranges and the capability to tailor the sensitivity band to address particular astrophysical sources. Advanced cryogenic acoustic detectors, the successors to the current bar detectors, are being researched and may play a role in the future, particularly at the higher frequencies. One of the most important trends is the growing international cooperation aimed at building a truly global network. In this paper, I survey the state of the various detectors as of mid-2007, and outline the prospects for the future.

  5. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  6. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  7. Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

  8. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "ηplanet" values for each kind of planet. These η values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  9. Biomarker Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Estimations Through the Cenozoic - Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, M. P. S.; Chalk, T. B.; Foster, G. L.; Bown, P. R.; Gibbs, S.; Sexton, P. F.; Schmidt, D. N.; Palike, H.; Mackensen, A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are one of the fundamental controls of Earth's climate past, present and future. Significant research effort has been expended attempting to produce accurate and precise reconstructions of GHG concentrations through the geologic past. As Earth System modellers, policy makers and the wider public increasingly rely on paleo-CO2 reconstructions to ground-truth and inform climate models capable of predicting future conditions, reliable estimates have never been more important. Recently doubts have begun to emerge about the accuracy and precision of the key biomarker-based tool for CO2 reconstruction - based on measuring compound specific alkenone δ13C values - in part due to discrepancies between values calculated using this proxy and records generated utilising the boron isotopic composition of planktic foraminifera. Meanwhile, increasing efforts are being expended to investigate other potentially important GHGs such as CH4 during critical intervals in the Cenozoic. Here we present new, coupled alkenone δ13C - boron δ11B CO2 records across a full glacial-interglacial cycle from identical samples at ODP Site 999 in the Caribbean Sea. This allows comparison between the two palaeo-CO2 proxies currently most frequently used, with more direct measurements of atmospheric GHGs from ice cores. Our results suggest that current alkenone-based CO2 estimates may require reassessment - especially at lower levels of atmospheric pCO2. We discuss the implications of this work for our understanding of atmospheric pCO2 evolution through the Cenozoic in the context of new CO2 records from the Eocene. We also introduce new efforts to ground-truth numerical model-derived changes in CH4 with lipid biomarker evidence for methane processing from globally-distributed terrestrial Eocene deposits, and discuss the impact and importance of CH4 on global climate.

  10. The use of virtual reality in memory rehabilitation: current findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B M; Rose, F D

    2003-01-01

    There is considerable potential for using virtual reality (VR) in memory rehabilitation which is only just beginning to be realized. PC-based virtual environments are probably better suited for this purpose than more immersive virtual environments because they are relatively inexpensive and portable, and less frightening to patients. Those exploratory studies that have so far been performed indicate that VR involvement would be usefully directed towards improving assessments of memory impairments and in memory remediation using reorganization techniques. In memory assessment, the use of VR could provide more comprehensive, ecologically-valid, and controlled evaluations of prospective, incidental, and spatial memory in a rehabilitation setting than is possible using standardized assessment tests. The additional knowledge gained from these assessments could more effectively direct rehabilitation towards specific impairments of individual patients. In memory remediation, VR training has been found to promote procedural learning in people with memory impairments, and this learning has been found to transfer to improved real-world performance. Future research should investigate ways in which the procedural knowledge gained during VR interaction can be adapted to offset the many disabilities which result from different forms of memory impairment. PMID:12867677

  11. Highlights of Recent Developments in the International GPS Service and Perspectives for Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, R.; Reigber, C.; Springer, T.; Beutler, G.; Kouba, J.

    1999-01-01

    In December 1998, the IGS Governing Board officially changed the name of this IAG service from 'International GPS Service for Geodynamics to simply the 'International GPS Service'. This change of name reflects the fact that today the IGS supports numerous scientific projects outside the traditional geodetic and geodynamic disciplines. A number of IGS projects and working groups have been established, each concentrating on a particular science application, such as the ionosphere, atmosphere, reference frame, precise time transfer, etc. These activities are enabled and simulated by the IGS and directly contribute to the continuing development of the service. The IGS is currently poised to respond to evolving user requirements that focus on timeliness and reliability of data and products, particularly in support of a slate of Low Earth Orbiter missions over the next decade. Perspectives on the future of the IGS will be developed based on current directions as well as anticipated external influences, such as GPS satellite modernization, GLONASS, availability of global communications, and plans for the European GALILEO (Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS). We will address development of user friendly interfaces and IGS product tutorials.

  12. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  13. Future View: Web Navigation based on Learning User's Browsing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagino, Norikatsu; Yamada, Seiji

    In this paper, we propose a Future View system that assists user's usual Web browsing. The Future View will prefetch Web pages based on user's browsing strategies and present them to a user in order to assist Web browsing. To learn user's browsing strategy, the Future View uses two types of learning classifier systems: a content-based classifier system for contents change patterns and an action-based classifier system for user's action patterns. The results of learning is applied to crawling by Web robots, and the gathered Web pages are presented to a user through a Web browser interface. We experimentally show effectiveness of navigation using the Future View.

  14. [Future of mammography-based imaging].

    PubMed

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Wittenberg, T; Michel, T; Hartmann, A; Beckmann, M W; Rauh, C; Jud, S M; Brehm, B; Meier-Meitinger, M; Anton, G; Uder, M; Fasching, P A

    2014-03-01

    Mammography is the central diagnostic method for clinical diagnostics of breast cancer and the breast cancer screening program. In the clinical routine complementary methods, such as ultrasound, tomosynthesis and optional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are already combined for the diagnostic procedure. Future developments will utilize investigative procedures either as a hybrid (combination of several different imaging modalities in one instrument) or as a fusion method (the technical fusion of two or more of these methods) to implement fusion imaging into diagnostic algorithms. For screening there are reasonable hypotheses to aim for studies that individualize the diagnostic process within the screening procedure. Individual breast cancer risk prediction and individualized knowledge about sensitivity and specificity for certain diagnostic methods could be tested. The clinical implementation of these algorithms is not yet in sight. PMID:24570108

  15. Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition.

    PubMed

    Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sebastien

    2013-05-01

    We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromone particles and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromone particles intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction frequency is increased can be evidenced. We propose both kinetic and fluid descriptions of this model and analyze the capabilities of the fluid model to develop trail patterns. We observe that the development of patterns by fluid models require extra trail amplification mechanisms that are not needed at the Individual-Based Model level. PMID:22526837

  16. The ReaxFF reactive force-field: Development, applications, and future directions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Senftle, Thomas; Hong, Sungwook; Islam, Md Mahbubul; Kylasa, Sudhir; Zheng, Yuanzia; Shin, Yun Kyung; Junkermeier, Chad; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Janik, Michael J.; Aktulga, Hasan Metin; et al

    2016-03-04

    The reactive force-field (ReaxFF) interatomic potential is a powerful computational tool for exploring, developing and optimizing material properties. Methods based on the principles of quantum mechanics (QM), while offering valuable theoretical guidance at the electronic level, are often too computationally intense for simulations that consider the full dynamic evolution of a system. Alternatively, empirical interatomic potentials that are based on classical principles require significantly fewer computational resources, which enables simulations to better describe dynamic processes over longer timeframes and on larger scales. Such methods, however, typically require a predefined connectivity between atoms, precluding simulations that involve reactive events. The ReaxFFmore » method was developed to help bridge this gap. Approaching the gap from the classical side, ReaxFF casts the empirical interatomic potential within a bond-order formalism, thus implicitly describing chemical bonding without expensive QM calculations. As a result, this article provides an overview of the development, application, and future directions of the ReaxFF method.« less

  17. Synthesis of Findings, Current Investigations, and Future Directions: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Bramlett, Helen M; Shear, Deborah A; Dixon, C Edward; Mondello, Stefania; Dietrich, W Dalton; Hayes, Ronald L; Wang, Kevin K W; Poloyac, Samuel M; Empey, Philip E; Povlishock, John T; Mountney, Andrea; Browning, Megan; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Yan, Hong Q; Jackson, Travis C; Catania, Michael; Glushakova, Olena; Richieri, Steven P; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-15

    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) is a fully operational, rigorous, and productive multicenter, pre-clinical drug and circulating biomarker screening consortium for the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this article, we synthesize the findings from the first five therapies tested by OBTT and discuss both the current work that is ongoing and potential future directions. Based on the results generated from the first five therapies tested within the exacting approach used by OBTT, four (nicotinamide, erythropoietin, cyclosporine A, and simvastatin) performed below or well below what was expected based on the published literature. OBTT has identified, however, the early post-TBI administration of levetiracetam as a promising agent and has advanced it to a gyrencephalic large animal model--fluid percussion injury in micropigs. The sixth and seventh therapies have just completed testing (glibenclamide and Kollidon VA 64), and an eighth drug (AER 271) is in testing. Incorporation of circulating brain injury biomarker assessments into these pre-clinical studies suggests considerable potential for diagnostic and theranostic utility of glial fibrillary acidic protein in pre-clinical studies. Given the failures in clinical translation of therapies in TBI, rigorous multicenter, pre-clinical approaches to therapeutic screening such as OBTT may be important for the ultimate translation of therapies to the human condition. PMID:26671284

  18. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed. PMID:26715856

  19. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  20. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-03-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation have been introduced in the LMDz-INCA global model. Both fine nitrate particles formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing has the same magnitude than the forcing associated with organic carbon particles and represents 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050 and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentrations of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and Northern America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative forcing calculations increases the total direct forcing of aerosols by a

  1. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  2. Future directions for probing two and three nucleon short-range correlations at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, Leonid; Sargsian, Misak; Strikman, Mark

    2008-10-13

    We summarize recent progress in the studies of the short-rang correlations (SRC) in nuclei in high energy electron and hadron nucleus scattering and suggest directions for the future high energy studies aimed at establishing detailed structure of two-nucleon SRCs, revealing structure of three nucleon SRC correlations and discovering non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei.

  3. IMPACT OF ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED MANAGEMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT: SUCCESS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To predict the future direction of animal nutrition and feed management on the environment, one must understand where we are today in terms of making animal production more environmentally friendly. With current regulations on phosphorus (P) (soil runoff and ground water infiltration), nitrogen (N)...

  4. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  5. The Web's Impact on Social Work Education: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Karen S.; Hayes, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    Examines the ways in which social work educators who are interested in Web technology but not expert in its applications can use the World Wide Web. Current opportunities and challenges in integrating technology into social work education are discussed, and future directions in the use of technology are explored. (EV)

  6. Changing the Legacy of Divorce: Evidence from Prevention Programs and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haine, Rachel A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses efforts to prevent mental health problems in children of divorce by highlighting the importance of using theory in the design and evaluation of prevention programs and by reviewing the empirical research on the efficacy of programs to improve outcomes for children of divorce. Also proposes two future directions for advancing theory-based…

  7. Survival or Growth: Issues Affecting the Future Direction of the Orientation and Mobility Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes issues in the field of orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with visual impairments, noting their impact on O&M's future directions. The article examines historical perspectives and trends in O&M demographics and personnel preparation. It discusses issues regarding needs of practitioners serving diverse populations and concerns…

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  9. Future Directions for Adult Education Identified in 1990: How They Live on Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Meg; Adrian, Judy; Dudka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, emerging leaders in the field identified themes that would shape future directions of adult education as a field of research and practice (Adrian, 1993). Now, nearly two decades later, the authors revisit those themes with a brief description on how they were identified then and what they see now with social changes and the introduction…

  10. Potentials of iron-based superconductors for practical future materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-04-01

    Since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in the REFeAs(O, F) system in 2008, studies on the development of superconducting materials using iron-based superconductors has been undertaken because of their high Hc2 and relatively high Tc. Although the cuprate superconductors exhibit much higher Tc and similar high Hc2, the small degree of electromagnetic anisotropy between the c-axis and ab-plane directions confirmed in 11, 122 and 1111 systems encouraged us to develop more versatile conductors. Single crystals and thin films deposited on single-crystalline and metal substrates have proved that the potentials of the iron-based superconductors are high enough for designing superconducting materials for high field generation. In addition, critical current properties of powder-in-tube processed tapes have been greatly improved in the past two years and are reaching the application level at 4.2 K in high magnetic field. However, the pinning mechanism and determining factors of the critical current properties of the iron-based superconductors have not been well understood. Characteristics and potentials of iron-based superconductors are discussed from various viewpoints in this paper in an effort to understand the current status and future prospects.

  11. Directed Nanoscale Assembly of Graphene Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Ouk

    Graphene based materials, including fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, are two-dimensional polymeric materials consisting of sp2 hybrid carbons. Those carbon materials have attracted enormous research attention for their outstanding material properties along with molecular scale dimension. The optimized utilization of those materials in various application fields inevitably requires the subtle controllability of their structures and properties. In this presentation, our research achievements associated to directed nanoscale assembly of B- or N-doped graphene based materials will be introduced. Graphene based materials can be efficiently processed into various three-dimensional structures via self-assembly principles. Those carbon assembled structures with extremely large surface and high electro-conductivity are potentially useful for energy and environmental applications. Aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide shows liquid crystalline phase, whose spontaneous molecular ordering is useful for display or fiber spinning. Along with the structure control by directed nanoscale assembly, substitutional doping of graphene based materials with B- or N- can be attained via various chemical treatment methods. The resultant chemically modified carbon materials with tunable workfunction, charge carrier density and enhanced surface activity could be employed for various nanomaterials and nanodevices for improved functionalities and performances.

  12. Assessment and measurement of head and neck lymphedema: state-of-the-science and future directions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Aulino, Joseph M; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Currently, assessment and measurement of lymphedema in head and neck cancer patients is difficult. The aims of this report are to examine the current state of science regarding available measurement of head and neck lymphedema, to identify gaps in clinical evaluation of head and neck lymphedema, and to propose future research directions for advancing the assessment of head and neck lymphedema. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review based on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1989 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, head and/or neck and/or face, lymphedema, edema, swelling, fibrosis, measurement, assessment, and evaluation. The authors also reviewed information from the Oncology Nursing Society, National Lymphedema Network, National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and other related healthcare professional association web sites. Based on the nature/characteristics of measurement reported in the literature, methods for assessment of head and neck lymphedema can be categorized into: (1) patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (e.g., symptom tool), (2) clinician-reported outcome (CRO) measures based on clinical grading criteria via a clinical exam (external lymphedema evaluation by physical examination and internal edema examination via endoscopy), and (3) technical capacity/measurement techniques (e.g., imaging techniques). Although a number of measures have been reported in the literature, clinically useful PRO and CRO measures, and reliable and sensitive measurement techniques need to be validated to address gaps in assessment of head and neck lymphedema, and to be easily used in early identification of lymphedema and assessment of treatment/interventional effects. PMID:25703799

  13. Overview of biological therapy in ulcerative colitis: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Furfaro, Federica; Bezzio, Cristina; Ardizzone, Sandro; Massari, Alessandro; de Franchis, Roberto; Maconi, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) has changed over the last decade. It is extremely important to optimize the therapies which are available nowadays and commonly used in daily clinical practice, as well as to stimulate the search for more powerful drugs for the induction and maintenance of sustained and durable remission, thus preventing further complications. Therefore, it is mandatory to identify the patients' prognostic variables associated with an aggressive clinical course and to test the most potent therapies accordingly. To date, the conventional therapeutic approach based on corticosteroids, salicylates (sulfasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid) or immunosuppressive agents is commonly used as a first step to induce and to maintain remission. However, in recent years, knowledge of new pathogenetic mechanisms of ulcerative colitis have allowed us to find new therapeutic targets leading to the development of new treatments that directly target proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-alpha, cytokines, membrane migration agents, cellular therapies. The aim of this review is to provide the most significant data regarding the therapeutic role of drugs in UC and to give an overview of biological and experimental drugs that will become available in the near future. In particular, we will analyse the role of these drugs in the treatment of acute flare and maintenance of UC, as well as its importance in mucosal healing and in treating patients at a high risk of relapse. PMID:26114181

  14. Enhancement of Psychosocial Treatment With D-Cycloserine: Models, Moderators, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Smits, Jasper A J; Hofmann, Stefan G; Tolin, David F; de Kleine, Rianne A; van Minnen, Agnes; Evins, A Eden; Pollack, Mark H

    2016-08-15

    Advances in the understanding of the neurobiology of fear extinction have resulted in the development of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure treatment. We review a decade of research that has focused on the efficacy of DCS for augmenting the mechanisms (e.g., fear extinction) and outcome of exposure treatment across the anxiety disorders. Following a series of small-scale studies offering strong support for this clinical application, more recent larger-scale studies have yielded mixed results, with some showing weak or no effects. We discuss possible explanations for the mixed findings, pointing to both patient and session (i.e., learning experiences) characteristics as possible moderators of efficacy, and offer directions for future research in this area. We also review recent studies that have aimed to extend the work on DCS augmentation of exposure therapy for the anxiety disorders to DCS enhancement of learning-based interventions for addiction, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, and depression. Here, we attend to both DCS effects on facilitating therapeutic outcomes and additional therapeutic mechanisms beyond fear extinction (e.g., appetitive extinction, hippocampal-dependent learning). PMID:26520240

  15. KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary. PMID:23438422

  16. Regional analysis of drought and heat impacts on forests: current and future science directions.

    PubMed

    Law, Beverly E

    2014-12-01

    Accurate assessments of forest response to current and future climate and human actions are needed at regional scales. Predicting future impacts on forests will require improved analysis of species-level adaptation, resilience, and vulnerability to mortality. Land system models can be enhanced by creating trait-based groupings of species that better represent climate sensitivity, such as risk of hydraulic failure from drought. This emphasizes the need for more coordinated in situ and remote sensing observations to track changes in ecosystem function, and to improve model inputs, spatio-temporal diagnosis, and predictions of future conditions, including implications of actions to mitigate climate change. PMID:24909650

  17. Direct Detection Of Exoplanets: A Dream or a Near-Future Reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouan, D.

    We focus here on the question of the direct imaging of exoplanets. Beyond its mediatic impact, this technique will bring several new constraints with respect to other methods and will open the door to spectroscopy and thus to the physics of the planets, ultimately to the search of life signatures. It is generally assumed to be in excess of 23 magnitudes, however, this contrast depends largely on wavelength and other parameters and we first examine how it varies in different situations of planet/star couples, using as far as possible realistic models of planetary evolution. The conclusion is that several very favorable cases do exist: they are the most promising for a direct detection in the near future. There is an amazing richness in concepts and genuine ideas to reach this goal. Of course, the huge difficulty lies in the contrast between the star and the nearby planet. Two main families of instruments are today considered for actually succeeding in planet imaging: a high performance coronagraph on a single telescope and a space nulling interferometer at thermal wavelengths. In the case of coronagraphy, we review briefly several experimental setups, with some illustration based on recent proposals of optimized ground-based and space experiments dedicated to that aim, using the interferometric four quadrant coronagraph that our group proposed. On the ground, even with an extremely powerful adaptive optics system (Strehl ration of 90 % ), it is clear that the speckle noise will be the main limitation: contrast in magnitude as large as _m = 15 are however possible in the K band, provided that one uses a combination of a coronagraph and differential imaging or polarimetry at two wavelengths: this is likely the most promising concept for direct planet detection from the ground. Young planets which are bright in the IR will likely be the first detected bodies in a not so far future. On the other hand, we show that with a dedicated coronagraph on a large space telescope

  18. Future Directions in Oncofertility and Fertility Preservation: A Report from the 2011 Oncofertility Consortium Conference

    PubMed Central

    Waimey, Kate E.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Su, H. Irene; Smith, Kristin; Wallach, Harlan; Jona, Kemi; Coutifaris, Christos; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Brannigan, Robert E.; Chang, R. Jeffrey; Zelinski, Mary B.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Taylor, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Fertility impairment and loss due to cancer or its treatment is a significant survivorship consideration for many pediatric, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors. Chemotherapeutics, radiation, and surgery can impact the future fertility of men, women, and children with cancer. The field of oncofertility, founded to ensure the reproductive future of cancer survivors, gained momentum with 5 years of funding through a 2007 National Institutes of Health Roadmap Grant for Biomedical Research. This report from working group meetings at the fifth annual Oncofertility Consortium Conference speaks to the present state of oncofertility research and clinical care, existing gaps, and future directions for the field. This summary from conference participants and leaders in the field addresses the science, clinical specialties, and academic scholarship that can guide the field as the Roadmap Grant funding comes to a close. PMID:23610740

  19. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that there was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive information to

  20. Platinum-based drugs: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Dilruba, Shahana; Kalayda, Ganna V

    2016-06-01

    Platinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of human neoplasms. Their clinical success is, however, limited due to severe side effects and intrinsic or acquired resistance to the treatment. Much effort has been put into the development of new platinum anticancer complexes, but none of them has reached worldwide clinical application so far. Nedaplatin, lobaplatin and heptaplatin received only regional approval. Some new platinum complexes and platinum drug formulations are undergoing clinical trials. Here, we review the main classes of new platinum drug candidates, such as sterically hindered complexes, monofunctional platinum drugs, complexes with biologically active ligands, trans-configured and polynuclear platinum complexes, platinum(IV) prodrugs and platinum-based drug delivery systems. For each class of compounds, a detailed overview of the mechanism of action is given, the cytotoxicity is compared to that of the clinically used platinum drugs, and the clinical perspectives are discussed. A critical analysis of lessons to be learned is presented. Finally, a general outlook regarding future directions in the field of new platinum drugs is given. PMID:26886018

  1. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Focal Hand Dystonia: Update and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Joo; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia (FHD) is characterized by excessive and unwanted muscle activation in both the hand and arm resulting in impaired performance in particular tasks. Understanding the pathophysiology of FHD has progressed significantly for several decades and this has led to consideration of other potential therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). A number of studies have been conducted to develop new therapy for FHD using transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. In this paper, we review previous studies and describe the potential therapeutic use of NIBS for FHD. We also discuss the future direction of NIBS to treat FHD. PMID:27240806

  2. Polymer – drug conjugates: Origins, progress to date and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kopeček, Jindřich

    2012-01-01

    This overview focuses on bioconjugates of water-soluble polymers with low molecular weight drugs and proteins. After a short discussion of the origins of the field, the state-of-the-art is reviewed. Then research directions needed for the acceleration of the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic are outlined. Two most important directions, synthesis of backbone degradable polymer carriers and drug-free macromolecular therapeutics, a new paradigm in drug delivery, are discussed in detail. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly discussed. PMID:23123294

  3. Next Generation Sequencing Data Analysis in Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders - Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingyan; Abolhassani, Hassan; Lim, Che Kang; Zhang, Jianguo; Hammarström, Lennart

    2016-05-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) comprise a group of highly heterogeneous immune system diseases and around 300 forms of PID have been described to date. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has recently become an increasingly used approach for gene identification and molecular diagnosis of human diseases. Herein we summarize the practical considerations for the interpretation of NGS data and the techniques for searching disease-related PID genes, and suggest future directions for research in this field. PMID:26993986

  4. Neurocognitive Monitoring and Care During Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass—Current and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer K; Blaine Easley, R; Brady, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Neurologic injury in patients with congenital heart disease remains an important source of morbidity and mortality. Advances in surgical repair and perioperative management have resulted in longer life expectancies for these patients. Current practice and research must focus on identifying treatable risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction, advancing methods for perioperative neuromonitoring, and refining treatment and care of the congenital heart patient with potential neurologic injury. Techniques for neuromonitoring and future directions will be discussed. PMID:19936287

  5. A Critical Appraisal of Recent Advances and Future Directions in Value Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Patrick Sik-Wah

    2004-01-01

    At present, value management (VM) is struggling to survive amidst other management fads. The problem is that it is still not recognized as a professional or academic discipline. There is no sound academic base and a lack of understanding by the public, owners and corporate organizations. The future survival of VM is therefore always being…

  6. Current State and Future Prospects of Direct-to-Consumer Pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chua, E. W.; Kennedy, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) DNA testing has grown from contentious beginnings into a global industry, by providing a wide range of personal genomic information directly to its clients. These companies, typified by the well-established 23andMe, generally carry out a gene-chip analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA extracted from a saliva sample. These genetic data are then assimilated and provided direct to the client, with varying degrees of interpretation. Although much debate has focused on the limitations and ethical aspects of providing genotypes for disease risk alleles, the provision of pharmacogenetic results by DTC companies is less studied. We set out to evaluate current DTC pharmacogenetics offerings, and then to consider how these services might best evolve and adapt in order to play a potentially useful future role in delivery of personalized medicine. PMID:22934000

  7. Reflections on the Galileoscope Program: Goals, Challenges, Achievements, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fienberg, R. T.; Arion, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The value of an inexpensive telescope that could be constructed and used at night became clear in the planning process for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. In fact, it became a national and international priority to develop such a telescope. Thus was born the Galileoscope project, as it later became known. We tested nearly every department store telescope available and finding them wanting in some major aspect, project members developed and tested a series of prototypes of refracting telescope kits. A key to the project is that the telescope is professionally designed and engineered with its design informed by extensive usability testing to ensure that it can be used easily by people of all ages. The eyepiece has excellent eye relief, for example, so that one can observe with glasses. The primary image quality requirement was that the telescope be good enough to see the rings of Saturn, as well as the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, with a field of view large enough to view the entire Pleiades. The Galileoscope is an ideal telescope to reproduce the observations of Galileo, from any place bright city or dark rural site. For the science classroom, we have developed well-tested educational materials on observing with the Galileoscope and teaching optics with it, available in pdf format on the Web site www. galileoscope.org. The educational materials are standards-based and appropriate for high school and beginning-level physics classes. Some of the key project decisions will be described and the future directions of the project will be described. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation Astronomy Division. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  8. Image-guided spine surgery: state of the art and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Shafizadeh, Sven; Rixen, Dieter; Paffrath, Thomas; Bouillon, Bertil; Steinhausen, Eva S.; Baethis, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Navigation technology is a widely available tool in spine surgery and has become a part of clinical routine in many centers. The issue of where and when navigation technology should be used is still an issue of debate. It is the aim of this study to give an overview on the current knowledge concerning the technical capabilities of image-guided approaches and to discuss possible future directions of research and implementation of this technique. Based on a Medline search total of 1,462 publications published until October 2008 were retrieved. The abstracts were scanned manually for relevance to the topics of navigated spine surgery in the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, the lumbar spine, as well as ventral spine surgery, radiation exposure, tumor surgery and cost-effectivity in navigated spine surgery. Papers not contributing to these subjects were deleted resulting in 276 papers that were included in the analysis. Image-guided approaches have been investigated and partially implemented into clinical routine in virtually any field of spine surgery. However, the data available is mostly limited to small clinical series, case reports or retrospective studies. Only two RCTs and one metaanalysis have been retrieved. Concerning the most popular application of image-guided approaches, pedicle screw insertion, the evidence of clinical benefit in the most critical areas, e.g. the thoracic spine, is still lacking. In many other areas of spine surgery, e.g. ventral spine surgery or tumor surgery, image-guided approaches are still in an experimental stage. The technical development of image-guided techniques has reached a high level as the accuracies that can be achieved technically meet the anatomical demands. However, there is evidence that the interaction between the surgeon (‘human factor’) and the navigation system is a source of inaccuracy. It is concluded that more effort needs to be spend to understand this interaction. PMID:19763640

  9. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  10. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS. PMID:25980425

  11. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Iran: Cumulative Data, Shortcomings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Borhani Haghighi, Afshin; Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Safari, Anahid; Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a frequent cause of cerebrovascular disease in Iran. Objectives In this study, we report cumulative data of published Iranian studies in a systematic manner with critically appraisal and presenting future directions. Materials and Methods The authors systematically searched the ISI web of knowledge, Pubmed, Scopus, EBESCO and iranmedex for keywords attributed to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The methodological and demographic characteristics, etiology, site of involvement and clinical manifestations of the patients with CVST were investigated. Results Seven eligible series with 465 patients were found. Age of the patients were between 29.5-43.8 in these series. The ratio of Female to male was 2.79. The Mortality rate was 11.4%. Oral contraceptive pills the single most common risk factor in the all series(40-71% of female patients). Headache(80-97%), sensori/motor deficits(39-64%) and seizure(20-62%) were the most common clinical presentations. Hemorrhagic transformation was seen in 11-58% of the patients. All included studies have substantial shortcomings. Majority of the studies were retrospective and only one study was population based. Despite the ethnic heterogeneity in Iran, none of these studies reported ethnic information. Detailed methodology was missing in all studies. The extent of investigation for hematologicalor neoplastic disorders was not clear methods. Only one study reported a subgroup with multifactorialetiology. Neither Barthel index nor modified Rankin scale were reported in any studies. The mortality was reported only in the three studies. The analysis of prognostic factors was not done in any study. Conclusions To overcome theses hortcomings, more well-structured epidemiologic studies should be conducted in Iran as a CVST-raising country. PMID:23483618

  12. Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Hospodiuk, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues, tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and pharmaceutics to clinics. Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids, tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels, the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory concerns to transform the technology into a product. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26561931

  13. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  14. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  15. 25 CFR 1200.6 - How could a tribe receive future income directly rather than have the government continue to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How could a tribe receive future income directly rather than have the government continue to collect it? 1200.6 Section 1200.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL... General Provisions § 1200.6 How could a tribe receive future income directly rather than have...

  16. Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

  17. A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Kelly, Matthew; Paritsky, Leonid; Wagner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    A theme-based course focusing on the potential role of hydrogen as a future fuel is described. Numerous topics included in typical introductory courses can be directly related to the issue of hydrogen energy. Beginning topics include Avogadro's number, the mole, atomic mass, gas laws, and the role of electrons in chemical transformations. Reaction…

  18. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging nature of relationally aggressive behavior, this research has only recently begun to be used to inform school-based prevention and intervention programming. This article reviews the developmental research related to relational aggression and presents a systematic examination of nine published school-based prevention and intervention programs to prevent relational aggression. Programs reviewed target preschool through eighth-grade students. Strengths and limitations of each program are discussed. Recommendations are offered for future research to develop and validate school-based programming for relational aggression, and implications for school psychologists are discussed. PMID:21666876

  19. The developmental psychopathology of alcohol use and alcohol disorders: Research achievements and future directions

    PubMed Central

    CHASSIN, LAURIE; SHER, KENNETH J.; HUSSONG, ANDREA; CURRAN, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our conceptualization of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders within a developmental framework, along with advances in our empirical understanding that have been potentiated by advances in quantitative methods. These include advances in understanding the heterogeneity of trajectories of alcohol outcomes; new insights about early childhood antecedents, and adolescence and emerging adulthood as important developmental periods for alcohol outcomes; a more nuanced understanding of the influences of developmental transitions, and their timing and contexts; a greater appreciation for the importance of considering multiple levels of analysis (including an increasing number of genetically informative studies); a continuing focus on studying multiple pathways underlying alcohol outcomes; and an increasing focus on studying the effects of alcohol exposure on future development. The current paper reviews these advances and suggests directions for future study. PMID:24342856

  20. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA. PMID:15880904

  1. Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Daniel W.; Harb, Wael; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2006-03-01

    irradiation treatment facilities are examined for this application. The tumour boron concentrations and tumour to healthy tissue concentration ratios required to deliver 50 Gy-Eq to the tumour without exceeding 18 Gy-Eq in the skin are determined, as well as the associated therapeutic ratios. Discussion is provided to address the future research direction for assessing the feasibility of the proposed concept.

  2. Innovative pacing: Recent advances, emerging technologies, and future directions in cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher; Kusumoto, Fred

    2016-07-01

    The field of cardiovascular medicine is rapidly evolving as advancements in technology and engineering provide clinicians new and exciting ways to care for an aging population. Cardiac pacing, in particular, has seen a series of game-changing technologies emerge in the past several years spurred by low-power electronics, high density batteries, improved catheter delivery systems and innovative software design. We look at several of these emerging pacemaker technologies, discussing the rationale, current state and future directions of these pioneering developments in electrophysiology. PMID:27017442

  3. Role of yoga in the treatment of neurotic disorders: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Grover, P; Varma, V K; Pershad, D; Verma, S K

    1994-10-01

    A large number of studies have consistently demonstrated the potential of yoga, not only in the treatment of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorder but also in promoting positive physical and mental health. This paper reviews various studies on the treatment of neurosis with techniques derived from yoga. A few lacunae have been identified and possible directions for future research are outlined. It is hoped that research along these lines will develop a standardized method of yoga therapy which can be utilized and integrated within the existing methods of treatment of neurotic disorders. PMID:21743694

  4. National Institutes of Health Approaches to Dissemination and Implementation Science: Current and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Cynthia; Chambers, David; Khoury, Muin J.; Kaplan, Robert M.; Hunter, Christine

    2012-01-01

    To address the vast gap between current knowledge and practice in the area of dissemination and implementation research, we address terminology, provide examples of successful applications of this research, discuss key sources of support, and highlight directions and opportunities for future advances. There is a need for research testing approaches to scaling up and sustaining effective interventions, and we propose that further advances in the field will be achieved by focusing dissemination and implementation research on 5 core values: rigor and relevance, efficiency, collaboration, improved capacity, and cumulative knowledge. PMID:22594758

  5. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  6. Current status and future direction of NASA's Space Life Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1989-01-01

    The elements of the NASA Life Sciences Program that are related to manned space flight and biological scientific studies in space are reviewed. Projects included in the current program are outlined and the future direction of the program is discussed. Consideration is given to issues such as long-duration spaceflight, medical support in space, readaptation to the gravity field of earth, considerations for the Space Station, radiation hazards, environmental standards for space habitation, and human operator interaction with computers, robots, and telepresence systems.

  7. Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, TY; Lin, C; Tang, Deliang; Gilbert, Steven G.; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This summary provides a synopsis of talks included in a symposium entitled “Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World”. The purpose of the symposium was to (1) highlight national and international agencies with occupational health related activities; (2) address electronic (e-)waste issues in developing countries where exposures are secondary to the handling and scavenging of scrap; and (3) discuss the effects of hazardous materials, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and tobacco smoke on child intelligence quotient (IQ) in developing countries. PMID:22037493

  8. Prevention of Mental Disorder in Older Adults: Recent Innovations and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    As the global population is aging, increased efforts should be placed on preventing mental disorders in older adults, as opposed to just focusing on sickness and treatment. We provide an overview of existing innovations in prevention in the domains of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions. These programs have shown that depression and anxiety can be prevented from recurring, incidence of new disorder can be reduced, and general mental health can be promoted. We also give direction for future research to move the field of geriatric mental health prevention forward. PMID:26290620

  9. The past, present, and future of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Perri, M; Shinde, S; Banavali, R

    1999-10-01

    Since the first experiences with direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising in the early 1980s, pharmaceutical marketers, government regulators, researchers, health practitioners, and consumers have been both perplexed and intrigued by this practice. As experience with DTC advertising has expanded, so has knowledge and understanding of its risks and rewards. This article discusses important issues in DTC advertising, such as the effects it may have on the patient-practitioner relationship, the diffusion and adoption of new drugs, prices, and competition. It also discusses the future of DTC advertising. PMID:10566574

  10. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation: future directions for air disinfection and building applications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelly L; Linnes, Jacqueline; Luongo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for air disinfection applications has relied on low-pressure mercury vapor lamps for decades. New design requirements have generated the need for alternatives in some uses. This study describes the current state of UVGI technology and describes future directions for technology development, including the use of lamps produced from nontoxic materials and light-emitting diode lamps. Important applications are discussed such as the use of ultraviolet germicidal lamps in developing countries, in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and indoor air quality, and for whole room disinfection. PMID:23581680

  11. Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Crider, Krista S.; Bailey, Lynn B.; Berry, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs. PMID:22254102

  12. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields. PMID:21335746

  13. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Binder, David C.; Davis, Andrew A.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies. PMID:27057463

  14. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.

    2009-04-28

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  15. Estimating and disclosing the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease: challenges, controversies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J Scott; Tersegno, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    With Alzheimer’s disease increasing in prevalence and public awareness, more people are becoming interested in learning their chances of developing this condition. Disclosing Alzheimer’s disease risk has been discouraged because of the limited predictive value of available tests, lack of prevention and treatment options, and concerns regarding potential psychological and social harms. However, challenges to this status quo include the availability of direct-to-consumer health risk information (e.g., genetic susceptibility tests), as well as a growing literature suggesting that people seeking risk information for Alzheimer’s disease through formal education and counseling protocols generally find it useful and do not experience adverse effects. This paper reviews current and potential methods of risk assessment for Alzheimer’s disease, discusses the process and impact of disclosing risk to interested patients and consumers, and considers the practical and ethical challenges in this emerging area. Anticipated future directions are addressed. PMID:20856693

  16. Molecular simulation of protein-surface interactions: Benefits, problems, solutions, and future directions (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    While the importance of protein adsorption to materials surfaces is widely recognized, little is understood at this time regarding how to design surfaces to control protein adsorption behavior. All-atom empirical force field molecular simulation methods have enormous potential to address this problem by providing an approach to directly investigate the adsorption behavior of peptides and proteins at the atomic level. As with any type of technology, however, these methods must be appropriately developed and applied if they are to provide realistic and useful results. Three issues that are particularly important for the accurate simulation of protein adsorption behavior are the selection of a valid force field to represent the atomic-level interactions involved, the accurate representation of solvation effects, and system sampling. In this article, each of these areas is addressed and future directions for continued development are presented. PMID:19809597

  17. Cranial Neural Crest Cell Contribution to Craniofacial Formation, Pathology, and Future Directions in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Taylor Nicholas; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the state and future directions of development and pathology in the craniofacial complex in the context of Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCC). CNCC are a multipotent cell population that is largely responsible for forming the vertebrate head. We focus on findings that have increased the knowledge of gene regulatory networks and molecular mechanisms governing CNCC migration and the participation of these cells in tissue formation. Pathology due to aberrant migration or cell death of CNCC, termed neurocristopathies, is discussed in addition to craniosynostoses. Finally, we discuss tissue engineering applications that take advantage of recent advancements in genome editing and the multipotent nature of CNCC. These applications have relevance to treating diseases due directly to the failure of CNCC, and also in restoring tissues lost due to a variety of reasons. PMID:25227212

  18. A global model simulation of present and future nitrate aerosols and their direct radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Balkanski, Y.; Schulz, M.

    2014-10-01

    The ammonia cycle and nitrate particle formation are introduced into the LMDz-INCA (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, version 4 - INteraction with Chemistry and Aerosols, version 3) global model. An important aspect of this new model is that both fine nitrate particle formation in the accumulation mode and coarse nitrate forming on existing dust and sea-salt particles are considered. The model simulates distributions of nitrates and related species in agreement with previous studies and observations. The calculated present-day total nitrate direct radiative forcing since the pre-industrial is -0.056 W m-2. This forcing corresponds to 18% of the sulfate forcing. Fine particles largely dominate the nitrate forcing, representing close to 90% of this value. The model has been used to investigate the future changes in nitrates and direct radiative forcing of climate based on snapshot simulations for the four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios and for the 2030, 2050, and 2100 time horizons. Due to a decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the future, the concentration of most of the species involved in the nitrate-ammonium-sulfate system drop by 2100 except for ammonia, which originates from agricultural practices and for which emissions significantly increase in the future. Despite the decrease of nitrate surface levels in Europe and North America, the global burden of accumulation mode nitrates increases by up to a factor of 2.6 in 2100. This increase in ammonium nitrate in the future arises despite decreasing NOx emissions due to increased availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. The total aerosol direct forcing decreases from its present-day value of -0.234 W m-2 to a range of -0.070 to -0.130 W m-2 in 2100 based on the considered scenario. The direct forcing decreases for all aerosols except for nitrates, for which the direct negative forcing increases to a range of -0.060 to -0.115 W m-2 in 2100. Including nitrates in the radiative

  19. Reaching the Future Teachers in Your Classroom: New Directions in Pre-Service Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Ruberg, L.

    2006-09-01

    We will present results and progress from initiatives seeking to improve the experiences of future teachers in college level science classes. A future teacher (pre-service teacher) is inspired to teach science based on personal experiences with college science classes. The most critical opportunity to make a real difference in science education in schools comes when the teachers themselves are first being educated. Given the difficulties in identifying future teachers and the wide variations in their needs, how can we best help future teachers in training? What critical thinking skills are most important for them to absorb from their exposure to science as undergraduates and graduate students? What teaching and learning experiences can we offer that will help science teachers in training confidently assess the relationship between evidence and explanations and then bring that understanding and experience effectively into their own classroom? Recent initiatives in pre-service education have identified several key strategies for improving teacher preparation at the post-secondary level: - Using a constructivist approach to teach physical science concepts and guided inquiry - Knowing common misconceptions about key scientific concepts that students bring to college-level science classrooms - Applying documented strategies for identifying and addressing student misconceptions; and - Knowing how to select and adapt curriculum materials based on common preconceptions held by students. The challenge of reaching these outcomes is complex and cannot be addressed with simple solutions. Teaching strategies that help prepare future teachers include modeling effective teaching of science, understanding the relationship between student/teacher misconceptions, designing and implementing evaluation and assessment, appropriate use of technology tools, and tapping into the existing community of learners to provide ongoing education opportunities and support as the pre

  20. Status and future directions of InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the current status and future directions of InP space solar cell research is provided. The scope of the paper does not allow us to discuss other recent major developments in InP cell modeling, contacts, and characterization, or developments in other solar cell materials. Solar cells made from InP and related materials are not expected to be used in the near future for terrestrial applications, but significant Air-Mass1.5 (AM1.5) cell efficiencies are given for comparison. This paper deals with the developments in single-junction cells, multijunction tandem cells, and space flight testing, including radiation effects. Concentrator InP solar cells are also discussed, since they offer the possibility of simultaneous thermal and current injection annealing. These cells also promise cost effectiveness and the concentrator elements may provide cells with extra protection from space radiation. The concluding section addresses the steps to be taken in the future and provides guidelines for further research and development.

  1. Future directions in early cystic fibrosis lung disease research: an NHLBI workshop report.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Bonnie W; Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J; Boucher, Richard C; Cutting, Garry R; Engelhardt, John F; Guggino, William B; Karp, Christopher L; Knowles, Michael R; Kolls, Jay K; LiPuma, John J; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Singh, Pradeep K; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled "Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease" on September 21-22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene-environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease. PMID:22312017

  2. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  3. Future directions for postdoctoral training in cancer prevention: insights from a panel of experts.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Phillips, Siobhan; Belcher, Britni; Chang, Shine; Abrams, David B; Kramer, Barnett S; White, Mary C; O'Malley, Michael; Varanasi, Arti P; Fabian, Carol J; Wiest, Jonathan S; Colditz, Graham A; Hall, Kara; Shields, Peter G; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2014-04-01

    Cancer prevention postdoctoral fellowships have existed since the 1970s. The National Cancer Institute facilitated a meeting by a panel of experts in April 2013 to consider four important topics for future directions for cancer prevention postdoctoral training programs: (i) future research needs; (ii) underrepresented disciplines; (iii) curriculum; and (iv) career preparation. Panelists proffered several areas needing more research or emphasis, ranging from computational science to culture. Health care providers, along with persons from nontraditional disciplines in scientific training programs such as engineers and lawyers, were among those recognized as being underrepresented in training programs. Curriculum suggestions were that fellows receive training in topics such as leadership and human relations, in addition to learning the principles of epidemiology, cancer biologic mechanisms, and behavioral science. For career preparation, there was a clear recognition of the diversity of employment options available besides academic positions, and that program leaders should do more to help fellows identify and prepare for different career paths. The major topics and strategies covered at this meeting can help form the basis for cancer prevention training program leaders to consider modifications or new directions, and keep them updated with the changing scientific and employment climate for doctoral degree recipients and postdoctoral fellows. PMID:24604827

  4. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcomes from the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Heard, Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This poster contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  5. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the

  6. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  7. MEM: A physical-based directional meteoroid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, H.; Cooke, W.; Suggs, R.

    2004-01-01

    Three years of research conducted by the University of Western Ontario into the nature and distribution of the sporadic sources have been incorporated into a Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) by members of the Meteoroid Environments Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper gives a broad overview of this model, new features of which include: a) identification of the sporadic radiants with real sources of meteoroids, such as comets, b) a physics-based approach which yields accurate fluxes and directionality for interplanetary spacecraft anywhere from 0.2 AU to 2 AU. and c) velocity distributions obtained from theory and validated against observation. Its use and application is also described, along with existing limitations and plans for future improvements.

  8. Onboard FPGA-based SAR processing for future spaceborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Charles; Chan, Samuel; Cheng, Frank; Fang, Winston; Fischman, Mark; Hensley, Scott; Johnson, Robert; Jourdan, Michael; Marina, Miguel; Parham, Bruce; Rogez, Francois; Rosen, Paul; Shah, Biren; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    We present a real-time high-performance and fault-tolerant FPGA-based hardware architecture for the processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in future spaceborne system. In particular, we will discuss the integrated design approach, from top-level algorithm specifications and system requirements, design methodology, functional verification and performance validation, down to hardware design and implementation.

  9. Directional output distance functions: endogenous directions based on exogenous normalization constraints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we develop a model for computing directional output distance functions with endogenously determined direction vectors. We show how this model is related to the slacks-based directional distance function introduced by Fare and Grosskopf and show how to use the slacks-based function to e...

  10. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  11. Neural Plasticity following Abacus Training in Humans: A Review and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan; Huang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The human brain has an enormous capacity to adapt to a broad variety of environmental demands. Previous studies in the field of abacus training have shown that this training can induce specific changes in the brain. However, the neural mechanism underlying these changes remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the behavioral and imaging findings of comparisons between abacus experts and average control subjects and focused on changes in activation patterns and changes in brain structure. Finally, we noted the limitations and the future directions of this field. We concluded that although current studies have provided us with information about the mechanisms of abacus training, more research on abacus training is needed to understand its neural impact. PMID:26881089

  12. Second-line treatment of metastatic gastric cancer: Current options and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kanagavel, Dheepak; Fedyanin, Mikhail; Tryakin, Alexey; Tjulandin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, regardless of its decreasing incidence and newly available treatment options. Most patients present at an advanced stage and are treated with upfront systemic chemotherapy. Those patients receiving first-line therapy may initially respond to treatment, but many of them relapse over time. In such condition, second-line treatment for disease progression remains the only available option. Although there exists no standard approach in the second-line setting, several phase III trials have shown modest survival benefit in patients receiving irinotecan, taxane and ramucirumab over the best supportive care or active agents. This review analyzes the currently available treatment regimens and future directions of research in the second-line setting for metastatic gastric cancer with the best available evidence. Additionally, the prognostic factors that influence patient survival in those receiving second-line therapy are discussed. PMID:26556991

  13. Neural Plasticity following Abacus Training in Humans: A Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan; Huang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The human brain has an enormous capacity to adapt to a broad variety of environmental demands. Previous studies in the field of abacus training have shown that this training can induce specific changes in the brain. However, the neural mechanism underlying these changes remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the behavioral and imaging findings of comparisons between abacus experts and average control subjects and focused on changes in activation patterns and changes in brain structure. Finally, we noted the limitations and the future directions of this field. We concluded that although current studies have provided us with information about the mechanisms of abacus training, more research on abacus training is needed to understand its neural impact. PMID:26881089

  14. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Abigail T.; St. James, Sara; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning. PMID:26147335

  15. Medical applications of wireless sensor networks - current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Krešimir; Zagar, Drago; Križanović, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    In recent years a significant development of BASN (Body Area Sensor Networks) as a special subclass of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) has emerged. These networks have enabled a rapid development of telemedicine systems, which provide remote monitoring of patients and their vital parameters. The article gives a short overview of the BASN networks. Furthermore, a general system architecture of telemedicine systems is proposed. The proposed architecture includes a local sensory area, a communication network area and an institutional network area. It also provides the security and privacy of patient-related data. Furthermore, the article surveys some existing telemedicine systems. Finally, some current problems are explained and the directions for the future development of the telemedicine systems are given. PMID:22634904

  16. Cognitive remediation therapy for mood disorders: rationale, early evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Christopher R; Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    People with mood disorders experience cognitive impairments that are predictive of functional disability. Cognitive remediation (CR) is an empirically validated intervention that is designed to remediate neurocognitive deficits and improve functioning. Although much of the focus of this treatment during the last decade has centred on attention deficit disorders, brain injury, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, emerging evidence suggests that CR is an effective intervention for mood disorders and that these treatment effects translate into improvements in cognitive performance and possibly functioning. Our review aims to examine the profile and magnitude of cognitive impairments in mood disorders, review the evidence in support of CR for this population, and discuss future research directions in CR. PMID:23768259

  17. Iron chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients: current strategies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Antoine N; Harb, Afif R; Taher, Ali T

    2015-01-01

    Transfusional iron overload is a major target in the care of patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and other refractory anemias. Iron accumulates in the liver, heart, and endocrine organs leading to a wide array of complications. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the approved iron chelators, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox, and the evidence behind the use of each, as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. We also review the different guidelines on iron chelation in TDT. This review also discusses future prospects and directions in the treatment of transfusional iron overload in TDT whether through innovation in chelation or other therapies, such as novel agents that improve transfusion dependence. PMID:26124688

  18. Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions in US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti; Brad J. Merrill; Phillip Sharpe; L. C. Cadwallader; L. El-Guebaly; S. Reyes

    2006-07-01

    The US fusion program has long recognized that the safety and environmental (S&E) potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behavior of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state of the art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating S&E issues associated with current fusion designs. In this paper, recent accomplishments are reviewed and future directions outlined.

  19. A Review of the Construct of Demoralization: History, Definitions, and Future Directions for Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sophie; Kissane, David W; Brooker, Joanne; Burney, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Demoralization has been the subject of discussion in relation to end-of-life care. It is characterized by hopelessness and helplessness due to a loss of purpose and meaning. The purpose of this review was to consolidate the conceptual understanding of demoralization and argue for its existence as a psychiatric syndrome. The history of the construct is explored, including the nature of existential distress and related psychological conditions that precipitate demoralization. Recent definitions of demoralization are described and differentiated from similar constructs. Future directions are highlighted, specifically in relation to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of demoralization in palliative care. Overall, demoralization is a clinically useful construct for those facing existential threat, guiding the clinician toward efforts to restore morale, meaning, and purpose. PMID:25294224

  20. Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: New Indications and Directions for Future Study.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Nitin; Dawson, Laura A; Krishnan, Sunil; Seong, Jinsil; Cheng, Jason C; Sarin, Shiv K; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Coleman, C Norman; Guha, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide; its incidence is increasing in the United States. Depending on disease extent and underlying liver status, patients may be treated with local, locoregional, and/or systemic therapy. Recent data indicates that radiotherapy (RT) can play a meaningful role in the management of HCC. Here, we review published experiences using RT for HCC, including the use of radiosensitizers and stereotactic RT. We discuss methods for performing preclinical studies of RT for HCC and biomarkers of response. As a part of the HCC Working Group, an informal committee of the National Cancer Institute's Radiation Research Program, we suggest how RT should be implemented in the management of HCC and identify future directions for the study of RT in HCC. PMID:27377923