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Sample records for future igcc power

  1. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  2. Syngas treating options for IGCC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.; Mohammad-zadeh, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Increased environmental awareness, lower cost of gas turbine based combined cycle power plants, and advances in gasification processes have made the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) a viable technology to convert solid fuel to useful energy. The raw solid fuel derived synthesis gas (syngas) contains contaminants that should be removed before combustion in a gas turbine. Therefore, an important process in a gasification based plant is the cleaning of syngas. This paper provides information about various syngas treating technologies and describes their optimal selections for power generation or cogeneration of steam for industrial applications.

  3. Improved Refractory Materials for Slagging Gasifiers in IGCC Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Krabbe, Rick; Thomas, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Gasifiers are the heart of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system currently being developed as part of the DOE's Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Power Plant. A gasification chamber is a high pressure/high temperature reaction vessel used to contain a mixture of O2, H2O, and coal (or other carbon containing materials) while it is converted into thermal energy and chemicals (H2, CO, and CH4). IGCC systems are expected to play a dominant role in meeting the Nation's future energy needs. Gasifiers are also used to produce chemicals that serve as feedstock for other industrial processes, and are considered a potential source of H2 in applications such as fuel cells. A distinct advantage of gasifiers is their ability to meet or exceed current and anticipated future environmental emission regulations. Also, because gasification systems are part of a closed circuit, gasifiers are considered process ready to capture CO2 emissions for reuse or processing should that become necessary or economically feasible in the future. The service life of refractory liners for gasifiers has been identified by users as a critical barrier to IGC

  4. Filter system cost comparison for IGCC and PFBC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.; McDaniel, H.M.; Buchanan, T.

    1995-12-01

    A cost comparison was conducted between the filter systems for two advanced coal-based power plants. The results from this study are presented. The filter system is based on a Westinghouse advanced particulate filter concept, which is designed to operate with ceramic candle filters. The Foster Wheeler second-generation 453 MWe (net) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) and the KRW 458 MWe (net) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are used for the comparison. The comparison presents the general differences of the two power plants and the process-related filtration conditions for PFBC and IGCC systems. The results present the conceptual designs for the PFBC and IGCC filter systems as well as a cost summary comparison. The cost summary comparison includes the total plant cost, the fixed operating and maintenance cost, the variable operating and maintenance cost, and the effect on the cost of electricity (COE) for the two filter systems.

  5. IGCC demonstration plant at Nakoso Power Station, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2007-10-15

    The 250 MW IGCC demonstration plant at Nakoso Power Station is based on technology form Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) Ltd that uses a pressurized, air blown, two-stage, entrained-bed coal gasifier with a dry coal feed system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. SCHUMACHER HOT GAS FILTER LONG-TERM OPERATING EXPERIENCE in the NUON POWER BUGGENUM IGCC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, B.; Wolters, C.

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a main source of primary energy for power generation and it will remain indispensable in the future. In order to increase the efficiency and to meet environmental challenges new advanced coal-fired power systems were developed starting in the beginning of the 1990s. One of these efficient and clean technologies is the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process.

  7. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  8. Control system design for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture in IGCC power plants while loading-following

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Load-following requirements for future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with precombustion CO{sub 2} capture are expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. In this work, loadfollowing studies are performed using a comprehensive dynamic model of an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture developed in Aspen Engineering Suite (AES). Considering multiple single-loop controllers for power demand load following, the preferred IGCC control strategy from the perspective of a power producer is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. The syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant time delay mainly because of the large piping and equipment volumes between the gasifier and the GT inlet. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for IGCC syngas pressure control. The desired CO{sub 2} capture rate must be maintained while the IGCC plant follows the load. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate, the control performance of PID control is compared with linear model predictive control (LMPC). The results show that the LMPC outperforms PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

  9. Improved Refractories for IGCC Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    The gasification of coal, petroleum residuals, and biomass provides the opportunity to produce energy more efficiently, and with significantly less environmental impact, than more-conventional combustion-based processes. In addition, the synthesis gas that is the product of the gasification process offers the gasifier operator the option of ''polygeneration'', i.e., the production of alternative products instead of power should it be economically favorable to do so. Because of these advantages, gasification is a key element in the U.S. Department of Energy?s Vision 21 power system. However, issues with both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation will have to be resolved before gasification will be widely adopted by the power industry. Central to both increased reliability and economics is the development of materials with longer service lives in gasifier systems that can provide extended periods of continuous gasifier operation. The focus of the Advanced Refractories for Gasification project at the Albany Research Center is to develop improved materials capable of withstanding the harsh, high-temperature environment created by the gasification reaction, and includes both the refractory lining that insulates the slagging gasifier, as well as the thermocouple assemblies that are utilized to monitor gasifier operating temperatures. Current generation refractory liners in slagging gasifiers are typically replaced every 10 to 18 months, at costs ranging up to $2,000,000. Compounding materials and installation costs are the lost-opportunity costs for the three to four weeks that the gasifier is off-line for the refractory exchange. Current generation thermocouple devices rarely survive the gasifier start-up process, leaving the operator with no real means of temperature measurement during gasifier operation. As a result, the goals of this project include the development of a refractory liner with a service life at least double that of current generation

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of pollutants from Elcogas IGCC power station effluents.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; García-Peña, F; Coca, P

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the quality of water effluents coming from Elcogas IGCC power station (Puertollano, Spain) with the purpose of fulfilling future more demanding normative, using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation processes (UV/H(2)O(2)/TiO(2) or ZnO). The efficiency of photocatalytic degradation for the different catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) was determined from the analysis of the following parameters: cyanides, formates and ammonia content. In a first stage, the influence of two parameters (initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and amount of catalyst) on the degradation kinetics of cyanides and formates was studied based on a factorial experimental design. pH was always kept in a value >9.5 to avoid gaseous HCN formation. The degradation of cyanides and formates was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The mathematical model reproduces experimental data within 90% of confidence and allows the simulation of the process for any value of parameters in the experimental range studied. Moreover, a measure of the saliency of the input variables was made based upon the connection weights of the neural networks, allowing the analysis of the relative relevance of each variable with respect to the others. Results showed that the photocatalytic process was effective, being the degradation rate of cyanides about five times higher when compared to removal of formates. Finally, the effect of lowering pH on the degradation of formates was evaluated after complete cyanides destruction was reached (10 min of reaction). Under the optimum conditions (pH 5.2, [H(2)O(2)]=40 g/l; [TiO(2)]=2g/l), 100% of cyanides and 92% of initial NH(3) concentration are degraded after 10 min, whereas 35 min are needed to degrade 98% of formates. PMID:17118539

  11. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

  12. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.; Wiant, B.; Oelke, E.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant to operate in conjunction with an alfalfa processing plant that provides the gasification feedstock and a mid-level protein animal feed co-product. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a gasification feedstock. The leaf material was evaluated as a mid-level protein animal feed supplement. The alfalfa leaf-stem separation and power generation operations have dual and/or synergistic functions which contribute to a technically and economically compatible combination. The pressurized biomass gasification process selected is the IGT RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corp. Adaptation of the air-blown gasification process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion with low tar production, overcome ash agglomeration, and provide for control of volatile alkali species. A hot gas clean-up system removes particulate matter with a ceramic filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa. The physical and chemical properties of the alfalfa feedstock were evaluated for the gasification process. The alfalfa char carbon-steam reaction, which is the slowest step in the complete conversion of biomass to gases, was measured and the char proved to have a high reactivity. Ash components were measured and evaluated in terms of agglomeration within the gasifier. Using this information, the alfalfa gasification conditions were predicted. A subsequent preliminary gasification test confirmed the alfalfa gasification conditions. To complete the engineering design of the IGCC system, additional testing is required, but the results to date are positive for a successful process.

  13. AVESTAR Center for operational excellence of IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Provost, G,

    2012-01-01

    This slideshow presentation begins by outlining US energy challenges, particularly with respect to power generation capacity and clean energy plant operations. It goes on to describe the Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTAR{sup TM}). Its mission and goals are given, followed by an overview of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with CO{sub 2} capture. The Dynamic Simulator/Operator Training System (OTS) and 3D Virtual Immersive Training System (ITS) are then presented. Facilities, training, education, and R&D are covered, followed by future simulators and directions.

  14. AVESTAR Center for operational excellence of IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Provost, G,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation begins with a description of U.S. Energy Challenges, particularly Power Generation Capacity and Clean Energy Plant Operations. It goes on to describe the missions and goals of the Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTARTM). It moves on to the subject of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with CO{sub 2} Capture, particularly a Process/Project Overview, Dynamic Simulator/Operator Training System (OTS), 3D Virtual Immersive Training System (ITS), Facilities, Training, Education, and R&D, and Future Simulators/Directions

  15. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  16. IGCC power plant integrated to a Finnish pulp and paper mill: IEA bioenergy techno-economic analysis activity. Research notes

    SciTech Connect

    Koljonen, T.; Solantausta, Y.; Salo, K.; Horvath, A.

    1999-02-01

    This site-specific study describes the technical and economic feasibility of a biomass gasification combined cycle producing heat and power for a typical Finish pulp and paper mill. The aim is to replace an old bark boiler by an IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) to enhance the economy and environmental performance of the power plant. The IGCC feasibility study is conducted for a pulp and paper industrial plant because of its suitable infrastructure for IGCC and a large amount of wood waste available at the site. For comparison, the feasibility of an IGCC integrated to a pulp mill is also assessed. The operation and design of the IGCC concept is based on a 20 MW(e) gas turbine (MW151). The heat of gas turbine exhaust gas is utilized in a HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) of two pressure levels to generate steam for the pulp and paper mill and the steam turbine. The IGCC power plant operates in condensing mode. The techno-economic assessment of the biomass IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill or a pulp mill indicated that the IGCC will be competitive compared to the conventional bark boiler steam cycle. The IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill was slightly more economical than the IGCC pulp mill integration.

  17. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean Coal Technology program: Pinon Pine IGCC Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, fluidized-bed KRW gasifier with in-bed desulfurization using limestone sorbent and an external fixed- bed zinc ferrite sulfur removal system. Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPC) requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 800 ton-per-day (86-Megawatt gross), air blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration plant. The project, named the Pinon Pine IGCC Power Project, is to be located at SPPC's Tracy Station, a power generation facility located on a rural 400-acre plot about 17 miles east of Reno. The demonstration plant will produce electrical power for the utility grid. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 96 months at a total cost of $269,993,100. DOE's share of the project cost will be 50 percent, or $134,996,550.

  19. Could IGCC swing

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-06-15

    A few big-name utilities are looking to make big-time power from gasified coal. AEP has utility-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants in the works for Ohio and West Virginia. Duke Energy Indiana plans to build a 630 MW IGCC plant at Edwardsport to replace the existing 160 MW coal-fired unit there. NRG hopes to build utility-scale IGCC plants in New York and Delaware. Tampa Electric has announced plans to build a 630 MW IGCC at its Polk site, already the location of a 260 MW IGCC. In Taylorville, IL, another power-oriented IGCC is under development, owned by individuals from original developer ERORA and Omaha-based Tenaska. And yet another power producing IGCC is being proposed by Tondu Corporation at Corpus Christi, Texas to be fired by petroleum coke, also known as petcoke. The article gives an overview of these developments and moves on to discuss the popular question of the economic viability of IGCC making marketable byproducts in addition to power. Several projects are under way to make synthetic natural gas for coal. These are reported. Although the versatility of gasification may well give the ability to swing from various levels of power production to various levels of co-producing one or more products, for the time being it appears the IGCCs being built will produce power only, along with elemental sulphur and slag.

  20. Computer models and simulations of IGCC power plants with Canadian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Furimsky, E.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, three steady state computer models for simulation of IGCC power plants with Shell, Texaco and BGL (British Gas Lurgi) gasifiers will be presented. All models were based on a study by Bechtel for Nova Scotia Power Corporation. They were built by using Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) steady state simulation software together with Fortran programs developed in house. Each model was integrated from several sections which can be simulated independently, such as coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, acid gas removing, sulfur recovery, gas turbine, heat recovery steam generation, and steam cycle. A general description of each process, model's overall structure, capability, testing results, and background reference will be given. The performance of some Canadian coals on these models will be discussed as well. The authors also built a computer model of IGCC power plant with Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse gasifier, however, due to limitation of paper length, it is not presented here.

  1. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Improved refractories for slagging gasifiers in IGCC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Most gasifiers are operated for refining, chemical production, and power generation. They are also considered a possible future source of H2 for future power systems under consideration. A gasifier fulfills these roles by acting as a containment vessel to react carbon-containing raw materials with oxygen and water using fluidized-bed, moving-bed, or entrained-flow systems to produce CO and H2, along with other gaseous by-products including CO2, CH4, SOx, HS, and/or NOx. The gasification process provides the opportunity to produce energy more efficiently and with less environmental impact than more conventional combustion processes. Because of these advantages, gasification is viewed as one of the key processes in the U.S. Department of Energy?s vision of an advanced power system for the 21st Century. However, issues with both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation will have to be resolved before gasification will be widely adopted by the power industry. Central to both enhanced reliability and economics is the development of materials with longer service lives in gasifier systems that can provide extended periods of continuous, trouble-free gasifier operation. The focus of the Advanced Refractories for Gasification project at the Albany Research Center (ARC) is to develop improved refractory liner materials capable of withstanding the harsh, high-temperature environment created by the gasification reaction. Current generation refractory liners in slagging gasifiers are typically replaced every 3 to 18 months at costs ranging up to $1,000,000 or more, depending upon the size of the gasification vessel. Compounding materials and installation costs are the lost-opportunity costs for the time that the gasifier is off-line for refractory repair/exchange. The goal of this project is to develop new refractory materials or to extend the service life of refractory liner materials currently used to at least 3 years. Post-mortem analyses of refractory brick

  3. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a

  4. Improved Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers in IGCC Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2003-04-24

    The gasification of coal and other carbon-containing fuels provides the opportunity to produce energy more efficiently, and with significantly less environmental impact, than more-conventional combustion-based processes. In addition, the synthesis gas that is the product of the gasification process offers the option of ''polygeneration,'' i.e., the production of alternative products instead of power should it be economically favorable to do so. Because of these advantages, gasification is viewed as one of the key processes in the U.S. Department of Energy's Vision 21 power system. However, issues with both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation will have to be resolved before gasification will be widely adopted by the power industry. Central to both enhanced reliability and economics is the development of materials with longer service lives in gasifier systems that can provide extended periods of continuous, trouble-free gasifier operation. The focus of the Advanced Refractories for Gasification project at the Albany Research Center is to develop improved refractory materials capable of withstanding the harsh, high-temperature environment created by the gasification reaction, and includes both the refractory lining that protects and insulates the slagging gasifier, as well as the thermocouple assemblies that are utilized to monitor gasifier operating temperatures. Current generation refractory liners in slagging gasifiers are typically replaced every four to 18 months, at costs ranging up to $2,000,000, depending upon the size of the gasification vessel. Compounding materials and installation costs are the lost-opportunity costs for the time that the gasifier is off-line for the refractory exchange. Current generation thermocouple devices rarely survive the gasifier start-up process, leaving the operator with no real means of temperature measurement during routine operation. Reliable, efficient, and economical gasifier operation that includes the

  5. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia

  6. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  7. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is

  8. Getting IGCC a seat at the table

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-11-15

    A dominant theme at the Gasification Technologies Conference in Washington, DC in early October was how all parties need to step up to assure integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology finds a place at the power generation table. That included a call for utilities and their ratepayers to be willing to accept more risk than they are accustomed to assuming. John Hofmeister, president and CEO of Shell Oil Company chided lawmakers and regulators for hindering progress by not adopting uniform regulations for carbon dioxide emissions. Among Shell's IGCC projects is Australia's equivalent of the United States' FutureGen Project - a 275 MW power production facility in Queensland that is expected to achieve 99.8% CO{sub 2} capture with sequestration and produce hydrogen. Randy Zwirn, president nd CEO of Siemens Power Generation, said OEMs must develop a philosophy for IGCC that he terms RAM - reliability, availability and maintainability. Texas Railroad Commissioner, Mike Williams described how his state has welcomed IGCC plants that can capture carbon and has established the groundwork for using or sequestrating it. Presentations reviewed in this article include status updates of more than a dozen IGCC projects underway. 1 photo.

  9. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state

  10. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  11. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  12. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  13. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  14. Dynamic simulation and load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D,; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Load-following control of future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. To study control performance during load following, a plant-wide dynamic simulation of a coal-fed IGCC plant with CO{sub 2} capture has been developed. The slurry-fed gasifier is a single-stage, downward-fired, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow type with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC). The syngas from the outlet of the RSC goes to a scrubber followed by a two-stage sour shift process with inter-stage cooling. The acid gas removal (AGR) process is a dual-stage physical solvent-based process for selective removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage and CO{sub 2} in the second stage. Sulfur is recovered using a Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. The recovered CO{sub 2} is compressed by a split-shaft multistage compressor and sent for sequestration after being treated in an absorber with triethylene glycol for dehydration. The clean syngas is sent to two advanced “F”-class gas turbines (GTs) partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit. A subcritical steam cycle is used for heat recovery steam generation. A treatment unit for the sour water strips off the acid gases for utilization in the Claus unit. The steady-state model developed in Aspen Plus® is converted to an Aspen Plus Dynamics® simulation and integrated with MATLAB® for control studies. The results from the plant-wide dynamic model are compared qualitatively with the data from a commercial plant having different configuration, operating condition, and feed quality than what has been considered in this work. For load-following control, the GT-lead with gasifier-follow control strategy is considered. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for the syngas

  15. Utilities split on readiness of IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Javetski, J.

    2006-10-15

    For some generating companies, the dearth of operating experience for integrated gasification combined-cycle plants adds too much uncertainty to the risk/reward equation for new-capacity technology options. For others, the possibility of being able to comply with air pollution limits as far out as 2018, as well as to meet all-but-certain CO{sub 2} caps, makes IGCC well worth investing in now. The article compares the highest-level technical and economic characteristics of IGCC with those of pulverised coal combustion and other generating technologies. It then discusses the availability histories of six successful IGCC demonstration plants, presenting that for the Wabash River plant in some detail. The issue of financing IGCC is addressed. An insert on page 58 summarises a paper by Dave Stopek of Sangent and Lundy presented at Electric Power 2006. This discussed IGCC plant cost and factors to consider in selecting a technology supplier. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application

    SciTech Connect

    Ashok K. Anand

    2005-12-16

    IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

  17. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  18. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  19. CO{sub 2} emission abatement in IGCC power plants by semiclosed cycles: Part A -- With oxygen-blown combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, P.; Lozza, G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper analyzes the fundamentals of IGCC power plants where carbon dioxide produced by syngas combustion can be removed, liquefied and eventually disposed, to limit the environmental problems due to the greenhouse effect. To achieve this goal, a semiclosed-loop gas turbine cycle using an highly-enriched CO{sub 2} mixture as working fluid was adopted. As the oxidizer, the syngas combustion utilizes oxygen produced by an air separation unit. Combustion gases mainly consist of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O: after expansion, heat recovery and water condensation, a part of the exhausts, highly concentrated in CO{sub 2}, can be easily extracted, compressed and liquefied for storage or disposal. A detailed discussion about the configuration and the thermodynamic performance of these plants is the aim of the paper. Proper attention was paid to: (i) the modelization of the gasification section and of its integration with the power cycle, (ii) the optimization of pressure ratio due the change of the cycle working fluid, (iii) the calculation of the power consumption of the auxiliary equipment, including the compression train of the separated CO{sub 2} and the air separation unit. The resulting overall efficiency is in the 38--39% range, with status-of-the-art gas turbine technology, but resorting to a substantially higher pressure ratio. The extent of modifications to the gas turbine engine, with respect to commercial units, was therefore discussed. Relevant modifications are needed, but not involving changes in the technology. A second plant scheme will be considered in the second part of the paper, using air for syngas combustion and a physical absorption process to separate CO{sub 2} from nitrogen-rich exhausts. A comparison between the two options will be addressed there.

  20. Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

  1. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation DECISION POINT 1 UNDER PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lori

    2013-08-01

    Air Products and the DOE have partnered over a number of years in the development of ITM Oxygen technology in support of gasification technology. Throughout this process, studies of application of the technology to IGCC and oxy-coal combustion have shown significant reduction in capital and operating costs compared to similar systems using conventional cryogenic air separation. Phase 3, the current phase of the program, focuses on the design, construction and operation of a 30- to 100-TPD pilot facility, the Intermediate Scale Test Unit (ISTU). Execution of this phase to date has resulted in significant advances in a number of areas including ceramic membrane material development, module design and production, ceramic-to-metal seal design, process control strategies, and engineering development of process cycles. Phase 3 will be complete upon successful operation of the ISTU in a series of tests making oxygen from ceramic membrane modules and producing power from a hot gas expander. Phase 3 work has extended beyond the planned schedule due to a delay in delivery of equipment from vendors. Air Products is currently managing the equipment delay by close involvement with the vendor to redesign the problematic equipment and oversee its fabrication. The result of these unforeseen challenges is that the ISTU project completion date has been delayed. Tight cost controls have been implemented both by DOE program management and APCI to meet budget constraints despite increased costs due to budget delays. Total project costs have increased in several areas. Increased costs in the ISTU project include purchased equipment, instruments, construction, and contractor engineering. Increased costs for other tasks include additional work in support of module production by Ceramatec, Inc, and increased Air Products labor for component testing. Air Products plans to complete testing as outlined in the SOPO and successfully complete all project objectives by the end of FY14.

  2. U.S. and Chinese experts perspectives on IGCC technology for Chinese electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.C.B.; Wang Yingshi

    1997-11-01

    Although China is a very large and populous nation, and has one of the longest known histories in the world, it has only lately begun to seek its place among modern industrial nations. This move, precipitated by the government`s relatively recently adopted strategic goals of economic development, societal reform and promotion of engagement with other industrial nations, has brought to the fore the serious situation in which the Chinese electric power industry finds itself. Owing to the advanced average age of generation facilities and the technology used in them, serious expansion and modernization of this industry needs to take place, and soon, if it is to support the rapid industrial development already taking place in China. While China does have some oil and gas, coal constitutes its largest indigenous energy supply, by far. Coal has been mined and utilized for years in China. It is used directly to provide heat for homes, businesses and in industrial applications, and used to raise steam for the generation of electricity. The presently dominant coal utilization methods are characterized by low or marginal efficiencies and an almost universal lack of pollution control equipment. Because there is so much of it, coal is destined to be China`s predominant source of thermal energy for decades to come. Realizing these things--the rapidly increasing demand for more electric power than China presently can produce, the need to raise coal utilization efficiencies, and the corresponding need to preserve the environment--the Chinese government moved to commission several official working organizations to tackle these problems.

  3. Making IGCC slag valuable

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-12-01

    All indications are that integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology will play a major role in tomorrow's generation industry. But before it does, some by-products of the process must be dealt with, for example unburned carbon that can make IGCC slag worthless. Charah Inc.'s processing system, used at Tampa Electric's Polk Station for years, segregates the slag's constituents by size, producing fuel and building materials. 3 figs.

  4. STUDY: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPARISONS, IGCC VS. PC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the environmental performance of two power generation technologies: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pulverized Coal-Fired Rankine Cycle. In addition, the capital and operating costs for power plants using these two technologies have been com...

  5. IGCC update: are we there yet?

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, A.

    2009-08-15

    If a number of technical, financial and regulatory hurdles can be overcome, power generated by integrated gasification combined-cycle technology could become an important source for US utilities. Our overview presents diverse perspectives from three industry experts about what it will take to move this technology off the design table and into the field. Well-known advantages are IGCC uses less water, creates a usable slag by-product and the technology required for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture has already been used successfully on coal gasification technology. These points, together with roadblocks to the deployment of IGCC technology in the USA, are discussed. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.

  7. Filter systems for IGCC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, S.; Gieger, R.; Sobel, N.; Johnson, D.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify metallic filter medium to be utilized in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle process (IGCC). In IGCC processes utilizing high efficiency desulfurizing technology, the traditional corrosion attack, sulfidation, is minimized so that metallic filters are viable alternatives over ceramic filters. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station is being developed to demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology. The Pall Gas Solid Separation (GSS) System is a self cleaning filtration system designed to remove virtually all particulate matter from gas streams. The heart of the system is the filter medium used to collect the particles on the filter surface. The medium`s filtration efficiency, uniformity, permeability, voids volume, and surface characteristics are all important to establishing a permeable permanent cake. In-house laboratory blowback tests, using representative full scale system particulate, were used to confirm the medium selection for this project. Test elements constructed from six alloys were supplied for exposure tests: PSS 310SC (modified 310S alloy); PSS 310SC heat treated; PSS 310SC-high Cr; PSS 310SC-high Cr heat treated; PSS Hastelloy X; and PSS Hastelloy X heat treated.

  8. Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020[degree]F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

  9. Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Demonstration Project was selected by DOE in September 1991 to participate in Round Four of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The project will demonstrate a simplified IGCC process consisting of an air-blown, fluidized-bed gasifier (Tampella U-Gas), a gas cooler/steam generator, and a hot gas cleanup system in combination with a gas turbine modified for use with a low-Btu content fuel and a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The demonstration plant will be located at the Toms Creek coal mine near Coeburn, Wise County, Virginia. Participants in the project are Tampella Power Corporation and Coastal Power Production Company. The plant will use 430 tons per day of locally mined bituminous coal to produce 55 MW of power from the gasification section of the project. A modern pulverized coal fired unit will be located adjacent to the Demonstration Project producing an additional 150 MW. A total 190 MW of power will be delivered to the electric grid at the completion of the project. In addition, 50,000 pounds per hour of steam will be exported to be used in the nearby coal preparation plant. Dolomite is used for in-bed gasifier sulfur capture and downs cleanup is accomplished in a fluidized-bed of regenerative zinc titanate. Particulate clean-up, before the gas turbine, will be performed by high temperature candle filters (1020{degree}F). The demonstration plant heat rate is estimated to be 8,700 Btu/kWh. The design of the project goes through mid 1995, with site construction activities commencing late in 1995 and leading to commissioning and start-up by the end of 1997. This is followed by a three year demonstration period.

  10. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan; Russell, Tamara; Lau, Y. C.; Liu, Shan; Arnett, Michael; Peck, Arthur; Tralshawala, Nilesh; Weber, Joseph; Benjamin, Marc; Iduate, Michelle; Kittleson, Jacob; Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Delvaux, John; Casanova, Fernando; Lacy, Ben; Brzek, Brian; Wolfe, Chris; Palafox, Pepe; Ding, Ben; Badding, Bruce; McDuffie, Dwayne; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  11. A utility`s perspective of the market for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Black, C.R.

    1993-08-01

    I believe, in the short-term U. S. market that IGCC`s primary competition is, natural gas-fired combined cycle technology. I believe that in order for IGCC to compete on a commercial basis, that natural gas prices have to rise relative to coal prices, and that the capital cost of the technology must come down. While this statement may seem to be somewhat obvious, it raises two interesting points. The first is that while the relative pricing of natural gas and coal is not generally within the technology supplier`s control, the capital cost is. The reduction of capital cost represents a major challenge for the technology suppliers in order for this technology to become commercialized. The second point is that the improvements being achieved with IGCC efficiencies probably won`t help it outperform the effects of natural gas pricing. This is due to the fact that the combined cycle portion of the IGCC technology is experiencing the most significant improvements in efficiency. I do see, however, a significant advantage for IGCC technology compared to conventional pulverized coal-fired units. As IGCC efficiencies continue to improve, combined with their environmentally superior performance, I believe that IGCC will be the ``technology of choice`` for utilities that install new coal-fired generation. We have achieved economic justification of our project by virtue of the DOE`s funding of $120 million awarded in Round III of their Clean Coal Technology Program. This program provides the bridge between current technology economics and those of the future. And Tampa Electric is pleased to be taking a leadership position in furthering the IGCC knowledge base.

  12. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  13. Powering the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company (STC) developed the RG-350 convertor using components from separate Goddard Space Center and U.S. Army Natick SBIR contracts. Based on the RG-350, STC commercialized a product line of Stirling cycle generator sets, known as RemoteGen(TM), with power levels ranging from 10We to 3kWe. Under SBIR agreements with Glenn Research Center, the company refined and extended the capabilities of the RemoteGen convertors. They can provide power in remote locations by efficiently producing electricity from multiple-fuel sources, such as propane, alcohol, gasoline, diesel, coal, solar energy, or wood pellets. Utilizing any fuel source that can create heat, RemoteGen enables the choice of the most appropriate fuel source available. The engines operate without friction, wear, or maintenance. These abilities pave the way for self-powered appliances, such as refrigerators and furnaces. Numerous applications for RemoteGen include quiet, pollution-free generators for RVs and yachts, power for cell phone towers remote from the grid, and off-grid residential power variously using propane, ethanol, and solid biomass fuels. One utility and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are evaluating a solar dish concentrator version with excellent potential for powering remote irrigation pumps.

  14. Progress of the Sarlux IGCC project

    SciTech Connect

    Collodi, G.; Zaccolo, G.

    1998-07-01

    SARLUX, a joint venture between SARAS and ENRON, is developing a new 551 MW IGCC plant in the SARAS Refinery located in Sarroch, Sardinia, Italy. The plant will be built by the Raggruppamento Temporaneo d'Imprese (Consortium) formed by SNAMPROGETTI - GENERAL ELECTRIC - TURBOTECNICA under a lump-sum, turn-key construction contract. The process configuration includes three parallel Texaco low pressure quench gasifiers (TAR feedstock) followed by two trains of gas cooling, COS hydrolysis, Selexol (UOP) sulphur removal and syngas moisturization. The combined cycle unit (CCU) consists of three parallel single shaft units General Electric STAG 109E producing 551 MW net power to ENEL national grid. Facilities for pure hydrogen and liquid sulphur production are included, as well as all necessary utilities required to support the IGCC operation. The contract, started on January 1997, is at present under the construction phase. After 14 months, the overall progress of the project is 47% with the engineering and procurement activities almost concluded. The commissioning of the utility units is expected from September 1998, the first CCU train on March 1999 (on gasoil) and the first gasifier will be ignited on August 1999. At present an intensive and complete training program is under-way for the Sarlux personnel involved in the management and conduction of the new IGCC.

  15. Solar TiO2-assisted photocatalytic degradation of IGCC power station effluents using a Fresnel lens.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, J M; Durán, A; Guerra, J; García-Peña, F; Coca, P

    2008-03-01

    The heterogeneous TiO2 assisted photocatalytic degradation of wastewater from a thermoelectric power station under concentrated solar light irradiation using a Fresnel lens has been studied. The efficiency of photocatalytic degradation was determined from the analysis of cyanide and formate removal. Firstly, the influence of the initial concentration of H2O2 and TiO2 on the degradation kinetics of cyanides and formates was studied based on a factorial experimental design. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks. Results showed that the photocatalytic process was effective for cyanides destruction (mainly following a molecular mechanism), whereas most of formates (degraded mainly via a radical path) remained unaffected. Finally, to improve formates degradation, the effect of lowering pH on their degradation rate was evaluated after complete cyanide destruction. The photooxidation efficiency of formates reaches a maximum at pH around 5-6. Above pH 6, formate anion is subjected to electrostatic repulsion with the negative surface of TiO2. At pH<4.5, formate adsorption and photon absorption are reduced due to some catalyst agglomeration. PMID:18078669

  16. Process screening study of alternative gas treating and sulfur removal systems for IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biasca, F.E.; Korens, N.; Schulman, B.L.; Simbeck, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    One of the inherent advantages of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) over other coal-based electric generation technologies is that the sulfur in the coal is converted into a form which can be removed and recovered. Extremely low sulfur oxide emissions can result. Gas treating and sulfur recovery processes for the control of sulfur emissions are an integral part of the overall IGCC plant design. There is a wide range of commercially proven technologies which are highly efficient for sulfur control. In addition, there are many developing technologies and new concepts for applying established technologies which offer potential improvements in both technical and economic performance. SFA Pacific, Inc. has completed a screening study to compare several alternative methods of removing sulfur from the gas streams generated by the Texaco coal gasification process for use in an IGCC plant. The study considered cleaning the gas made from high and low sulfur coals to produce a low sulfur fuel gas and a severely desulfurized synthesis gas (suitable for methanol synthesis), while maintaining a range of low levels of total sulfur emissions. The general approach was to compare the technical performance of the various processes in meeting the desulfurization specifications laid out in EPRI's design basis for the study. The processing scheme being tested at the Cool Water IGCC facility incorporates the Selexol acid gas removal process which is used in combination with a Claus sulfur plant and a SCOT tailgas treating unit. The study has identified several commercial systems, as well as some unusual applications, which can provide efficient removal of sulfur from the fuel gas and also produce extremely low sulfur emissions - so as to meet very stringent sulfur emissions standards. 29 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  18. Italian IGCC project sets pace for new refining era

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bravo, R.; Starace, F.; Chellini, I.M.; Chiantore, P.V.

    1996-12-09

    A joint venture company, api Energia S.p.A., is starting construction of a 280 mw integrated gasification combined cycle plant (IGCC) that will generate electricity for the Italian grid and steam in a refinery on Italy` Adriatic coast. The refinery will supply the heavy residue for the gasifiers. This is one of the three IGCC plants planned for construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector there and the introduction of specific government decrees that regulate the exchange and wheeling of electricity. By the year 2000, approximately 1,300 mw of electricity produced by heavy residues with IGCC will be put on the Italian grid. The paper describes the project, its sponsors plant configuration for gasification, the combined cycle power plant, auxiliary systems, the economics, and contracts.

  19. Inductive power transfer: Powering our future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covic, Grant A.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to provide power without wires was imagined over a century ago, but assumed commercially impractical and impossible to realise. However for more than two decades the University of Auckland has been at the forefront of developing and commercialising this technology alongside its industrial partners. This research has proven that significant wireless power can be transferred over relatively large air-gaps efficiently and robustly. Early solutions were applied in industrial applications to power moving vehicles in clean room systems, industrial plants, and in theme parks, but more recently this research has helped develop technology that has the ability to impact us directly at home. The seminar will describe some of the early motivations behind this research, and introduce some of the solutions which have been developed by the team of researchers at Auckland over two decades, many of which have found their way into the market. It will also describe how the technology has recently been re-developed to enable battery charging of electric vehicles without the need to plug in, and alongside this how it has the potential to change the way we drive in the future.

  20. An update on the Pinon Pine IGCC project

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, G.; Gonzalez, M.; Fankhanel, M.

    1995-09-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) is engaged in an IGCC project funded in part under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, Round 4. The facility which will have a net power production of approximately 100 MW from a nominal 880 T/D of Western coal, is being built at the Tracy Station near Reno, Nevada. Foster Wheeler USA Corporation has been appointed by SPPCo to be responsible for the design, procurement and construction of the overall facilities and has subcontracted The M. W. Kellogg Company for the design and certain procurement activities for the gasification island which will use the KRW fluidized bed coal gasifier with hot gas cleanup. A GE 6 FA gas turbine will be the heart of the power island. This IGCC facility, known as the Pinon Pine Power Project, began construction in February, 1995 is scheduled for startup late 1996 and will be operated as one of SPPCo`s baseload power generating units.

  1. Plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    To eliminate the harmful effects of greenhouse gases, especially that of CO2, future coalfired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture. The loss in efficiency for CO2 capture is less in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant compared to other conventional coal combustion processes. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. With this objective in mind, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture has been developed. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of about 96 mol% of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. The clean syngas is sent to a gas turbine (GT) followed by a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. A 5 % ramp increase in the flowrate of coal is introduced to study the system dynamics. To control the conversion of CO at a desired level in the WGS reactors, the steam/CO ratio is manipulated. This strategy is found to be efficient for this operating condition. In the absence of an efficient control strategy in the AGR process, the environmental emissions exceeded the limits by a great extent.

  2. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental

  3. Generic process design and control strategies used to develop a dynamic model and training software for an IGCC plant with CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Provost, G.; Stone, H.; McClintock, M.; Erbes, M.; Zitney, S.; Turton, R.; Phillips, J.; Quintrell, M.; Marasigan, J.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for education and experience with the analysis, operation, and control of commercial-scale Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is leading a collaborative R&D project with participants from government, academia, and industry. One of the goals of this project is to develop a generic, full-scope, real-time generic IGCC dynamic plant simulator for use in establishing a world-class research and training center, as well as to promote and demonstrate the technology to power industry personnel. The NETL IGCC dynamic plant simulator will combine for the first time a process/gasification simulator and a power/combined-cycle simulator together in a single dynamic simulation framework for use in training applications as well as engineering studies. As envisioned, the simulator will have the following features and capabilities: A high-fidelity, real-time, dynamic model of process-side (gasification and gas cleaning with CO2 capture) and power-block-side (combined cycle) for a generic IGCC plant fueled by coal and/or petroleum coke Full-scope training simulator capabilities including startup, shutdown, load following and shedding, response to fuel and ambient condition variations, control strategy analysis (turbine vs. gasifier lead, etc.), representative malfunctions/trips, alarms, scenarios, trending, snapshots, data historian, and trainee performance monitoring The ability to enhance and modify the plant model to facilitate studies of changes in plant configuration and equipment and to support future R&D efforts To support this effort, process descriptions and control strategies were developed for key sections of the plant as part of the detailed functional specification, which will form the basis of the simulator development. These plant sections include: Slurry Preparation Air Separation Unit Gasifiers Syngas Scrubbers Shift Reactors Gas Cooling

  4. Kemper County IGCC (tm) Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Matt; Rush, Randall; Madden, Diane; Pinkston, Tim; Lunsford, Landon

    2012-07-01

    The Kemper County IGCC Project is an advanced coal technology project that is being developed by Mississippi Power Company (MPC). The project is a lignite-fueled 2-on-1 Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) facility incorporating the air-blown Transport Integrated Gasification (TRIG™) technology jointly developed by Southern Company; Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR); and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama. The estimated nameplate capacity of the plant will be 830 MW with a peak net output capability of 582 MW. As a result of advanced emissions control equipment, the facility will produce marketable byproducts of ammonia, sulfuric acid, and carbon dioxide. 65 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) will be captured and used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), making the Kemper County facility’s carbon emissions comparable to those of a natural-gas-fired combined cycle power plant. The commercial operation date (COD) of the Kemper County IGCC plant will be May 2014. This report describes the basic design and function of the plant as determined at the end of the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) phase of the project.

  5. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2005-12-01

    refocused to address pre-mixed combustion phenomenon for IGCC applications. The work effort on this task was shifted to another joint GE Energy/DOE-NETL program investigation, High Hydrogen Pre-mixer Designs, as of April 1, 2004. Task 4--Information Technology (IT) Integration: The fourth task was originally to demonstrate Information Technology (IT) tools for advanced technology coal/IGCC powerplant condition assessment and condition based maintenance. The task focused on development of GateCycle. software to model complete-plant IGCC systems, and the Universal On-Site Monitor (UOSM) to collect and integrate data from multiple condition monitoring applications at a power plant. The work on this task was stopped as of April 1, 2004.

  6. Challenges for future space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Forecasts of space power needs are presented. The needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self-sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations and from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Mars are determined. Future launch cost reductions are predicted. From these projections the performances necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options are identified. The availability of plentiful cost effective electric power and of low cost access to space are identified as crucial factors in the future extension of human presence in space.

  7. Power technologies and the space future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.; Fordyce, J. Stuart; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Advancements in space power and energy technologies are critical to serve space development needs and help solve problems on Earth. The availability of low cost power and energy in space will be the hallmark of this advance. Space power will undergo a dramatic change for future space missions. The power systems which have served the U.S. space program so well in the past will not suffice for the missions of the future. This is especially true if the space commercialization is to become a reality. New technologies, and new and different space power architectures and topologies will replace the lower power, low-voltage systems of the past. Efficiencies will be markedly improved, specific powers will be greatly increased, and system lifetimes will be markedly extended. Space power technology is discussed - its past, its current status, and predictions about where it will go in the future. A key problem for power and energy is its cost of affordability. Power must be affordable or it will not serve future needs adequately. This aspect is also specifically addressed.

  8. Electric Power: Decisions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Preston, John

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the past 25 years of electricity consumption in the United States and considers the implications for the near future. Discusses strategies for energy conservation and provides a student activity for measuring and conserving electric power. (Author/JOW)

  9. Solar Power for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of NASA missions and technology development efforts are discussed. Future spacecraft will need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of missions. One application driving development of these future arrays is solar electric propulsion.

  10. Challenges for future space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. The key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience was made. These needs fall into three broad categories-survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from low earth orbit (LEO) to Mars was determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options were made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs.

  11. Future Orbital Power Systems Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA is actively involved in program planning for missions requiring several orders of magnitude, more energy than in the past. Therefore, a two-day symposium was held to review the technology requirements for future orbital power systems. The purpose of the meeting was to give leaders from government and industry a broad view of current government supported technology efforts and future program plans in space power. It provided a forum for discussion, through workshops, to comment on current and planned programs and to identify opportunities for technology investment. Several papers are presented to review the technology status and the planned programs.

  12. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Kevin; Anasti, William; Fang, Yichuan; Subramanyan, Karthik; Leininger, Tom; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  13. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  14. Can We Power Future Mars Missions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Sturm, Erick J., II; Woolley, Ryan C.; Jordan, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration identified the exploration of Mars as one of the key pathways. In response, NASAs Mars Program Office is developing a detailed mission lineup for the next decade that would lead to future explorations. Mission architectures for the next decade include both orbiters and landers. Existing power technologies, which could include solar panels, batteries, radioisotope power systems, and in the future fission power, could support these missions. Second and third decade explorations could target human precursor and human in-situ missions, building on increasingly complex architectures. Some of these could use potential feed forward from earlier Constellation missions to the Moon, discussed in the ESAS study. From a potential Mars Sample Return mission to human missions the complexity of the architectures increases, and with it the delivered mass and power requirements also amplify. The delivered mass at Mars mostly depends on the launch vehicle, while the landed mass might be further limited by EDL technologies, including the aeroshell, parachutes, landing platform, and pinpoint landing. The resulting in-situ mass could be further divided into payload elements and suitable supporting power systems. These power systems can range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts, influenced by mission type, mission configuration, landing location, mission duration, and season. Regardless, the power system design should match the power needs of these surface assets within a given architecture. Consequently, in this paper we will identify potential needs and bounds of delivered mass and architecture dependent power requirements to surface assets that would enable future in-situ exploration of Mars.

  15. Briefing Book, Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) Meeting of April 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-28

    The IGCC of the U.S. government was created under the intent of Public Law 93-410 (1974) to serve as a forum for the discussion of Federal plans, activities, and policies that are related to or impact on geothermal energy. Eight Federal Departments were represented on the IGCC at the time of this meeting. The main presentations in this report were on: Department of Energy Geothermal R&D Program, the Ormat binary power plant at East Mesa, CA, Potential for direct use of geothermal at Defense bases in U.S. and overseas, Department of Defense Geothermal Program at China Lake, and Status of the U.S. Geothermal Industry. The IGCC briefing books and minutes provide a historical snapshot of what development and impact issues were important at various time. (DJE 2005)

  16. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  17. The R and D program for IGCC in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, N.

    1994-12-31

    Early 1994 the 250 MWe IGCC demonstration plant in Buggenum, the Netherlands has been commissioned. Start-up of the integrated plant is in progress. From 1994 till 1996 a demonstration program is to be performed concentrating on economical aspects of IGCC, environmental aspects of IGCC, the IGCC performance, operation, control and availability and single component behavior. The IGCC demonstration project is accompanied by a long term R and D program which aims at reduced investment costs and improved efficiency, high availability and low maintenance costs, fulfillment of (Dutch) environmental requirements.

  18. MI high power operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, Ioanis; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.

  19. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. ConocoPhillips Sweeny IGCC/CCS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Talarico; Charles Sugg; Thomas Hren; Lauri Branch; Joseph Garcia; Alan Rezigh; Michelle Pittenger; Kathleen Bower; Jonathan Philley; Michael Culligan; Jeremy Maslen; Michele Woods; Kevin Elm

    2010-06-16

    Under its Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) Program, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) selected ConocoPhillips Company (ConocoPhillips) to receive funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for the proposed Sweeny Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)/Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project (Project) to be located in Brazoria County, Texas. Under the program, the DOE is partnering with industry to demonstrate the commercial viability and operational readiness of technologies that would capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources and either sequester those emissions, or beneficially reuse them. The primary objective of the proposed Project was to demonstrate the efficacy of advanced technologies that capture CO{sub 2} from a large industrial source and store the CO{sub 2} in underground formations, while achieving a successful business venture for the entity (entities) involved. The Project would capture 85% of the CO{sub 2} produced from a petroleum coke (petcoke) fed, 703 MWnet (1,000 MWgross) IGCC power plant, using the ConocoPhillips (COP) proprietary and commercially proven E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology, at the existing 247,000 barrel per day COP Sweeny Refinery. In addition, a number of other commercially available technologies would be integrated into a conventional IGCC Plant in a unique, efficient, and reliable design that would capture CO{sub 2}. The primary destination for the CO{sub 2} would be a depleted natural gas field suitable for CO{sub 2} storage ('Storage Facility'). COP would also develop commercial options to sell a portion of the IGCC Plant's CO{sub 2} output to the growing Gulf Coast enhanced oil recovery (EOR) market. The IGCC Plant would produce electric power for sale in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas Houston Zone. The existing refinery effluent water would be treated and reused to fulfill all process water needs. The

  1. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  2. Worldwide supercritical power plants: Status and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhov, V.A.; Ramezan, M.; Ruth, L.A.; Kim, S.S.

    1999-07-01

    During the last decade leading industrial countries initiated a new wave of research and development on supercritical (SC) steam power plants. This new interest is accompanied by the jump from SC steam parameters to ultra-supercritical (USC) parameters and was initiated mostly due to the increase in cost of fuel on the world market, and by increased environmental regulations including reduction of greenhouse gases. As a result, a significant number of new pulverized coal (PC) power units with increased efficiency and reduced emissions were installed in the last two decades, and a few more are planned to be installed in the near future. Different driving forces are responsible for development and implementation of highly efficient advanced PC-fired systems: need for new capacity, quality and cost of fuel, level of technology development, environmental requirements, and internal situation with regard to power supply (deregulation). For example, in Europe, Germany in particular, controlling CO{sub 2} is a major issue in any new installation, while in Japan economics is the major issue as the costs of imported fuels are high, and there are greater economic incentives for efficiency improvement. This paper discusses the status of existing and planned SC and USC power plants worldwide and their technical and environmental performance.

  3. Comparison of Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne IGCC and commercial IGCC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hoffmann; Jenny Tennant; Gary J. Stiegel

    2006-06-15

    This report compares the performance and cost of commercial Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants using General Electric Energy (GEE) and Shell gasifiers with conceptual IGCC plant designs using the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) compact gasifier. the PWR gasifier is also compared with the GEEE gasifier in hydrogen production and carbon capture mode. With the exception of the PWR gasifier, the plants are designed with commercially available equipment to be operational in approximately 2010. All results should be considered preliminary and dictated in large part by the selected design basis. 10 refs., 54 exhibits

  4. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Landis, G.; Raffaelle, R.; Hepp, A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent NASA program, Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT), investigated the technologies needed to provide cost-competitive ground baseload electrical power from space based solar energy conversion. This goal mandated low cost, light weight gigawatt (GW) power generation. Investment in solar power generation technologies would also benefit high power military, commercial and science missions. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the moon or mars, space based lasers or radar, or as large earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or as in the SERT program, potentially beaming power to the earth itself. This paper will discuss requirements for the two latter options, the current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies which may impact the future choice of space solar cells for a high power mission application. The space world has primarily transitioned to commercially available III-V (GaInP/GaAs/Ge) cells with 24-26% air mass zero (AMO) efficiencies. Research in the III-V multi-junction solar cells has focused on fabricating either lattice-mismatched materials with optimum stacking bandgaps or new lattice matched materials with optimum bandgaps. In the near term this will yield a 30% commercially available space cell and in the far term possibly a 40% cell. Cost reduction would be achieved if these cells could be grown on a silicon rather than a germanium substrate since the substrate is ~65% of the cell cost or, better yet, on a polyimide or possibly a ceramic substrate. An overview of multi-junction cell characteristics will be presented here. Thin film cells require substantially less material and have promised the advantage of large area, low cost manufacturing. However, space cell requirements

  6. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be

  7. FutureGen Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cabe, Jim; Elliott, Mike

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes the comprehensive siting, permitting, engineering, design, and costing activities completed by the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, the Department of Energy, and associated supporting subcontractors to develop a first of a kind near zero emissions integrated gasification combined cycle power plant and carbon capture and storage project (IGCC-CCS). With the goal to design, build, and reliably operate the first IGCC-CCS facility, FutureGen would have been the lowest emitting pulverized coal power plant in the world, while providing a timely and relevant basis for coal combustion power plants deploying carbon capture in the future. The content of this report summarizes key findings and results of applicable project evaluations; modeling, design, and engineering assessments; cost estimate reports; and schedule and risk mitigation from initiation of the FutureGen project through final flow sheet analyses including capital and operating reports completed under DOE award DE-FE0000587. This project report necessarily builds upon previously completed siting, design, and development work executed under DOE award DE-FC26- 06NT4207 which included the siting process; environmental permitting, compliance, and mitigation under the National Environmental Policy Act; and development of conceptual and design basis documentation for the FutureGen plant. For completeness, the report includes as attachments the siting and design basis documents, as well as the source documentation for the following: • Site evaluation and selection process and environmental characterization • Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permit Application including well design and subsurface modeling • FutureGen IGCC-CCS Design Basis Document • Process evaluations and technology selection via Illinois Clean Coal Review Board Technical Report • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for slurry-fed gasifier configuration • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance

  8. Powering the Future of Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's future of science and space exploration. The topics include: 1) NASA's strategic goals; 2) NASA around the Country; 3) Marshall's History; 4) Marshall's Missions; 5) Marshall Statistics: From Exploration to Opportunity; 6) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 7) Life Support systems; 8) Earth Science; 9) Space Science; 10) NASA Innovation Creates New Jobs, Markets, and Technologies; 11) NASA Inspires Future Generations of Explorers; and 12) Why Explore?

  9. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-12

    This document describes some of the accomplishments of the Department of Energy Water Power Program, and how those accomplishments are supporting the advancement of renewable energy generated using hydropower technologies and marine and hydrokinetic technologies.

  10. IGCC performance comparison for variations in gasifier type and gas turbine firing temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Performance estimates were made for a series of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems using three generic types of coal gasification subsystems. The objectives of this study were (1) to provide a self consistent comparison of IGCC systems using different types of gasifiers and different oxidants and (2) to use this framework of cases to evaluate the effect of a gas turbine firing temperature and cooling approach an overall system efficiency. The basic IGCC systems considered included both air and oxygen blown versions of a fluidized bed gasifier, represented by the Westinghouse design, and an entrained bed gasifier, represented by the Texaco design. Also considered were systems using an oxygen blown, fixed bed gasifier, represented by the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slagging gasifier. All of these gasifiers were integrated with a combined cycle using a gas turbine firing temperature of 1700 K (2600 F) and a compressor pressure ratio of 16:1. Steam turbine throttle conditions were chosen to be 16.6 MPa/811 K (2400 psia/1000 F) with a single reheat to 810 K (1000 F). Some of these cases were modified to allow the evaluation of the effect of gas turbine firing temperature. Turbine firing temperatures from state of the art 1365 K (2000 F) to an advanced technology 1920 K (3000 F) were analyzed. A turbine cooling technology that maintains metal temperatures below acceptable limits was assumed for each level of firing temperature. System performance comparisons were made using three advanced turbine cooling technologies for the 1920 K (3000 F) firing temperature. The results indicate that the IGCC using the BGC gasifier had the highest net system efficiency (42.1 percent) of the five gasification cases considered.

  11. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  12. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper.

  13. The future of high power laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poprawe, Reinhart; Loosen, Peter; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter

    2007-05-01

    High Power Lasers have been used for years in corresponding applications. Constantly new areas and new processes have been demonstrated, developed and transferred to fruitful use in industry. With the advent of diode pumped solid state lasers in the multi-kW-power regime at beam qualities not far away from the diffraction limit, a new area of applicability has opened. In welding applications speeds could be increased and systems could be developed with higher efficiently leading also to new perspectives for increased productivity, e.g. in combined processing. Quality control is increasingly demanded by the applying industries, however applications still are rare. Higher resolution of coaxial process control systems in time and space combined with new strategies in signal processing could give rise to new applications. The general approach described in this paper emphasizes the fact, that laser applications can be developed more efficiently, more precisely and with higher quality, if the laser radiation is tailored properly to the corresponding application. In applying laser sources, the parameter ranges applicable are by far wider and more flexible compared to heat, mechanical or even electrical energy. The time frame ranges from several fs to continuous wave and this spans approximately 15 orders of magnitude. Spacewise, the foci range from several µm to cm and the resulting intensities suitable for materials processing span eight orders of magnitude from 10 3 to 10 11 W/cm2. In addition to space (power, intensity) and time (pulse) the wavelength can be chosen as a further parameter of optimization. As a consequence, the resulting new applications are vast and can be utilized in almost every market segment of our global economy (Fig. 1). In the past and only partly today, however, this flexibility of laser technology is not exploited in full in materials processing, basically because in the high power regime the lasers with tailored beam properties are not

  14. Deregulation holds key to power industry future

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    Deregulation and its accompanying regulatory and legislative changes are the keys to today`s widespread innovations in the electric utility industry. As deregulation saturates the market, utilities eager to gain customers are lowering prices and offering diversified services. These changes will continue to reverberate well into the 21st century. Just as AT and T and the Baby Bells struck out on their own, electric utilities are changing their way of thinking to stay in business and keep their customers happy. The result? Capital expenditures on power plants are down while alternatives to energy production are up.

  15. Photovoltaic Power for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey; Bailey, Sheila G.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in crystalline solar cell technology are reviewed. Dual-junction and triple-junction solar cells are presently available from several U. S. vendors. Commercially available triple-junction cells consisting of GaInP, GaAs, and Ge layers can produce up to 27% conversion efficiency in production lots. Technology status and performance figures of merit for currently available photovoltaic arrays are discussed. Three specific NASA mission applications are discussed in detail: Mars surface applications, high temperature solar cell applications, and integrated microelectronic power supplies for nanosatellites.

  16. Fusion Propulsion and Power for Future Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froning, H. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    There are innovative magnetic and electric confinement fusion power and propulsion system designs with potential for: vacuum specific impulses of 1500-2000 seconds with rocket engine thrust/mass ratios of 5-10 g's; environmentally favorable exhaust emissions if aneutronic fusion propellants can be used; a 2 to 3-fold reduction in the mass of hypersonic airliners and SSTO aerospace planes; a 10 to 20 fold reduction in Mars expedition mass and cost (if propellant from planetary atmospheres is used); and feasibility or in-feasibility of these systems could be confirmed with a modest applied research and exploratory development cost.

  17. Powering nanorobotic devices: challenges and future strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Krishna Moorthi

    2014-04-01

    Nanotechnology, even after 55 years since its foundation (1959 Richard Feynman's speech - `There is lot of space in the bottom'), is still in its infancy. However, of late, there has been a large increase in the research being done in this field in many prominent Universities and Research institutions across the globe. Nanorobotics is the combination of Nanotechnology and the science of Robotics, to create robots that are only a few nanometres (10-9 metres) in size. Nanobots are yet to be made. But with the current pace of ongoing researches, scientists predict that nanobots will be made a reality by next ten years. The main proposed function of nanobots is to use them in the medical field to interact with cells or intra-cellular substances and prevent or reverse structural and genetical problems and diseases. One of the major challenges faced while creating a nanobot to travel through human body is to power it. Nanobots would require a very small yet highly potential source of energy. There are many hypothesised energy sources for nanobots which are either already available within the human body naturally or which are to be supplied externally. But, all of these energy sources pose a few challenges which need to be addressed if they are to be used to power nanobots. These challenges can be overcome using a number of strategies that can be used to make an economically, ecologically and medically viable energy source.

  18. The status and future of geothermal power

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, Charles F.

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal electricity production in the United States began in 1960. Today there are over 20 plants in the western United States providing a total of about 2,200 MW of clean and reliable electricity. Currently identified resources could provide over 20,000 MW of power in the U.S., and undiscovered resources might provide 5 times that amount. In the 1990s industry growth slowed due to the loss of market incentives and competition from natural gas. However, increased interest in clean energy sources, ongoing technological improvements, and renewed opportunities abroad hold promise for a resurgence in the industry. This review paper covers the status of the technology, the issues faced, and the latest research. While the focus is on geothermal in the U.S., a brief description of the large international market is included.

  19. Results from Symposium on Future Orbital power systems technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorland, S.

    1979-01-01

    The technology requirements for future orbital power systems were reviewed. Workshops were held in 10 technology disciplines to discuss technology deficiencies, adequacy of current programs to resolve those deficiencies and recommendations for tasks that might reduce the testing and risks involved in future orbital energy systems. Those recommendations are summarized.

  20. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  1. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  2. Solar-powered airplanes: A historical perspective and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Guo, Zheng; Hou, Zhongxi

    2014-11-01

    Solar-powered airplanes are studied in this research. A solar-powered airplane consumes solar energy instead of traditional fossil fuels; thus it has received a significant amount of interest from researchers and the public alike. The historical development of solar-powered airplanes is reviewed. Notable prototypes, particularly those sponsored by the government, are introduced in detail. Possible future applications of solar-powered airplanes in the civilian and military fields are proposed. Finally, the challenges being faced by solar-powered airplanes are discussed. This study proposes that the solar-powered airplanes are potential alternatives to some present technologies and that they complement current satellites, traditional airplanes, airships, and balloons. However, these planes require further development and enormous technical obstacles must be addressed.

  3. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  4. Computing and cognition in future power-plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Sheridan, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to speculate on the nature of future interactions between people and computers in the operation of power plants. In particular, the authors offer a taxonomy for examining the differing functions of operators in interacting with the plant and its computers, and the differing functions of the computers in interacting with the plant and its operators.

  5. Power systems for future missions. Appendices A-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-12-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  6. Power Systems for Future Missions: Appendices A-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  7. Future Opportunities for Dynamic Power Systems for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic power systems have the potential to be used in Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) and Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) to provide high efficiency, reliable and long life power generation for future NASA applications and missions. Dynamic power systems have been developed by NASA over the decades, but none have ever operated in space. Advanced Stirling convertors are currently being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These systems have demonstrated high efficiencies to enable high system specific power (>8 W(sub e)/kg) for 100 W(sub e) class Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG). The ASRG could enable significant extended and expanded operation on the Mars surface and on long-life deep space missions. In addition, advanced high power Stirling convertors (>150 W(sub e)/kg), for use with surface fission power systems, could provide power ranging from 30 to 50 kWe, and would be enabling for both lunar and Mars exploration. This paper will discuss the status of various energy conversion options currently under development by NASA Glenn for the Radioisotope Power System Program for NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and the Prometheus Program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD).

  8. Technology and application options for future battery power regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Carpenter, C.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, utilities have been interested in battery storage as an option to supply peak power through load leveling. Recently, other benefits of battery storage have been identified which potentially have equal or greater value to electric utilities. These benefits are power regulation functions including area regulation, area protection, spinning reserve, power factor correction, thermal unit minimum loading, and the ability to absorb qualifying facilities. Lead-acid batteries similar to those manufactured for automotive and industrial uses are currently being marketed for utility applications. Compared to the traditional fooded-cell battery that regulates routine watering and maintenance, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can meet many of the requirements or power regulation at significantly lower operating and maintenance costs. This paper presents an overview of future battery storage applications and technologies. Trends in the utility industry and the future role of battery storage will be addressed with an emphasis on power regulation options. Discussions on battery storage for specific power regulation applications are presented as well as the status of advanced battery development in Europe, Japan, and the United States.

  9. Standardized Modular Power Interfaces for Future Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies show that future human explorations missions are composed of multi-vehicle assemblies with interconnected electric power systems. Some vehicles are often intended to serve as flexible multi-purpose or multi-mission platforms. This drives the need for power architectures that can be reconfigured to support this level of flexibility. Power system developmental costs can be reduced, program wide, by utilizing a common set of modular building blocks. Further, there are mission operational and logistics cost benefits of using a common set of modular spares. These benefits are the goals of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project. A common set of modular blocks requires a substantial level of standardization in terms of the Electrical, Data System, and Mechanical interfaces. The AMPS project is developing a set of proposed interface standards that will provide useful guidance for modular hardware developers but not needlessly constrain technology options, or limit future growth in capability. In 2015 the AMPS project focused on standardizing the interfaces between the elements of spacecraft power distribution and energy storage. The development of the modular power standard starts with establishing mission assumptions and ground rules to define design application space. The standards are defined in terms of AMPS objectives including Commonality, Reliability-Availability, Flexibility-Configurability and Supportability-Reusability. The proposed standards are aimed at assembly and sub-assembly level building blocks. AMPS plans to adopt existing standards for spacecraft command and data, software, network interfaces, and electrical power interfaces where applicable. Other standards including structural encapsulation, heat transfer, and fluid transfer, are governed by launch and spacecraft environments and bound by practical limitations of weight and volume. Developing these mechanical interface standards is more difficult but

  10. Radioisotope power system options for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockfield, Robert D.

    2001-02-01

    Like previous missions to the outer planets, future spacecraft missions such as Pluto/Kuiper Express, Europa Orbiter, and Solar Probe will require radioisotope power systems for their long voyages away from the Sun. Several candidate advanced power conversion technologies have been proposed that have been proposed that have higher power conversion efficiencies than the traditional thermoelectric generators, with the potential for reduced mass and reduced quantities of nuclear fuel required. Studies conducted by Lockheed Martin under the direction of the Department of Energy have included the development of system conceptual designs utilizing Alkali Metal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and Stirling power conversion. Generator concepts based on these conversion technologies are compared in this paper with an alternative Small RTG, based on the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG). .

  11. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  12. Future NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development. Finally, the presentation examines what type of non-traditional learning areas should be emphasized in student curriculum so that the engineering needs of the third decade of the 21st Century are met.

  13. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualls, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Program's budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Program's portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  14. Stochastic modeling of coal gasification combined cycle systems: Cost models for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents cost models developed for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The objective is to obtain a series of capital and operating cost models that can be integrated with an existing set of IGCC process performance models developed at the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These models are implemented in ASPEN, a Fortran-based process simulator. Under a separate task, a probabilistic modeling capability has been added to the ASPEN simulator, facilitating analysis of uncertainties in new process performance and cost (Diwekar and Rubin, 1989). One application of the cost models presented here is to explicitly characterize uncertainties in capital and annual costs, supplanting the traditional approach of incorporating uncertainty via a contingency factor. The IGCC systems selected by DOE/METC for cost model development include the following: KRW gasifier with cold gas cleanup; KRW gasifier with hot gas cleanup; and Lurgi gasifier with hot gas cleanup. For each technology, the cost model includes both capital and annual costs. The capital cost models estimate the costs of each major plant section as a function of key performance and design parameters. A standard cost method based on the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technical Assessment Guide (1986) was adopted. The annual cost models are based on operating and maintenance labor requirements, maintenance material requirements, the costs of utilities and reagent consumption, and credits from byproduct sales. Uncertainties in cost parameters are identified for both capital and operating cost models. Appendices contain cost models for the above three IGCC systems, a number of operating trains subroutines, range checking subroutines, and financial subroutines. 88 refs., 69 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. CE IGCC repowering project: Controls & instrumentation. Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The IGCC Control System is used to provide operator interface and controls for manual and auto operation of the IGCC Repowering Project Located at Springfield, Illinois. A Distributed Control System (DCS) is provided for analog (process control) loop functions and to provide the operator interface. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) is provided for gathering performance data and optimization. Programmable Logic Controllers will be provided for the following digital control systems: (a) GSSS (Gasifier Supervisory Safety System) including pulverized coal handling and char handling; (b) Coal Pulverization System; (c) HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generation); (d) Hot Gas Cleanup System; (e) Steam Turbine; and (f) Combined Cycle Operation. In general all systems are provided for auto/manual cascade operation; upstream equipment is interlocked to be proven in service operation and/or valve position before downstream equipment may operate.

  16. Powering the Space Exploration Initiative - NASA future space power requirements and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) establishes the long-term goal of returning to the moon and then exploring Mars. One of the prerequisites for SEI is the exploration technology program which includes program elements on space nuclear power and surface solar power. These program elements in turn build upon the ongoing NASA research and technology base program in space energy conversion. NASA's future space mission planning encompasses both robotic and piloted missions spanning a range of power levels and operational conditions. In response to the breadth of future candidate missions, NASAs current research and technology program in space energy conversion spans a number of technologies so that spacecraft designers can be make intelligent decisions about future power system options. These technologies are discussed.

  17. Overview of past, present and future marine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy El-Gohary, M.

    2013-06-01

    In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies, reserves; economic variations facing the world, and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels, an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable, safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative. The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world. Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NO x and SO x emissions. These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem. In this paper, the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed. The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second. Also, the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past, present and future of the marine power plants development. Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions, many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem, including the adoption of new cleaner fuels. This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine, gas turbines, and fuel cells.

  18. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production. .

  19. Organization of IGCC processes with reduced order CFD models

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Y.; Zitney, S.; Biegler, L.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasificationcombinedcycle(IGCC)plantshavesignificantadvantagesforefficientpowergen- eration withcarboncapture.Moreover,withthedevelopmentofaccurateCFDmodelsforgasificationand combined cyclecombustion,keyunitsoftheseprocessescannowbemodeledmoreaccurately.However, the integrationofCFDmodelswithinsteady-stateprocesssimulators,andsubsequentoptimizationof the integratedsystem,stillpresentssignificantchallenges.Thisstudydescribesthedevelopmentand demonstration ofareducedordermodeling(ROM)frameworkforthesetasks.Theapproachbuildson the conceptsofco-simulationandROMdevelopmentforprocessunitsdescribedinearlierstudies.Here we showhowtheROMsderivedfrombothgasificationandcombustionunitscanbeintegratedwithin an equation-orientedsimulationenvironmentfortheoveralloptimizationofanIGCCprocess.Inaddi- tion toasystematicapproachtoROMdevelopment,theapproachincludesvalidationtasksfortheCFD model aswellasclosed-looptestsfortheintegratedflowsheet.Thisapproachallowstheapplicationof equation-based nonlinearprogrammingalgorithmsandleadstofastoptimizationofCFD-basedprocess flowsheets. TheapproachisillustratedontwoflowsheetsbasedonIGCCtechnology.

  20. Development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture will be discussed. The IGCC reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power using Illinois No.6 coal as the feed. The plant includes an entrained, downflow, General Electric Energy (GEE) gasifier with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC), a two-stage water gas shift (WGS) conversion process, and two advanced 'F' class combustion turbines partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit (ASU). A subcritical steam cycle is considered for heat recovery steam generation. Syngas is selectively cleaned by a SELEXOL acid gas removal (AGR) process. Sulfur is recovered using a two-train Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. A multistage intercooled compressor is used for compressing CO2 to the pressure required for sequestration. Using Illinois No.6 coal, the reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power. The plant-wide steady-state and dynamic IGCC simulations have been generated using the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} and Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign} process simulators, respectively. The model is generated based on the Case 2 IGCC configuration detailed in the study available in the NETL website1. The GEE gasifier is represented with a restricted equilibrium reactor model where the temperature approach to equilibrium for individual reactions can be modified based on the experimental data. In this radiant-only configuration, the syngas from the Radiant Syngas Cooler (RSC) is quenched in a scrubber. The blackwater from the scrubber bottom is further cleaned in the blackwater treatment plant. The cleaned water is returned back to the scrubber and also used for slurry preparation. The acid gas from the sour water stripper (SWS) is sent to the Claus plant. The syngas from the scrubber passes through a sour shift process. The WGS reactors are modeled as adiabatic plug flow reactors with rigorous kinetics based on the mid

  1. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry, universities, other federal agencies, and DOE

  2. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoesung

    1994-12-31

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market.

  3. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  4. Nuclear Power Now and in the Near Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchill, William

    2006-04-01

    The presentation will describe the present status of nuclear power in the United States including its operating, economic, and safety record. This status report will be based on publicly-available records of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The report will provide a brief description and state the impact of both the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. It will list the lessons learned and report significant improvements in U.S. nuclear power plants. The major design differences between Chernobyl and U.S. nuclear reactors will be discussed. The presentation will project the near future of nuclear power considering the 2005 Energy Bill, initiatives by the U.S. Department of Energy and industry, and public opinions. Issues to be considered include plant operating safety, disposition of nuclear waste, protection against proliferation of potential weapons materials, economic performance, environmental impact and protection, and advanced nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycle options. The risk of nuclear power plant operations will be compared to risks presented by other industrial activities.

  5. A regenerative process for carbon dioxide removal and hydrogen production in IGCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh Khayyat, Armin

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Integrated Gasification-Combined Cycles (IGCC) processes, are among the leading contenders for power generation conversion because of their significantly higher efficiencies and potential environmental advantages, compared to conventional coal combustion processes. Although the increased in efficiency in the IGCC processes will reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide per unit of power generated, further reduction in CO2 emissions is crucial due to enforcement of green house gases (GHG) regulations. In IGCC processes to avoid efficiency losses, it is desirable to remove CO2 in the temperature range of 300° to 500°C, which makes regenerable MgO-based sorbents ideal for such operations. In this temperature range, CO2 removal results in the shifting of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction towards significant reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), and enhancement in hydrogen production. However, regenerable, reactive and attrition resistant sorbents are required for such application. In this work, a highly reactive and attrition resistant regenerable MgO-based sorbent is prepared through dolomite modification, which can simultaneously remove carbon dioxide and enhance hydrogen production in a single reactor. The results of the experimental tests conducted in High-Pressure Thermogravimetric Analyzer (HP-TGA) and high-pressure packed-bed units indicate that in the temperature range of 300° to 500°C at 20 atm more than 95 molar percent of CO2 can be removed from the simulated coal gas, and the hydrogen concentration can be increased to above 70 percent. However, a declining trend is observed in the capacity of the sorbent exposed to long-term durability analysis, which appears to level off after about 20 cycles. Based on the physical and chemical analysis of the sorbent, a two-zone expanding grain model was applied to obtain an excellent fit to the carbonation reaction rate data at various operating conditions. The modeling

  6. Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    2001-02-01

    The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System (ESS) theme, several missions are in the planning stages or under study that would be enabled by ARPS technology. Two ESS missions in the planning stage may employ ARPS. Currently planned for launch in 2006, the Europa Orbiter mission (EO) will perform a detailed orbital exploration of Jupiter's moon Europa to determine the presence of liquid water under the icy surface. An ARPS based upon Stirling engine technology is currently baselined for this mission. The Pluto Kuiper Express mission (PKE), planned for launch in 2004 to study Pluto, its moon Charon, and the Kuiper belt, is baselined to use a new RTG (F-8) assembled from parts remaining from the Cassini spare RTG. However, if this unit is unavailable, the Cassini spare RTG (F-5) or ARPS technologies would be required. Future missions under study may also require ARPS technologies. Mission studies are now underway for a detailed exploration program for Europa, with multiple mission concepts for landers and future surface and subsurface explorers. For the orbital phase of these missions, ARPS technologies may provide the necessary power for the spacecraft and orbital telecommunications relay capability for landed assets. For extended surface and subsurface operations, ARPS may provide the power for lander operations and for drilling. Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) will perform a detailed study of Saturn's rings and ring dynamics. The Neptune Orbiter (NO) mission will perform a detailed multi disciplinary study of Neptune. Titan Explorer (TE) will perform in-situ exploration of Saturn's moon Titan, with both

  7. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  8. Future Computing Platforms for Science in a Power Constrained Era

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert

    2015-12-23

    Power consumption will be a key constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics (HEP). This makes performance-per-watt a crucial metric for selecting cost-efficient computing solutions. For this paper, we have done a wide survey of current and emerging architectures becoming available on the market including x86-64 variants, ARMv7 32-bit, ARMv8 64-bit, Many-Core and GPU solutions, as well as newer System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. We compare performance and energy efficiency using an evolving set of standardized HEP-related benchmarks and power measurement techniques we have been developing. We evaluate the potential for use of such computing solutions in the context of DHTC systems, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  9. Future Computing Platforms for Science in a Power Constrained Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Power consumption will be a key constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics (HEP). This makes performance-per-watt a crucial metric for selecting cost-efficient computing solutions. For this paper, we have done a wide survey of current and emerging architectures becoming available on the market including x86-64 variants, ARMv7 32-bit, ARMv8 64-bit, Many-Core and GPU solutions, as well as newer System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. We compare performance and energy efficiency using an evolving set of standardized HEP-related benchmarks and power measurement techniques we have been developing. We evaluate the potential for use of such computing solutions in the context of DHTC systems, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  10. Future computing platforms for science in a power constrained era

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Power consumption will be a key constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics (HEP). This makes performance-per-watt a crucial metric for selecting cost-efficient computing solutions. For this paper, we have done a wide survey of current and emerging architectures becoming available on the market including x86-64 variants, ARMv7 32-bit, ARMv8 64-bit, Many-Core and GPU solutions, as well as newer System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. We compare performance and energy efficiency using an evolving set of standardized HEP-related benchmarks and power measurement techniques we have been developing. In conclusion, we evaluate the potentialmore » for use of such computing solutions in the context of DHTC systems, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).« less

  11. Future computing platforms for science in a power constrained era

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Power consumption will be a key constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics (HEP). This makes performance-per-watt a crucial metric for selecting cost-efficient computing solutions. For this paper, we have done a wide survey of current and emerging architectures becoming available on the market including x86-64 variants, ARMv7 32-bit, ARMv8 64-bit, Many-Core and GPU solutions, as well as newer System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. We compare performance and energy efficiency using an evolving set of standardized HEP-related benchmarks and power measurement techniques we have been developing. In conclusion, we evaluate the potential for use of such computing solutions in the context of DHTC systems, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  12. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  13. Status of Tampa Electric Company IGCC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1992-10-01

    Tampa Electric Company will utilize Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology for its new Polk Power Station Unit {number_sign}1. The project is partially funded under the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program Round III. This paper describes the technology to be used, process details, demonstration of a new hot gas clean-up system, and the schedule, leading to commercial operation in July 1996.

  14. Status of Tampa Electric Company IGCC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company will utilize Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology for its new Polk Power Station Unit [number sign]1. The project is partially funded under the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program Round III. This paper describes the technology to be used, process details, demonstration of a new hot gas clean-up system, and the schedule, leading to commercial operation in July 1996.

  15. The SPi chip as an integrated power management device for serial powering of future HEP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Gingu, C.; Yarema, R.; Holt, R.; Weber, M.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; /Brookhaven

    2009-01-01

    Serial powering is one viable and very efficient way to distribute power to future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. One promising way to realize serial powering is to have a power management device on the module level that provides the necessary voltage levels and features monitoring functionality. The SPi (Serial Powering Interface) chip is such a power manager and is designed to meet the requirements imposed by current SLHC upgrade plans. It incorporates a programmable shunt regulator, two linear regulators, current mode ADCs to monitor the current distribution on the module, over-current detection, and also provides module power-down capabilities. Compared to serially powered setups that use discrete components, the SPi offers a higher level of functionality in much less real estate and is designed to be radiation tolerant. Bump bonding techniques are used for chip on board assembly providing the most reliable connection at lowest impedance. This paper gives an overview of the SPi and outlines the main building blocks of the chip. First stand alone tests are presented showing that the chip is ready for operation in serially powered setups.

  16. Update on DOE Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Cooling Flow Reduction: a) Focus on improving turbine hot gas path part cooling efficiency. b) Applicable to current metallic turbine components and synergistic with advanced materials. c) Address challenges of IGCC/hydrogen fuel environment (for example, possible cooling hole plugging). Leakage Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing turbine parasitic leakages, i.e. between static-to-static, static-to-rotating turbine parts. b) Develop improved seal designs in a variety of important areas. Purge Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing required flows to keep rotor disk cavities within temperature limits. b) Develop improved sealing at the cavity rims and modified flow geometries to minimize hot gas ingestion and aerodynamic impact.

  17. Pilot scale experience on IGCC hot gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, K.; Ghazanfari, R.; Feher, G.

    1995-11-01

    In September 1993 Enviropower Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Department of Energy in order to develop and demonstrate the major components of an IGCC process such as hot gas cleanup systems. The objectives of the project are to develop and demonstrate: (1) hydrogen sulfide removal using regenerable metal oxide sorbent in pressurized fluidized bed reactors, (2) recovery of elemental sulfur from the tail-gas of the sorbent regenerator, and (3) hot gas particulate removal using ceramic candle filters.

  18. Large-Scale Data Challenges in Future Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Sharma, Poorva; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2013-03-25

    This paper describes technical challenges in supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems and discusses various design options to address these challenges. Even though the existing U.S. power grid has served the nation remarkably well over the last 120 years, big changes are in the horizon. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components. The whole system becomes highly dynamic and needs constant adjustments based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMUs) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can support this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in cloud services, the data layer for smart grids must address some unique challenges. This layer must be scalable to support millions of sensors and a large number of diverse applications and still provide real time guarantees. Moreover, the system needs to be highly reliable and highly secure because the power grid is a critical piece of infrastructure. No existing systems can satisfy all the requirements at the same time. We examine various design options. In particular, we explore the special characteristics of power grid data to meet both scalability and quality of service requirements. Our initial prototype can improve performance by orders of magnitude over existing general-purpose systems. The prototype was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and was shown to be able to integrate huge amount of data from a large number of sensors and a diverse set of applications.

  19. AVESTAR Center: Dynamic simulation-based collaboration toward achieving opertional excellence for IGCC plants with crbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, Strphen E.; Liese, Eric A.; Mahapatra, Priyadarshi; Turton, Richard; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Provost, Graham

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTAR(TM)). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This paper will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture.

  20. Climate modelling and near future solar power assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Vignati, Elisabetta; Huld, Thomas; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Wilson, Julian; Dosio, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    In this work the near future (2030-2050) solar power in Europe is assessed using numerical experiments. The photovoltaic energy is computed on the basis of the solar radiation and air temperature simulated by regional climate models run in the framework of the FP6-ENSEMBLES project. The multi-model simulation of the climate evolution over Europe is performed at a 25 km resolution using the IPCC A1B scenario, and the period 1961-2050 is analyzed. The A1B scenario assumes a world of very rapid economic growth, with a global population peak in mid-century. Preliminary results show a general increase of near-surface air temperature, accompanied by an increase (reduction) of the solar radiation in Southern (Northern) Europe, with significant positive effects on the photovoltaic energy availability over Western Europe.

  1. Technological implications of SNAP reactor power system development on future space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.

    1982-11-16

    Nuclear reactor systems are one method of satisfying space mission power needs. The development of such systems must proceed on a path consistent with mission needs and schedules. This path, or technology roadmap, starts from the power system technology data base available today. Much of this data base was established during the 1960s and early 1970s, when government and industry developed space nuclear reactor systems for steady-state power and propulsion. One of the largest development programs was the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. By the early 1970s, a technology base had evolved from this program at the system, subsystem, and component levels. There are many implications of this technology base on future reactor power systems. A review of this base highlights the need for performing a power system technology and mission overview study. Such a study is currently being performed by Rockwell's Energy Systems Group for the Department of Energy and will assess power system capabilities versus mission needs, considering development, schedule, and cost implications. The end product of the study will be a technology roadmap to guide reactor power system development.

  2. The future of nuclear power: The role of the IFR

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author is in favor of nuclear energy for three major reasons: (1) a nuclear power station emits no particulates or sulfur; (2) a nuclear power station emits no carbon dioxide and therefore does not contribute (appreciably) to the possibility of global warming which is a major environmental issue of this century; (3) nuclear energy offers the opportunity to have an energy supply sustainable for the next hundred thousands years, and is the only supply presently known to be able to do so at a reasonable cost. He notes that at Rio de Janeiro, the USA joined other countries in calling for an approach to an indefinitely sustainable future. Alas, they were not bold or honest enough to state that using nuclear power, combined with considerable increase in energy efficiency and prudent use of renewables, is the only known way of achieving one other than massive population reduction or poverty. It is unlikely that improved energy efficiency can do the job alone. If the first two were the only issues, ordinary light water reactors would be adequate. One would not need the breeder reactor. But unless huge quantities of high quality uranium are found, or a cheap way of extracting it from seawater, one will need to have a way of using the uranium 238 or thorium. This is the role of this meeting. The author arrives at a set of criteria for a breeder reactor system: (1) it must be safe (secure against major accidents); (2) the system must be proliferation resistant; (3) the cost of the produced electricity must be competitive with other sources of energy--with perhaps a small margin for environmental advantage; (4) it must be capable of rapid expansion if and when needed.

  3. Brayton Power Conversion Unit Tested: Provides a Path to Future High-Power Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    Closed-Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. Advantages include high efficiency, long life, and high power density for power levels from about 10 kWe to 1 MWe, and beyond. An additional benefit for Brayton is the potential for the alternator to deliver very high voltage as required by the electric thrusters, minimizing the mass and power losses associated with the power management and distribution (PMAD). To accelerate Brayton technology development for NEP, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a low-power NEP power systems testbed that utilizes an existing 2- kWe Brayton power conversion unit (PCU) from previous solar dynamic technology efforts. The PCU includes a turboalternator, a recuperator, and a gas cooler connected by gas ducts. The rotating assembly is supported by gas foil bearings and consists of a turbine, a compressor, a thrust rotor, and an alternator on a single shaft. The alternator produces alternating-current power that is rectified to 120-V direct-current power by the PMAD unit. The NEP power systems testbed will be utilized to conduct future investigations of operational control methods, high-voltage PMAD, electric thruster interactions, and advanced heat rejection techniques. The PCU was tested in Glenn s Vacuum Facility 6. The Brayton PCU was modified from its original solar dynamic configuration by the removal of the heat receiver and retrofitting of the electrical resistance gas heater to simulate the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. Then, the Brayton PCU was installed in the 3-m test port of Vacuum Facility 6, as shown. A series of tests were performed between June and August of 2002 that resulted in a total PCU operational time of about 24 hr. An initial test sequence on June 17 determined that the reconfigured unit was fully operational. Ensuing tests provided the operational data needed to characterize PCU

  4. CE IGCC Repowering Project: Use of the Lockheed Kinetic Extruder for coal feeding; Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    ABB CE is evaluating alternate methods of coal feed across a pressure barrier for its pressurized coal gasification process. The Lockheed Kinetic Extruder has shown to be one of the most promising such developments. In essence, the Kinetic Extruder consists of a rotor in a pressure vessel. Coal enters the rotor and is forced outward to the surrounding pressure vessel by centrifugal force. The force on the coal passing across the rotor serves as a pressure barrier. Should this technology be successfully developed and tested, it could reduce the cost of IGCC technology by replacing the large lockhoppers conventionally used with a much smaller system. This will significantly decrease the size of the gasifier island. Kinetic Extruder technology needs testing over an extended period of time to develop and prove the long term reliability and performance needed in a commercial application. Major issues to be investigated in this program are component design for high temperatures, turn-down, scale-up factors, and cost. Such a test would only be economically feasible if it could be conducted on an existing plant. This would defray the cost of power and feedstock. Such an installation was planned for the CE IGCC Repowering Project in Springfield, Illinois. Due to budgetary constraints, however, this provision was dropped from the present plant design. It is believed that, with minor design changes, a small scale test version of the Kinetic Extruder could be installed parallel to an existing lockhopper system without prior space allocation. Kinetic Extruder technology represents significant potential cost savings to the IGCC process. For this reason, a test program similar to that specified for the Springfield project would be a worthwhile endeavor.

  5. TECHNOECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED-CYCLE POWER GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a technoeconomic appraisal of the integrated (coal) gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system. lthough not yet a proven commercial technology, IGCC is a future competitive technology to current pulverized-coal boilers equipped with SO2 and NOx controls, because of i...

  6. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine

  7. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine

  8. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  10. Recycling of residual IGCC slags and their benefits as degreasers in ceramics.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Martín, I; Acosta Echeverría, A; García-Romero, E

    2013-11-15

    This work studies the evolution of IGCC slag grains within a ceramic matrix fired at different temperatures to investigate the effect of using IGCC slag as a degreaser. Pressed ceramic specimens from two clay mixtures are used in this study. The M1 mixture is composed of standard clays, whereas the M2 mixture is composed of the same clay mixture as M1 mixture but contains 15% by weight IGCC slag. The amount of IGCC slag added coincides with the amount of slag typically used as a degreaser in the ceramic industry. Specimens are fired at 950 °C, 1000 °C, 1050 °C, 1100 °C and 1150 °C. The mineralogical composition and the IGCC slag grain shape within the ceramic matrix are determined by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that the surface of the slag grains is welded to the ceramic matrix while the quartz grains are separated, which causes increased water absorption and reduces the mechanical strength. IGCC slag, however, reduces water absorption. This behaviour is due to the softening temperature of the slag. This property is quite important from an industrial viewpoint because IGCC slag can serve as an alternative to traditional degreasing agents in the ceramic building industry. Additionally, using IGCC slag allows for the transformation of waste into a secondary raw material, thereby avoiding disposal at landfills; moreover, these industrial wastes are made inert and improve the properties of ceramics. PMID:23778155

  11. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles. PMID:19000075

  12. High power gas laser - Applications and future developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.

    1977-01-01

    Fast flow can be used to create the population inversion required for lasing action, or can be used to improve laser operation, for example by the removal of waste heat. It is pointed out that at the present time all lasers which are capable of continuous high-average power employ flow as an indispensable aspect of operation. High power laser systems are discussed, taking into account the gasdynamic laser, the HF supersonic diffusion laser, and electric discharge lasers. Aerodynamics and high power lasers are considered, giving attention to flow effects in high-power gas lasers, aerodynamic windows and beam manipulation, and the Venus machine. Applications of high-power laser technology reported are related to laser material working, the employment of the laser in controlled fusion machines, laser isotope separation and photochemistry, and laser power transmission.

  13. Automated management of power systems. [for future planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Bridgeforth, A.

    1979-01-01

    APSM (Automated Power System Management) is a technology readiness program underway to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate various techniques involved in power system monitoring, as well as computational and control functions. The demonstration breadboard consists of the Viking Orbiter '75 power subassembly breadboard modified to incorporate dedicated microprocessors and digital interface circuits, as well as test support equipment for both spacecraft and ground computer simulation, fault simulation, and data acquisition.

  14. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

  15. Hydrogen powered aircraft : The future of air transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Bhupendra; Karakurt, Adam; Sekaran, Paulas R.; Sethi, Vishal; Singh, Riti

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates properties and traits of hydrogen with regard to environmental concerns and viability in near future applications. Hydrogen is the most likely energy carrier for the future of aviation, a fuel that has the potential of zero emissions. With investigation into the history of hydrogen, this study establishes issues and concerns made apparent when regarding the fuel in aero applications. Various strategies are analyzed in order to evaluate hydrogen's feasibility which includes production, storage, engine configurations and aircraft configurations.

  16. Photovoltaic power system considerations for future lunar bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The cost of transportation to the lunar surface places a premium on developing ultralightweight power system technology to support the eventual establishment of a lunar base. The photovoltaic technology issues to be addressed by the Surface Power program element of NASA's Project Pathfinder are described.

  17. Future Directions in Community Power Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M., Ed.

    This compilation of symposium papers on community power structure research focuses on the theme that community power structure research must shift away from case study methods and move toward aggregate data analysis. Advocating comparative analysis, seven authors present their views under the following topics: (1) Charles R. Adrian, "Several Loose…

  18. Current and future developments in diesel powered hovercraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. C.; Stevens, M. J.; Buttigieg, J. A.

    After evaluating the development status of the application of diesel power to air-cushion vehicles (ACVs) and surface-effect ships (SESs), attention is given to the AP1-88 ACV, which is both the first and largest operational diesel-powered amphibious craft of this type. An account is given of the ACV and SES features that are dictated by the need to accommodate diesel power sources; the major advantages and disadvantages of diesel (vs gas turbine) engines are discussed. Although cost reductions are achievable against gas turbine powerplant use, lower payload fractions and slightly lower performance capabilities appear to be inescapable.

  19. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  20. U.S. Electric Power Futures: Preliminary Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Logan, J.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation shows key findings of an effort to simulate the evolution of the U.S. power sector under a number of policy and technology scenarios using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model.

  1. Future Concepts for Modular, Intelligent Aerospace Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Soeder, James F.

    2004-01-01

    Nasa's resent commitment to Human and Robotic Space Exploration obviates the need for more affordable and sustainable systems and missions. Increased use of modularity and on-board intelligent technologies will enable these lofty goals. To support this new paradigm, an advanced technology program to develop modular, intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) system technologies is presented. The many benefits to developing and including modular functionality in electrical power components and systems are shown to include lower costs and lower mass for highly reliable systems. The details of several modular technologies being developed by NASA are presented, broken down into hierarchical levels. Modularity at the device level, including the use of power electronic building blocks, is shown to provide benefits in lowering the development time and costs of new power electronic components.

  2. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Water power technologies harness energy from rivers and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses, and can help the United States meet its pressing energy, environmental, and economic challenges. Water power technologies; fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower uses dams or impoundments to store river water in a reservoir. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients.

  3. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  4. Load-following control of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized control strategy is considered for load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture without flaring the syngas. The control strategy considered is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the power load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. However, the syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant timedelay. In this work, a modified proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is considered for syngas pressure control given that conventional PID controllers show poor control performance for integrating processes with large time delays. The conventional PID control is augmented with an internal feedback loop. The P-controller used in this internal loop converts the integrating process to an open-loop stable process. The resulting secondorder plus time delay model uses a PID controller where the tuning parameters are found by minimizing the integral time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) for disturbance rejection. A plant model with single integrator and time delay is identified by a P-control method. When a ramp change is introduced in the set-point of the load controller, the performance of both the load and pressure controllers with the modified PID control strategy is found to be superior to that using a traditional PID controller. Key

  5. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated. PMID:24568025

  6. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

  7. Nuclear Power Plant NDE Challenges - Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S. R.

    2007-03-21

    The operating fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants was built to fossil plant standards (of workmanship, not fitness for service) and with good engineering judgment. Fortuitously, those nuclear power plants were designed using defense-in-depth concepts, with nondestructive examination (NDE) an important layer, so they can tolerate almost any component failure and still continue to operate safely. In the 30+ years of reactor operation, many material failures have occurred. Unfortunately, NDE has not provided the reliability to detect degradation prior to initial failure (breaching the pressure boundary). However, NDE programs have been improved by moving from prescriptive procedures to performance demonstrations that quantify inspection effectiveness for flaw detection probability and sizing accuracy. Other improvements include the use of risk-informed strategies to ensure that reactor components contributing the most risk receive the best and most frequent inspections. Another challenge is the recent surge of interest in building new nuclear power plants in the United States to meet increasing domestic energy demand. New construction will increase the demand for NDE but also offers the opportunity for more proactive inspections. This paper reviews the inception and evolution of NDE for nuclear power plants over the past 40 years, recounts lessons learned, and describes the needs remaining as existing plants continue operation and new construction is contemplated.

  8. Microgrids, virtual power plants and our distributed energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Opportunities for VPPs and microgrids will only increase dramatically with time, as the traditional system of building larger and larger centralized and polluting power plants by utilities charging a regulated rate of return fades. The key questions are: how soon will these new business models thrive - and who will be in the driver's seat? (author)

  9. Power-Solidarity Relationship of Teachers with Their Future Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acikalin, Isil

    2007-01-01

    Classroom talk is an example of institutional discourse, based on asymmetrical distribution of communicative rights and obligations between teachers and students. Teachers hold power and solidarity relationships with their students. It has been assumed that, in general, women are more concerned with solidarity while men are more interested in…

  10. Nuclear power for the future: Implications of some crisis scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    As energy issues have dropped from public awareness, electricity demand growth has remained low, deregulation has destabilized the utility decision process, and least-cost regulation has pointed utilities to gas-fired plants for those additions that are coming on-line, the nuclear power industry has begun to ask the question: What will cause nuclear energy to again compete as an option in new, domestic generating capacity additions? Since virtually all of today`s corporate and societal decisions are driven by short-term factors, the preceding question can be translated into: What crisis might occur that would project nuclear as the solution to an immediately perceived problem? Thus, an examination of scenarios that would project nuclear power into the country`s immediate consciousness is in order, along with an analysis of the implications for and challenges to the nuclear industry resulting therefrom. This paper undertakes such an analysis.

  11. State and future of super critical PC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, S.

    1996-12-31

    Construction work on two seawater-cooled 400 MW pulverized coal-fired and gas-fired power plants with advanced design parameters for operation in 1997 and 1998 has been initiated by the Danish power company ELSAM. Main steam pressure at the turbine inlet will be 285 Bar (4130 psia) and main steam temperature 580{degrees}C (1076{degrees}F). Double reheat is foreseen at 580{degrees}C (1076{degrees}F) and final feed water temperature will be 300{degrees}C (572{degrees}F). Net efficiency will be 47% on coal and 49% on gas. Information on the design of the super critical tower boilers and the five casing turbo-groups will be presented. ELSAM`s investigations into further improvements in the conversion from coal to electricity above an efficiency of 50% will also be presented. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, F.S. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs.

  13. High-Power Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    NASA has sought to utilize high-power solar electric propulsion as means of improving the affordability of in-space transportation for almost 50 years. Early efforts focused on 25 to 50 kilowatt systems that could be used with the Space Shuttle, while later efforts focused on systems nearly an order of magnitude higher power that could be used with heavy lift launch vehicles. These efforts never left the concept development phase in part because the technology required was not sufficiently mature. Since 2012 the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has had a coordinated plan to mature the requisite solar array and electric propulsion technology needed to implement a 30 to 50 kilowatt solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. Multiple solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission concepts have been developed based on these maturing technologies with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission. If implemented, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle will form the basis for a capability that can be cost-effectively evolved over time to provide solar electric propulsion transportation for a range of follow-on mission applications at power levels in excess of 100 kilowatts.

  14. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  15. Pu-powered space probes face uncertain future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    When fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashed into the gas clouds of Jupiter in July, the only representatives of humankind with a good view were a trio of spacecraft, Voyager 2, Galileo, and Ulysses. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy provided the power to run the observing instruments on these spacecraft, but now that source of power-and all deep-space missions-may be in jeopardy. Despite the fact that the recently passed congressional appropriations bill increased funding for the RTG program by nearly 20 percent, from $51 million in 1994 to $61 million in 1995, rumors persist that the program is in danger of being discontinued. Peter Ulrich, chief of the Flight Programs Branch of the Solar System Exploration Division of the Office of Space Science at NASA, was confident that the program would stay alive through NASA`s next mission. RTGs will be on board the Cassini spacecraft scheduled to blast off in 1997 for an exploration of Saturn and its rings and moons. RTG`s use the heat produced by the alpha decay of plutonium-238 to heat a thermocouple, which generates electricity. Cassini is designed to carry three RTGs, producing a total of 750 W of electricity initially, decreasing to about 600 W by the time it reaches Saturn seven years after launch. The RTGs on Cassini will carry a total of about 70 lb of plutonium oxide. RTGs have no moving parts. They are simple, rugged, and reliable. According to Ulrich, {open_quotes}It`s really a very well-matched power source for something like a remote mission.{close_quotes} The political situation is less clear, though. {open_quotes}What I hear unofficially is funding looks dime,{close_quotes} said the DOE spokesperson, {open_quotes}and the lights are being turned off for these missions.{close_quotes} If that happens, the lights will go out on NASA`s deep-space missions to other parts of our solar system.

  16. Powering up the future: radical polymers for battery applications.

    PubMed

    Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2012-12-18

    Our society's dependency on portable electric energy, i.e., rechargeable batteries, which permit power consumption at any place and in any time, will eventually culminate in resource wars on limited commodities like lithium, cobalt, and rare earth metals. The substitution of conventional metals as means of electric charge storage by organic and polymeric materials, which may ultimately be derived from renewable resources, appears to be the only feasible way out. In this context, the novel class of organic radical batteries (ORBs) excelling in rate capability (i.e., charging speed) and cycling stability (>1000 cycles) sets new standards in battery research. This review examines stable nitroxide radical bearing polymers, their processing to battery systems, and their promising performance. PMID:23238940

  17. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  18. Electric power 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Subjects covered include: power industry trends - near term fuel strategies - price/quality/delivery/opportunity; generating fleet optimization and plant optimization; power plant safety and security; coal power plants - upgrades and new capacity; IGCC, advanced combustion and CO{sub 2} capture technologies; gas turbine and combined cycle power plants; nuclear power; renewable power; plant operations and maintenance; power plant components - design and operation; environmental; regulatory issues, strategies and technologies; and advanced energy strategies and technologies. The presentations are in pdf format.

  19. High average power lasers for future particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Crane, John K.; Messerly, Michael J.; Prantil, Matthew A.; Pax, Paul H.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Allen, Graham S.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Phan, Henry H.; Heebner, John E.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Hartouni, Edward P.; Siders, Craig W.; Spinka, Thomas M.; Barty, C. P. J.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Haefner, Leon C.; Albert, Felicie; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Bonanno, Regina E.

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are of increasing interest to the accelerator community and include applications as diverse as stripping electrons from hydrogen atoms, sources for Compton scattering, efficient high repetition rate lasers for dielectric laser acceleration, peta-watt peak power lasers for laser wake field and high energy, short pulse lasers for proton and ion beam therapy. The laser requirements for these applications are briefly surveyed. State of the art of laser technologies with the potential to eventually meet those requirements are reviewed. These technologies include diode pumped solid state lasers (including cryogenic), fiber lasers, OPCPA based lasers and Ti:Sapphire lasers. Strengths and weakness of the various technologies are discussed along with the most important issues to address to get from the current state of the art to the performance needed for the accelerator applications. Efficiency issues are considered in detail as in most cases the system efficiency is a valuable indicator of the actual ability of a given technology to deliver the application requirements.

  20. Future Power Production by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Lipson, Andrei; Luo, Nie; Shrestha, P. Joshi

    2007-03-01

    PdD cluster reaction theory was recently proposed to explain a wide range of Low energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments. If understood and optimized, cluster reactions could lead to a revolutionary new power source of nuclear energy. The route is two-fold. First, the excess heat must be obtained reproducibly and over extended run times. Second, the percentage of excess must be significantly (order of magnitude or more) higher than the 20-50% typically today. The thin film methods described here have proven to be quite reproducible, e.g. providing excess heat of 20-30% in nine consecutive runs of several weeks each. However, mechanical separation of the films occurs over long runs due to the severe mechanical stresses created.. Techniques to overcome these problems are possible using graded bonding techniques similar to that used in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Thus the remaining key issue is to increase the excess heat. The cluster model provides import insight into this. G. H. Miley, H. Hora, et al., 233rd Amer Chem Soc Meeting, Chicago, IL, March 25-29, 2007.

  1. Powering future vehicles with the refuelable zinc/air battery

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    A recent road test at LLNL underscored the zinc/air battery`s capacity to give electric vehicles some of the attractive features of gas-driven cars: a 400-km range between refueling, 10-minute refueling, and highway-safe acceleration. Developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the battery weights only one-sixth as much as standard lead/acid batteries and occupies one-third the space, yet costs less per mile to operate. What`s more, because the battery is easily refuelable, it promises trouble-free, nearly 24-hour-a-day operation for numerous kinds of electric vehicles, from forklifts to delivery vans and possibly, one day, personal automobiles. The test of a Santa Barbara Municipal Transit bus with a hybrid of zinc/air and lead/acid batteries capped a short development period for the zinc/air battery. The test run indicated the zinc/air battery`s potential savings in vehicle weight from 5.7 to 4.0 metric tons, in battery weight from 2.0 to 0.3 metric tons, in battery volume from 0.79 to 0.25 m{sup 3}, and in electricity cost from 5.6 cents per mile to 4.7 cents per mile. The power, however, remains the same.

  2. Wind Generation in the Future Competitive California Power Market

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.

    1998-03-01

    renewable capital costs, about 7.35 GW of the 10 GW potential capacity at the 36 specific sites is profitably developed and 62 TWh of electricity produced per annum by the year 2030. Most of the development happens during the earlier years of the forecast. Sensitivity of these results to future gas price scenarios is also presented. This study also demonstrates that an analysis based on a simple levelized profitability calculation approach does not sufficiently capture the implications of time varying prices in a competitive market.

  3. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Adil, A.; Arent, D.; Cochran, J.; Vora, R.; Aggarwal, S.; Bipath, M.; Linvill, C.; David, A.; Kauffman, R.; Futch, M.; Villanueva Arcos, E.; Valenzuela, J. M.; Martinot, E.; Bazilian, M.; Pillai, R. K.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes key forces driving transformation in the power sector around the world, presents a framework for evaluating decisions regarding extent and pace of change, and defines pathways for transformation. Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Three approaches to policy and technology decision-making can guide these transformations: adaptive, reconstructive, and evolutionary. Within these approaches, we explore the five pathways that have emerged as viable models for power system transformation.

  4. PG&E`s Geysers` Power Plant improvements - past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Louden, P.; Southall, W.; Paquin, C.

    1996-04-10

    Geothermal power plant retrofits can improve plant efficiency, reduce operations and maintenance costs, as well as increase plant availability. All geothermal power producers must find new ways to become more competitive as the electric power industry becomes deregulated. To survive and thrive in the competitive power generation market, geothermal plant operators must continually look for economic power plant upgrades that reduce the cost of production and improve availability. This paper describes past and present power plant retrofits as well as shows how further research can help future plant improvements. Past power plant retrofits at Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s Geysers Power Plants include innovative H{sub 2}S burners that reduced chemical costs and a turbine jack-shaft that improved unit efficiency. Other important retrofits that dramatically reduced turbine forced outage and repair costs were turbine blade and nozzle changes, turbine weld repairs, and steam desuperheating.

  5. IGCC repowering project clean coal II project public design report. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that was designed to provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) in Springfield, Illinois. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system consists of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-BTU gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment, The project is currently completing the second budget period of five. The major activities to date are: (1) Establishment of a design, cost, and schedule for the project; (2) Establishment of financial commitments; (3) Acquire design and modeling data; (4) Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; (5) Development of a detailed cost estimate; (6) Resolution of project business issues; (7) CWL&P renewal and replacement activities; and (8) Application for environmental air permits. A Project Management Plan was generated, The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities were accomplished, including the Air Permit Application, completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, and the draft Environmental Monitoring Plan. At the end of 1992 the DOE requested that Duke Engineering and Services Inc., (DESI) be used to complete the balance of plant cost estimate. DESI was retained to do this work, DESI completed the material take off estimate and included operations, maintenance, and startup in the estimate.

  6. Degradation of TBC Systems in Environments Relevant to Advanced Gas Turbines for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, Brian

    2014-09-30

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to provide thermal insulation for the hottest components in gas turbines. Zirconia stabilized with 7wt% yttria (7YSZ) is the most common ceramic top coat used for turbine blades. The 7YSZ coating can be degraded from the buildup of fly-ash deposits created in the power-generation process. Fly ash from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system can result from coal-based syngas. TBCs are also exposed to harsh gas environments containing CO2, SO2, and steam. Degradation from the combined effects of fly ash and harsh gas atmospheres has the potential to severely limit TBC lifetimes. The main objective of this study was to use lab-scale testing to systematically elucidate the interplay between prototypical deposit chemistries (i.e., ash and its constituents, K2SO4, and FeS) and environmental oxidants (i.e., O2, H2O and CO2) on the degradation behavior of advanced TBC systems. Several mechanisms of early TBC failure were identified, as were the specific fly-ash constituents responsible for degradation. The reactivity of MCrAlY bondcoats used in TBC systems was also investigated. The specific roles of oxide and sulfate components were assessed, together with the complex interplay between gas composition, deposit chemistry and alloy reactivity. Bondcoat composition design strategies to mitigate corrosion were established, particularly with regard to controlling phase constitution and the amount of reactive elements the bondcoat contains in order to achieve optimal corrosion resistance.

  7. Tampa electric company - IGCC project. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This quarterly report consists of materials presented at a recent review of the project. The project is an IGCC project being conducted by Tampa Electric Company. The report describes the status of the facility construction, components, operations staff training, and discusses aspects of the project which may impact the final scheduled completion.

  8. Insulation Requirements of High-Voltage Power Systems in Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, A. Haq; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The scope, size, and capability of the nation's space-based activities are limited by the level of electrical power available. Long-term projections show that there will be an increasing demand for electrical power in future spacecraft programs. The level of power that can be generated, conditioned, transmitted, and used will have to be considerably increased to satisfy these needs, and increased power levels will require that transmission voltages also be increased to minimize weight and resistive losses. At these projected voltages, power systems will not operate satisfactorily without the proper electrical insulation. Open or encapsulated power supplies are currently used to keep the volume and weight of space power systems low and to protect them from natural and induced environmental hazards. Circuits with open packaging are free to attain the pressure of the outer environment, whereas encapsulated circuits are imbedded in insulating materials, which are usually solids, but could be liquids or gases. Up to now, solid insulation has usually been chosen for space power systems. If the use of solid insulation is continued, when voltages increase, the amount of insulation for encapsulation also will have to increase. This increased insulation will increase weight and reduce system reliability. Therefore, non-solid insulation media must be examined to satisfy future spacecraft power and voltage demands. In this report, we assess the suitability of liquid, space vacuum, and gas insulation for space power systems.

  9. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  10. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  11. Power and spectrally efficient M-ARY QAM schemes for future mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenath, K.; Feher, K.

    1990-01-01

    An effective method to compensate nonlinear phase distortion caused by the mobile amplifier is proposed. As a first step towards the future use of spectrally efficient modulation schemes for mobile satellite applications, we have investigated effects of nonlinearities and the phase compensation method on 16-QAM. The new method provides about 2 dB savings in power for 16-QAM operation with cost effective amplifiers near saturation and thereby promising use of spectrally efficient linear modulation schemes for future mobile satellite applications.

  12. Development of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA's Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's current efforts on development of advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) for future science missions. The current efforts include development of flight qualified Multimission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) systems with nominal 100 watts power level and capability to operate in both deep space and planetary environments. In addition, advanced technology development efforts are being conducted to increase the specific power of both RTG and SRG systems to enable future science missions. The efforts also include new technologies that have the potential to provide significant increases in specific power of RPS system. A notional RPS technology development roadmap will be presented and various potential mission opportunities identified.

  13. Results of the automated power systems management /APSM/ program and future technology implementation. [of spacecraft power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1982-01-01

    The APSM program was initiated in 1975. The purpose of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology and benefits of autonomous operation of planetary spacecraft power systems to meet the projected requirements of future missions. Development of the APSM program was based on implementing a selected set of autonomous functions in a state-of-the-art breadboard power system. A distributed microcomputer system was developed to implement the functions. Several critical programmatic elements were identified as necessary to implement autonomous functions. These elements, including proper skill combination, well defined autonomous functions, and management of the software design and development task, were found to be more significant than hardware management. The incorporation of APSM technology in future space programs is also discussed.

  14. Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and Inverse Tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  15. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  16. Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.

  17. Marginal Power Loss Extraction Method for Future High Output Power Density Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takao, Kazuto; Adachi, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Yusuke; Ohashi, Hiromichi

    Novel exact MOSFET switching loss analysis and formulation methods have been proposed for designing high output power density converters. To analyze influences of circuit stray parameters on MOSFET switching loss with experiments, a parameter adjustable circuit board has been fabricated. The circuit board has a function to vary circuit stray inductance and capacitance values like a circuit simulator. Correlations between MOSFET switching loss energies and circuit stray parameters are successfully analyzed with the circuit board. Based on the analysis results, switching loss energies are formulated with empirical equations to establish a exact power loss calculation tool for the converter design. Switching loss energies caused by semiconductor device parameters are modeled by a capacitance charge/discharge model. The procedure to formulate the switching loss energies with empirical equations is presented. Switching loss energies calculated with empirical equations are verified with measurements, and high accuracy of more than 95% has been achieved.

  18. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  19. Synthetic fuels development in Kentucky: Four scenarios for an energy future as constructed from lessons of the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musulin, Mike, II

    The continued failure of synthetic fuels development in the United States to achieve commercialization has been documented through the sporadic periods of mounting corporate and government enthusiasm and high levels of research and development efforts. Four periods of enthusiasm at the national level were followed by waning intervals of shrinking financial support and sagging R&D work. The continuing cycle of mobilization and stagnation has had a corresponding history in Kentucky. To better understand the potential and the pitfalls of this type of technological development the history of synthetic fuels development in the United States is presented as background, with a more detailed analysis of synfuels development in Kentucky. The first two periods of interest in synthetic fuels immediately after the Second World War and in the 1950s did not result in any proposed plants for Kentucky, but the third and fourth periods of interest created a great deal of activity. A theoretically grounded case study is utilized in this research project to create four different scenarios for the future of synthetic fuels development. The Kentucky experience is utilized in this case study because a fifth incarnation of synthetic fuels development has been proposed for the state in the form of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) to utilize coal and refuse derived fuel (RDF). The project has been awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology program. From an examination and analysis of these periods of interest and the subsequent dwindling of interest and participation, four alternative scenarios are constructed. A synfuels breakthrough scenario is described whereby IGCC becomes a viable part of the country's energy future. A multiplex scenario describes how IGCC becomes a particular niche in energy production. The status quo scenario describes how the old patterns of project failure repeat themselves. The fourth scenario describes

  20. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems, Volume 4. Appendix C: Design and performance of standardized fixed bed air-blown gasifier IGCC systems for future electric power generation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This appendix is a compilation of work done to predict overall cycle performance from gasifier to generator terminals. A spreadsheet has been generated for each case to show flows within a cycle. The spreadsheet shows gaseous or solid composition of flow, temperature of flow, quantity of flow, and heat heat content of flow. Prediction of steam and gas turbine performance was obtained by the computer program GTPro. Outputs of all runs for each combined cycle reviewed has been added to this appendix. A process schematic displaying all flows predicted through GTPro and the spreadsheet is also added to this appendix. The numbered bubbles on the schematic correspond to columns on the top headings of the spreadsheet.

  1. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of

  2. High-Temperature Corrosion in Fossil Fuel Power Generation: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    Fossil fuels have historically represented two-thirds of all electricity generation in the United States and are projected to continue to play a similar role despite historically low projected growth rates in electricity demand and the recent dramatic shift from coal to more natural gas usage. Economic and environmental drivers will require more reliable and efficient fossil fuel generation systems in the future, likely with new system designs, higher operating temperatures, and more aggressive environments. Some of the current corrosion issues in power plants are reviewed along with research on materials solutions for systems envisioned for the near future, such as coal gasification and oxy-fired coal boilers.

  3. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  4. The future of nuclear energy: A perspective on nuclear power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J. I.

    2000-04-03

    The author begins by discussing the history of nuclear power development in the US. He discusses the challenges for nuclear power such as the proliferation of weapons material, waste management, economics, and safety. He then discusses the future for nuclear power, specifically advanced reactor development. People can all be thankful for nuclear power, for it may well be essential to the long term survival of civilization. Within the seeds of its potential for great good, are also the seeds for great harm. People must ensure that it is applied for great good. What is not in question is whether people can live without it, they cannot. United States leadership is crucial in determining how this technology is developed and applied. The size and capability of the United States technical community is decreasing, a trend that cannot be allowed to continue. It is the author's belief that in the future, the need, the vision and the confidence in nuclear power will be restored, but only if the US addresses the immediate challenges. It is a national challenge worthy of the best people this nation has to offer.

  5. A Basic Study Toward Optimization of LFC Resources in Future Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Yoshihiko; Masuda, Ryoichi; Sugita, Shinya

    Load frequency control (LFC) in future power systems, in which a large amount of solar photovoltaic generation is introduced, is studied. The constraints in LFC resources are classified as rate, simple, and energy limits. First the nonlinear transfer functions of the limiters are modeled using random noise input. Second the transfer functions of limiters are characterized by coefficients of necessary facilities (CoNF). Third the appropriateness of concept and identified value of CoNF is demonstrated through numerical simulations using a simple power system model. Also a way to control the contribution of existing and introducing resources to regulation of frequency fluctuation is proposed and demonstrated.

  6. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  7. The History and Future of NDE in the Management of Nuclear Power Plant Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-04-01

    The author has spent more than 25 years conducting engineering and research studies to quantify the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in nuclear power plant (NPP) applications and identifying improvements to codes and standards for NDE to manage materials degradation. This paper will review this fundamental NDE engineering/research work and then look to the future on how NDE can be optimized for proactively managing materials degradation in NPP components.

  8. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  9. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  10. The impact of H2S emissions on future geothermal power generation - The Geysers region, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    The future potential for geothermal power generation in the Geysers region of California is as much as 10 times the current 502 MW(e) capacity. However, environmental factors such as H2S emissions and institutional considerations may play the primary role in determining the rate and ultimate level of development. In this paper a scenario of future geothermal generation capacity and H2S emissions in the Geysers region is presented. Problem areas associated with H2S emissions, H2S abatement processes, plant operations, and government agency resources are described. The impact of H2S emissions on future development and the views of effected organizations are discussed. Potential actions needed to remove these constraints are summarized.

  11. High-power beam combining: a step to a future laser weapon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protz, Rudolf; Zoz, Jürgen; Geidek, Franz; Dietrich, Stephan; Fall, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers during the last years commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available, which deliver a near-diffraction limited beam with power levels up to10kW. For the realization of a future laser weapon system, which can be used for Counter-RAM or similar air defence applications, a laser source with a beam power at the level of 100kW or more is required. At MBDA Germany the concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on such existing industrial laser sources as mentioned before. A number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together, using one common beam director telescope. By this "geometric" beam coupling scheme, sufficient laser beam power for an operational laser weapon system can be achieved. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops, using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at the common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated using several experimental set-ups. Different experiments were performed, to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking also at large distances. Content and results of these investigations are reported. An example for the lay-out of an Air Defence High Energy Laser Weapon (ADHELW ) is given. It can be concluded, that geometric high-power beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  12. Technology status and project development risks of advanced coal power generation technologies in APEC developing economies

    SciTech Connect

    Lusica, N.; Xie, T.; Lu, T.

    2008-10-15

    The report reviews the current status of IGCC and supercritical/ultrasupercritical pulverized-coal power plants and summarizes risks associated with project development, construction and operation. The report includes an economic analysis using three case studies of Chinese projects; a supercritical PC, an ultrasupercritical PC, and an IGCC plant. The analysis discusses barriers to clean coal technologies and ways to encourage their adoption for new power plants. 25 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2010-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

  14. CE IGCC repowering project: Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, 1 January, 1992--31 December, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    CE is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that will provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, light and Power (CWL and P) in Springfield, Illinois. The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu gas: and all necessary coal handling equipment. The project is currently in the second budget period of five. The major activities during this budgeted period are: Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; development of a detailed cost estimate; resolution of project business issues; CWL and P renewal and replacement activities; and application for environmental air permits. The Project Management Plan was updated. The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established previously in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities are continuing. At the end of 1992 the major activities remaining for Budget Period two is to finish the cost estimate and complete the Continuation Request Documents.

  15. Markov chain algorithms: a template for building future robust low-power systems

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Biplab; Birklykke, Alex A.; Duwe, Henry; Mansinghka, Vikash K.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Although computational systems are looking towards post CMOS devices in the pursuit of lower power, the expected inherent unreliability of such devices makes it difficult to design robust systems without additional power overheads for guaranteeing robustness. As such, algorithmic structures with inherent ability to tolerate computational errors are of significant interest. We propose to cast applications as stochastic algorithms based on Markov chains (MCs) as such algorithms are both sufficiently general and tolerant to transition errors. We show with four example applications—Boolean satisfiability, sorting, low-density parity-check decoding and clustering—how applications can be cast as MC algorithms. Using algorithmic fault injection techniques, we demonstrate the robustness of these implementations to transition errors with high error rates. Based on these results, we make a case for using MCs as an algorithmic template for future robust low-power systems. PMID:24842030

  16. Demand-Supply Balancing Capability Analysis for a Future Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ikegami, Takashi; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Azuma, Hitoshi; Fukutome, Suguru

    Under the anticipated high penetration of variable renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics and higher share of nuclear generation, the issue of supply-demand balancing capability should be evaluated and fixed in a future power system. Improvement of existing balancing measures and new technologies such as demand activation and energy storage are expected to solve the issue. Under the situation, a long-range power system supply-demand analysis should have the capability to evaluate the balancing capability and balancing counter measures. This paper presents a new analysis methodology of activated demand model and evaluation of supply-demand balancing capability for a long-range power system demand-supply analysis model, ESPRIT. Model analysis was made to verify the new methodology of the tool including day-ahead scheduling of a heat pump water heater, an EV/PHEV and a battery.

  17. The assessment of future extremes of air temperature to design EPR type power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Hoang, T. T. H.; Dacunha-Castelle, D.

    2010-09-01

    EDF projects the construction of new EPR type nuclear power plants in Europe. These installations are likely to run until the second half of the century, and thus, it is necessary to think their dimensioning in taking current knowledge of climate change impact into account. This paper will present the study dedicated to the estimation of future extremes of air temperature by using the statistical extreme value theory. The adopted methodology consists firstly in comparing current climate temperature extremes between local observations and models at the nearest grid point. Then, if the extremes of both series are comparable, future extremes are derived from the modelled series for a future period. In parallel, the link between the evolution of the mean, variance and extremes is studied in the observation series. If a strong link is identified, future extremes are derived from the stationary extremes of the centred and normalised series and the changes in mean and variance given by climate models for the desired future period. The approach will be illustrated with an example of such an evaluation for an EPR project in the United Kingdom.

  18. Concentrated solar power generation: Firm and dispatchable capacity for Brazil's solar future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Jan; Haasz, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    The Brazilian electricity mix is currently dominated by renewable energy forms, foremost hydropower. Large additional capacity demands are expected in the mid-term future but additional potential for hydro power is limited. In addition it is planned to construct more than 17 GW of wind power and additional capacity of photovoltaics (PV). Due to the fluctuating nature of such renewables, however, wind and PV are hardly able to provide firm capacity. Concentrated solar power (CSP) might be a feasible option to provide firm and dispatchable capacity at low carbon emissions. This study analyses the opportunities for integrating CSP into the Brazilian energy system. Making use of the TiPS-B model, a novel application of the optimization model generator TIMES, we compare different climate protection strategies with a reference scenario and analyze the contribution of CSP to the electricity mix. The analysis covers various types of CSP power plants with molten salt energy storage where we look at possible dispatch strategies considering the fluctuations in electricity supply and use. The consideration of solar water heaters (SWH) is the first step to transfer the power system model to an energy system model that is capable of showing the benefits of energy saving measures on the demand side. It can be demonstrated that the Brazilian power system is likely to change significantly in future. This development would go hand in hand with a strong increase in carbon emissions if no mitigation actions are taken and fossil fueled power plants are used to fill the gap in capacity. CSP power plants are found as a feasible alternative for covering the demand while taking carbon mitigation actions. In a scenario, aiming at 4 and 2 degrees global warming, CSP provides for 7.6 GW and 14.6 GW capacity in 2050, respectively. Different storage configurations are used to provide energy in the evening hours to cover the demand peak providing a strong benefit over photovoltaic electricity

  19. What are the Historical and Future Impacts of Temperature Variability on Thermoelectric Power Plant Performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C.; Pratson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Current literature hypothesize that climate change-driven temperature increases will negatively affect the power production capacity of thermoelectric power plants, which currently produce ~88% of electricity used in the United States. This impact can occur through 1) warm cooling water that reduces the quantity of heat removed from the once-through (open-loop) steam system, 2) increased air temperature and/or humidity that decrease the amount of heat absorption in cooling towers/ponds of wet-recirculating (closed-loop) plants, and 3) environmental protection regulations that impose restrictions on both cooling water withdrawal volume and temperature of discharge. However, despite the widespread consensus that temperature and power generation are negatively related, different models yield a range of results and the magnitude of effects is uncertain. In this study, we test current literature's model predictions using historical data by assembling and analyzing a database of relevant parameters from distinct sources. We examine how daily and seasonal changes in cooling water, ambient air, and wet bulb temperatures have historically impacted coal and natural gas power plants in the U.S., focusing on 39 plants over a period up to 14 years. This allows us to assess how future changes in temperatures may affect generation. Our results suggest that water and ambient air temperatures have a lower impact on thermoelectric plant performance than previously predicted. Moreover, we find that recirculating power plants are more resilient to temperature variability than are once-through plants.

  20. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  1. Degradation of thermal barrier coatings on an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) simulated film-cooled turbine vane pressure surface due to particulate fly ash deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kevin

    Coal synthesis gas (syngas) can introduce contaminants into the flow of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) industrial gas turbine which can form molten deposits onto components of the first stage of a turbine. Research is being conducted at West Virginia University (WVU) to study the effects of particulate deposition on thermal barrier coatings (TBC) employed on the airfoils of an IGCC turbine hot section. WVU had been working with U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to simulate deposition on the pressure side of an IGCC turbine first stage vane to study the effects on film cooling. To simulate the particulate deposition, TBC coated, angled film-cooled test articles were subjected to accelerated deposition injected into the flow of a combustor facility with a pressure of approximately 4 atm and a gas temperature of 1560 K. The particle characteristics between engine conditions and laboratory are matched using the Stokes number and particulate loading. To investigate the degradation on the TBC from the particulate deposition, non-destructive evaluations were performed using a load-based multiple-partial unloading micro-indentation technique and were followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) examinations. The micro-indentation technique used in the study was developed by Kang et al. and can quantitatively evaluate the mechanical properties of materials. The indentation results found that the Young's Modulus of the ceramic top coat is higher in areas with deposition formation due to the penetration of the fly ash. The increase in the modulus of elasticity has been shown to result in a reduction of strain tolerance of the 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) TBC coatings. The increase in the Young's modulus of the ceramic top coat is due to the stiffening of the YSZ columnar microstructure from the cooled particulate fly ash. SEM evaluation was used to

  2. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin S; Wong, Yvonne Y Y E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: ywong@mppmu.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter {epsilon} ({approx}>0.001), a positive detection of trans-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10{sup -4}. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound, a scale of new physics as high as {approx}0.2 M{sub P} could lead to observable signatures.

  3. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  4. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  5. Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Over the past 10 years, DOE has built a solid foundation for a robust CHP marketplace. We have aligned with key partners to produce innovative technologies and spearhead market-transforming projects. Our commercialization activities and Clean Energy Regional Application Centers have expanded CHP across the nation. More must be done to tap CHP’s full potential. Read more about DOE’s CHP Program in “Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future.”

  6. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D- beams in future neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid

    2015-04-01

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  7. Current status and future trends in computer modeling of high-power travelling-wave tubes

    SciTech Connect

    DeHope, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The interaction of a slow electromagnetic wave and a linear propagating electron stream has been utilized for many years for microwave amplification. Pulsed devices of high peak and average power typically are based on periodic, filter-type circuits and interaction takes place on the first forward-wave branch of a fundamental backward-wave dispersion curve. These devices have served as useful test vehicles over the years in the development of advanced computational methods and models. A working relationship has thereby developed between the plasma computation community and the microwave tube industry. The talk will describe the operational principles and design steps in modern, high-power TWT development. The major computational stages that the industry has seen over the last four decades in both 2-d and 3-d modeling will be reviewed and comments made on their relevancy to current work and future trends.

  8. Wind Power Development in the United States: Current Progress, Future Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2008-10-29

    The U.S. wind power industry is in an era of substantial growth, with the U.S. and China likely to vie for largest-market status for years to come. With the market evolving at such a rapid pace, keeping up with current trends in the marketplace has become increasingly difficult. At the same time, limits to future growth are uncertain. This paper summarizes major trends in the U.S. wind market, and explores the technical and economic feasibility of achieving much greater levels of wind penetration. China would be well served to conduct similar analyses of the feasibility, benefits, challenges, and policy needs associated with much higher levels of wind power generation than currently expressed in national targets.

  9. PNNL Future Power Grid Initiative-developed GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-03

    The power grid is changing and evolving. One aspect of this change is the growing use of smart meters and other devices, which are producing large volumes of useful data. However, in many cases, the data can’t be translated quickly into actionable guidance to improve grid performance. There's a need for innovative tools. The GridOPTICS(TM) Software System, or GOSS, developed through PNNL's Future Power Grid Initiative, is open source and became publicly available in spring 2014. The value of this middleware is that it easily integrates grid applications with sources of data and facilitates communication between them. Such a capability provides a foundation for developing a range of applications to improve grid management.

  10. An intelligent man-machine system for future nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Yoji; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Juichiro; Fukumoto, Akira . Nuclear Engineering Lab.)

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the development of an intelligent man-machine system for future nuclear power plants is enhancement of operational reliability by applying recent advances in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and computer technologies. To realize this objective, the intelligent man-machine system, aiming to support a knowledge-based decision making process in an operator's supervisory plant control tasks, consists of three main functions, i.e., a cognitive model-based advisor, a robust automatic sequence controller, and an ecological interface. These three functions have been integrated into a console-type nuclear power plant monitoring and control system as a validation test bed. The validation tests in which experienced operator crews participated were carried out in 1991 and 1992. The test results show the usefulness of the support functions and the validity of the system design approach.

  11. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) published the final report of the proposed measures in the context of the Energy Strategy 2050 (ES2050). The ES2050 draws an energy scenario where the nuclear must be substituted by alternative sources. This implies a fundamental change in the energy system that has already been questioned by experts, e.g. [Piot, 2014]. Therefore, we must analyse in depth the technical implications of change in the Swiss energy mix from a robust baseload power such as nuclear, to an electricity mix where intermittent sources account for higher rates. Accomplishing the ES2050 imply difficult challenges, since nowadays nuclear power is the second most consumed energy source in Switzerland. According to the SFOE, nuclear accounts for a 23.3% of the gross production, only surpassed by crude oil products (43.3%). Hydropower is the third source more consumed, representing approximately the half of the nuclear (12.2%). Considering that Switzerland has almost reached the maximum of its hydropower capacity, renewables are more likely to be the alternative when the nuclear phase out takes place. Hence, solar and wind power will play an important role in the future Swiss energy mix, even though currently new renewables account for only 1.9% of the gross energy consumption. In this study we look for realistic and efficient combinations of energy resources to substitute nuclear power. Energy modelling is a powerful tool to design an energy system with high energy security that avoids problems of intermittency [Mathiesen & Lund, 2009]. In Switzerland, energy modelling has been used by the government [Abt et. al., 2012] and also has significant relevance in academia [Mathys, 2012]. Nevertheless, we detected a gap in the study of the security in energy scenarios [Busser, 2013]. This study examines the future electricity production of Switzerland using Calliope, a multi-scale energy systems model, developed at Imperial College, London and

  13. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  14. Moving to a low-carbon future: perspectives on nuclear and alternative power sources.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M Granger

    2007-11-01

    This paper summarizes key findings from climate science to make the case that the United States (and ultimately the world) will need to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the energy system over the next few decades. While transportation energy is an important consideration, the focus of this paper is on electric power. Today, the United States generates just over half of its electric power from coal. The average size-weighted age of the fleet of U.S. coal plants is 35 y, and many will have to be replaced in the next few years. If that capacity were to be replaced with new conventional coal plants, it would commit the nation (and the world) to many more decades of high carbon-dioxide emissions, or it would make the cost of meeting a future carbon-dioxide emission constraint much higher than it needs to be. A range of low- and no-carbon energy technologies offers great potential to create a portfolio of options that can dramatically reduce emissions. A few of the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are discussed. Policy and regulatory advances that will be needed to move the energy system to a low-carbon future are identified. PMID:18049235

  15. Climate services for energy production: are regional climate models reliable for future solar power generation scenarios?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitta, Marcello; Castelli, Mariapina; Calmanti, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    In this study we present an analysis of surface solar radiation from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) scenario simulations produced during the ENSEMBLES project in order to understand the relation between changes in atmospheric properties and variation of the energy produced by solar power plants. Several studies have recently pointed out the inability and the scarce accuracy of IPCC models in capturing the past decadal variability of Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) (Wild 2009, Wild et al 2010). Most of these works compare observed and estimated SSR for the last 6-7 decades and show that only half of the models are able to reproduce partially the observed decrease (global dimming) and the increase (global brightening) in SSR which occurred respectively in the time intervals 1950-1980 and 1990-2000. We focus on the Euro-Mediterranean area and we compare the SSR data for the period 1951-2000 in order to assess the error associated to the model ensemble. Furthermore we analyze the XXI century regional ENSEMBLES scenarios in order to quantify potential future changes of SSR. The preliminary results obtained so far confirm the findings of Wild et al. for the period 1950-2000. For the future, the analysis shows a positive linear trend over the Mediterranean region. On the other hand, most of the models predict a negative linear trend over Central Europe. We also discuss future energy strategies considering the variability of energy production from solar panels estimated by probabilistic climate change scenarios.

  16. HVDC submarine power cables systems state of the art and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Valenza, D.; Cipollini, G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper begins with an introduction on the reasons that lead to the use of HVDC submarine cable links. The main aspects for the choice of direct current are presented as well as the advantages deriving from the utilization of submarine cables. The second part is dedicated to a discussion on the various type of insulation that could be used in power cables and their possible application to HVDC submarine cables. In the following there is a description of the main characteristics and technical details of some particular project that at present time (1995) are in progress. Two projects are briefly presented: Spain-Morocco, a 26 km long interconnection for the transmission, in a first phase, of 700 MW from Spain to Morocco at 400 kV a.c. by means of three cables, plus one spare, of the fluid filled type. The cables are designed for a future change to d.c. 450 kV, allowing a transmission of 500 MW each (i.e., 2 GW total). One of the peculiarities of the link is the maximum water depth of 615 m (world record for submarine power cables at the time of installation). Italy-Greece, a 1km long interconnection for the transmission of 500 MW (bi-directional) by means of one paper insulated mass impregnated cable having 1,250 sq mm conductor size and insulated for a rated voltage of 400 kV. This link (the installation of which will be posterior to the Spain-Morocco) will attain the world record for the maximum water depth for submarine power cables: 1,000 m. The last part deals with the future developments expected in this field, in terms of conductor size and voltage, that means an increase in transmissible capacity.

  17. Space- and Earth-based solar power for the growing energy needs of future generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, Wolfgang

    2004-08-01

    The future global supply with terrestrial regenerative energies (solar, wind, hydro and geothermal) is discussed and compared to energy from space via Solar Power Satellites. It is shown that both have the potential to satisfy global energy needs. Obviously, regenerative solutions must be taken into account and installed with higher priority within the next decades to reduce the deposition of CO 2 into the atmosphere. This is absolutely necessary to stabilize the climate. In addition, the threatening depletion of fossil and nuclear fuels in the long run forces research into alternative solutions. Concerning solar power from space, the recently developed concepts for light-weight inflatable and deployable solar arrays/concentrators—like in the NASA 'Sun Tower' and the 'European Sail Tower SPS'—are reviewed and major problems with wireless power transmission are discussed. Compared to earlier concepts the designs have the potential to reduce significantly the masses and, thus, the costs. But the technological demands and operational uncertainties are still immense. Anyhow, major progress with cost reductions of one to two orders of magnitude is required for the space option to become competitive with terrestrial regenerative options.

  18. A Cryogenic High-Power-Density Bearingless Motor for Future Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a high-power-density switched-reluctance cryogenic motor for all-electric and pollution-free flight. However, cryogenic operation at higher rotational speeds markedly shortens the life of mechanical rolling element bearings. Thus, to demonstrate the practical feasibility of using this motor for future flights, a non-contact rotor-bearing system is a crucial technology to circumvent poor bearing life that ordinarily accompanies cryogenic operation. In this paper, a bearingless motor control technology for a 12-8 (12 poles in the stator and 8 poles in the rotor) switched-reluctance motor operating in liquid nitrogen (boiling point, 77 K (-196 C or -321 F)) was presented. We pushed previous disciplinary limits of electromagnetic controller technique by extending the state-of-the-art bearingless motor operating at liquid nitrogen for high-specific-power applications. The motor was levitated even in its nonlinear region of magnetic saturation, which is believed to be a world first for the motor type. Also we used only motoring coils to generate motoring torque and levitation force, which is an important feature for developing a high specific power motor.

  19. Nitrogen oxides emissions from thermal power plants in china: current status and future predictions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Jiajia; Qiu, Peipei; Zhu, Chuanyong

    2013-10-01

    Increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the Chinese mainland have been of great concern due to their adverse impacts on regional air quality and public health. To explore and obtain the temporal and spatial characteristics of NOx emissions from thermal power plants in China, a unit-based method is developed. The method assesses NOx emissions based on detailed information on unit capacity, boiler and burner patterns, feed fuel types, emission control technologies, and geographical locations. The national total NOx emissions in 2010 are estimated at 7801.6 kt, of which 5495.8 kt is released from coal-fired power plant units of considerable size between 300 and 1000 MW. The top provincial emitter is Shandong where plants are densely concentrated. The average NOx-intensity is estimated at 2.28 g/kWh, markedly higher than that of developed countries, mainly owing to the inadequate application of high-efficiency denitrification devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Future NOx emissions are predicted by applying scenario analysis, indicating that a reduction of about 40% by the year 2020 can be achieved compared with emissions in 2010. These results suggest that NOx emissions from Chinese thermal power plants could be substantially mitigated within 10 years if reasonable control measures were implemented effectively. PMID:24010996

  20. Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J M; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true 'snapshot' data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

  1. Precision engineering for future propulsion and power systems: a perspective from Rolls-Royce.

    PubMed

    Beale, Sam

    2012-08-28

    Rolls-Royce today is an increasingly global business, supplying integrated power systems to a wide variety of customers for use on land, at sea and in the air. Its reputation for 'delivering excellence' to these customers has been built largely on its gas turbine technology portfolio, and this reputation relies on the quality of the company's expertise in design, manufacture and delivery of services. This paper sets out to examine a number of examples, such as the high-pressure turbine blade, of the company's reliance on precision design and manufacture, highlighting how this precision contributes to customer satisfaction with its products. A number of measures the company is taking to accelerate its competitiveness in precision manufacture are highlighted, not least its extensive relationships with the academic research base. The paper finishes by looking briefly at the demands of the company's potential future product portfolio. PMID:22802505

  2. Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J. M.; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true ‘snapshot’ data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

  3. Survey of future requirements for large space structures. [space platforms, large antennas, and power surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The future requirements for large space structures were examined and the foundation for long range planning of technology development for such structures is provided. Attention is concentrated on a period after 1985 for actual use. Basic ground rule of the study was that applications be of significant importance and have promise of direct economic benefit to mankind. The inputs to the study came from visits to a large number of government and industrial organizations, written studies in current literature, and approximate analyses of potential applications. The paper identifies diverse space applications for large area structures in three general categories: (1) large surfaces for power, (2) large antenna to receive and transmit energy over the radio frequency bandwidth, and (3) space platforms to provide area for general utilizations.

  4. Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krames, Michael R.; Shchekin, Oleg B.; Mueller-Mach, Regina; Mueller, Gerd O.; Zhou, Ling; Harbers, Gerard; Craford, M. George

    2007-06-01

    Status and future outlook of III-V compound semiconductor visible-spectrum light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are presented. Light extraction techniques are reviewed and extraction efficiencies are quantified in the 60%+ (AlGaInP) and ~80% (InGaN) regimes for state-of-the-art devices. The phosphor-based white LED concept is reviewed and recent performance discussed, showing that high-power white LEDs now approach the 100-lm/W regime. Devices employing multiple phosphors for “warm” white color temperatures (~3000 4000 K) and high color rendering (CRI > 80), which provide properties critical for many illumination applications, are discussed. Recent developments in chip design, packaging, and high current performance lead to very high luminance devices (~50 Mcd/m2 white at 1 A forward current in 1 x 1 mm2 chip) that are suitable for application to automotive forward lighting. A prognosis for future LED performance levels is considered given further improvements in internal quantum efficiency, which to date lag achievements in light extraction efficiency for InGaN LEDs.

  5. Optimized ISRU Propellants for Propulsion and Power Needs for Future Mars Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Eric E.; Gustafson, Robert J.; Gramer, Daniel J.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Teeter, Ronald R.; White, Brant C.

    2003-01-01

    In recent studies (Rice, 2000, 2002) conducted by ORBITEC for the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC), we conceptualized systems and an evolving optimized architecture for producing and utilizing Mars-based in-situ space resources utilization (ISRU) propellant combinations for future Mars colonization. The propellants are to be used to support the propulsion and power systems for ground and flight vehicles. The key aspect of the study was to show the benefits of ISRU, develop an analysis methodology, as well as provide guidance to propellant system choices in the future based upon what is known today about Mars. The study time frame included an early unmanned and manned exploration period (through 2040) and two colonization scenarios that are postulated to occur from 2040 to 2090. As part of this feasibility study, ORBITEC developed two different Mars colonization scenarios: a low case that ends with a 100-person colony (an Antarctica analogy) and a high case that ends with a 10,000-person colony (a Mars terraforming scenario). A population growth model, mission traffic model, and infrastructure model were developed for each scenario to better understand the requirements of future Mars colonies. Additionally, propellant and propulsion systems design concepts were developed. Cost models were also developed to allow comparison of the different ISRU propellant approaches. This paper summarizes the overall results of the study. ISRU proved to be a key enabler for these colonization missions. Carbon monoxide and oxygen, proved to be the most cost-effective ISRU propellant combination. The entire final reports Phase I and II) and all the details can be found at the NIAC website www.niac.usra.edu.

  6. Design of an ultra low power CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Hu-Guo, C.; Husson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Despite a continuously increasing demand, neutron electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are still far from being completely established because their development is a very difficult task. A low-noise, ultra low power consumption CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter has been implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. The prototype is composed of a pixel array for detection of charged particles, and the readout electronics is integrated on the same substrate for signal processing. The excess electrons generated by an impinging particle are collected by the pixel array. The charge collection time and the efficiency are the crucial points of a CMOS detector. The 3-D device simulations using the commercially available Synopsys-SENTAURUS package address the detailed charge collection process. Within a time of 1.9 {mu}s, about 59% electrons created by the impact particle are collected in a cluster of 4 x 4 pixels with the pixel pitch of 80 {mu}m. A charge sensitive preamplifier (CSA) and a shaper are employed in the frond-end readout. The tests with electrical signals indicate that our prototype with a total active area of 2.56 x 2.56 mm{sup 2} performs an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of less than 400 e - and 314 {mu}W power consumption, leading to a promising prototype. (authors)

  7. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  8. Evaluating potentials for future generation off-shore wind-power outside Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.; Haugen, J.; Haakenstad, H.

    2012-12-01

    With todays critical need of renewable energy sources, it is naturally to look towards wind power. With the long coast of Norway, there is a large potential for wind farms offshore Norway. Although there are more challenges with offshore wind energy installations compared to wind farms on land, the offshore wind is generally higher, and there is also higher persistence of wind speed values in the power generating classes. I planning offshore wind farms, there is a need of evaluation of the wind resources, the wind climatology and possible future changes. In this aspect, we use data from regional climate model runs performed in the European ENSEMBLE-project (van der Linden and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2009). In spite of increased reliability in RCMs in the recent years, the simulations still suffer from systematic model errors, therefore the data has to be corrected before using them in wind resource analyses. In correcting the wind speeds from the RCMs, we will use wind speeds from a Norwegian high resolution wind- and wave- archive, NORA10 (Reistad et al 2010), to do quantile mapping (Themeβl et. al. 2012). The quantile mapping is performed individually for each regional simulation driven by ERA40-reanalysis from the ENSEMBLE-project corrected against NORA10. The same calibration is then used to the belonging regional climate scenario. The calibration is done for each grid cell in the domain and for each day of the year centered in a +/-15 day window to make an empirical cumulative density function for each day of the year. The quantile mapping of the scenarios provide us with a new wind speed data set for the future, more correct compared to the raw ENSEMBLE scenarios. References: Reistad M., Ø. Breivik, H. Haakenstad, O. J. Aarnes, B. R. Furevik and J-R Bidlo, 2010, A high-resolution hindcast of wind and waves for The North Sea, The Norwegian Sea and The Barents Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116. doi:10.1029/2010JC006402. Themessl M. J., A. Gobiet and A. Leuprecht, 2012

  9. Scaling magnetized liner inertial fusion on Z and future pulsed-power accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, S. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Gomez, M. R.; Peterson, K. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Campbell, E. M.; Betti, R.

    2016-02-01

    The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] has demonstrated fusion-relevant plasma conditions [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z accelerator with a peak drive current of about 18 MA. We present 2D numerical simulations of the scaling of MagLIF on Z as a function of drive current, preheat energy, and applied magnetic field. The results indicate that deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion yields greater than 100 kJ could be possible on Z when all of these parameters are at the optimum values: i.e., peak current = 25 MA, deposited preheat energy = 5 kJ, and Bz = 30 T. Much higher yields have been predicted [S. A. Slutz and R. A. Vesey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 025003 (2012)] for MagLIF driven with larger peak currents. Two high performance pulsed-power accelerators (Z300 and Z800) based on linear-transformer-driver technology have been designed [W. A. Stygar et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 18, 110401 (2015)]. The Z300 design would provide 48 MA to a MagLIF load, while Z800 would provide 65 MA. Parameterized Thevenin-equivalent circuits were used to drive a series of 1D and 2D numerical MagLIF simulations with currents ranging from what Z can deliver now to what could be achieved by these conceptual future pulsed-power accelerators. 2D simulations of simple MagLIF targets containing just gaseous DT have yields of 18 MJ for Z300 and 440 MJ for Z800. The 2D simulated yield for Z800 is increased to 7 GJ by adding a layer of frozen DT ice to the inside of the liner.

  10. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  11. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  12. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  16. Combustion Engineering Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project -- Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, November 20, 1990--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. The IGCC will include CE`s slogging, entrained-flow, gasifier operating in a pressurized mode and using air as the oxidant. The hot gas will be cleaned of particulate matter (char) which is recycled back to the gasifier. After particulate removal, the product gas will be cleaned of sulfur prior to burning in a gas turbine. The proposed project includes design and demonstration of two advanced hot gas cleanup processes for removal of sulfur from the product gas of the gasifier. The primary sulfur removal method features a newly developed moving-bed zinc ferrite system downstream of the gasifier. The process data from these pilot tests is expected to be sufficient for the design of a full-scale system to be used in the proposed demonstration. A second complementary process is in situ desulfurization achieved by adding limestone or dolomite directly to the coal feed. The benefit, should such an approach prove viable, is that the downstream cleanup system could be reduced in size. In this plant, the gasifier will be producing a low-Btu gas (LBG). The LBG will be used as fuel in a standard GE gas turbine to produce power. This gas turbine will have the capability to fire LBG and natural gas (for start-up). Since firing LBG uses less air than natural gas, the gas turbine air compressor will have extra capacity. This extra compressed air will be used to pressurize the gasifier and supply the air needed in the gasification process. The plant is made of three major blocks of equipment as shown in Figure 2. They are the fuel gas island which includes the gasifier and gas cleanup, gas turbine power block, and the steam turbine block which includes the steam turbine and the HRSG.

  17. The DOE Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project -- Demonstration of dynamic information technology for the future power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelstadt, W.A.; Hauer, J.F.; Krause, P.E.; Wilson, R.E.; Overholt, P.N.; Rizy, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Power Administration (WAPA) joined the US Department of Energy (DOE) in an assessment of longer-term research and development needs for future electric power system operation. The effort produced a progressively sharper vision of a future power system in which enhanced control and operation are the primary means for serving new customer demands in an environment characterized by increased competition, a wider range of services and vendors, and much narrower operating margins. Technology and infrastructure for real time access to wide area dynamic information were identified as critical path elements in realizing that vision. In 1995 the DOE accordingly launched the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project jointly with the two Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) to address these issues in a practical operating environment the western North America power system. The Project draws upon many years of PMA effort and related collaboration among the western utilities, plus an expanding infrastructure that includes regionally involved contractors, universities, and National Laboratories plus linkages to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  18. Past, present, and future activities in space power technology in the United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrus, Judith H.

    1987-01-01

    Space power technology research in the U.S. is examined. The objectives for advanced power systems are long life, safety, flexibility, modularity, growth capability, and autonomy. Research in the areas of photovoltaic arrays, electrical energy storage, and the development of solar dynamic power systems and radio thermal generators is described. The applications of advances in power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution to the Space Station are discussed.

  19. Status and future prospects of laser fusion and high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2010-08-01

    In Asia, there are many institutes for the R&D of high power laser science and applications. They are 5 major institutes in Japan, 4 major institutes in China, 2 institutes in Korea, and 3 institutes in India. The recent achievements and future prospects of those institutes will be over viewed. In the laser fusion research, the FIREX-I project in Japan has been progressing. The 10kJ short pulse LFEX laser has completed and started the experiments with a single beam. About 1kJ pulse energy will be injected into a cone target. The experimental results of the FIREX experiments will be presented. As the target design for the experiments, a new target, namely, a double cone target was proposed, in which the high energy electrons are well confined and the heating efficiency is significantly improved. Together with the fusion experiments, Osaka University has carried out laboratory astrophysics experiments on photo ionizing plasmas to observe a unique X-ray spectrum from non-LTE plasmas. In 2008, Osaka university has started a new Photon research center in relation with the new program: Consortium for Photon Science and Technology: C-PhoST, in which ultra intense laser plasmas research and related education will be carried out for 10 years. At APRI, JAEA, the fundamental science on the relativistic laser plasmas and the applications of laser particle acceleration has been developed. The application of laser ion acceleration has been investigated on the beam cancer therapy since 2007. In China, The high power glass laser: Shenguan-II and a peta watt beam have been operated to work on radiation hydro dynamics at SIOFM Shanghai. The laser material and optics are developed at SIOFM and LFRC. The IAPCM and the IOP continued the studies on radiation hydrodynamics and on relativistic laser plasmas interactions. At LFRC in China, the construction of Shenguan III glass laser of 200kJ in blue has progressed and will be completed in 2012. Together with the Korean program, I will

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  1. Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes: a powerful and versatile vector for the future of tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laurence M.; Paterson, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, inactivated or attenuated bacteria have been employed in the clinic as immunotherapies to treat cancer, starting with the Coley's vaccines in the 19th century and leading to the currently approved bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine for bladder cancer. While effective, the inflammation induced by these therapies is transient and not designed to induce long-lasting tumor-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that have proven so adept at eradicating tumors. Therefore, in order to maintain the benefits of bacteria-induced acute inflammation but gain long-lasting anti-tumor immunity, many groups have constructed recombinant bacteria expressing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) for the purpose of activating tumor-specific CTLs. One bacterium has proven particularly adept at inducing powerful anti-tumor immunity, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Lm is a gram-positive bacterium that selectively infects antigen-presenting cells wherein it is able to efficiently deliver tumor antigens to both the MHC Class I and II antigen presentation pathways for activation of tumor-targeting CTL-mediated immunity. Lm is a versatile bacterial vector as evidenced by its ability to induce therapeutic immunity against a wide-array of TAAs and specifically infect and kill tumor cells directly. It is for these reasons, among others, that Lm-based immunotherapies have delivered impressive therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models of cancer for two decades and are now showing promise clinically. In this review, we will provide an overview of the history leading up to the development of current Lm-based immunotherapies, the advantages and mechanisms of Lm as a therapeutic vaccine vector, the preclinical experience with Lm-based immunotherapies targeting a number of malignancies, and the recent findings from clinical trials along with concluding remarks on the future of Lm-based tumor immunotherapies. PMID:24860789

  2. Model Based Optimal Sensor Network Design for Condition Monitoring in an IGCC Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeeva; Kumar, Aditya; Dai, Dan; Seenumani, Gayathri; Down, John; Lopez, Rodrigo

    2012-12-31

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a general model-based sensor network design methodology and tools to address key issues in the design of an optimal sensor network configuration: the type, location and number of sensors used in a network, for online condition monitoring. In particular, the focus in this work is to develop software tools for optimal sensor placement (OSP) and use these tools to design optimal sensor network configuration for online condition monitoring of gasifier refractory wear and radiant syngas cooler (RSC) fouling. The methodology developed will be applicable to sensing system design for online condition monitoring for broad range of applications. The overall approach consists of (i) defining condition monitoring requirement in terms of OSP and mapping these requirements in mathematical terms for OSP algorithm, (ii) analyzing trade-off of alternate OSP algorithms, down selecting the most relevant ones and developing them for IGCC applications (iii) enhancing the gasifier and RSC models as required by OSP algorithms, (iv) applying the developed OSP algorithm to design the optimal sensor network required for the condition monitoring of an IGCC gasifier refractory and RSC fouling. Two key requirements for OSP for condition monitoring are desired precision for the monitoring variables (e.g. refractory wear) and reliability of the proposed sensor network in the presence of expected sensor failures. The OSP problem is naturally posed within a Kalman filtering approach as an integer programming problem where the key requirements of precision and reliability are imposed as constraints. The optimization is performed over the overall network cost. Based on extensive literature survey two formulations were identified as being relevant to OSP for condition monitoring; one based on LMI formulation and the other being standard INLP formulation. Various algorithms to solve

  3. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  4. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 3, Appendix B: NO{sub x} and alkali vapor control strategies: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  5. AC/DC Power Systems with Applications for future Lunar/Mars base and Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowdhury, Badrul H.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Power Systems branch at JSC faces a number of complex issues as it readies itself for the President's initiative on future space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some of these preliminary issues - those dealing with electric power generation and distribution on board Mars-bound vehicle and that on Lunar and Martian surface may be summarized as follows: Type of prime mover - Because solar power may not be readily available on parts of the Lunar/Mars surface and also during the long duration flight to Mars, the primary source of power will most likely be nuclear power (Uranium fuel rods) with a secondary source of fuel cell (Hydrogen supply). The electric power generation source - With nuclear power being the main prime mover, the electric power generation source will most likely be an ac generator at a yet to be determined frequency. Thus, a critical issue is whether the generator should generate at constant or variable frequency. This will decide what type of generator to use - whether it is a synchronous machine, an asynchronous induction machine or a switched reluctance machine. The type of power distribution system - the distribution frequency, number of wires (3- wire, 4-wire or higher), and ac/dc hybridization. Building redundancy and fault tolerance in the generation and distribution sub-systems so that the system is safe; provides 100% availability to critical loads; continues to operate even with faulted sub-systems; and requires minimal maintenance. This report descril_es results of a summer faculty fellowship spent in the Power Systems Branch with the specific aim of investigating some of the lessons learned in electric power generation and usage from the terrestrial power systems industry, the aerospace industry as well as NASA's on-going missions so as to recommend novel surface and vehicle-based power systems architectures in support of future space exploration initiatives. A hybrid ac/dc architecture with source side and load side

  6. Restructuring and renewable energy developments in California:using Elfin to simulate the future California power market

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Dan; Kito, Suzie; Marnay, Chris; Pickle, Steve; Schumacher, Katja; Sezgen,Osman; Wiser, Ryan

    1998-06-01

    We provide some basic background information on support for renewable in California on the expected operation of the power pool and bilateral markets, and on the three key policy types modeled here. We discuss the Elfin production cost and expansion planning model as well as key assumptions that we made to model the future California pool. We present results from the successful Elfin models runs. We discuss the implications of the study, as well as key areas for future research. Additional information on results, Elfin's expansion planning logic, and resource options can be found in the appendices.

  7. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Ms. Anna; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Mr. Bruce; Garland, Patricia W; Bautista, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  8. Preparation of Metal Filter Element for Fail Safety in IGCC Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J-H.; Ahn, I-S.; Bak, Y-C.; Bae, S-Y.; Ha, S-J.; Jang, H-J.

    2002-09-18

    Metal filter elements as the fail safety filter are fabricated by the methods using cold isostatic pressure (compress method) and binder (binder method) to form the filter element and tested in a experimental and bench units. The fail safety filter on the filtration system is mounted additionally in order to intercept the particle leak when the main filter element is broken. So it should have two contrary functions of a high permeability and being plugged easily. The filter element having high porosity and high plugging property was fabricated by the bind method. It has the porosity more than 50%, showed very small pressure drop less than 10mmH2O at the face velocity of 0.15m/s, and plugged within 5 minutes with the inhibition of the particle leak larger than 4 {micro}m. The test result of corrosion tendency in IGCC gas stream at 500 C shows SUS310L material is very reasonable among SUS310, SUS316, Inconel 600, and Hastelloy X.

  9. The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D.T.; Wilson, R.E.; Martin, K.E.; Litzenberger, W.H.; Hauer, J.F.; Overholt, P.N.; Sobajic, D.J.

    1998-11-01

    Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.

  10. The DOE Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project: Demonstration of dynamic information technology for the future power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelstadt, W.A.; Krause, P.E.; Wilson, R.E.; Overholt, P.N.; Sobajic, D.J.; Hauer, J.F.; Rizy, D.T.

    1996-07-01

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) joined the US Department of Energy (DOE) in an assessment of longer-term research and development needs for future electric power system operation. The effort produced a progressively sharper vision of a future power system in which enhanced control and operation are the primary means for serving new customer demands, in an environment where increased competition, a wider range of services and vendors, and much narrower operating margins all contribute to increased system efficiencies and capacity. Technology and infrastructure for real time access to wide area dynamic information were identified as critical path elements in realizing that vision. In 1995 the DOE accordingly launched the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project jointly with the two Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) to address these issues in a practical operating environment--the western North America power system. The Project draws upon many years of PMA effort and related collaboration among the western utilities, plus an expanding infrastructure that includes regionally involved contractors, universities, and National Laboratories plus linkages to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The WAMS project also brings added focus and resources to the evolving Western System Dynamic Information Network, or WesDINet. This is a collective response of the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) member utilities to their shared needs for direct information about power system characteristics, model fidelity, and operational performance. The WAMS project is a key source of the technology and backbone communications needed to make WesDINet a well integrated, cost effective enterprise network demonstrating the role of dynamic information technology in the emerging utility environment.

  11. Predicting future wind power generation and power demand in France using statistical downscaling methods developed for hydropower applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najac, Julien

    2014-05-01

    For many applications in the energy sector, it is crucial to dispose of downscaling methods that enable to conserve space-time dependences at very fine spatial and temporal scales between variables affecting electricity production and consumption. For climate change impact studies, this is an extremely difficult task, particularly as reliable climate information is usually found at regional and monthly scales at best, although many industry oriented applications need further refined information (hydropower production model, wind energy production model, power demand model, power balance model…). Here we thus propose to investigate the question of how to predict and quantify the influence of climate change on climate-related energies and the energy demand. To do so, statistical downscaling methods originally developed for studying climate change impacts on hydrological cycles in France (and which have been used to compute hydropower production in France), have been applied for predicting wind power generation in France and an air temperature indicator commonly used for predicting power demand in France. We show that those methods provide satisfactory results over the recent past and apply this methodology to several climate model runs from the ENSEMBLES project.

  12. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Leven B.; Pyatt, David W.; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Winchester, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  13. Resource Letter FuNP-1: The Future of Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, George; Kulynych, George; Parks, Cecil

    2010-10-01

    This Resource Letter is intended to summarize the status of nuclear power in the world today, prospects of significant expansion of nuclear power over the next several decades, the planning of and forecasts for the addition of new power reactors, and issues surrounding the addition of these new reactors. Owing to the breadth of this subject, the list of references includes journal articles, web pages, and reports to guide the reader on the subject. The subject of nuclear power and its related issues are dynamic, so the most current information is likely to be found on reputable websites.

  14. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  15. High-Temperature SiC Power Module with Integrated SiC Gate Drivers for Future High-Density Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Mr. Bret; Cole, Mr. Zach; Passmore, Mr. Brandon; Martin, Daniel; Mcnutt, Tyler; Lostetter, Dr. Alex; Ericson, Milton Nance; Frank, Steven Shane; Britton Jr, Charles L; Marlino, Laura D; Mantooth, Alan; Francis, Dr. Matt; Lamichhane, Ranjan; Shepherd, Dr. Paul; Glover, Dr. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the testing results of an all-silicon carbide (SiC) intelligent power module (IPM) for use in future high-density power electronics applications. The IPM has high-temperature capability and contains both SiC power devices and SiC gate driver integrated circuits (ICs). The high-temperature capability of the SiC gate driver ICs allows for them to be packaged into the power module and be located physically close to the power devices. This provides a distinct advantage by reducing the gate driver loop inductance, which promotes high frequency operation, while also reducing the overall volume of the system through higher levels of integration. The power module was tested in a bridgeless-boost converter to showcase the performance of the module in a system level application. The converter was initially operated with a switching frequency of 200 kHz with a peak output power of approximately 5 kW. The efficiency of the converter was then evaluated experimentally and optimized by increasing the overdrive voltage on the SiC gate driver ICs. Overall a peak efficiency of 97.7% was measured at 3.0 kW output. The converter s switching frequency was then increased to 500 kHz to prove the high frequency capability of the power module was then pushed to its limits and operated at a switching frequency of 500 kHz. With no further optimization of components, the converter was able to operate under these conditions and showed a peak efficiency of 95.0% at an output power of 2.1 kW.

  16. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  17. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  18. The future of the Bonneville Power Administration: Aggressive competitor or bureaucratic dinosaur?

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Splitting the Bonneville Power Administration into fully separate generating and transmission entities is the only step, short of privatization or regionalization, that would eliminate the conflict between compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s open access requirements and the need to maximize Bonneville Power Administration revenues for taxpayers.

  19. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  20. Enabling Future Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Mission Concepts Using Small Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young H.; Bairstow, Brian; Amini, Rashied; Zakrajsek, June; Oleson, Steven R.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    For more than five decades, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) have played a critical role in the exploration of space, enabling missions of scientific discovery to destinations across the solar system by providing electrical power to explore remote and challenging environments - some of the hardest to reach, darkest, and coldest locations in the solar system. In particular, RPS has met the demand of many long-duration mission concepts for continuous power to conduct science investigations independent of change in sunlight or variations in surface conditions like shadows, thick clouds, or dust.

  1. Gyroharmonic converter as a high power cm-wavelength rf source for future e--e+ colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; Ganguly, A. K.; Wang, Changbiao

    1995-07-01

    The principles governing gyroharmonic conversion for production of high-power cm-wavelength rf power to drive a future e--e+ collider are reviewed. Results of projected performance of the Yale 14.28 GHz converter are presented, as predicted using a seamless slow-time-scale simulation code that follows the beam particles through a cyclotron autoresonance acceleration region, through an rf absorbing drift tube, and through a fifth-harmonic traveling-wave output section. Approximate scaling relations are developed to give converter parameters with power levels appropriate for collider applications. Possible means to control beam quality, and thus to retain good converter efficiency, are described. A single-beam, multiple-source converter concept is suggested that may make unnecessary more than one gun and gun modulator to supply a large number of accelerator rf feeds.

  2. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  3. Advances in Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Batteries Powering the Electronic Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skotheim, Terje; Akridge, Jim; Hyland, Bob

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the Moltech Corporation's history and structure, power systems development, product attributes, Li-S adapted products, cell construction, specific energy comparisons, and product requirements necessary for use in spacecraft applications.

  4. The LiAl/FeS2 battery power source for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, J. Douglass; Embrey, J.; Oweis, S.; Press, K.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high power density rechargeable batteries are currently under development. These batteries have the potential of greatly increasing the power and energy densities available for space applications. Depending on whether the system is optimized for high power or high energy, values up to 150 Wh/kg and 2100 W/kg (including hardware) are projected. This is due to the fact that the system uses a high conductivity molten salt electrolyte. The electrolyte also serves as a separator layer with unlimited freeze thaw capabilities. Life of 1000 cycles and ten calendar years is projected. The electrochemistry consists of a lithium aluminum alloy negative electrode, iron disulfide positive electrode, and magnesium oxide powder immobilized molten salt electrolyte. Processed powders are cold compacted into circular discs which are assembled into bipolar cell hardware with peripheral ceramic salts. The culmination of the work will be a high energy battery of 40 kWh and a high power battery of 28 kWh.

  5. Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

    1990-07-01

    There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. ''An assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation''

    SciTech Connect

    Hauber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

    1983-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. This study was managed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal Utilization. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2,150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules.

  7. Assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  8. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  9. High-Power Multimode X-Band RF Pulse Compression System for Future Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Pearson, C.; Nelson, J.; Jobe, K.; Chan, J.; Fant, K.; Frisch, J.; Atkinson, D.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2005-08-10

    We present a multimode X-band rf pulse compression system suitable for a TeV-scale electron-positron linear collider such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The NLC main linac operating frequency is 11.424 GHz. A single NLC rf unit is required to produce 400 ns pulses with 475 MW of peak power. Each rf unit should power approximately 5 m of accelerator structures. The rf unit design consists of two 75 MW klystrons and a dual-moded resonant-delay-line pulse compression system that produces a flat output pulse. The pulse compression system components are all overmoded, and most components are designed to operate with two modes. This approach allows high-power-handling capability while maintaining a compact, inexpensive system. We detail the design of this system and present experimental cold test results. We describe the design and performance of various components. The high-power testing of the system is verified using four 50 MW solenoid-focused klystrons run off a common 400 kV solid-state modulator. The system has produced 400 ns rf pulses of greater than 500 MW. We present the layout of our system, which includes a dual-moded transmission waveguide system and a dual-moded resonant line (SLED-II) pulse compression system. We also present data on the processing and operation of this system, which has set high-power records in coherent and phase controlled pulsed rf.

  10. An X-band, high power dielectric resonator oscillator for future military systems.

    PubMed

    Mizan, M A; Sturzebecher, D; Higgins, T; Paolella, A

    1993-01-01

    A 9.0-GHz dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO), generating a CW output power of 2.5 W at room temperature, has been designed and fabricated using a high-power GaAs MESFET and a dielectric resonator (DR) in a parallel feedback configuration. The oscillator exhibited a frequency stability of better than 130 ppm, without any temperature compensation, over the range -50 degrees C to +50 degrees C. The output power varied from +35 dBm (3.2 W) at -50 degrees C to +33 dBm (2 W) at +50 degrees C. The single-sideband phase noise levels were measured and found to be -105 and -135 dBc/Hz, at 10- and 100-kHz carrier offset frequencies, respectively. The oscillator output was then fed into a single-stage high-power MESFET amplifier, resulting in a total RF power output of 6.5 W. The overall DC to RF conversion efficiency of the 6.5-W unit was approximately 15.3% PMID:18263210

  11. Vulnerability of the large-scale future smart electric power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiruzzaman, A. B. M.; Pota, H. R.; Akter, Most. Nahida

    2014-11-01

    The changing power flow pattern of the power system, with inclusion of large-scale renewable energy sources in the distribution side of the network, has been modeled by complex network framework based bidirectional graph. The bidirectional graph accommodates the reverse power flowing back from the distribution side to the grid in the model as a reverse edge connecting two nodes. The capacity of the reverse edge is equal to the capacity of the existing edge between the nodes in the forward directional nominal graph. Increased path in the combined model, built to facilitate grid reliability and efficiency, may serve as a bottleneck in practice with removal of certain percentage of nodes or edges. The effect of removal of critical elements has been analyzed in terms of increased path length, connectivity loss, load loss, and number of overloaded lines.

  12. Renewable energy power in U. S. electric utility applications past progress, current status, future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    De Meo, E.A.

    1985-02-01

    During the past ten years, over two billion dollars of public and private funds have been applied toward the development of new renewable power sources. The efforts conducted over this period have led to several primary results: Lofty dreams of large energy contributions by year 2000 have been replaced by realistic projections and the realization that successful development of new power technologies takes a number of years. We have also come to realize that a contribution of one or two percent of U.S. energy needs by year 2000 from a new technology would represent a truly significant achievement, would imply productive capital investments of tens of billions of dollars, and would signal the emergence of a very healthy power option whose ultimate role would be influenced primarily by normal market forces.

  13. Fire protection for power plants: past, present and future. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Major power stations are divided into two categories, fossil-fueled and nuclear. Fossil stations - coal, oil, natural gas, and dual fuel - are described as are the hazards and protective features unique to each type. Commonalities are highlighted and boiler controls, boiler auxiliaries, turbine-generator systems, electrical equipment and auxiliary systems are reviewed. The history of nuclear power stations, the impact of the Brown's Ferry fire and the resultant regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed. The importance of utilizing fire protection engineers is underscored.

  14. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  15. Utility researchers plan future - with our money: EPRI's drive for centralized power, synfuels, and more nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, A.

    1981-06-01

    Research efforts by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) focus on synfuels, coal, and nuclear energy at the expense of renewable energy sources and regulations to protect safety and the environment. EPRI is accused of pursuing industry profits, downgrading regulations, and centralized power. Evidence for these accusations is drawn from the EPRI budget, memos, and EPRI studies on nuclear projects, renewables, fuel cells, and battery technology. Funds have been diverted to alternative research programs in two states, but EPRI commands about $2.60 per year from each utility customer for its $260 million (1980) budget, which funds the industry's major research effort. (DCK)

  16. Future challenges for nuclear power plant development research, and for radiological protection sciences.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The promise of the future shines brightly for nuclear energy technology and production, yet also holds many challenges. Focus on new reactor designs is currently aiming at what is termed the fourth generation of reactors, which will come into operation after 2030. The 10 countries participating in the Generation-IV International Forum to develop the new generation of reactors have designated six reactor designs that will be studied. This paper will briefly discuss some of these challenges in new reactor designs in general. In addition to the challenges posed by new reactor designs, radiation protection is also faced with a series of challenges for the future. These are borne from experience with the implementation of the current system of radiological protection, from the evolution of radiation biological research, and from changes in society in the area of radiological risk assessment and management. This paper will address all of these emerging challenges, and point towards approaches to resolve them in the future. PMID:18049234

  17. On the Power of Separate Spaces: Teachers and Students Writing (Righting) Selves and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois; Centrie, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effect of programs within desegregated schools that serve an identified population of students for cultural affirmation and advancement. Ethnographic data from a girls' group at an urban magnet school and a Vietnamese students' homeroom, focusing on 20 high school students, in an urban comprehensive school demonstrate both the power of…

  18. Electricity's Future: The Shift to Efficiency and Small-Scale Power. Worldwatch Paper 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Electricity, which has largely supplanted oil as the most controversial energy issue of the 1980s, is at the center of some of the world's bitterest economic and environmental controversies. Soaring costs, high interest rates, and environmental damage caused by large power plants have wreaked havoc on the once booming electricity industry.…

  19. Current status and future prospects of power generators using dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Seiki; Waki, Mikio; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron

    2011-12-01

    Electroactive polymer artificial muscle (EPAM), known collectively as dielectric elastomers in the literature, has been shown to offer unique capabilities as an actuator and is now being developed for a wide variety of generator applications. EPAM has several characteristics that make it potentially well suited for wave, water current, wind, human motion, and other environmental energy harvesting systems including a high energy density allowing for minimal EPAM material quantities, high energy conversion efficiency independent of frequency of operation and non-toxic and low-cost materials not susceptible to corrosion. Experiments have been performed on push-button and heel-mounted generator devices powered by human motion, ocean wave power harvesters mounted on buoys and water turbines. While the power output levels of such demonstration devices is small, the performance of these devices has supported the potential benefits of EPAM. For example, an electrical energy conversion efficiency of over 70% was achieved with small wave heights. The ability of EPAM to produce hydrogen fuel for energy storage was also demonstrated. Because the energy conversion principle of EPAM is capacitive in nature, the performance is largely independent of size and it should eventually be possible to scale up EPAM generators to the megawatt level to address a variety of electrical power needs.

  20. The Reality of Perceptions: The Future Earning Power of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillum, F. E. "Skip"; Davies, Timothy Gray

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a three-phase study that examined the relationship between earning power and the successful completion of a program of study at a community college. Discusses the impact this issue may have on state legislators examining the role of the community college. Urges collection of hard data for presentation to legislators. (Contains 23…

  1. Present and future of GaN power devices and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the status quo of several GaN-based power devices. By using unique polarized heterostructure of GaN/AlGaN materials, NSJ (Natural Super Junction) diode was proposed to break through the trade-off between the blocking voltage and the on-resistance. Normally-off GaN-based device was realized by GIT (Gate Injection Transistor) structure, where p-type AlGaN hole-injector are provided as a gate reducing the on-resistance by conductivity modulation. Experimentally fabricated inverter system using GaN GIT achieved the world-highest conversion efficiency over 99.3%. Further, by combining the microwave performance and power handling capability of of GaN-based devices, we developed Drive-by-Microwave (DbM) technology as a DC-isolated gate driver for GaN power switch. This is a fusion of microwave and power devices for the first time using GaN-based materials

  2. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D{sup −} beams in future neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid

    2015-04-08

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  3. Potential impact of tidal power plants and future sea-level rise on the dynamics of the European Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mattias; Pelling, Holly

    2010-05-01

    Tidal power is a potential renewable energy source internationally, although financial and technical limitations to tidal power have been addressed. There is also a dynamical aspect of the extraction of tidal energy from shallow shelf seas: what will happen with the tidal dynamics on the shelf if energy is extracted at point sources? The tidal currents and the dissipation of tidal energy control the location of shelf sea fronts and thereby the seasonal stratification. Any change in the tides may thus have far-reaching implications for the biogeochemical and physical systems on the shelf, e.g. primary production, draw-down of atmospheric CO2, and sediment transport. Here we suggest ways to implement tidal power plants in dynamic tidal models, and we investigate how the tidal dynamics of the European shelf changes if we extract large amounts of tidal energy during both present and future climate-change scenarios. With a 1 m future sea-level rise the results show significantly modified tidal amplitudes with up to 20% in certain areas, and the effects may reach the global ocean. These changes are attributed to modifications of the resonant properties of the ocean, which induce a shift in the location of the amphidromic points. During present day conditions the addition of a large-scale Severn barrage induces amplitude changes of 10-20% of the regional tide in several locations. Significant changes can be found at locations far from the barrage itself, i.e. on the Northwest coast of Scotland and in the English Channel, again due to movement of the amphidromic points. However, the back effects on the open ocean tides from tidal power plants are negligible. The combination of a 1 m sea-level rise and a Severn barrage show even larger modifications with effects at large distances from the shelf and the power plant itself. The conclusion is that care must be taken in the implementation of tidal power plants to ensure that the full impact of the power extraction is

  4. Future thrusts of the NASA space power program. [with emphasis on electrochemical energy conversion and storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L.

    1978-01-01

    General objectives and plan directions are given for current program support in the following areas: (1) solar cells and arrays; (2) batteries and fuel cells; (3) thermoelectric, thermionic, and Brayton cycle conversion systems; (4) circuits and subsystems for the management and distribution of power; and (5) the interactions of the environment with the power system and the spacecraft. Particular emphasis is given to the electrochemical energy conversion storage portion of the program where efforts are directed to improving the energy density and life of nickel cadmium batteries, to validating flight-weight silver hydrogen cells, to promoting the safe use of lithium primary batteries, to completing the silver zinc batteries and the orbital transfer fuel cell technology, to increasing the capacity of space batteries, to and to evaluating new electrochemical concepts for very high energy density. The use of the fuel cell electrolyzer concept for energy storage in both the dedicated and the truly regenerative mode is also being investigated.

  5. A preliminary estimate of future communications traffic for the electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Diverse new generator technologies using renewable energy, and to improve operational efficiency throughout the existing electric power systems are presented. A description of a model utility and the information transfer requirements imposed by incorporation of dispersed storage and generation technologies and implementation of more extensive energy management are estimated. An example of possible traffic for an assumed system, and an approach that can be applied to other systems, control configurations, or dispersed storage and generation penetrations is provided.

  6. NuSTAR Results and Future Plans for Magnetar and Rotation-Powered Pulsar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, H.; Kaspi, V. M.; Archibald, R.; Bachetti, M.; Bhalerao, V.; Bellm, E. C.; Beloborodov, A. M.; Boggs, S. E.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dufour, F.; Forster, K.; Gotthelf, B. W.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hascoet, R.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kouveliotou, Ch.; Madsen, K. K.; Mori, K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Rana, V. R.; Stern, D.; Tendulkar, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing hard X-ray mission in orbit and operates in the 3-79 keV range. NuSTAR's sensitivity is roughly two orders of magnitude better than previous missions in this energy band thanks to its superb angular resolution. Since its launch in 2012 June, NuSTAR has performed excellently and observed many interesting sources including four magnetars, two rotation-powered pulsars and the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii. NuSTAR also discovered 3.76-s pulsations from the transient source SGR J1745-29 recently found by Swift very close to the Galactic center, clearly identifying the source as a transient magnetar. For magnetar 1E 1841-045, we show that the spectrum is well fit by an absorbed blackbody plus broken power-law model with a hard power-law photon index of approximately 1.3. This is consistent with previous results by INTEGRAL and RXTE. We also find an interesting double-peaked pulse profile in the 25-35 keV band. For AE Aquarii, we show that the spectrum can be described by a multi-temperature thermal model or a thermal plus non-thermal model; a multi-temperature thermal model without a non-thermal component cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, we do not see a spiky pulse profile in the hard X-ray band, as previously reported based on Suzaku observations. For other magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars observed with NuSTAR, data analysis results will be soon available.

  7. The Feasibility of Moving PMU Data in the Future Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Tara D.; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-09-07

    The power grid is a complex network connecting electricity providers with their consumers. With an increasing consumer base requiring more resources and the requirement to integrate significant renewable sources, maintaining the network requires new and innovative management solutions. To manage this complexity and provide precise, real-time views of the grid, Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are undergoing widespread deployment. These units provide measurements as often as 60 times per second, with an accurate time identifier attached to each reading, enabling real-time monitoring of the network. However, this new capability generates much more data than the current infrastructure is designed to handle. With the expectation that there will eventually be tens of thousands of PMUs monitoring the transmission lines, the power community is looking towards accumulating multiple terabytes of data per day - several orders of magnitude beyond current data acquisition rates. This has led to questions being raised in the power community about whether or not a significant research effort is required to effectively transfer the volume of information generated by these new data streams. This paper answers that question by comparing a worst-case data generation scenario with several alternative networking protocols and historical trends in protocol advancement. Based on this analysis we are able to conclude that transferring the information between the PMUs and the resulting data repositories is feasible. We recognize that there are issues beyond transferring the data that need to be addressed such as effective access to historical data, data transfer latency, cyber security, and data analysis. There is also an extensive engineering trade-off that the power companies will need to make to decide the best mix of networking protocols for their particular PMU deployments, since that requires significant assumptions about proprietary information including deployment cost, deployment

  8. Future all-electric transportation communication and recharging via wireless power beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Ronald J.

    2001-02-01

    12 Pollution-free transportation in the new millennium will be provided by the recharging of a vehicle's non-polluting on- board energy storage unit (batteries, flywheel, ultracapacitors, etc.) as the vehicle travels unrestricted down the roadway. The backbone of this new transportation system will be wireless power transmission using laser or microwave energy technology to replenish the energy storage unit on these non-polluting vehicles while maintaining an all-important communication link for safety, security, data transmission, etc. The proposed system allows the same freedom of movement currently enjoyed by Americans with the internal combustion engine powered automobile. The all- electric vehicle transportation system has the same power, maneuverability and range capability provided by today's vehicles. The many laser-based tracking and communication challenges proposed by this new system along with vehicle configurations for energy conversion in this non-polluting transportation system will be discussed. The main concern during system operation, safety, will be addressed with specific design considerations.

  9. BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

    SciTech Connect

    John McDaniel

    2002-05-01

    Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

  10. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region. PMID:22263420

  11. Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Eric; Gell, Maurice

    2015-01-15

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are crucial to improved energy efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. The use of traditional topcoat materials, e.g. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is limited at elevated temperatures due to (1) the accelerated undesirable phase transformations and (2) corrosive attacks by calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) deposits and moisture. The first goal of this project is to use the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process to further reduce the thermal conductivity of YSZ TBCs by introducing a unique microstructural feature of layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs). Extensive process optimization accompanied with hundreds of spray trials as well as associated SEM cross-section and laser-flash measurements, yielded a thermal conductivity as low as 0.62 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹ in SPPS YSZ TBCs, approximately 50% reduction of APS TBCs; while other engine critical properties, such as cyclic durability, erosion resistance and sintering resistance, were characterized to be equivalent or better than APS baselines. In addition, modifications were introduced to SPPS TBCs so as to enhance their resistance to CMAS under harsh IGCC environments. Several mitigation approaches were explored, including doping the coatings with Al₂O₃ and TiO₂, applying a CMAS infiltration-inhibiting surface layer, and filling topcoat cracks with blocking substances. The efficacy of all these modifications was assessed with a set of novel CMAS-TBC interaction tests, and the moisture resistance was tested in a custom-built high-temperature moisture rig. In the end, the optimal low thermal conductivity TBC system was selected based on all evaluation tests and its processing conditions were documented. The optimal coating consisted on a thick inner layer of YSZ coating made by the SPPS process having a thermal conductivity 50% lower than standard YSZ coatings topped with a high temperature tolerant CMAS resistant gadolinium

  12. Dual-track CCS stakeholder engagement: Lessons learned from FutureGen in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hund, G.; Greenberg, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    FutureGen, as originally planned, was to be the world's first coal-fueled, near-zero emissions power plant with fully integrated, 90% carbon capture and storage (CCS). From conception through siting and design, it enjoyed strong support from multiple stakeholder groups, which benefited the overall project. Understanding the stakeholder engagement process for this project provides valuable insights into the design of stakeholder programs for future CCS projects. FutureGen is one of few projects worldwide that used open competition for siting both the power plant and storage reservoir. Most site proposals were coordinated by State governments. It was unique in this and other respects relative to the site selection method used on other DOE-supported projects. At the time of site selection, FutureGen was the largest proposed facility designed to combine an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal-fueled power plant with a CCS system. Stakeholder engagement by states and the industry consortium responsible for siting, designing, building, and operating the facility took place simultaneously and on parallel tracks. On one track were states spearheading state-wide site assessments to identify candidate sites that they wanted to propose for consideration. On the other track was a public-private partnership between an industry consortium of thirteen coal companies and electric utilities that comprised the FutureGen Alliance (Alliance) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The partnership was based on a cooperative agreement signed by both parties, which assigned the lead for siting to the Alliance. This paper describes the stakeholder engagement strategies used on both of these tracks and provides examples from the engagement process using the Illinois semi-finalist sites. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  14. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  15. Powering the future - a new generation of high-performance solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Freddy; Caswell, Doug; Signorini, Carla

    2007-08-01

    Funded by ESA's Advanced Research in Telecommunication (ARTES) programme, Thales Alenia Space has developed a new generation of high-power ultra-lightweight solar arrays for telecommunications satellites. Thanks to close cooperation with its industrial partners in Europe, the company has generically qualified a solar array io meet market needs. Indeed, three flight projects were already using the new design as qualification was completed. In addition, the excellent mechanical and thermal behaviour of the new panel structure are contributing to other missions such as Pleïades and LISA Pathfinder.

  16. The Future of Alumina-Forming Alloys: Challenges and Applications for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Alumina-forming alloys have been studied for over 50 years and are now needed for high efficiency power generation applications operating at higher temperatures. Especially in the presence of water vapor, alumina-forming alloys outperform conventional chromia-forming alloys above 1000 C. However, alloy mechanical behavior is a significant issue and alumina-forming alloy development has been limited. The opportunity for alloy development is discussed as well as the factors that limit oxidation resistance, including alloy thermal expansion and optimizing reactive element additions. Finally, lifetime modeling is discussed for thick section components together with the need to address performance in more complex environments.

  17. Panel Session on International Perspectives on the Future of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph C. Perkowski

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Annual Meeting provided an opportunity to exchange viewpoints and consider current information regarding the evolution of selected commercial nuclear power trends worldwide. Within the overall topical context of radiation-related regulation, focus was placed on activities in the United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States, although general global developments were reviewed to some extent. This paper provides the reader with a sense of these activities as described by the authors and presenters: David Bennett (Environmental Agency, United Kingdom), Alan Hanson (AREVA), Shojiro Matsuura (Japan Nuclear Safety Research Association), and Alexander Marion (Nuclear Energy Institute).

  18. Panel session on international perspectives on the future of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Perkowski, Joseph C

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Annual Meeting provided an opportunity to exchange viewpoints and consider current information regarding the evolution of selected commercial nuclear power trends worldwide. Within the overall topical context of radiation-related regulation, focus was placed on activities in the United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States, although general global developments were reviewed to some extent. This paper provides the reader with a sense of these activities as described by the authors and presenters: David Bennett (Environmental Agency, United Kingdom), Alan Hanson (AREVA), Shojiro Matsuura (Japan Nuclear Safety Research Association), and Alexander Marion (Nuclear Energy Institute). PMID:21399408

  19. The future is in the numbers: the power of predictive analysis in the biomedical educational environment.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical programs have a potential treasure trove of data they can mine to assist admissions committees in identification of students who are likely to do well and help educational committees in the identification of students who are likely to do poorly on standardized national exams and who may need remediation. In this article, we provide a step-by-step approach that schools can utilize to generate data that are useful when predicting the future performance of current students in any given program. We discuss the use of linear regression analysis as the means of generating that data and highlight some of the limitations. Finally, we lament on how the combination of these institution-specific data sets are not being fully utilized at the national level where these data could greatly assist programs at large. PMID:27374246

  20. The future is in the numbers: the power of predictive analysis in the biomedical educational environment

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical programs have a potential treasure trove of data they can mine to assist admissions committees in identification of students who are likely to do well and help educational committees in the identification of students who are likely to do poorly on standardized national exams and who may need remediation. In this article, we provide a step-by-step approach that schools can utilize to generate data that are useful when predicting the future performance of current students in any given program. We discuss the use of linear regression analysis as the means of generating that data and highlight some of the limitations. Finally, we lament on how the combination of these institution-specific data sets are not being fully utilized at the national level where these data could greatly assist programs at large. PMID:27374246

  1. Blue Ribbon Commission, Yucca Mountain Closure, Court Actions - Future of Decommissioned Reactors, Operating Reactors and Nuclear Power - 13249

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, Jas S.

    2013-07-01

    Issues related to back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle continue to be difficult for the commercial nuclear power industry and for the decision makers at the national and international level. In the US, the 1982 NWPA required DOE to develop geological repositories for SNF and HLW but in spite of extensive site characterization efforts and over ten billion dollars spent, a repository opening is nowhere in sight. There has been constant litigation against the DOE by the nuclear utilities for breach of the 'standard contract' they signed with the DOE under the NWPA. The SNF inventory continues to rise both in the US and globally and the nuclear industry has turned to dry storage facilities at reactor locations. In US, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future issued its report in January 2012 and among other items, it recommends a new, consent-based approach to siting of facilities, prompt efforts to develop one or more geologic disposal facilities, and prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. In addition, the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident had a severe impact on the future growth of nuclear power. The nuclear industry is focusing on mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events and in the US, the industry is in the process of implementing the recommendations from NRC's Near Term Task Force. (authors)

  2. Nuclear power and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA): past through future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatelatos, M. G.; Moieni, P.; Everline, C. J.

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear power reactor safety in the United States is about to enter a new era -- an era of risk- based management and risk-based regulation. First, there was the age of `prescribed safety assessment,' during which a series of design-basis accidents in eight categories of severity, or classes, were postulated and analyzed. Toward the end of that era, it was recognized that `Class 9,' or `beyond design basis,' accidents would need special attention because of the potentially severe health and financial consequences of these accidents. The accident at Three Mile Island showed that sequences of low-consequence, high-frequency events and human errors can be much more risk dominant than the Class 9 accidents. A different form of safety assessment, PSA, emerged and began to gain ground against the deterministic safety establishment. Eventually, this led to the current regulatory requirements for individual plant examinations (IPEs). The IPEs can serve as a basis for risk-based regulation and management, a concept that may ultimately transform the U.S. regulatory process from its traditional deterministic foundations to a process predicated upon PSA. Beyond the possibility of a regulatory environment predicated upon PSA lies the possibility of using PSA as the foundation for managing daily nuclear power plant operations.

  3. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D. L.; Yu, S. S.; Houck, T. L.; Westenskow, G. A.

    1999-05-07

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  4. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.M.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D.L.; Yu, S.S.; Westenskow, G.A.

    1999-05-01

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1{percent} energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza, E; Houck, T L; Lidia, M; Vanecek, D L; Westenskow, G A; Yu, S S

    1998-10-05

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2&A, l-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-n-n. The prototype accelerator will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  6. High-power free-electron lasers-technology and future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socol, Yehoshua

    2013-03-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) is an all-electric, high-power, high beam-quality source of coherent radiation, tunable - unlike other laser sources - at any wavelength within wide spectral region from hard X-rays to far-IR and beyond. After the initial push in the framework of the “Star Wars” program, the FEL technology benefited from decades of R&D and scientific applications. Currently, there are clear signs that the FEL technology reached maturity, enabling real-world applications. E.g., successful and unexpectedly smooth commissioning of the world-first X-ray FEL in 2010 increased in one blow by more than an order of magnitude (40×) wavelength region available by FEL technology and thus demonstrated that the theoretical predictions just keep true in real machines. Experience of ordering turn-key electron beamlines from commercial companies is a further demonstration of the FEL technology maturity. Moreover, successful commissioning of the world-first multi-turn energy-recovery linac demonstrated feasibility of reducing FEL size, cost and power consumption by probably an order of magnitude in respect to previous configurations, opening way to applications, previously considered as non-feasible. This review takes engineer-oriented approach to discuss the FEL technology issues, keeping in mind applications in the fields of military and aerospace, next generation semiconductor lithography, photo-chemistry and isotope separation.

  7. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs. PMID:23865424

  8. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  9. Technical and Economical Demands on 25K - 77K Refrigerators for Future HTS — Series Products in Power Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromoll, B.

    2004-06-01

    For the future high temperature superconductivity, HTS, series products new refrigerators are essential. Demands are made on these which are only partly fulfilled by refrigerators available in the market today. This refers to cooling power, initial cost and in particular reliability. Without proper refrigeration techniques it will be almost impossible to bring HTS products to the market. Based on the experiences made by the construction and operation of HTS prototypes within our company, like the 400 kW motor, 1.2 MVA current limiter and 1 MVA traction-transformer provided with refrigerators which are available in the market today, criteria have been established to identify the future technical and economical requirements. These criteria apply to efficiency, maintainability, operation flexibility, feasibility of integration and performance/cost ratio. For the temperature range of 20 K to 77 K cooling with Gifford-McMahon, Pulse Tube, Stirling and Mixture-Cascade refrigerators are applicable. The development potential of these processes are compared for the different applications in future series products. Presented are the necessary steps towards reliable and economic refrigerators from the viewpoint of an equipment manufacturer. These are essential for a market entry in the year 2008.

  10. Sol-gel coatings for high power laser optics-past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, I.M.

    1993-12-21

    An investigation into the preparation of sol-gel coatings for high power lasers was started at LLNL in 1983 and AR coatings were successfully developed for use in the Nova laser in 1984. Several other large lasers now use these coatings. Subsequent work on HR coatings resulted in AlOOH/SiO{sub 2} and later ZrO{sub 2} or HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} systems of good optical performance. The use of organic polymer binders gave increased damage threshold and enhanced optical performance. We are in the process of scaling up HR fabrication for substrates approximately 38 cm square. Concurrently we are developing sol-gel random phase plates for laser beam smoothing. These have a patterned surface design of silica which induces phase shifts in the beam by variation in the optical path length. Plates of this type on 80 cm diameter substrates have been used successfully on the Nova.

  11. Constructing an Evidence-Base for Future CALL Design with "Engineering Power": The Need for More Basic Research and Instrumental Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research should be to construct a reliable evidence-base with "engineering power" and generality upon which the design of future CALL software and activities can be based. In order to establish such an evidence base for future CALL design, it suggests that CALL…

  12. Impact of Wireless Power Transfer in Transportation: Future Transportation Enabler, or Near Term Distraction

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Jones, Perry T

    2014-01-01

    While the total liquid fuels consumed in the U.S. for transportation of goods and people is expected to hold steady, or decline slightly over the next few decades, the world wide consumption is projected to increase of over 30% according to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 [1]. The balance of energy consumption for transportation between petroleum fuels and electric energy, and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced consuming either, is of particular interest to government administrations, vehicle OEMs, and energy suppliers. The market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) appears to be inhibited by many factors relating to the energy storage system (ESS) and charging infrastructure. Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been identified as a key enabling technology to increase the acceptance of EVs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in many research areas related to understanding the impacts, opportunities, challenges and costs related to various deployments of WPT technology for transportation use. Though the initial outlook for WPT deployment looks promising, many other emerging technologies have met unfavorable market launches due to unforeseen technology limitations, sometimes due to the complex system in which the new technology was placed. This paper will summarize research and development (R&D) performed at ORNL in the area of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). ORNL s advanced transportation technology R&D activities provide a unique set of experienced researchers to assist in the creation of a transportation system level view. These activities range from fundamental technology development at the component level to subsystem controls and interactions to applicable system level analysis of impending market and industry responses and beyond.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Mentoring Program - Paired for a Powerful Science Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Clarke, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prides itself in its excellence in science. The resource bank of skills and knowledge that is contained within the current employees of the USGS is what makes our science excellent. With an aging workforce, we must ensure that the knowledge and skills represented by those years of experience are passed to new employees. To ensure that this bank of knowledge and experience is not lost and thereby sustain the excellence of our science, the Mentoring Program focuses on intentional mentoring, the deliberate transfer of skills and knowledge. Skills transfer from more experienced employees to those who are less experienced is critical. By placing an emphasis on intentional mentoring, we help to meet the scientific and technical needs of the employees by offering a cost-effective way to gain knowledge and skills necessary to maintain excellence in science. By encouraging and fostering a mentoring atmosphere within the USGS, we are investing in the future of our organization. With improved technical skills, increased job effectiveness, and resulting satisfaction, USGS employees will not only be more invested and engaged, they will also be able to work smarter, thus benefiting from the experience of their mentor.

  14. Quintessence versus phantom dark energy: the arbitrating power of current and future observations

    SciTech Connect

    Novosyadlyj, B.; Sergijenko, O.; Durrer, R.; Pelykh, V. E-mail: olka@astro.franko.lviv.ua E-mail: pelykh@iapmm.lviv.ua

    2013-06-01

    We analyze the possibility to distinguish between quintessence and phantom scalar field models of dark energy using observations of luminosity distance moduli of SNe Ia, CMB anisotropies and polarization, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations. Among the present observations only Planck data on CMB anisotropy and SDSS DR9 data on baryon acoustic oscillations may be able to decide between quintessence or phantom scalar field models, however for each model a set of best-fit parameters exists, which matches all data with similar goodness of fit. We compare the relative differences of best-fit model predictions with observational uncertainties for each type of data and we show that the accuracy of SNe Ia luminosity distance data is far from the one necessary to distinguish these types of dark energy models, while the CMB data (WMAP, ACT, SPT and especially Planck) are close to being able to reliably distinguish them. Also an improvement of the large-scale structure data (future releases of SDSS BOSS and e.g. Euclid or BigBOSS) will enable us to surely decide between quintessence and phantom dark energy.

  15. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity from WMAP7 and luminous red galaxies power spectrum and forecast for future surveys

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2010-10-15

    We place new constraints on the primordial local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} using recent cosmic microwave background anisotropy and galaxy clustering data. We model the galaxy power spectrum according to the halo model, accounting for a scale-dependent bias correction proportional to f{sub NL}/k{sup 2}. We first constrain f{sub NL} in a full 13 parameters analysis that includes 5 parameters of the halo model and 7 cosmological parameters. Using the WMAP7 CMB data and the SDSS DR4 galaxy power spectrum, we find f{sub NL}=171{sub -139}{sup +140} at 68% C.L. and -69power spectrum data finding, for a {Lambda}CDM+f{sub NL} model, f{sub NL}=-93{+-}128 at 68% C.L. and -327future surveys as EUCLID and from CMB missions as Planck showing that their combined analysis could detect f{sub NL{approx}}5.

  16. Creating power, technology and products: the role of coal gasification in Ohio's economy and energy future

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-15

    The study examines how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio's economy and energy future - particularly in Northeast Ohio, a major center of manufacturing in the U.S. This working paper focuses primarily on opportunities for gasification projects to augment Ohio's economy. It examines economic activity factors related to coal gasification and how the location of a number of key support industries in Ohio could provide the state with a competitive advantage in this area. The study focuses on a polygeneration facility that would supply electricity and some other products as an example of the type of gasification facility that could, if a sufficient number of similar facilities were located in the area, serve as the stimulus for a new or expanded industry cluster. Although not further discussed in this paper, any Ohio gasification facility would be in close proximity to oil and gas fields that can serve as sites for sequestering the carbon dioxide separated out from the coal-gasification process. The potential economic impact of locating a polygeneration gasifier in Northeast Ohio is large. A significant portion of the inputs required for one $1.1+ billion facility can be supplied either within northeastern Ohio or from elsewhere in the state. Operation of the facility is estimated to increase annual statewide personal income by $39 million and Ohio output by $161 million. The Northeast Ohio region will account for 98 percent of the operational benefits. The report suggests several possible steps to convert this research to an action plan to build support for, and interest in, a coal-gasification industry cluster in Northeast Ohio. Outreach should focus on engaging industry leaders, foundations, and state and regional economic development leaders. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  17. Advances in defining a closed Brayton conversion system for future ARIANE 5 space nuclear power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1987-01-01

    The present European ARIANE space program will expand into the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle from 1995. It is assumed that important associated missions would require the generation of 200 kWe or more in space during several years at the very beginning of the next century. For this reason, in 1983, the French C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) have initiated preliminary studies of a space nuclear power system. The currently selected conversion system is a closed Brayton cycle. Reasons for this choice are given: high efficiency of a dynamic system; monophasic, inert working fluid; extensive turbomachinery experience, etc. A key aspect of the project is the adaptation to heat rejection conditions, namely to the radiator geometry which depends upon the dimensions of the ARIANE 5 spacecraft. In addition to usual concepts already studied for space applications, another cycle arrangement is being investigated which could offer satisfactory compromises among many considerations, increase the efficiency of the system, and make it more attractive as far as the specific mass (kg/lWe), the specific radiator area (m/sup 2//kWe), and various technological aspects are concerned. Comparative details are presented.

  18. Palo verde story: a foundation for future multi-station nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van Brunt, E.E. Jr.; Ferguson, C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1973, the design and planning for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station was started featuring three 3800 MWt Combustion Engineering Standard System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply Systems. Arizona Public Service Company (APS) was the Project Manager and Operating Agent and Bechtel Power Corporation the architect/engineer and constructor. The Palo Verde units are located in a desert environment some 50 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona. It is a dry site in that there are no liquid discharges from the site. The cooling tower makeup water sewage is waste effluent from the City of Phoenix treated at an on site reclamation facility. The effluent has had primary and secondary treatment at the Phoenix plant prior to delivery to PVNGS. The units are physically separate from each other but are of identical design. There are no shared safety systems between the units. This paper presents some of the engineering and management practices used during design, construction, and startup and operational experiences and other unique features of this multi-unit nuclear station.

  19. What is the Future of Open Intraperitoneal Power-Morcellation of Fibroids?

    PubMed

    Parker, William H; Pritts, Elizabeth A; Olive, David L

    2016-03-01

    In November 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) calculated that for every 498 women having surgery for presumed fibroids, one woman would be found to have an occult leiomyosarcoma (LMS). The FDA issued a safety communication warning against the use of laparoscopic morcellators in the majority of women undergoing myomectomy or hysterectomy for treatment of fibroids. This communication was prompted by concern that if a patient had an occult LMS, the morcellator might spread tumor cells within the peritoneal cavity. We submit that the FDA directive was based on a flawed and misleading analysis. More rigorous evidence estimates the prevalence of LMS among women operated upon for presumed uterine fibroids at approximately one in 2000 women, significantly lower than the FDA's estimate. In addition, there is no reliable evidence that morcellation influences survival or that power-morcellation is inferior to vaginal or mini-lap morcellation with a scalpel. Recent publication shows that open surgery carries more risk for women when compared with minimally invasive surgery. Although the possibility of occult LMS should be considered by women and their gynecologists, we suggest that current morcellation techniques be continued for women who wish to benefit from minimally invasive surgery. Investigation into new and, hopefully, better morcellating devices may make the procedure safer for women. PMID:26670834

  20. Comparison of intergrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants with current and advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, B.M.; Evans, T.F.; McCone, A.I.; Westisik, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Two recent conceptual design studies examined ''grass roots'' integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) plants for the Albany Station site of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. One of these studies was based on the Texaco Gasifier and the other was developed around the British Gas Co.-Lurgi slagging gasifier. Both gasifiers were operated in the ''oxygen-blown'' mode, producing medium Btu fuel gas. The studies also evaluated plant performance with both current and advanced gas turbines. Coalto-busbar efficiencies of approximately 35 percent were calculated for Texaco IGCC plants using current technology gas turbines. Efficiencies of approximately 39 percent were obtained for the same plant when using advanced technology gas turbines.

  1. Review of the Structure of Bulk Power Markets Grid of the Future White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2000-05-02

    This paper is intended to provide an understanding of the needs of a restructured electricity market and some of the market methods and systems that have developed to address those needs. Chapter 2 discusses the historic market framework of vertically integrated utilities. Chapter 3 introduces the changes to the vertically integrated utility brought about by restructuring. It discusses generation and transmission planning, control and the regulatory process. It also summarizes reliability, security and adequacy. Chapter 4 discusses the basic structures of generation and transmission markets along with transmission-congestion contracts (TCCs) and transmission pricing principles. A discussion is given of the 12 ancillary services needed to reliably operate the power system. Chapter 4 also deals with the role of transmission in opening up markets to competition. In California increments (incs) and decrements (decs) are bid to overcome price differences in different zones caused by congestion. In PJM, any member can purchase Fixed Transmission Rights (FTRs) which allows the member to ''collect rent'' on congested lines and essentially obtain a hedge against congestion. There has been a worrisome slowdown in the growth of the transmission system in the United States since about the mid 70's. However, there are methods for providing incentives for construction of new transmission using tariffs. The California and PJM transmission planning processes are outlined. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recently issued a proposed rulemaking on Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) which stated that the traditional methods of grid management are showing signs of strain and may be inadequate to support efficient and reliable transmission operations. Chapter 5 provides examples of market implementations and a discussion of the price spikes seen in the Midwest in the summers of 1998 and 1999. An examination of six restructured market systems is performed in

  2. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  3. A comparative TCAD assessment of III-V channel materials for future high speed and low power logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, U. P.; Takhar, K.; Ranjan, K.; Rathi, S.; Biswas, D.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, by means physics based drift-diffusion simulations, three different narrow band gap semiconductors; InAs, InSb and In0.53Ga0.47As, and their associated heterostructures have been studied for future high speed and low power logic applications. It is observed that In0.53Ga0.47As has higher immunity towards short channel effects with low DIBL and sub-threshold slope than InSb and InAs. Also it is observed that for the same device geometry InSb has the highest drive current and lower intrinsic delay but its ION/IOFF figure of merit is deteriorated due to excess leakage current.

  4. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  5. LOS ALAMOS NEUTRON SCIENCE CENTER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE POWER REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    GAVRON, VICTOR I.; HILL, TONY S.; PITCHER, ERIC J.; TOVESSON, FREDERIK K.

    2007-01-09

    measurements in progress include {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu. The United States recently announced the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), with the goal of closing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle while minimizing proliferation risk. GNEP achieves these goals using fast-spectrum nuclear reactors powered by new transmutation fuels that contain significant quantities of minor actinides. The proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) will provide the GNEP with a cost-effective means of obtaining domestic fast-spectrum irradiations of advanced transmutation fuel forms and structural materials, which is an important step in the fuels qualification process. The MTS will be located at the LANSCE, and will be driven by a 1.08-MW proton beam. Th epeak neutron flux in the irradiation region is 1.67 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}/s, and the energy spectrum is similar to that of a fast reactor, with the addition of a high-energy tail. The facility is expected to operate at least 4,400 hours per year. Fuel burnup rates will exceed 4% per year, and the radiation damage rate in iron will be 18 dpa (displacements per atom) per year. The construction cost is estimated to be $73M (including 25% contingency), with annual operating costs in the range of $6M to $10M. Appropriately funded, the MTS could begin operation in 2010.

  6. Modelling the impacts of climate policy on the deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geologic storage across electric power regions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2007-04-02

    This paper summarizes the results of a first-of-its-kind holistic, integrated economic analysis of the potential role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies across the regional segments of the United States of America (USA) electric power sector, over the time frame 2005-2045, in response to two hypothetical emissions control policies analyzed against two potential energy supply futures that include updated and substantially higher projected prices for natural gas. A key feature of this paper’s analysis is an attempt to explicitly model the inherent heterogeneities that exist in both the nation’s current and future electricity generation infrastructure and candidate deep geologic CO2 storage formations. Overall, between 180 and 580 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle with CCS (IGCC+CCS) capacity is built by 2045 in these four scenarios, requiring between 12 and 41gigatons of CO2 (GtCO2) of storage in regional deep geologic reservoirs across the USA. Nearly all of this CO2 is from new IGCC+CCS systems, which start to deploy after 2025. Relatively little IGCC+CCS capacity is built before that time, primarily under unique niche opportunities. For the most part, CO2 emissions prices will likely need to be sustained at well over $10-20/ton CO2 before CCS begins to deploy on a large scale within the electric power sector. Within these broad national trends, a highly nuanced picture of CCS deployment across the USA emerges. Across the four scenarios studied here, some North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions do not employ any CCS while others build more than 100 GW of CCS-enabled generation capacity. One region sees as much as 50% of their geologic CO2 storage reservoirs’ total theoretical capacity consumed by 2045, while the majority of the regions still have more than 90% of their potential storage capacity available to meet storage needs in the second half of the century and beyond.

  7. The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

  8. Pinon Pine power project nears start-up

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, G.A.; Gonzalez, M.; Mathur, G.K.

    1997-12-31

    The IGCC facility being built by Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) at their Tracy Station in Nevada is one of three IGCC facilities being cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under their Clean Coal Technology Program. The specific technology to be demonstrated in SPPCo`s Round Four Project, known as the Pinon Pine IGCC Project, includes the KRW air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification process with hot gas cleanup coupled with a combined cycle facility based on a new GE 6FA gas turbine. Construction of the 100 MW IGCC facility began in February 1995 and the first firing of the gas turbine occurred as scheduled on August 15, 1996 with natural gas. Mechanical completion of the gasifier and other outstanding work is due in January 1997. Following the startup of the plant, the project will enter a 42 month operating and testing period during which low sulfur western and high sulfur eastern or midwestern coals will be processed.

  9. Limnological and ecological methods: approaches, and sampling strategies for middle Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M; Faria, C R L; Abe, D S; Blanco, F; Rodrigues Filho, J; Campanelli, L; Sidagis Galli, C; Teixeira-Silva, V; Degani, R; Soares, F S; Gatti Junior, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe the limnological approaches, the sampling methodology, and strategy adopted in the study of the Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant. The river ecosystems are characterized by unidirectional current, highly variable in time depending on the climatic situation the drainage pattern an hydrological cycle. Continuous vertical mixing with currents and turbulence, are characteristic of these ecosystems. All these basic mechanisms were taken into consideration in the sampling strategy and field work carried out in the Xingu River Basin, upstream and downstream the future Belo Monte Power Plant Units. PMID:26691072

  10. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-01

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w0-wa parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  11. Corrected Article: Measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models [Phys. Rev. D 78, 043528 (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Michael; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Bozek, Brandon; Yashar, Mark

    2009-12-15

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative (and complementary) measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces (such as the well-known w{sub 0}-w{sub a} parameters) and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as stages 2, 3, and 4 (denoting increasing capabilities). Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing stage 3 to stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to stage 4 (including the possibility of completely eliminating some quintessence models). We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF stage 4 (which many believe are realistic) could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state (derived from principle component analysis) as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and inverse tracker (or inverse power law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  12. Dinosaurs and Power Plants. Energy from the Past for the Future. Teacher's Lesson Plan and Activity Guide; Teacher's Guide Supplement of Reproducible Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Fossil Energy.

    This teacher's guide and its accompanying supplement were prepared for use with the U.S. Department of Energy's Dinosaurs and Power Plants, a publication designed for students in grades 5-8 about the history, detection, extraction, transportation, use, environmental problem/solutions, and future of fossil energy. The study of energy science shows…

  13. Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation--implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Krone, Roland; Gutow, Lars; Joschko, Tanja J; Schröder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the light of the introduction of thousands of large offshore wind power foundations into the North Sea within the next decades, this manuscript focuses on the biofouling processes and likely reef effects. The study explores the macrozoobenthos (biofouling) colonization at an offshore platform which is comparable to offshore wind turbine foundations. A total of 183 single samples were taken and the parameters water depth and time were considered comparing biofouling masses and communities. The blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Anthozoa and the Amphipoda Jassa spp. were the dominant species. The community from the 1 m zone and those from the 5 and 20-28 m zones can clearly be differentiated. The 10 m zone community represents the transition between the M. edulis dominated 1 m and 5 m zones and the Anthozoa dominated 20-28 m zone. In the future offshore wind farms, thousands of wind turbine foundations will provide habitat for a hard bottom fauna which is otherwise restricted to the sparse rocky habitats scattered within extensive sedimentary soft bottoms of the German Bight. However, offshore wind power foundations cannot be considered natural rock equivalents as they selectively increase certain natural hard bottom species. The surface of the construction (1280 m²) was covered by an average of 4300 kg biomass. This foundation concentrates on its footprint area (1024 m²) 35 times more macrozoobenthos biomass than the same area of soft bottom in the German exclusive economic zone (0.12 kg m(-2)), functioning as a biomass hotspot. Concerning the temporal biomass variation, we assume that at least 2700 kg biomass was exported on a yearly basis. 345 × 10(4) single mussel shells of different sizes were produced during the study period. It is anticipated that the M. edulis abundance will increase in the North Sea due to the expansion of the offshore wind farm development. This will result in the enhanced production of secondary hard substrate (mussel shells

  14. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  15. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  16. High-Temperature SiC Power Module with Integrated SiC Gate Drivers for Future High-Density Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Mr. Bret; Cole, Mr. Zach; Passmore, Mr. Brandon; Mcnutt, Tyler; Lostetter, Dr. Alex; Ericson, Milton Nance; Frank, Steven; Britton Jr, Charles L; Marlino, Laura D; Mantooth, Alan; Francis, Matt; Lamichhane, Ranjan; Shepherd, Paul; Glover, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature capable intelligent power module that contains SiC power devices and SiC gate driver integrated circuits (ICs). The high-temperature capability of the SiC gate driver ICs allows for them to be packaged into the power module and be located physically close to the power devices. This provides a distinct advantage by reducing the gate driver loop inductance, which promotes high frequency operation, while also reducing the overall volume of the system through higher levels of integration. The power module was tested in a bridgeless-boost converter (Fig. 1) to determine the performance of the module in a system level application. The converter was operated with a switching frequency of 200 kHz with a peak output power of approximately 5 kW. The peak efficiency was found to be 97.5% at 2.9 kW.

  17. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  18. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  19. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized. PMID:26134739

  20. MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazar; Urmila M. Diwekar; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system using coal gasification is an important approach for future energy options. This work focuses on understading the system operation and optimizing it in the presence of uncertain operating conditions using ASPEN Plus and CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation and multiobjective optimization capabilities developed by Vishwamitra Research Institute. The feasible operating surface for the IGCC system is generated and deterministic multiobjective optimization is performed. Since the feasible operating space is highly non-convex, heuristics based techniques that do not require gradient information are used to generate the Pareto surface. Accurate CFD models are simultaneously developed for the gasifier and chemical looping combustion system to characterize and quantify the process uncertainty in the ASPEN model.

  1. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  2. Present status and future aspects of high-power diode laser materials processing under the view of a German national research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Friedrich G.

    2000-06-01

    High power diode lasers from a few Watts up to several Kilowatts have entered industrial manufacturing environment for materials processing applications. The technology has proven to show unique features, e.g. high efficiency, small size, low energy consumption and high reliability. In the first part of this paper a short description of state-of- the-art high power diode laser technology and applications is provided and the benefits and restrictions of this laser technology will be evaluated. For large scale penetration into the manufacture market, the restrictions, especially the rather poor beam quality of high power diode lasers compared to conventional lasers have to be overcome. Also, the specialities of the high power diode lasers, i.e. their modular structure and their extremely small size have to be translated into laser manufacturing technology. The further improvement of high power diode lasers as well as the development of new diode laser specific manufacturing technologies are the essential topics of a National German Minister Priority Project entitled 'Modular Diode Laser Beam Tools': 22 Partners from industry and institutions, 4 semiconductor experts, 5 laser manufacturers and 14 applicants are working together in frame of this project to work out and transfer a joint strategy and system technology to the benefits of the future of high power diode laser technology. The goals, the structure and the work of this project will be described in the second part of this paper.

  3. Opportunity for offshore wind to reduce future demand for coal-fired power plants in China with consequent savings in emissions of CO2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Chen, Xinyu; Kang, Chongqing

    2014-12-16

    Although capacity credits for wind power have been embodied in power systems in the U.S. and Europe, the current planning framework for electricity in China continues to treat wind power as a nondispatchable source with zero contribution to firm capacity. This study adopts a rigorous reliability model for the electric power system evaluating capacity credits that should be recognized for offshore wind resources supplying power demands for Jiangsu, China. Jiangsu is an economic hub located in the Yangtze River delta accounting for 10% of the total electricity consumed in China. Demand for electricity in Jiangsu is projected to increase from 331 TWh in 2009 to 800 TWh by 2030. Given a wind penetration level of 60% for the future additional Jiangsu power supply, wind resources distributed along the offshore region of five coastal provinces in China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian) should merit a capacity credit of 12.9%, the fraction of installed wind capacity that should be recognized to displace coal-fired systems without violating the reliability standard. In the high-coal-price scenario, with 60% wind penetration, reductions in CO2 emissions relative to a business as usual reference could be as large as 200.2 million tons of CO2 or 51.8% of the potential addition, with a cost for emissions avoided of $29.0 per ton. PMID:25409413

  4. CE IGCC repowering project: Materials for coal gasification environment. Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, T.B.; O`Neill, J.K.; Plumley, A.L.; Thibeault, P.R.; Waryasz, R.W.

    1993-10-01

    A task to develop material requirements and a materials testing strategy was established with the Materials and Water Chemistry Department of the ABB Power plant Laboratories. This involved examining the requirements for each system under ABB CE scope. The basis for the material recommendations was largely based on in-house test programs under DOE contract and ABB CE experience. Consultants were utilized in a parallel task to assist in the design and material specification for the solids handling systems. ABB CE experience includes operating data from a former process development unit (PDU) located in Windsor, Connecticut. The unit gasified Pittsburgh seam coal at a nominal firing rate of 120 tons per day. The objectives of the program were to produce clean, low-Btu gas from coal, and to provide the design information for scale-up to commercial-size plants. The results of the task were used to specify and, depending on scope, design the equipment used in the plant. A detailed document was developed and used to generate a Metallurgical Flow Diagram. Specifications were developed from this diagram. For the equipment designed, these selections were provided to representatives of cognizant design and manufacturing departments. In addition, where appropriate, recommendations were made for operating procedures and for design changes. Specified materials will be again evaluated during detailed engineering. In some areas the results of the task were not conclusive. Additional investigation will be required. These areas are the types of approaches which can be taken to accommodate product gas sulfidation resistance and solids transport erosion.

  5. A Study on the Optimal Generation Mix Based on Portfolio Theory with Considering the Basic Condition for Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper presents a novel method to analyze the optimal generation mix based on portfolio theory with considering the basic condition for power supply, which means that electricity generation corresponds with load curve. The optimization of portfolio is integrated with the calculation of a capacity factor of each generation in order to satisfy the basic condition for power supply. Besides, each generation is considered to be an asset, and risks of the generation asset both in its operation period and construction period are considered. Environmental measures are evaluated through restriction of CO2 emissions, which are indicated by CO2 price. Numerical examples show the optimal generation mix according to risks such as the deviation of capacity factor of nuclear power or restriction of CO2 emissions, the possibility of introduction of clean coal technology (IGCC, CCS) or renewable energy, and so on. The results of this work will be possibly applied as setting the target of the generation mix for the future according to prospects of risks of each generation and restrictions of CO2 emissions.

  6. Opportunities to expedite the construction of new coal-based power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas G. Kraemer; Georgia Nelson; Robert Card; E. Linn Draper, Jr.; Michael J. Mudd

    2004-07-01

    US Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the National Coal Council prepare a study identifying 'which opportunities could expedite the construction of new coal-fired electricity generation.' He also requested that the Council 'examine opportunities and incentives for additional emissions reduction including evaluating and replacing the oldest portion of our coal-fired power plant fleet with more efficient and lower emitting coal-fired plants.' A study group of experts who conducted the work can be found in Appendix D. The National Coal Council found the following: Coal is the fuel of choice now, and will remain so into the future; Natural gas has been the dominant fuel for new power plants in the last decade; Coal provides a pathway for greater energy independence; There is renewed interest in using coal to fuel new power plants; Generators are expected to remain credit worthy; Permitting delays have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Environmental regulatory approaches have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Uncertainty about CO{sub 2} emission reductions has been an impediment to the construction of new coalbased power plants; Incentives are still needed to facilitate the construction of advanced coal-based power plants; Lack of a regional planning approach has been an impediment to the construction of new coal-based power plants; and Infrastructure hurdles are impediments to the construction of new coal-based power plants. The Council's recommendations include: Streamline the permitting process; Recognize the strategic importance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology; Recognize the importance of other coal-based technologies; Encourage regional planning; Continue with meaningful R&D and with technology demonstration; Provide meaningful incentives for the commercialization and deployment of new advanced coal-based technologies. 7 apps.

  7. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%.

  8. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected low-earth-orbit (LEO) and high-earth-orbit (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied to correspond to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. A comparative assessment is made of the two power system types for emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (Space Station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt, and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multikilowatt earth-orbit missions. The results give the expected performance, mass and drag of multikilowatt earth-orbiting solar power systems and show how the overall system figure of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  9. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  10. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  11. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Thomas, Robert E.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean ``aneutronic'' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced ``lifting body''-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, ɛprop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and ɛprop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  12. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  13. Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer Studies of Parameters Specific to the IGCC-Requirements: Endwall Contouring, Leading Edge and Blade Tip Ejection under Rotating Turbine Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schobeiri, Meinhard; Han, Je-Chin

    2014-09-30

    This report deals with the specific aerodynamics and heat transfer problematic inherent to high pressure (HP) turbine sections of IGCC-gas turbines. Issues of primary relevance to a turbine stage operating in an IGCC-environment are: (1) decreasing the strength of the secondary flow vortices at the hub and tip regions to reduce (a), the secondary flow losses and (b), the potential for end wall deposition, erosion and corrosion due to secondary flow driven migration of gas flow particles to the hub and tip regions, (2) providing a robust film cooling technology at the hub and that sustains high cooling effectiveness less sensitive to deposition, (3) investigating the impact of blade tip geometry on film cooling effectiveness. The document includes numerical and experimental investigations of above issues. The experimental investigations were performed in the three-stage multi-purpose turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL), Texas A&M University. For the numerical investigations a commercial Navier-Stokes solver was utilized.

  14. Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

  15. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and High Eccentric Orbit (Energy) (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied corresponding to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. Comparative assessment is made between the two power system types utilizing newly emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage, and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (space station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multi-kWe earth orbit missions. System characterizations include all required subsystems, including power conditioning, cabling, structure, to deliver electrical power to the user. Performance is estimated on the basis of three different levels of component technology: (1) state-of-art, (2) near-term, and (3) advanced technologies. These range from planar array silicon/IPV nickel hydrogen batteries and Brayton systems at 1000 K to thin film GaAs with high energy density secondary batteries or regenerative fuel cells and 1300 K Stirling systems with ultra-lightweight concentrators and radiators. The system estimates include design margin for performance degradations from the known environmental mechanisms (micrometeoroids and space debris, atomic oxygen, electron and proton flux) which are modeled and applied depending on the mission. The results give expected performance, mass and drag of multi-kWe earth orbiting solar power systems and show how overall system figures of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  16. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    SciTech Connect

    Bents, D.J.; Lu, C.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and High Eccentric Orbit (Energy) (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied corresponding to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. Comparative assessment is made between the two power system types utilizing newly emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage, and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (space station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multi-kWe earth orbit missions. System characterizations include all required subsystems, including power conditioning, cabling, structure, to deliver electrical power to the user. Performance is estimated on the basis of three different levels of component technology: (1) state-of-art, (2) near-term, and (3) advanced technologies. These range from planar array silicon/IPV nickel hydrogen batteries and Brayton systems at 1000 K to thin film GaAs with high energy density secondary batteries or regenerative fuel cells and 1300 K Stirling systems with ultra-lightweight concentrators and radiators. The system estimates include design margin for performance degradations from the known environmental mechanisms (micrometeoroids and space debris, atomic oxygen, electron and proton flux) which are modeled and applied depending on the mission. The results give expected performance, mass and drag of multi-kWe earth orbiting solar power systems and show how overall system figures of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  17. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  18. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    PubMed

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  19. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: is it Better to have a Power (electricity) Plant with ro or Med/msf?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2016-06-01

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed (PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  20. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  1. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  2. Testing chirality of primordial gravitational waves with Planck and future CMB data: no hope from angular power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbino, Martina; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo; Shiraishi, Maresuke; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    We use the 2015 Planck likelihood in combination with the Bicep2/Keck likelihood (BKP and BK14) to constrain the chirality, χ, of primordial gravitational waves in a scale-invariant scenario. In this framework, the parameter χ enters theory always coupled to the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, e.g. in combination of the form χ ṡ r. Thus, the capability to detect χ critically depends on the value of r. We find that with present data sets χ is de facto unconstrained. We also provide forecasts for χ from future CMB experiments, including COrE+, exploring several fiducial values of r. We find that the current limit on r is tight enough to disfavor a neat detection of χ. For example, in the unlikely case in which r~0.1(0.05), the maximal chirality case, i.e. χ = ±1, could be detected with a significance of ~2.5(1.5)σ at best. We conclude that the two-point statistics at the basis of CMB likelihood functions is currently unable to constrain chirality and may only provide weak limits on χ in the most optimistic scenarios. Hence, it is crucial to investigate the use of other observables, e.g. provided by higher order statistics, to constrain these kinds of parity violating theories with the CMB.

  3. A roadmap for the development and validation of coated particle fuel for future space radioisotope heater units (RHUs) and radioisotope power systems (RPSs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2001-02-01

    In early 1999, coated particle fuel was identified as offering promising advancements in design flexibility, performance, specific mass and volume, as well as safety for future space radioisotope heater units (RHUs) and radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Subsequent study, conducted during Fiscal Year 1999, provided confidence that these potential benefits were substantial and demonstrable if a modest follow-on investigative test effort was pursued. This paper lays out a roadmap for both immediate and near-term decision making, as well as any full-scale development and validation of coated particle fuel undertaken for future space RHUs, and RPSs. In an effort to obtain adequate and timely information at a reasonable cost for immediate and near-term decision making, as well as any subsequent development, production, and application decisions, a four-phased regimen of testing is identified. The four phases of testing are: (1) Pre-Decisional Testing: (2) Pre-Production Analytical Verification Testing: (3) Production Quality Assurance Testing: and (4) Post-Production Safety Verification Testing. Although all four of these phases of testing are considered essential, the first two phases are especially important for immediate and near-term decisions to advance and pursue coated particle fuel for space RHUs and RPSs. The third and fourth phases of testing are primarily identified and included for completeness at this early stage. It is concluded that there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel can be readily demonstrated through a modest investigative test effort. If such an effort is pursued and proves successful, coated particle fuel could then be developed with assurance that its ultimate benefits would revolutionize the design and space use of future RHUs and RPSs. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a starting point for further discussions and more specific planning activities aimed at advancing coated particle fuel for

  4. Advanced energy plant operation and training of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    NETL presented its vision of future plant operations and training for advanced energy systems at the 14th Annual ARC World Industry Forum. Plant operations can be improved through increased use of innovative computational tools, immersive virtual simulation, advanced real-time optimization and model predictive control solutions, wireless sensor networks, and enhanced self-diagnosis and decision-making tools. This presentation emphasized real-time dynamic simulators with operator training system (OTS) capabilities, along with immersive training systems (ITS) that provide three-dimensional virtual plant walk-through environments for training field operators and engineers. It also highlighted NETL's Dynamic Simulator Research and Training (DSR&T) Center, which is scheduled to be launched in late 2010 with the deployment of a combined OTS/ITS solution for an IGCC reference plant with carbon capture. The plant-wide IGCC training system will make use of the Invensys Operations Management DynsimTM software for the OTS and EYESimTM software for the ITS. EYESimTM was recently selected as a Breakthrough Product of 2009 by Processing magazine and was featured, along with NETL's DSR&T Center, in a recent ARC Insights article.

  5. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  6. Advanced air separation for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersz, D.F.; Parysek, K.D.; Schulte, T.R.; Pavri, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and General Electric Company (GE) conducted a study to determine the benefits associated with extending the integration of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) systems to include the air separation plant which supplies oxygen to the gasifiers. This is achieved by extracting air from the gas turbine air compressors to feed the oxygen plant and returning waste nitrogen to the gas turbine. The ''Radiant Plus Convective Design'' (59/sup 0/F ambient temperature case) defined in EPRI report AP-3486 was selected as a base case into which the oxygen plant-gas turbine integration was incorporated and against which it was compared. General Electric Company's participation in evaluating gas turbine and power block performance ensured consistency between EPRI report AP-3486 and this study. Extending the IGCC integration to include an integrated oxygen plant-gas turbine results in a rare combination of benefits - higher efficiency and lower capital costs. Oxygen plant capital costs are over 20% less and the power requirement is reduced significantly. For the IGCC system, the net power output is higher for the same coal feed rate; this results in an overall improvement in heat rate of about 2% coupled with a reduction in capital costs of 2 to 3%. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-02-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month-1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs.

  8. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R(2) obtained from (137)Cs and (134)Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 10(9) bq.month(-1) while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for (137)Cs and 44 TBq for (134)Cs. PMID:25673214

  9. Team situation awareness in nuclear power plant process control: A literature review, task analysis and future research

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.; Kaber, D. B.; Jones, J. M.; Starkey, R. L.

    2006-07-01

    Operator achievement and maintenance of situation awareness (SA) in nuclear power plant (NPP) process control has emerged as an important concept in defining effective relationships between humans and automation in this complex system. A literature review on factors influencing SA revealed several variables to be important to team SA, including the overall task and team goals, individual tasks, team member roles, and the team members themselves. Team SA can also be adversely affected by a range of factors, including stress, mental over- or under-loading, system design (including human-machine interface design), complexity, human error in perception, and automation. Our research focused on the analysis of 'shared' SA and team SA among an assumed three-person, main-control-room team. Shared SA requirements represent the knowledge that is held in common by NPP operators, and team SA represents the collective, unique knowledge of all operators. The paper describes an approach to goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) applied to NPP main control room operations. In general, the GDTA method reveals critical operator decision and information requirements. It identifies operator SA requirements relevant to performing complex systems control. The GDTA can reveal requirements at various levels of cognitive processing, including perception, comprehension and projection, in NPP process control. Based on the literature review and GDTA approach, a number of potential research issues are proposed with an aim toward understanding and facilitating team SA in NPP process control. (authors)

  10. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month−1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs. PMID:25673214

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  12. Radiation dose rates now and in the future for residents neighboring restricted areas of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Niisoe, Tamon; Imanaka, Mie; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Amako, Katsumi; Fujii, Yukiko; Kanameishi, Masatoshi; Ohse, Kenji; Nakai, Yasumichi; Nishikawa, Tamami; Saito, Yuuichi; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Ueyama, Keiko; Hisaki, Kumiko; Ohara, Eiji; Inoue, Tokiko; Yamamoto, Kanako; Matsuoka, Yukiyo; Ohata, Hitomi; Toshima, Kazue; Okada, Ayumi; Sato, Hitomi; Kuwamori, Toyomi; Tani, Hiroko; Suzuki, Reiko; Kashikura, Mai; Nezu, Michiko; Miyachi, Yoko; Arai, Fusako; Kuwamori, Masanori; Harada, Sumiko; Ohmori, Akira; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose rates were evaluated in three areas neighboring a restricted area within a 20- to 50-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in August–September 2012 and projected to 2022 and 2062. Study participants wore personal dosimeters measuring external dose equivalents, almost entirely from deposited radionuclides (groundshine). External dose rate equivalents owing to the accident averaged 1.03, 2.75, and 1.66 mSv/y in the village of Kawauchi, the Tamano area of Soma, and the Haramachi area of Minamisoma, respectively. Internal dose rates estimated from dietary intake of radiocesium averaged 0.0058, 0.019, and 0.0088 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. Dose rates from inhalation of resuspended radiocesium were lower than 0.001 mSv/y. In 2012, the average annual doses from radiocesium were close to the average background radiation exposure (2 mSv/y) in Japan. Accounting only for the physical decay of radiocesium, mean annual dose rates in 2022 were estimated as 0.31, 0.87, and 0.53 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. The simple and conservative estimates are comparable with variations in the background dose, and unlikely to exceed the ordinary permissible dose rate (1 mSv/y) for the majority of the Fukushima population. Health risk assessment indicates that post-2012 doses will increase lifetime solid cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer incidences by 1.06%, 0.03% and 0.28% respectively, in Tamano. This assessment was derived from short-term observation with uncertainties and did not evaluate the first-year dose and radioiodine exposure. Nevertheless, this estimate provides perspective on the long-term radiation exposure levels in the three regions. PMID:24567380

  13. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  14. Pinon Pine Power Project. Annual report, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared to present the status of the Pinon Pine Project, a nominal 107 MWe (gross) integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant addition to Sierra Pacific Power Company`s (SPPCo) system. This project is a demonstration project cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and SPPCo under DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. The goal of the CCT Program is to demonstrate advanced coal utilization technologies that are energy efficient and reliable and that are able to achieve substantial reductions in emissions as compared with existing coal technologies.

  15. Pinon Pine Power Project. Annual report, August 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This annual report has been prepared to present the status of the Pinon Pine Power Project, a nominal 104 MWe (gross) integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant addition to Sierra Pacific Power Company`s (SPPCo) system. This project will also serve as a demonstration project cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and SPPCo under DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. The goal of the CCT Program is to demonstrate advanced coal utilization technologies that are energy efficient and reliable and that are able to achieve substantial reductions in emissions as compared with existing coal technologies. The Pinon Pine Power Project will demonstrate an IGCC system utilizing the Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) fluidized-bed gasification process operating in an air-blown mode with in-bed desulfurization and hot gas clean-up with a western bituminous coal. The Pinon Pine Power Project will be constructed and operated at SPPCo`s Tracy Power Station, an existing power generation facility located on a rural 724-acre plot approximately 17 miles east of Reno, NV.

  16. Integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant at Sears Island, Maine: feasibility study. Final report. Volume I. [Sears Island, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-30

    This report presents the results of a feasibility study to evaluate the use of medium Btu synthesis gas, produced from high-sulfur coal, in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, as an alternative to a conventional pulverized coal plant with flue gas scrubbers presently planned for the Sears Island, Maine site of Central Maine Power Company. The process configuration is based on the oxygen-blown Texaco Coal Gasification Process and a General Electric Combined Cycle power plant. The plant design includes a 5000 ton per day oxygen plant, four 1200 tons per day gasification trains plus one spare to reduce risk, four gas turbine-generators with heat recovery steam generators, and a reheat steam turbine generator. Plant output at ISO (59/sup 0/F) conditions is 524 MW net. The report includes preliminary design and arrangement drawings, a detailed plant description, detailed cost information, performance data, schedules, and an extensive evaluation of technical, economic, and environmental results. The results of the study indicate that the IGCC power plant is still a rapidly evolving technology. Before Central Maine Power Company can commit to construction of such a plant, several issues raised in the study need to be addressed. These issues deal with refinements in cycle performance, demonstration of various major components, and construction schedule, among others. The IGCC Plant does have less environmental impact than a comparably sized conventional coal plant, while using a high sulfur, high ash, less expensive coal. The life-of-plant levelized busbar cost for the IGCC Plant is estimated to be 5% lower than for the conventional coal-fired plant, although the initial capital cost is approximately 60% higher. Other cycle designs were identified which have the potential for improving plant economics.

  17. Exposure to Power-Frequency Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Infertility and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Update on the Human Evidence and Recommendations for Future Study Designs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Hauser, Russ; Maynard, Andrew D; Neitzel, Richard L; Wang, Lu; Kavet, Robert; Meeker, John D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes are significant public health concerns with global prevalence. Over the past 35 years, research has addressed whether exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields is one of the etiologic factors attributed to these conditions. However, no apparent authoritative reviews on this topic have been published in the peer-reviewed literature for nearly 15 years. This review provides an overview and critical analysis of human studies that were published in the peer-reviewed literature between 2002 and July 2015. Using PubMed, 13 epidemiology studies published during this time frame that concern exposure to magnetic fields and adverse prenatal (e.g., miscarriage), neonatal (e.g., preterm birth or birth defects), and male fertility (e.g., poor semen quality) outcomes were identified. Some of these studies reported associations whereas others did not, and study design limitations may explain these inconsistencies. Future investigations need to be designed with these limitations in mind to address existing research gaps. In particular, the following issues are discussed: (1) importance of selecting the appropriate study population, (2) need for addressing confounding due to unmeasured physical activity, (3) importance of minimizing information bias from exposure measurement error, (4) consideration of alternative magnetic field exposure metrics, and (5) implications and applications of personal exposure data that are correlated within female-male couples. Further epidemiologic research is needed, given the near ubiquitous exposures to power-frequency magnetic fields in the general population. PMID:27030583

  18. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  19. Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Aguirre, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and air to the system. The mineralization process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The NNs model reproduced the experimental data to within a 90% confidence level and allowed the simulation of the process for any values of the parameters within the experimental range studied. At the optimum conditions (H(2)O(2) flow rate=120 mL/h, [Fe(II)]=7.6 mg/L, pH=3.75 and air flow rate=1 m(3)/h), a 90% mineralization was achieved in 150 min. Determination of the hydrogen peroxide consumed and remaining in the water revealed that 1.2 mol of H(2)O(2) was consumed per each mol of total organic carbon removed from solution. This result confirmed that an excess of dissolved H(2)O(2) was needed to achieve high mineralization rates, so continuous addition of peroxide is recommended for industrial application of this process. Air flow slightly improved the mineralization rate due to the formation of peroxo-organic radicals which enhanced the oxidation process. PMID:20510498

  20. [Removal of CO2 from simulated flue gas of power plants by membrane-based gas absorption processes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Fen; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-07-01

    Three typical absorbents such as aqueous of aminoacetic acid potassium (AAAP), monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) are selected to investigate the performance of CO2 separation from flue gas via membrane contactors made of hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene porous membrane. Impacts of absorbents, concentrations and flow rates of feeding gas and absorbent solution, cyclic loading of CO2 on the removal rate and the mass transfer velocity of CO2 are discussed. The results demonstrate that the mass transfer velocity was 7.1 mol x (m2 x s)(-1) for 1 mol x L(-1) MEA with flow rate of 0.1 m x s(-1) and flue gas with that of 0.211 m x s(-1). For 1 mol L(-1) AAAP with flow rate of 0.05 m x s(-1) and flue gas of 0.211 m x s(-1), CO2 removal rate (eta) was 93.2 % and eta was 98% for 4 mol x L(-1) AAAP under the same conditions. AAAP being absorbent, eta was higher than 90% in a wider range of concentrations of CO2. It indicates that membrane-based absorption process is a widely-applied and promising way of CO2 removal from flue gas of power plants, which not only appropriates for CO2 removal of flue gas of widely-used PF and NGCC, but also for that of flue gas of IGCC can be utilized widely in future. PMID:16212162

  1. Steady-state simulation and optimization of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are a promising technology option for power generation with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in view of their efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional coal utilization technologies. This paper presents a three-phase, top-down, optimization-based approach for designing an IGCC plant with precombustion CO2 capture in a process simulator environment. In the first design phase, important global design decisions are made on the basis of plant-wide optimization studies with the aim of increasing IGCC thermal efficiency and thereby making better use of coal resources and reducing CO2 emissions. For the design of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture, the optimal combination of the extent of carbon monoxide (CO) conversion in the water-gas shift (WGS) reactors and the extent of CO2 capture in the SELEXOL process, using dimethylether of polyethylene glycol as the solvent, is determined in the first phase. In the second design phase, the impact of local design decisions is explored considering the optimum values of the decision variables from the first phase as additional constraints. Two decisions are made focusing on the SELEXOL and Claus unit. In the third design phase, the operating conditions are optimized considering the optimum values of the decision variables from the first and second phases as additional constraints. The operational flexibility of the plant must be taken into account before taking final design decisions. Two studies on the operational flexibility of the WGS reactors and one study focusing on the operational flexibility of the sour water stripper (SWS) are presented. At the end of the first iteration, after executing all the phases once, the net plant efficiency (HHV basis) increases to 34.1% compared to 32.5% in a previously published study (DOE/NETL-2007/1281; National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2007). The study shows that the three-phase, top-down design approach presented is very

  2. Powering the Future with LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2009-04-28

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Leveraging the National Ignition Facility to meet the climate-energy challenge; (2) The journal into a new era of scientific discoveries; and (3) Safe and sustainable energy with LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy).

  3. Climate Change Impacts to Hydro Power Reservoir Systems in British Columbia, Canada: Modelling, Validation and Projection of Historic and Future Streamflow and Snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Schnorbus, M.; Werner, A. T.; Berland, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The British Columbia Hydro Electric Corporation (BC Hydro) has a mandate to provide clean, renewable and reliable sources of hydro-electric power into the future, hence managing those resources in the context of climate change will be an important component of reservoir operational planning in British Columbia. The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (www.PacificClimate.org) has implemented the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model parameterized at 1/16th degree (~32 km2) to provide BC Hydro with future projections of changes to streamflow and snowpack to the 2050s. The headwaters of the Peace, Columbia, and Campbell River basins were selected for study; the Upper Peace River basin (101,000 km2) is a snowmelt-dominated watershed, and the Upper Columbia River Basin (104,000 km2) has a mixed snowmelt-glacier melt runoff regime, with glacier runoff contributing up to 15 to 20% of late summer discharge. The Upper Campbell River watershed (1,200 km2) has a mixed rainfall and snowmelt (hybrid) hydrologic regime. The model has been calibrated using historical streamflow observations and validated against these observations, as well as automated snow pillow measurements. Future streamflow changes are estimated based on eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the CMIP3 suite, downscaled using the Bias Correction Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, run under three emissions scenarios (A2, A1B and B1; A1B is specifically reported on herein). Climate impacts by the 2050s in the three watersheds illustrate an increase in annual average temperature and precipitation ranging between +2.2°C to +2.8°C and +2% to +10% depending on basin, and an annual change in streamflow of -1% to +12% for the three watersheds. Changes are more profound on the seasonal time-scale and differ across basins. Summer streamflow in the Upper Campbell River watershed is projected to decline by -60%, where as the Upper Peace and Columbia systems are projected to decline by -25% and -22

  4. Development of a Low-Power CO2 Removal and Compression System for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization in Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Moate, Joe R.

    2005-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the design and prototype development of a two-stage CO2 removal and compression system that will utilize much less power than NASA s current CO2 removal technology. This integrated system contains a Nafion membrane followed by a residual water adsorber that performs the function of the desiccant beds in the four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) system of the International Space Station (ISS). The membrane and the water adsorber are followed by a two-stage CO2 removal and compression subsystem that satisfies the operations of the CO2 adsorbent beds of the 4BMS aid the interface compressor for the Sabatier reactor connection. The two-stage compressor will utilize the principles of temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) compression technology for CO2 removal and compression. The similarities in operation and cycle times of the CO2 removal (first stage) and compression (second stage) operations will allow thermal coupling of the processes to maximize the efficiency of the system. In addition to the low-power advantage, this processor will maintain a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of membrane gas dryer and CO2 separator and compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  5. The power of hybrid / fusion imaging metrics in future PACS systems: a case study into the white matter hyperintensity prenumbra using FLAIR and diffusion MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Samantha J.; Michels, Peter A.; Gajawelli, Niharika; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    Most white matter related neurological disease exhibit a large number of White Matter Hyperintensities (WMHs) on FLAIR MRI images. However, these lesions are not well understood. At the same time, Diffusion MRI has been gaining popularity as a powerful method of characterizing White Matter (WM) integrity. This work aims to study the behavior of the diffusion signal within the WMH voxels. The goal is to develop hybrid MR metrics that leverage information from multiple MR acquisitions to solve clinical problems. In our case, we are trying to address the WMH penumbra (as defined by Maillard et al 20112) where WMH delineates a foci that is more widespread than the actual damage area presumably due to acute inflammation. Our results show that diffusion MR metrics may be able to better delineate tissue that is inflamed versus scar tissue but may be less specific to lesions than FLAIR. Therefore, a hybrid metric that encodes information from both FLAIR and Diffusion MR may yield new and novel imaging information about the progression of white matter disease progression. We hope that this work also demonstrates how future PACS systems could have image fusion capabilities that would be able to leverage information from multiple imaging series to yield new and novel imaging contrast.

  6. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Yunhua Zhu; H. Christopher Frey

    2006-12-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. 38 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. PMID:17195484

  9. Thermoelectric power systems and the energy-water nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Michael Edward

    The goal of this Thesis is the development of a comprehensive methodology to evaluate the total cost of water use in the recirculating cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. This methodology expands upon the work presented in the literature to improve estimations of the economic impact of condenser fouling. The methods developed in this Thesis are incorporated into a user friendly Combined Cost Model (CCM) interface that will allow future researchers, students and plant personnel to perform the same comparative analyses presented herein. The objective of this Thesis is the application of the CCM to determine the economic viability of treated municipal wastewater (MWW) use to replace freshwater for cooling in power plants with recirculating cooling systems. To accomplish this objective, a set of case study evaluations are included to (1) evaluate the sensitivity of the economic impact of fouling to condenser design and operation, (2) determine the cost of treated MWW use in pulverized coal power plants, and (3) compare the relative cost of degraded water use in advanced power systems such as IGCC and oxy-combustion. The results of these evaluations show that current freshwater prices do not provide an economic incentive to switch to the use of treated MWW water. However, results indicate that the breakeven differential price of freshwater, at which the total costs of using freshwater and treated MWW are equal, is only 0.52 /1000Gal. (USD 2009). In addition, the use of treated MWW for cooling is shown to be a better economic alternative to dry air cooling technology (DACT) for the conservation of freshwater resources. Cost-to-conservation estimates of treated MWW use are 1.1 /1000 Gal., in contrast to 5.6 $/1000 Gal. for DACT. This Thesis also presents a novel, hybrid coal conversion concept, the dry gasification oxy-combustion (DGOC) power cycle. This process is similar to oxy-combustion, in that it maintains a concentrated CO2 flue stream and does not

  10. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  12. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  13. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  14. New, environmentally friendly power plants being sought

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15

    The common theme at the Power-Gen International Conference in November 2006 was: the world's appetite for electricity must be fed with new power plant construction. These new plants must be designed and built in an environmentally responsible way. The article reports on keynote highlights, on presentations on carbon capture and on panel discussions. TXU plans to add 9.1 GW of new coal-fired generation in Texas by 2011. Bradley Jones said the company plans to spend $2 billion on carbon sequestration research. David Ekins described a carbon capture effort that EPRI and We Energies are pursuing. Joubert, of Alstom, thought that IGCC might one day become competitive but not before 2020. 2 photos.

  15. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  16. Pinon Pine Power Project. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This annual report has been prepared to present the status of the Pinon Pine Power Project, a nominal 107 MWe (gross) coal-fired integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant addition to Sierra Pacific Power Company`s (SPPCo) system. This project will also serve as a demonstration project cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and SPPCo under DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. The goal of the CCT Program is to demonstrate advanced coal utilization technologies that are energy efficient, reliable and able to achieve substantial reductions in emissions as compared with existing coal technologies. The Pinon Pine Power Project will demonstrate an IGCC system utilizing the Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) fluidized-bed gasification process operating in an air-blown mode with in-bed desulfurization and hot gas clean-up with a western bituminous coal as the design fuel. Testing will also be performed on a high-sulfur eastern coal. The Pinon Pine Power Project will be constructed and operated at SPPCo`s Tracy Power Station, an existing power generation facility located on a rural 724-acre plot approximately 17 miles east of Reno, NV. This new unit is designated as Tracy Unit No. 4.

  17. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  18. The Surprisingly Low Motivational Power of Future Rewards: Comparing Conventional Money-Based Measures of Discounting with Motivation-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Jane E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal discount rates are often poor predictors of behaviors that we expect will be motivated by the future. The current research suggests this may be because conventional discounting measures are poor measures of the motivational value of future rewards. In six studies, I develop motivation-based measures of the present value (PV) of future…

  19. The Power of Problem-Based Learning in Developing Critical Thinking Skills: Preparing Students for Tomorrow's Digital Futures in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kek, Megan Yih Chyn A.; Huijser, Henk

    2011-01-01

    This article describes problem-based learning as a powerful pedagogical approach and an aligned teaching and learning system to explicitly and directly teach critical thinking skills in a broad range of disciplines. Problem-based learning is argued to be a powerful pedagogical approach as it explicitly and actively engages students in a learning…

  20. Analysis of R&D Strategy for Advanced Combined Cycle Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Keigo; Hayashi, Ayami; Kosugi, Takanobu; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    This article analyzes and evaluates the R&D strategy for advanced power generation technologies, such as natural gas combined cycles, IGCCs (Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycles), and large-scale fuel cell power generation systems with a mixed-integer programming model. The R&D processes are explicitly formulated in the model through GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique), and the data on each required time of R&D was collected through questionnaire surveys among the experts. The obtained cost-effective strategy incorporates the optimum investment allocation among the developments of various elemental technologies, and at the same time, it incorporates the least-cost expansion planning of power systems in Japan including other power generation technologies such as conventional coal, oil, and gas fired, and hydro and wind power. The simulation results show the selection of the cost-effective technology developments and the importance of the concentrated investments in them. For example, IGCC, which has a relatively high thermal efficiency, and LNG-CCs of the assumed two efficiencies are the cost-effective investment targets in the no-CO2-regulation case.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  2. Evaluation of innovative fossil fuel power plants with CO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-15

    This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO{sub 2} removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion CO{sub 2} removal.

  3. Misconceptions impairing the validity of the stopping power tables in the SRIM library and suggestions for doing better in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmaack, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    inconsistently from the predictions of Lindhard-Scharff (LS) theory; they also exhibit various forms of exotic velocity dependence. These deviations are primarily due to the fact that the range of validity of BB theory is artificially extended to velocities at which the 'effective-charge' concept is assumed to be applicable. Coupled Z1,2 scaling as in theories of LS or Firsov would be much more appropriate. Overall, the electronic stopping cross sections by SRIM are of unpredictable value and often strongly misleading below 1 MeV/u. (iv) Another consequence of the tight link to the Z1,2 dependence of BB theory is that only 2 × 92 master sets of electronic stopping cross sections were required to generate all conceivable 89 × 92 tables from Se,f-ratios for elemental targets (the tables for H, He and Li projectiles are derived separately). The information contained in the SRIM library at large thus exhibits a highly redundant character. (v) The nuclear stopping cross sections Sn mirror the predictions of the universal potential due by Ziegler, Biersack and Littmark, which differ from alternative suggestions typically by less than 15%. With this uncertainty, range distributions may be calculated with the TRIM program of SRIM, but only at energies where Sn dominates so that uncertainties in Se play a minor role. (vi) As a side aspect, an example is presented illustrating the efforts required to identify incorrect experimental data, notably when respected authors are accountable. (vii) Other approaches to establish stopping power tables are shown to be subject to the same problems as SRIM. It is recommended to add a warning to all theses tables, informing users at which energies the data are likely to lack reliability. (viii) The currently unacceptable quality of Se,f-data below 1 MeV/u could be improved significantly in the future if the user friendly TRIM(SRIM) code were modified to allow simulations with a free choice of nuclear and electronic stopping cross sections

  4. Misconceptions impairing the validity of the stopping power tables in the SRIM library and suggestions for doing better in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmaack, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    inconsistently from the predictions of Lindhard-Scharff (LS) theory; they also exhibit various forms of exotic velocity dependence. These deviations are primarily due to the fact that the range of validity of BB theory is artificially extended to velocities at which the 'effective-charge' concept is assumed to be applicable. Coupled Z1,2 scaling as in theories of LS or Firsov would be much more appropriate. Overall, the electronic stopping cross sections by SRIM are of unpredictable value and often strongly misleading below 1 MeV/u. (iv) Another consequence of the tight link to the Z1,2 dependence of BB theory is that only 2 × 92 master sets of electronic stopping cross sections were required to generate all conceivable 89 × 92 tables from Se,f-ratios for elemental targets (the tables for H, He and Li projectiles are derived separately). The information contained in the SRIM library at large thus exhibits a highly redundant character. (v) The nuclear stopping cross sections Sn mirror the predictions of the universal potential due by Ziegler, Biersack and Littmark, which differ from alternative suggestions typically by less than 15%. With this uncertainty, range distributions may be calculated with the TRIM program of SRIM, but only at energies where Sn dominates so that uncertainties in Se play a minor role. (vi) As a side aspect, an example is presented illustrating the efforts required to identify incorrect experimental data, notably when respected authors are accountable. (vii) Other approaches to establish stopping power tables are shown to be subject to the same problems as SRIM. It is recommended to add a warning to all theses tables, informing users at which energies the data are likely to lack reliability. (viii) The currently unacceptable quality of Se,f-data below 1 MeV/u could be improved significantly in the future if the user friendly TRIM(SRIM) code were modified to allow simulations with a free choice of nuclear and electronic stopping cross sections

  5. Summary of the Forty-Fifth NCRP annual meeting on "the future of nuclear power worldwide: safety, health and the environment".

    PubMed

    Corradini, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The role of nuclear power as a major resource in meeting the projected growth of electric power requirements in the United States and worldwide during the 21st century is a subject of great contemporary interest. The goal of the 2009 NCRP Annual Meeting was to provide a forum for an in-depth discussion of issues related to the safety, health and environmental protection aspects of new nuclear power reactor systems and related fuel-cycle facilities such as fuel production and reprocessing strategies. The meeting was an international conference with participation of almost 400 representatives from many nations, scientific organizations, nuclear industries, and governmental agencies engaged in the development and regulatory control of advanced nuclear reactor systems and fuel-cycle operations. Highlights of the meeting are summarized in this report. PMID:21399422

  6. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison

    2002-04-30

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, good progress has been made on the development of our IGCC workbench. Preliminary CFD simulations for single stage and two stage ''generic'' gasifiers using firing conditions based on the Vision 21 reference configuration have been performed. Work is continuing on implementing an advanced slagging model into the CFD based gasifier model. An investigation into published gasification kinetics has highlighted a wide variance in predicted performance due to the choice of kinetic parameters. A plan has been outlined for developing the reactor models required to simulate the heat transfer and gas clean up equipment downstream of the gasifier. Three models that utilize the CCA software protocol have been integrated into a version of the IGCC workbench. Tests of a CCA implementation of our CFD code into the workbench demonstrated that the CCA CFD module can execute on a geographically remote PC (linked via the Internet) in a manner that is transparent to the user. Software tools to create ''walk-through'' visualizations of the flow field within a gasifier have been demonstrated.

  7. Campus Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Most people in the United States, no matter how extensive their education, have never had a course dealing primarily with the future. But they have had at least one course, and probably many courses, dealing with the past. Most also have never questioned why the past is so emphasized in formal education while the future--the only arena over which…

  8. Nuclear-fuel-cycle policy and the future of nuclear power. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, October 23, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Edward Teller, Ralph Nader, and a panel from Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith were among the 12 witnesses at this hearing on the Reagan administration's decision to eliminate the ban on plutonium reprocessing and its effect on the nuclear industry's future. Subcommittee Chairman Edward J. Markey asked for comments on safety question, recent plant cancellations, contributions that nuclear power can make in relieving oil dependence in the transportation sector, proliferation, and the inconsistency of subsidizing nuclear while imposing a free-market philosophy on solar, coal, and conservation. The testimony if followed by an appendix of additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. The Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Technical Description of What Happened and Lessons Learned for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoto, Akira

    2012-02-01

    Tsunami that followed M9.0 earthquake on March 11^th left the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants without power and heat sink. While water makeup continued by AC-independent systems to keep the fuel core covered by coolant, operating team tried to depressurize and enable low pressure injection to the reactor to avoid overheating but was not successful enough primarily due to limited available resources. This resulted in core melt, hydrogen explosion and release of radioactivity to the environment. Key lessons learned are; 1) safety regulation and safety culture, 2) workable/executable severe accident management procedure, 3) crisis management and 4) design. Implications on security include revealed vulnerability and the nexus of safety and security. Given the scale of damage to the environmental, attention must be paid to defense against it and to societal safety goal of nuclear power by considering offsite remedial costs, compensation to damage, energy replacement cost etc. A sort of root cause analysis first by asking ``Why nuclear community failed to prevent this accident?'' was initiated by the University of Tokyo.

  11. Impact of WRF Physics and Grid Resolution on Low-level Wind Prediction: Towards the Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Future Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S; Glascoe, L; Lundquist, J; Wharton, S

    2010-02-24

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used in short-range simulations to explore the sensitivity of model physics and horizontal grid resolution. We choose five events with the clear-sky conditions to study the impact of different planetary boundary layer (PBL), surface and soil-layer physics on low-level wind forecast for two wind farms; one in California (CA) and the other in Texas (TX). Short-range simulations are validated with field measurements. Results indicate that the forecast error of the CA case decreases with increasing grid resolution due to the improved representation of valley winds. Besides, the model physics configuration has a significant impact on the forecast error at this location. In contrast, the forecast error of the TX case exhibits little dependence on grid resolution and is relatively independent of physics configuration. Therefore, the occurrence frequency of lowest root mean square errors (RMSEs) at this location is used to determine an optimal model configuration for subsequent decade-scale regional climate model (RCM) simulations. In this study, we perform two sets of 20-year RCM simulations using the data from the NCAR Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations; one set models the present climate and the other simulates the future climate. These RCM simulations will be used to assess the impact of climate change on future wind energy.

  12. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  13. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Adel Sarofim; Bene Risio

    2002-07-28

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, good progress has been made on the development of the IGCC workbench. A series of parametric CFD simulations for single stage and two stage generic gasifier configurations have been performed. An advanced flowing slag model has been implemented into the CFD based gasifier model. A literature review has been performed on published gasification kinetics. Reactor models have been developed and implemented into the workbench for the majority of the heat exchangers, gas clean up system and power generation system for the Vision 21 reference configuration. Modifications to the software infrastructure of the workbench have been commenced to allow interfacing to the workbench reactor models that utilize the CAPE{_}Open software interface protocol.

  14. Recovery, transport, and disposal of CO{sub 2} from an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

    1993-12-31

    Initiatives to limit CO{sub 2} emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production and is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such a system, and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an equivalent CO{sub 2} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the equivalent CO{sub 2} budget is 1 kg CO{sub 2}/kWh. The base case for the comparison is a 458-MW IGCC system using an air-blown Kellogg Rust Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No.6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, transportation, and preparation of the coal and limestone result in a net electric power production of 448 MW with a 0.872 kg/kWh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output was taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2}, and processed in a Selexol unit to recover CO{sub 2} prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then took the CO{sub 2} to geological sequestering. The net electric power production was 383 MW with a 0.218 kg/kWh CO{sub 2} release rate.

  15. Creativity and power: a qualitative, exploratory study of student learning acquired in a community nursing setting that is applied in future settings.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Alan; Boogaerts, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students undertake clinical placements in a wide range of clinical areas as part of their preparation for professional practice, offering students the opportunity to learn about the clinical context and the work that nurses do. This descriptive study explores the implicit learnings that occur for students in a community nursing placement and whether they transfer the knowledge they gain in the community setting into practice in other settings. Participants in this research study described implicit learning from a community nursing context which they were able to utilise in their current practice. Three major themes emerged. Firstly, participants recognised that power relationships manifest differently in a community based setting. This manifest in a recognition of patient autonomy and a creative approach to enhancing the patient's power. The second, related theme involved the enabling of self-determination through collaborative decision making between nurse and the person receiving care. The third theme was the development of an understanding of self-management which manifest in appropriate referrals and what the participants considered high quality discharge planning. This recognition of practice beyond technical, rationalist manifestations suggests that students grasped the unarticulated, implicit dimensions of the community nurse role through their experiences in a community nursing placement. PMID:24787256

  16. The Minnesota Agri-Power project

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1996-12-31

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP), a farmer-owned cooperative, is leading a public/private effort to develop a $200 million integrated alfalfa processing and biomass energy system. MnVAP will produce and process 700,000 tons of alfalfa per year. A wide range of value-added alfalfa products, including electricity, will be produced at MnVAP`s facilities. The power plant will utilize integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation technology to produce 75 megawatts of baseload power. The Minnesota Agri-Power (MAP) project is a sustainable development project. It will invigorate the economy of southwestern Minnesota by maximizing the value added to a biomass resource and returning the benefits of ownership to the rural community. Products produced from the protein-rich leaf material may include feed pellets, liquefied protein supplements, pharmaceutical bases, and natural fragrances and dyes. The primary product to be produced from alfalfa stems will be electricity, as this was determined in a DOE-sponsored feasibility study to be the highest value use of the fibrous stem material. Air emissions from the power plant will be less harmful than emissions from fossil-fuel plants. In addition, the new production of alfalfa required by this project will improve the health of agricultural soil, water quality and wildlife habitat.

  17. Future Imaging Sensor Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Ando, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced imaging sensor technologies that are being developed for future NASA earth observation missions are discussed. These include the multilinear array, the Shuttle imaging spectrometer, and the Shuttle imaging radar. The principal specifications and functional descriptions of the instruments are presented, and it is shown that the advanced technologies will enable a synergistic approach to the use of VIS/IR and microwave imaging sensors for remote sensing research and applications. The key problems posed by these future imaging sensor technologies are discussed, with particular attention given to data rates, power consumption, and data processing.

  18. The development of electricity futures

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, B.

    1994-12-31

    The development of electricity futures is outlined. The following topics are discussed: electricity futures contract research; evolution of the electricity industry; electric power marketer applications; natural gas marketing companies; EWG filings and approvals; and introduction to New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).

  19. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  20. Forecasts for CMB μ and i-type spectral distortion constraints on the primordial power spectrum on scales 8∼future Pixie-like experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid A. E-mail: sunyaev@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-06-01

    Silk damping at redshifts 1.5 × 10{sup 4}∼power spectrum from future experiments such as Pixie, and how these constraints change as we change the frequency resolution and the sensitivity of the experiment. We show that the additional information in the shape of the i-type distortions, in combination with the μ-type distortions, allows us to break the degeneracy between the amplitude and the spectral index of the power spectrum on these scales and leads to much tighter constraints. We quantify the information contained in both the μ-type distortions and the i-type distortions taking into account the partial degeneracy with the y-type distortions and the temperature of the blackbody part of the CMB. We also calculate the constraints possible on the primordial power spectrum when the spectral distortion information is combined with the CMB anisotropies measured by the WMAP, SPT, ACT and Planck experiments.

  1. The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael, Ed.; Lentz, Tony, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The past, present, and future of oral interpretation are explored in this publication. Separate articles deplore a lack of growth and development in the area of oral interpretation, examine oral interpretation's current status, describe the ideal beginning oral interpretation course, point to the value of oral interpretation in the college…

  2. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  3. Future Performance of Ground-Based and Airborne Water-Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar. II. Simulations of the Precision of a Near-Infrared, High-Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker; Walther, Craig

    2001-10-01

    Taking into account Poisson, background, amplifier, and speckle noise, we can simulate the precision of water-vapor measurements by using a 10-W average-power differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. This system is currently under development at Hohenheim University, Germany, and at the American National Center for Atmospheric Research. For operation in the 940-nm region, a large set of measurement situations is described, including configurations that are considered for the first time to the authors knowledge. They include ultrahigh-resolution measurements in the surface layer (resolutions, 1.5 m and 0.1 s) and vertically pointing measurements (resolutions, 30 m and 1 s) from the ground to 2 km in the atmospheric boundary layer. Even during daytime, the DIAL system will have a measurement range from the ground to the upper troposphere (300 m, 10 min) that can be extended from a mountain site to the lower stratosphere. From the ground, for the first time of which the authors are aware, three-dimensional fields of water vapor in the boundary layer can be investigated within a range of the order of 15 km and with an averaging time of 10 min. From an aircraft, measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer (60 m, 1 s) can be performed from a height of 4 km to the ground. At higher altitudes, up to 18 km, water-vapor profiles can still be obtained from aircraft height level to the ground. When it is being flown either in the free troposphere or in the stratosphere, the system will measure horizontal water-vapor profiles up to 12 km. We are not aware of another remote-sensing technique that provides, simultaneously, such high resolution and accuracy.

  4. A US History of Airbreathing/Rocket Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion for Powering Future Aerospace Transports, with a Look Ahead to the Year 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1999-01-01

    A technohistorical and forward-planning overview of U.S. developments in combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion for advanced aerospace vehicle applications is presented. Such system approaches fall into one of two categories: (1) Combination propulsion systems (separate, non-interacting engines installed), and (2) Combined-Cycle systems. The latter, and main subject, comprises a large family of closely integrated engine types, made up of both airbreathing and rocket derived subsystem hardware. A single vehicle-integrated, multimode engine results, one capable of operating efficiently over a very wide speed and altitude range, atmospherically and in space. While numerous combination propulsion systems have reached operational flight service, combined-cycle propulsion development, initiated ca. 1960, remains at the subscale ground-test engine level of development. However, going beyond combination systems, combined-cycle propulsion potentially offers a compelling set of new and unique capabilities. These capabilities are seen as enabling ones for the evolution of Spaceliner class aerospace transportation systems. The following combined-cycle hypersonic engine developments are reviewed: (1) RENE (rocket engine nozzle ejector), (2) Cryojet and LACE, (3) Ejector Ramjet and its derivatives, (4) the seminal NASA NAS7-377 study, (5) Air Force/Marquardt Hypersonic Ramjet, (6) Air Force/Lockheed-Marquardt Incremental Scramjet flight-test project, (7) NASA/Garrett Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE), (8) National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), (9) all past projects; and such current and planned efforts as (10) the NASA ASTP-ART RBCC project, (11) joint CIAM/NASA DNSCRAM flight test,(12) Hyper-X, (13) Trailblazer,( 14) W-Vehicle and (15) Spaceliner 100. Forward planning programmatic incentives, and the estimated timing for an operational Spaceliner powered by combined-cycle engines are discussed.

  5. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  6. 10 CFR 904.14 - Future regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future regulations. 904.14 Section 904.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.14 Future regulations. (a) Western may from time to time promulgate...

  7. 10 CFR 904.14 - Future regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future regulations. 904.14 Section 904.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.14 Future regulations. (a) Western may from time to time promulgate...

  8. 10 CFR 904.14 - Future regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future regulations. 904.14 Section 904.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.14 Future regulations. (a) Western may from time to time promulgate...

  9. 10 CFR 904.14 - Future regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future regulations. 904.14 Section 904.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.14 Future regulations. (a) Western may from time to time promulgate...

  10. US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

  11. Europe`s electric future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Though the market is developing, independent power producers see strong potential in Europe`s power industry. In Europe`s electricity future, some envision a cohesive marketplace. This market would be characterized by consistent regulations; transparent pricing regimes open access to transmission services; competitive procurement processes; and unbundled generation, transmission and distribution services. This new market structure would mark a change for private power developers, who in the past have faced barriers to development of independent power facilities in many European countries. Progress toward competition is already evident.

  12. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  13. Geothermal Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

  14. Productivity, electricity, science: Powering a green future

    SciTech Connect

    Ausubel, J.H.

    1996-04-01

    Science and technology offer the opportunity for environmental and social improvement, while providing the higher levels of services and goods that people seek. Notwithstanding efficiency gains, markets for electricity will grow because of the multiplication of population and devices and the deeper penetration of the transport sector.

  15. What future for nuclear power? Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    A Workshop on this highly controversial subject, organized by the Energy and Environment Programme of the RIIA, was held on 10th November 1997 at Green College, Oxford. The meeting was attended by some forty people from eight countries, coming from the nuclear and electricity generating industry, governments, research organizations, academic institutions, environmental pressure groups and inter-governmental organizations. In addition, subsequent to this Workshop, there have been a number of smaller, more informal discussions on various aspects of the subject. This paper summarizes the main conclusions arising from the Workshop and from these later discussions.

  16. Taiwan: Facing the future with nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The republic of China on Taiwan is located approximately 100 miles off the southeast coast of mainland China, between Japan and the Philippines, and has an area of 13,970 square miles. The island nation has a population exceeding twenty million people, with over five million living in the capital of Taipei, making Taiwan the second most densely populated country in the world. The country also has one of the world`s fastest growing economies, with major industries that include electronics, textiles, food processing, chemicals and plastics. Annual growth of Taiwan`s gross national product (GNP) has averaged more than 7 percent for the past several years, and the small island is now the twelfth largest trading nation in the world, with a GNP exceeding US$200 billion.

  17. Powering Our Sustainable Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    One of the Energy Department's most successful outreach efforts, the Solar Decathlon provides sponsors with rich opportunities for recognition - from naming rights to signage and speaking opportunities to special events. Support from the business community is crucial to the success of the competition and the experience of thousands of student decathletes. This sponsorship brochure reveals reasons why sponsors support the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon and how organizations can become involved as Solar Decathlon sponsors.

  18. Power Buying: Planning For Your Deregulated Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Wayne K.

    1997-01-01

    Colleges and universities can benefit from the coming deregulation of utilities. Deregulation creates opportunity for facility managers to aggressively negotiate agreements, implement changes to the physical plant to make the institution a more attractive customer, and explore new, less expensive energy supply options and alternatives. Some action…

  19. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  20. Tracy Power Station -- Unit No. 4, Pinon Pine Power Project Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the Pinon Pine Project which will be located at the Sierra Pacific Power Company`s (SPPCO) Tracy Station near Reno, Nevada. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant is designed to process 880 tones per day (TPD) of bituminous coal producing approximately 107 gross megawatts of electric power (MWe). This project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2192MC29309. The plant incorporates the Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) fluidized bed gasification technology which produces a low-Btu gas which is used as fuel in a combined cycle power plant which has been modified to accommodate the fuel gas produced by an air-blown gasifier. The gasification system also includes hot gas removal of particulates and sulfur compounds from the fuel gas resulting in a plant with exceptionally low atmospheric emissions. Desulfurization is accomplished by a combination of limestone injection into the KRW fluidized bed gasifier and by a transport reactor system. Particulate removal is accomplished by high efficiency cyclones and a barrier filter. The Pinon Pine Project Schedule is divided into three phases. Phase I includes permitting and preliminary design. Phase II, which overlaps Phase I, covers detailed design, procurement, and construction. Phase III will cover the initial operation and demonstration portion of the project.

  1. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  2. Historical and projected power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Policy planning for projected space power requirements is discussed. Topics of discussion cover: (1) historical space power trends (prime power requirements and power system costs); and (2) two approaches to future space power requirements (mission/traffic model approach and advanced system scenario approach). Graphs, tables, and flow charts are presented.

  3. Nuclear power: Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear Power. Electricity produced by coal; Electricity produced by nuclear fuel; Nuclear plant sites in the United States; Short History of Commercial Nuclear Power; U.S. nuclear submarines, Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants; Licensing process, Nuclear Power Plant Operator Training; Nuclear power plant simulator, Are Nuclear Plants Safe.; Containment structure, Nuclear Power Plant Insurance; Is Radiation Dangerous.; Man-made radiation, What is Nuclear Fuel.; Fuel cycle for commercial nuclear power plants; Warm Water Discharge; Cooling tower; Protection of Radioactive Materials; Plutonium and Proliferation; Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; Are Alternate Energy Sources Available.; Nuclear Opposition; and Nuclear Power in the Future.

  4. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  5. Evaluation and modification of ASPEN fixed-bed gasifier models for inclusion in an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    Several Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) fixed-bed gasifier models have been evaluated to determine which is the most suitable model for use in an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant simulation. Four existing ASPEN models were considered: RGAS, a dry ash gasifier model developed by Halcon/Scientific Design Company; USRWEN, the WEN II dry ash gasifier model originally developed by C.Y. Wen at West Virginia University; the slagging gasifier model developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and based on Continental Oil Company's (CONOCO) design study for the proposed Pipeline Demonstration Plant; and the ORNL dry ash gasifier model developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the simulation of the Tri-States Indirect Liquefaction Process. Because none of the models studied were suitable in their present form for inclusion in an IGCC power plant simulation, the SLAGGER model was developed by making significant modifications to the MIT model. The major problems with the existing ASPEN models were most often inaccurate material and energy balances, limitations of coal type, or long run times. The SLAGGER model includes simplifications and improvements over the MIT model, runs quickly (less than 30 seconds of computer time on a VAX-11/780), and gives more accurate mass and energy balances.

  6. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100- to 400-W operating range were developed. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2-kW and 5- to 30-kW power range were implemented, including a four-transistor bridge-switching circuit, current-mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs, allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  8. Power struggle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1995-05-01

    Private power development in Mexico or at least the dream of it, can be characterized by three words - turmoil, tragedy and trauma. The saga continues for all parties concerned and there is little question that the worst suffering is being experienced by the Mexican people themselves. There are signs along the road that changing political, social, economic and market factors are laying the foundation for real, substantive support of a long-term private power development business sector in Mexico. Developers may still experience some potholes and wrong turns, but there is little doubt that private energy and power development will play a dominant role in Mexico`s future if for no other reason than it has to - to meet the needs of the Mexican people, the Mexican economy and the foreign investment community. There are three fundamental reasons for this guarded optimism: Basic energy/economic growth factors which originally attracted electric power investors have not changed; Legal, financial and regulatory frameworks necessary for private power investment are still in place, and are expected to grow even stronger; and, The Salinas administration`s handcuffs on the Mexican energy sector are slowly being removed, but Mexico`s economic restructuring may speed up the process.

  9. Future Plans for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to space exploration, and future planned improvements to the communication capabilities that the network allows, in terms of precision, and communication power.

  10. Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

  11. Future Flight Central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA 'Future Flight Central,' the world's first full-scale virtual airport control tower, opened December 13, 1999 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Constructed at a cost of $10 million, the two story facility was jointly funded by NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The facility is designed to test ways to solve potential air and ground traffic problems at commercial airports under realistic airport conditions and configurations. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines and airports to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management, ramp movement procedures, and various other airport improvements. Twelve rear projection screens provide a seamless 360 degree high- resolution view of the airport or other screens being depicted. The imaging system, powered by supercomputers, provides a realistic view of weather conditions, enviromental and seasonal effects and the movement of up to 200 active aircraft and ground vehicles.

  12. Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-05-01

    'Back to the Future'! Who achieved What, When, Why and How is presented. A chronological Review from Galileo's fundamental concepts to today. An analysis of the validity of said concepts. Especially a critical analysis of Einstein's opinion that the velocity of c is the 'ultimate' Universal velocity. --- The Author presents ``21st C TMP''; per the PhD company's analysis of our dynamic Universe. Namely, X' = X - vt/[square root 1 - (v squared/C squared)]. Capital C equal to or GREATER than c, Einstein's 'ultimate' velocity. --- And " MAPHICS ", (TM); MA from MAthematics; and PHICS from PHysICS. " MAPHICS " the ``Omega Science'' that combines the Philosophy of Mathematics with the Philososphy of Physics into ONE Philosophy. `` MAPHICS '' (TM) is presented and explained. Its claimed speed and power of infinite resolution is demonstrated.

  13. ARDS. The future.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hector R

    2002-01-01

    Improving the course and outcome of patients with ARDS presents a considerable challenge. An important component of meeting this challenge is a more comprehensive understanding of the heterogeneous pathophysiology of ARDS and the biologic response of the individual patient. This understanding may be developed through the power of genomics and its related technology. In particular, it will be crucial to characterize the immunophenotypes of individual patients with ARDS. By understanding the immune status of a given patient at a given point in the disease process, physicians can consider manipulating proinflammatory systems more rationally, such as the complement and chemokine cascades, or the anti-inflammatory arm of the immune system. Finally, a more refined molecular and genetic understanding of endogenous cytoprotective molecules and mechanisms, such as the heat shock response and HO-1, may provide further tools in the future armamentarium against ARDS. PMID:11910730

  14. Development of Future Curriculum via Futures Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Saedah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2011-01-01

    Observation on best future choices is not something that happens by chance; in fact, it should be carried out through careful planning driven by research. Therefore, observation on future curriculum would also involve in-depth research on future possibilities and their impact. Policy makers and curriculum developers of institutions or even the…

  15. The Ocean: Our Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  16. Imagining Comparative Education: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This study is shaped by several concerns: the desire to address the future of comparative education, and the desire to argue that the future as well as the past may be understood better if viewed through a lens of hermeneutical imagination, with its power to enter into and bear witness to "exemplary" narratives of the past and present. The study…

  17. 10 CFR 904.14 - Future regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future regulations. 904.14 Section 904.14 Energy... PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.14 Future regulations. (a) Western may from time to time promulgate such additional or amendatory regulations as deemed necessary for the administration of the Project in...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF REACTION-DRIVEN IONIC TRANSPORT MEMBRANES (ITMs) TECHNOLOGY: PHASE IV/BUDGET PERIOD 6 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems”

    SciTech Connect

    David, Studer

    2012-03-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, along with development participants and in association with the U.S. Department of Energy, has made substantial progress in developing a novel air separation technology. Unlike conventional cryogenic processes, this method uses high-temperature ceramic membranes to produce high-purity oxygen. The membranes selectively transport oxygen ions with high flux and infinite theoretical selectivity. Reaction-driven ceramic membranes are fabricated from non-porous, multi-component metallic oxides, operate at temperatures typically over 700°C, and have exceptionally high oxygen flux and selectivity. Oxygen from low-pressure air permeates as oxygen ions through the ceramic membrane and is consumed through chemical reactions, thus creating a chemical driving force that pulls oxygen ions across the membrane at high rates. The oxygen reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel in a partial oxidation process to produce a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture – synthesis gas. This project expands the partial-oxidation scope of ITM technology beyond natural gas feed and investigates the potential for ITM reaction-driven technology to be used in conjunction with gasification and pyrolysis technologies to provide more economical routes for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas. This report presents an overview of the ITM reaction-driven development effort, including ceramic materials development, fabrication and testing of small-scale ceramic modules, ceramic modeling, and the investigation of gasifier integration schemes

  19. Power of a Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Ronald W.; Stehn, John L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the effects of electric power deregulation on an educational facility's planning and purchasing for future power needs. Highlights ways schools can take advantage of deregulation. Examines various chiller technologies and economically assessing these technologies on a life-cycle cost basis. (GR)

  20. Power and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses whether the United States possesses sufficient international power to (1) shape its own destiny in the current world economic climate, and (2) influence significantly and constructively the destiny of the world economy as a whole. Argues that the key to America's future economic power lies in ideas and concepts. (Author/GC)

  1. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  2. The Economics of America's Energy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Henry

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) pamphlet which reviews economic and technical considerations for the future development of energy sources. Included are sections on petroleum, synthetic fuels, oil shale, nuclear power, geothermal power, and solar energy. Also presented are data pertaining to U.S. energy production…

  3. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  4. Perspectives on future space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.

    1994-02-01

    In response to increasing economic stresses and social concerns, the U.S. space program is being restructured, with a shift in mission strategy for future space activities and a change in design philosophy for space systems. NASA and DOD have established several national technology programs. They include Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion, the aeroassist flight experiment, telerobotics, space power, thermal management, control/structures interactions, space science sensor programs, and the small spacecraft technology program.

  5. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  6. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Mumford, Kathryn Anne; Smith, Kathryn; Stevens, Geoff

    2014-12-16

    Energy and exergy analyses were studied for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent. The study focused on the combined impact of the CO conversion ratio in the water gas shift (WGS) unit and CO2 recovery rate on component exergy destruction, plant efficiency, and energy penalty for CO2 capture. A theoretical limit for the minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was also provided. It was found that total plant exergy destruction increased almost linearly with CO2 recovery rate and CO conversion ratio at low CO conversion ratios, but the exergy destruction from the WGS unit and the whole plant increased sharply when the CO conversion ratio was higher than 98.5% at the design WGS conditions, leading to a significant decrease in plant efficiency and increase in efficiency penalty for CO2 capture. When carbon capture rate was over around 70%, via a combination of around 100% CO2 recovery rate and lower CO conversion ratios, the efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was reduced. The minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was estimated to be around 5.0 percentage points at design conditions in an IGCC plant with 90% carbon capture. Unlike the traditional aim of 100% CO conversion, it was recommended that extremely high CO conversion ratios should not be considered in order to decrease the energy penalty for CO2 capture and increase plant efficiency. PMID:25389800

  7. The OAST space power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) space power program was established to provide the technology base to meet power system requirements for future space missions, including the Space Station, earth orbiting spacecraft, lunar and planetary bases, and solar system exploration. The program spans photovoltaic energy conversion, chemical energy conversion, thermal energy conversion, power management, thermal management, and focused initiatives on high-capacity power, surface power, and space nuclear power. The OAST space power program covers a broad range of important technologies that will enable or enhance future U.S. space missions. The program is well under way and is providing the kind of experimental and analytical information needed for spacecraft designers to make intelligent decisions about future power system options.

  8. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  9. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  10. Global power marketing: Potential of power industry and cost of power production in India

    SciTech Connect

    Dinker, N.; Rawal, G.J.; Hirani, J.A.; Shukla, J.K.B.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the potential for the power industry in India. It gives statistics of power demand and power production capacity for the last few years and projects the future capacity for power generation. The paper uses Guijarat State as a example and gives economics of the power projects in the state and also some idea of operating cost. The paper presents prevailing rates of tariff for the power from which one can derive economical feasibility of the power projects in India. The Indian government has given more emphasis on attracting private investment for power development and changed its power policy. To attract foreign investments, the Indian power ministry has issued counter guarantees to some independent power projects. The India power industry is thus becoming a potential market for foreign power industries.

  11. Particulate Control Device (PCD) Testing at the Power Systems Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) objectives overseen by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to test systems and components for advanced coal-based power generation systems, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated gasification/fuel cell (IGFC) systems. Stringent particulate requirements for fuel gas for both combustion turbines and fuel cells that are integral to these systems. Particulates erode and chemically attack the blade surfaces in turbines, and cause blinding of the electrodes in fuel cells. Filtration of the hot, high-pressure, gasified coal is required to protect these units. Filtration can be accomplished by first cooling the gas, but the system efficiency is reduced. High-temperature, high-pressure, particulate control devices (PCDs) need to be developed to achieve high efficiency and to extend the lifetime of downstream components to acceptable levels. Demonstration of practical high-temperature PCDs is crucial to the evolution of advanced, high-efficiency, coal-based power generation systems. The intent at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is to establish a flexible test facility that can be used to (1) develop advanced power system components, such as high-temperature, high-pressure PCDs; (2) evaluate advanced power system configurations and (3) assess the integration and control issues of these advanced power systems.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  13. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  14. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for high efficiency. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2 kW and 5 to 30 kW power range were implemented, including a four transistor bridge switching circuit, current mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter. Electromagnetic compatibility requirements were not considered in this work, and control power for the converter was derived from AC mains. Addition of input filters and control power converters would result in an efficiency of on the order of 90 percent for a flight unit. Due to the developmental nature of arcjet systems at this power level, the exact nature of the thruster/power processor interface was not quantified. Output regulation and current ripple requirements of 1 and 20 percent respectively, as well as starting techniques, were derived from the characteristics of the 2 kW system but an open circuit voltage in excess of 175 V was specified. Arcjet integration tests were performed, resulting in successful starts and stable arcjet operation at power levels as low as 240 W with simulated hydrazine propellants.

  15. An Influenced Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    aspect to control the temperatures inside my electrical aspect model. During my time at JSC I had effectively figured out how to create subsystem models utilizing Trick and GUNNS. I obtain essential knowledge of power and thermal subsystem design for a robotic vehicle. I also learned how to work and communicate in a team effectively to accomplish a goal. Before coming to Johnson Space Center my future career and educational goals included uncertainty, however now I have a completely new look on my path to a prosperous future. My NASA experience has unquestionably impacted me to accomplish and surpass my own particular desires. After my time at Johnson Space Center I plan to apply for a coop position for NASA. This has been a dream come true that I adored each moment being at JSC realizing that I am far fit for doing things most individuals can just long for.

  16. Is there a future for electricity futures?

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, J.R.; Chittenden, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The market for electricity based commodity trading, including futures and options, is in its infancy in the United States. Formal trading of electricity futures started on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) on March 29, 1996 with Options trading following on April 26, 1996. NYMEX started two new contracts, one based at the California-Oregon border (COB) and one based at the Palo Verde switchyard (Palo Verde). NYMEX is the commodity futures exchange in the United States that specializes in energy contracts, historically launching futures contracts in energy sectors immediately after the deregulation of the market and after the formation of a competitive cash or spot market. In the case of electricity, NYMEX established the new electricity futures contracts prior to the deregulation of the market and in the middle of the formation of a working spot market. Several questions remain including if there is enough interest in the market, who will be the participants, how will the physical properties of electricity mold the terms for futures contracts, and how will deregulation affect the outcome?

  17. Prospects of thermionic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1978-01-01

    Potential thermionic power systems for space or terrestrial applications are described so that the development goals can be clearly identified. The thermionic power systems considered are a space nuclear power system, a fossil-fuel thermionic topping steam power system, a solar thermionic topping steam power system, and advanced systems. Attention is given to a discussion of the current status of technology development in thermionic converters and associated elements in power systems. Future prospects of thermionic power systems are also discussed. It is concluded that thermionic conversion has a great potential for a variety of applications.

  18. Nursing's Preferred Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydelotte, Myrtle K.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses future trends for society and relates them to future roles and characteristics of nursing. She presents strategies that nursing professionals should use to be prepared for the stated trends. (CH)

  19. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.