Science.gov

Sample records for future peak electrical

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Electric Transmission Capacity and Peak Electricity Load in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M. D.; Eisenberg, D. A.; Gorman, B.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change may hinder future electricity reliability by reducing electric transmission capacity while simultaneously increasing electricity demand. This study estimates potential climate impacts to electric transmission capacity and peak electricity load in the United States. Electric power cables suffer decreased transmission capacity as they get hotter; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity demand typically increases with hotter ambient air temperatures due to increased cooling loads. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity loads. Taken together, these coincident impacts may have unpredictable consequences for electric power reliability. We estimate the effects of climate change on both the rated capacity of transmission infrastructure and expected electricity demand for 120 electrical utilities across the United States. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with downscaled CMIP5 temperature projections to determine the relative change in rated ampacity over the twenty-first century. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity demand by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We use downscaled temperature projections from 11 CMIP5 GCM models under 3 atmospheric carbon scenarios. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), climate change may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 4-6% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak summertime loads may rise by roughly 2-12% on average due to increases in daily maximum air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  12. Electrical futures past.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Graeme J N

    2005-12-01

    Futurist writing about technology emerged in the late 19th century at the same time as new kinds of electrical technology were making utopian futures seem practically attainable. Electrical writers and novelists alike thus borrowed from the popular "science" fiction of Jules Verne, Edward Bellamy and others to try to create self-fulfilling prophecies of a future in which electrical gadgets and machines met all major practical needs of civilization. To the extent that many parts of our world are populated by the hardware that they forecast, they succeeded in their goal. PMID:16271766

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  15. NYMEX electricity futures and options

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity futures and options are discussed under the following topics: a futures contract, primary economic role of commodity exchanges, characteristics of an effective exchange, natural gas and electricity similarities, hedging, and coal futures contracts.

  16. The development of electricity futures

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, B.

    1994-12-31

    The development of electricity futures is outlined. The following topics are discussed: electricity futures contract research; evolution of the electricity industry; electric power marketer applications; natural gas marketing companies; EWG filings and approvals; and introduction to New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).

  17. Is there a future for electricity futures?

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, J.R.; Chittenden, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The market for electricity based commodity trading, including futures and options, is in its infancy in the United States. Formal trading of electricity futures started on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) on March 29, 1996 with Options trading following on April 26, 1996. NYMEX started two new contracts, one based at the California-Oregon border (COB) and one based at the Palo Verde switchyard (Palo Verde). NYMEX is the commodity futures exchange in the United States that specializes in energy contracts, historically launching futures contracts in energy sectors immediately after the deregulation of the market and after the formation of a competitive cash or spot market. In the case of electricity, NYMEX established the new electricity futures contracts prior to the deregulation of the market and in the middle of the formation of a working spot market. Several questions remain including if there is enough interest in the market, who will be the participants, how will the physical properties of electricity mold the terms for futures contracts, and how will deregulation affect the outcome?

  18. Off-peak electric energy for poultry feed processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Off-peak electric energy can be used for poultry feed processing, achieving substantial reduction in electric energy cost. In addition, high efficiency equipment and conservation measures add to energy cost savings. Careful planning and evaluation of time-of-use rates can maximize the savings for each type of enterprise.

  19. Off-peak electric heat for broiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, K.M.; Beston, T.A.; Collins, N.E.; McCarthy, G.S.

    1983-06-01

    An instrumented broiler house (5,000 bird capacity) was heated from September 1982 to February 1983 using off-peak electric energy. A storage/exchange tank containing water received heat energy from 10 PM to 6 AM and transferred heat to house air to maintain temperature. Cost of construction and operation are presented. Off-peak pricing was evaluated using our systems analysis model.

  20. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports. PMID:19153861

  1. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal

  2. Europe`s electric future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Though the market is developing, independent power producers see strong potential in Europe`s power industry. In Europe`s electricity future, some envision a cohesive marketplace. This market would be characterized by consistent regulations; transparent pricing regimes open access to transmission services; competitive procurement processes; and unbundled generation, transmission and distribution services. This new market structure would mark a change for private power developers, who in the past have faced barriers to development of independent power facilities in many European countries. Progress toward competition is already evident.

  3. PV solar electricity: status and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    of new concepts to broaden the product portfolio in coming years). The second topic outlines the most likely development of liberalized electricity markets in various regions worldwide. It will be emphasized that in such markets the future prices for electricity will more and more reflect the different cost for bulk and peak power production. This will not only happen for industrial electricity customers - as already today in many countries - but also for private households. The third topic summarizes the existing data and facts by correlating peak power demand and prices traded in various stock exchange markets with delivered PV kWh. It will be shown that a high degree of correlation is existent. Combining the three topics and postulating reverse net metering the competitiveness of PV solar electricity as described is most likely to occur. The described price decrease of modules will also have a very positive impact on off-grid rural applications, mainly in 3rd world countries. It will be shown that this is strongly advanced due to the development of mini-grids starting from solar home systems - with mini grids looking very similar to on-grid applications in weak grid areas of nowadays electricity network.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Electric Power: Decisions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Preston, John

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the past 25 years of electricity consumption in the United States and considers the implications for the near future. Discusses strategies for energy conservation and provides a student activity for measuring and conserving electric power. (Author/JOW)

  6. The history of transportation, with a peak into the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    In the first part of this presentation, a general historical review of the heydays of various modes of transportation will be given, where 'heydays' will be interpreted as periods of fundamental technological development. With this as background, focus will then be placed on the airplane -- the mode of transportation that has changed the world in the 20th century, and which in the minds of many has been the most important technological development in this century. The technical history of air transportation (the airplane) will be reviewed, with special emphasis on the aerodynamic evolution of the airplane. Some specific examples of pivotal technical advances (and breakthroughs) from the history of applied aerodynamics will be discussed. Finally, this historical perspective will be used to help us peek into the future of transportation in the 21st century.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-04-14

    This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

  9. Investigation of cost reduction in residential electricity bill using electric vehicle at peak times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elma, Onur; Selamogullari, Ugur Savas

    2012-11-01

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming more common in the world. Since these vehicles are equipped with large battery capacity, they can be used as energy provider when they are parked and have enough charge level. This study investigates the possibility of Vehicle to Home (V2H) concept using EV as energy provider for a residential house in Istanbul, Turkey. High resolution residential electrical demand data is obtained to characterize the residential demand. Then, case studies are completed in MATLAB/Simulink to evaluate the cost reduction in residential electricity bill when the EV is used to supply the residential demand at peak times. It is assumed that the EV will be fully charged after midnight when the energy cost is lower. The difference between residential electricity costs at peak times and charging costs after midnight are found considering different EV state of charge conditions due to driving conditions during the day. The results will provide more realistic prediction of cost savings since residential demand dynamics are taken into account.

  10. Climate change and peak demand for electricity: Evaluating policies for reducing peak demand under different climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Abigail Walker

    This research focuses on the relative advantages and disadvantages of using price-based and quantity-based controls for electricity markets. It also presents a detailed analysis of one specific approach to quantity based controls: the SmartAC program implemented in Stockton, California. Finally, the research forecasts electricity demand under various climate scenarios, and estimates potential cost savings that could result from a direct quantity control program over the next 50 years in each scenario. The traditional approach to dealing with the problem of peak demand for electricity is to invest in a large stock of excess capital that is rarely used, thereby greatly increasing production costs. Because this approach has proved so expensive, there has been a focus on identifying alternative approaches for dealing with peak demand problems. This research focuses on two approaches: price based approaches, such as real time pricing, and quantity based approaches, whereby the utility directly controls at least some elements of electricity used by consumers. This research suggests that well-designed policies for reducing peak demand might include both price and quantity controls. In theory, sufficiently high peak prices occurring during periods of peak demand and/or low supply can cause the quantity of electricity demanded to decline until demand is in balance with system capacity, potentially reducing the total amount of generation capacity needed to meet demand and helping meet electricity demand at the lowest cost. However, consumers need to be well informed about real-time prices for the pricing strategy to work as well as theory suggests. While this might be an appropriate assumption for large industrial and commercial users who have potentially large economic incentives, there is not yet enough research on whether households will fully understand and respond to real-time prices. Thus, while real-time pricing can be an effective tool for addressing the peak load

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  12. Basic research for future electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  14. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  15. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  16. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2016-08-01

    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  17. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  18. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  19. Roadmapping the technological future of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, K.; Gehl, S.; Barker, B.; Knight, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    This article reviews the progress of an ongoing collaborative exploration spearheaded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI): the Electricity Technology Roadmap Initiative. With over 150 participating organizations to date, the Roadmap Initiative seeks to develop a comprehensive vision of opportunities for electricity-related innovation through the mid-21st Century to benefit society and business. The Roadmap will also translate that vision into a set of technology development destinations and R and D pathways. EPRI is leading the Roadmapping effort as an investment in the future and as guidance for broad-based public and private R and D investment. The Roadmap is intended to be an ongoing activity with broad participation.

  20. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  1. A torque controlled high speed flywheel energy storage system for peak power transfer in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, U.; Szabados, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a design outline and implementation procedure for a flywheel energy storage system using a high speed interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, torque-controlled through the use of a vector control algorithm. The proposed flywheel energy storage system can be used to meet the peak energy requirements of an electric vehicle during both acceleration and regenerative braking. By supplying the peak energy requirements from a secondary source, the life cycle of the electric vehicle`s batteries may be extended considerably. A torque control algorithm is presented and preliminary implementation through a commercially available microcontroller is described. Preliminary testing of the proposed system has been very promising and has proven that bidirectional peak power transfer can be rapidly accomplished. 4 refs.

  2. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers’ peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers’ location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual ‘map’ of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the

  3. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers' peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers' location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual 'map' of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the locations

  4. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-01

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively. PMID:25705922

  5. Development of flood regressions and climate change scenarios to explore estimates of future peak flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Smith, Martyn J.; Freehafer, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    The application uses predictions of future annual precipitation from five climate models and two future greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and provides results that are averaged over three future periods—2025 to 2049, 2050 to 2074, and 2075 to 2099. Results are presented in ensemble form as the mean, median, maximum, and minimum values among the five climate models for each greenhouse gas emissions scenario and period. These predictions of future annual precipitation are substituted into either the precipitation variable or a water balance equation for runoff to calculate potential future peak flows. This application is intended to be used only as an exploratory tool because (1) the regression equations on which the application is based have not been adequately tested outside the range of the current climate and (2) forecasting future precipitation with climate models and downscaling these results to a fine spatial resolution have a high degree of uncertainty. This report includes a discussion of the assumptions, uncertainties, and appropriate use of this exploratory application.

  6. On the anticorrelation of the electric field and peak electron energy within an auroral arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinckrodt, A. J.; Carlson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with an example of a strongly anticorrelated electric field and particle precipitation, taking into account an application of an extended version of the model of Evans et al. (1977) to the data. A striking feature of the data reported is the high degree of anticorrelation between electric field strength and peak precipitating electron energy. A simple model consisting of a constant current traversing a region in which the conductivities increase in proportion to ionospheric energy deposition provides a qualitative explanation of the observations. However, when the effects of neutral winds, ionization transport, Hall currents, and arc motion, and the nonlinearity of the relationship between peak precipitating electron energy and equilibrium are considered, the conclusions become less clear.

  7. Advanced electrolysis development for hydrogen-cycle peak shaving for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, R.A.; Nuttall, L.J.

    1982-09-01

    Meeting peak power demands can impose limiting conditions on generation, transmission, and distribution equipment in the electric utility network--especially around urban areas. Utilization of a cost-effective energy storage system capable of being located near the load centers could improve load factors and maximize utilization of installed capital equipment. A hydrogen-cycle peak-shaving system (HCPS) can be sited in populated areas, imposing no environmental concerns, and providing considerable flexibility not only in meeting peak load demands, but also in helping to meet varying system load-growth patterns. Several possible configurations for an HCPS are described, together with a summary of the features and benefits. An alternate ''dispersed'' HCPS system is also described for use by a combined electric and gas utility. One of the key elements in an HCPS system is an efficient, cost-effective water electrolysis unit. The General Electric Company has been working with the Niagara Mohawk Power Company, and others, since 1976 on the development of a unique solid-polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis system which offers considerably higher efficiencies and potentially lower capital cost as compared with conventional commercial alkaline electrolyzers. The current status of this development program is discussed.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of Up to 80% Renewable Electricity Penetration in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; DeMeo, E.; Hostick, D.; Mai, T.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  9. Capacity and peak power degradation of lead-acid battery under simulated electric vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Tummillo, A. F.; Miller, J. F.; Hornstra, F.; Christianson, C. C.

    In a program supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, controlled laboratory tests were conducted at Argonne to evaluate the effects of selected EV application factors on the performance and life of the EV-2300 lead-acid battery. These application factors included simulated driving profile discharges with different levels of peak power demands for vehicle acceleration, long rest times after charge or discharge, and different methods of recharging. The performance and life variations among cells and modules in a full-scale battery pack were also examined. Statistical methods were used to analyze the laboratory test data. The key factors affecting the performance and life of the battery were identified, and the rates of capacity and power degradation were quantified using multiple regression techniques. The analyses show that the most significant factors were peak power demand levels and cell location within the six-cell modules. The effects of charge method and rest times were found to be small.

  10. Influence of electric field on spectral positions of dislocation-related luminescence peaks in silicon: Stark effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchedlidze, T.; Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M.; Hoang, T.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, J.

    2007-11-01

    Spectral positions of dislocation-related luminescence (DRL) peaks from dislocation loops located close to a p-n junction in silicon were shifted by carrier injection level. We suppose that the excitonic transition energies of DRL were reduced by an effective electric field at dislocation sites due to quadratic Stark effect (QSE). The field results from built-in junction field reduced by carrier injection. A constant of the shift, obtained from fitting of the data with QSE equation, was 0.0186meV /(kV/cm)2. The effect can explain the diversity of DRL spectra in silicon and may allow tuning and modulation of DRL for future photonic applications.

  11. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  15. Magmagenesis at the Eocene Electric Peak Sepulcher Mountain complex, Absaroka Volcanic Province, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C. R.; Feeley, T. C.

    2003-03-01

    Igneous rocks exposed on Electric Peak and Sepulcher Mountain represent the preserved intrusive and extrusive components of an early Eocene, calc-alkaline eruptive center in the Absaroka Volcanic Province (AVP) of Montana and Wyoming, USA. The Electric Peak stock has an outcrop area of ˜1 km 2 and consists of six discrete phases ranging in composition from quartz diorite to granite, representing multiple small intrusions of compositionally distinct magmas. Lava flows and dikes on Sepulcher Mountain are basaltic-andesitic to dacitic in composition with silicic rocks generally peripheral to mafic rocks. Important geochemical characteristics of the rocks from both localities include high Ni and Cr concentrations in andesitic and dacitic rocks, lower rare earth element (REE) concentrations in evolved rocks relative to more mafic rocks, and variable Sr and Nd isotopic ratios. Although petrographic evidence permissive of magma mixing is limited, compositional data suggest that andesitic rocks are hybrids formed by mixing variably fractionated and contaminated mantle-derived mafic magmas with diverse composition silicic crustal melts derived from partial melting of amphibolitic lower- to mid-crustal rocks. Isotopic and trace element systematics of mafic rocks, such as high ratios of large ion lithophile to high field strength elements, also suggest that parental magmas were derived from melting of subduction-modified lithospheric mantle. The significance of these results is that the calc-alkaline nature of the center was inherited from crustal processes, whereas the arc-like trace element signature reflects generation of the magmas in a tectonic environment related to geometrically complex subduction of the Farallon plate under the North American continent.

  16. Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary

    SciTech Connect

    Eltimsahy, A.H.

    1980-06-01

    The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

  17. Design optimization of the electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) vehicle. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, M.; Gao, Y.; Butler, K.

    1998-10-01

    Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A and M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, and system optimization work has been going on for this invention. This project was a first attempt in integrating the above developments into an optimized design of an ELPH passenger car. Design specifications were chosen for a full size passenger car, performing as well as any conventional car, over the EPA-FTP-75 combined city/highway drive cycles. The results of this design project were two propulsion systems. Both were appropriate for commercial production, from the points of view of cost, availability of the technologies, and components. One utilized regenerative braking and the other did not. Substantial fuel savings and emissions reductions resulted from simulating these designs on the FTP-75 drive cycle. For example, the authors` ELPH full size car, with regenerative braking, was capable of delivering over 50 miles per gallon in city driving, with corresponding reductions in its emissions. This project established the viability of the authors` ELPH concept and their design methodologies, in computer simulations. More work remains to be done on investigating more advanced power plants, such as fuel cells, and more advanced components, such as switched reluctance motor drives, for the authors` designs. Furthermore, the authors` design optimization can be carried out to more detailed levels, for prototyping and production.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  1. Productivity, electricity, science: Powering a green future

    SciTech Connect

    Ausubel, J.H.

    1996-04-01

    Science and technology offer the opportunity for environmental and social improvement, while providing the higher levels of services and goods that people seek. Notwithstanding efficiency gains, markets for electricity will grow because of the multiplication of population and devices and the deeper penetration of the transport sector.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Use of high-power solar arrays, at power levels ranging from approximately 500 KW to several megawatts, has been proposed for a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) demonstration mission, using a photovoltaic array to provide energy to a high-power xenon-fueled engine. One of the proposed applications of the high-power SEP technology is a mission to rendezvous with an asteroid and move it into lunar orbit for human exploration, the Asteroid Retrieval mission. The Solar Electric Propulsion project is dedicated to developing critical technologies to enable trips to further away destinations such as Mars or asteroids. NASA needs to reduce the cost of these ambitious exploration missions. High power and high efficiency SEP systems will require much less propellant to meet those requirements.

  3. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-01

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world. PMID:27385064

  4. Electric railroads and trolley systems: past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, N.L.

    1984-03-01

    Because of its unique attributes, electricity has played and will continue to play an important role in the development of certain modes of transportation. Although dominated by fossil fuels as a direct source of energy for motive power, transportation has relied upon electricity for particular situations. This report discusses the role of electricity in transportation, including the history of electrified transportation, its current status, and prospects for the future. The historical coverage includes early city transit development, the evolution of the electric streetcar, and the progression of railroad electrification in the United States. Railroads are now the dominant mode of transportation that uses electricity; as such, most of the attention given to the current status of electrified transportation concerns this mode. Railroad electrifications throughout the world are compared, and the current situation regarding railroad electrification in the United States is noted. Future development of electrified transportation may include new rail rapid transit systems and reemployment of electric trolley buses. 43 references, 7 tables.

  5. [Future of implantable electrical cardiac devices].

    PubMed

    Daubert, Jean-Claude; Behaghel, Albin; Leclercq, Christophe; Mabo, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Major improvements in implantable electrical cardiac devices have been made during the last two decades, notably with the advent of automatic internal defibrillation (ICD) to prevent sudden arrhythmic death, and cardiac resynchronisation (CRT) to treat the discoordinated failing heart. They now constitute a major therapeutic option and may eventually supersede drug therapy. The coming era will be marked by a technological revolution, with improvements in treatment delivery, safety and efficacy, and an expansion of clinical indications. Leadless technologyfor cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators is already in the pipeline, endovascular leads currently being responsible for most long-term complications (lead failure, infection, vein thrombosis, etc.). Miniaturized pacemakers based on nanotechnology can now be totally implanted inside the right ventricle through the transvenous route, thus eliminating leads, pockets and scarring In the same way, totally subcutaneous ICD systems are now available, although they are currently only capable of delivering shocks, without pacing (including antitachycardia pacing). In CRT optimised delivery is important to improve clinical responses and to reduce the non-response rate (around 30 % with current technology). Endocardial left ventricular pacing could be a solution if it can be achieved at an acceptable risk. Multisite ventricular pacing is an alternative. Besides CRT neuromodulation, especially by vagal stimulation, is another important field of device researchfor heart failure. Preliminary clinical results are encouraging. PMID:26427291

  6. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the

  7. Thermal energy storage for space cooling. Technology for reducing on-peak electricity demand and cost

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off-peak hours when electricity rates are lower. In addition, some system configurations may result in lower first costs and/or lower operating costs. Cool storage systems of one type or another could potentially be cost-effectively applied in most buildings with a space cooling system. A survey of approximately 25 manufacturers providing cool storage systems or components identified several thousand current installations, but less than 1% of these were at Federal facilities. With the Federal sector representing nearly 4% of commercial building floor space and 5% of commercial building energy use, Federal utilization would appear to be lagging. Although current applications are relatively few, the estimated potential annual savings from using cool storage in the Federal sector is $50 million. There are many different types of cool storage systems representing different combinations of storage media, charging mechanisms, and discharging mechanisms. The basic media options are water, ice, and eutectic salts. Ice systems can be further broken down into ice harvesting, ice-on-coil, ice slurry, and encapsulated ice options. Ice-on-coil systems may be internal melt or external melt and may be charged and discharged with refrigerant or a single-phase coolant (typically a water/glycol mixture). Independent of the technology choice, cool storage systems can be designed to provide full storage or partial storage, with load-leveling and demand-limiting options for partial storage. Finally, storage systems can be operated on a chiller-priority or storage priority basis whenever the cooling load is less than the design conditions. The first section describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. The next three sections define the savings potential in the

  8. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  9. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  10. Sell lumens, not kilowatts: The future for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Piepmeier, J.M. ); Jermain, D. ); Egnor, T.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The key to the future for electric utilities will not be found in legislation or regulation. Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 will prove to be just as ineffectual in improving the industry's position as was the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. These legislative palliatives, which produced so much commotion and so many reams of heated commentary, are largely irrelevant to a successful future for electric utilities. The key will be found in economics, not in law, and the future will lie in completing Thomas A. Edison's century-old vision for the industry, half of which the industry has heretofore ignored. The industry must embrace the complete vision and evolve from electric utilities into [open quotes]end-use energy utilities.[close quotes

  11. Postglacial volcanic deposits at Glacier Peak, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions; a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beget, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic events at Glacier Peak volcano in northern Washington have repeatedly affected areas near the volcano as well as areas far downwind and downstream. This report describes the evidence of this activity preserved in deposits on the west and east flanks of the volcano. On the west side of Glacier Peak the oldest postglacial deposit is a large, clayey mudflow which traveled at least 35 km down the White Chuck River valley sometime after 14,000 years ago. Subsequent large explosive eruptions produced lahars and at least 10 pyroclastic-flow deposits, including a semiwelded vitric tuff in the White Chuck River valley. These deposits, known collectively as the White Chuck assemblage, form a valley fill which is locally preserved as far as 100 km downstream from the volcano in the Stillaguamish River valley. At least some of the assemblage is about 11,670-11,500 radiocarbon years old. A small clayey lahar, containing reworked blocks of the vitric tuff, subsequently traveled at least 15 km down the White Chuck River. This lahar is overlain by lake sediments containing charred wood which is about 5,500 years old. A 150-m-thick assemblage of pyroclastic-flow deposits and lahars, called the Kennedy Creek assemblage, is in part about 5,500-5,100 radiocarbon years old. Lithic lahars from this assemblage extend at least 100 km downstream in the Skagit River drainage. The younger lahar assemblages, each containing at least three lahars and reaching at least 18 km downstream from Glacier Peak in the White Chuck River valley, are about 2,800 and 1,800 years old, respectively. These are postdated by a lahar containing abundant oxyhornblende dacite, which extends at least 30 km to the Sauk River. A still younger lahar assemblage that contains at least five lahars, and that also extends at least 30 km to the Sauk River, is older than a mature forest growing on its surface. At least one lahar and a flood deposit form a low terrace at the confluence of the

  12. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  14. Evaluation of Potential Wetlands to Reduce Peak Flows in Future Climate Scenarios in the Eagle Creek Watershed, IN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, K. M.; Babbar-Sebens, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the severity of floods and droughts and the frequency of extreme streamflow events in the Midwestern United States. Managing these projected impacts poses a major challenge for water resources, conservation, and land use management. Wetlands have been considered as a conservation strategy and work to increase the capacity of watersheds by storing runoff upstream. The implementation of wetlands, especially in tile-drained agricultural watersheds, can reduce peak flows and help mitigate the anticipated impacts of climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of wetlands to reduce peak flows in future climate scenarios in the Eagle Creek Watershed in Indiana. A secondary goal of this research was to establish a methodology for incorporating climate change into hydrological models to conduct long-term land management studies and decisions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was forced with an ensemble of bias corrected climate projections from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology and the ability of wetlands to reduce peak flows. Long-term monthly streamflow results predicted a slight increase in streamflow in the winter and a slight decrease in the summer from the past (1971-2000) to future (2041-2070) time periods. About half of the climate realizations produced an increase in the 5% exceedance flow and half a decrease, but all predictions agreed that high flow events will increase in frequency in the winter and decrease in the spring and summer. Results from the wetland analysis showed that if all potential wetlands identified in a previous study are installed in the watershed, maximum peak flow reductions of around 20-50 cubic meters per second for the past and future, as well as decreased frequency of extreme events, can be seen. Wetlands proved to be a robust solution for

  15. An air-Brayton nuclear-hydrogen combined-cycle peak-and base-load electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and hydrogen produced by the high-temperature reactor to meet base-load and peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, air is compressed; flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C; and exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The heat, via an intermediate heat-transport loop, is provided by a high-temperature reactor. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, after nuclear heating of the compressed air, hydrogen is injected into the combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. This process increases the plant efficiency and power output. Hydrogen is produced at night by electrolysis or other methods using energy from the nuclear reactor and is stored until needed. Therefore, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the hydrogen and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the grid.

  16. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  17. IRP and the electricity industry of the future: Workshop results

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1994-09-01

    During the next several years, the U.S. electricity industry is likely to change dramatically. Instead of an industry dominated by vertically integrated companies that are regulated primarily by state public utility commissions, we may see an industry with many more participants and less regulation. These new participants may include independent power producers, entities that dispatch and control power plants on a real-time basis, entities that build and maintain transmission networks, entities that build and maintain distribution systems and also sell electricity and related to services to some retail customers, and a variety of other organizations that sell electricity and other services to retail customers. Because markets are intended to be the primary determinant of success, the role of state and federal regulators might be less than it has been in the past. During the past decade, utilities and state regulators have developed new ways to meet customer energy-service needs, called integrated resource planning (IRP). IRP provides substantial societal benefits through the consideration and acquisition of a broad array of resources, including renewables and demand-side management (DSM) programs as well as traditional power plants-, explicit consideration of the environmental effects of electricity production and transmission; public participation in utility planning; and attention to the uncertainties associated with different resources, future demands for electricity, and other factors. IRP might evolve in different ways as the electricity industry is restructured (Table S-I). To explore these issues, we ran a Workshop on IRP and the Electricity Industry of the Future in July 1994. This report presents the wisdom and experience of the 30 workshop participants. To focus discussions, we created three scenarios to represent a few of the many ways that the electricity industry might develop.

  18. Is there a future for electric-industry IRP?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1996-05-01

    Historically, regulators imposed resource-planning rules on electric utilities because of the utility`s obligation to serve. Given that obligation, regulators wanted utilities to plan for and procure a portfolio of resources that provided customers with low-cost electricity, stable prices, and a clean environment. What, if any, portfolio-management responsibilities will the future utility have? To answer that question, one must first define a ``utility`` in the future industry. If utilities are distribution entities with an obligation only to connect customers to the grid, then integrated resource planning (IRP) as it has been practiced during the past decade is over. If distribution entities retain an obligation to serve ``core`` customers, then IRP will continue in some form. This paper reviews recent IRPs to see how utilities and their regulators are responding to current and likely changes in the electricity industry. The paper then discusses how IRP might change in the future. These changes include the use of shorter time horizons for planning, a focus on contracts rather than utility built power plants, an emphasis on transmission and distribution planning, treatment of electricity pricing (with time and location dependence) as a resource, and substantial changes in how demand-side management (DSM) is treated. In summary, resource planning will continue. But integrated resource planning will either disappear or will play a much smaller role in utility and regulatory affairs and be conducted quite differently than in the past.

  19. The costs, air quality, and human health effects of meeting peak electricity demand with installed backup generators.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A; Lave, Lester B; Adams, Peter J

    2006-11-15

    Existing generators installed for backup during blackouts could be operated during periods of peak electricity demand, increasing grid reliability and supporting electricity delivery. Many generators, however, have non-negligible air emissions and may potentially damage air quality and harm human health. To evaluate using these generators, we compare the levelized private and social (health) costs of diesel internal combustion engines (ICE) with and without diesel particulate filters (DPF), natural gas ICEs, and microturbines to a new peaking plant in New York, NY. To estimate the social cost, first we calculate the upper range emissions for each generator option from producing 36,000 megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity over 3 days. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a 3-D chemical transport model, PMCAMx, and Gaussian dispersion plumes. Using a Monte Carlo approach to incorporate the uncertainties, we calculate the health endpoints using concentration-response functions and multiply the response by its economic value. While uncontrolled diesel ICEs would harm air quality and health, a generator with a DPF has a social cost, comparable to natural gas options. We conclude on a full cost basis that backup generators, including controlled diesel ICEs, are a cost-effective method of meeting peak demand. PMID:17153991

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Trieu

    2013-04-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

  1. Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M.; Rijk, G. de

    2014-01-27

    Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

  2. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing

  3. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoesung

    1994-12-31

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market.

  4. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nifenecker, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  5. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  6. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future

  7. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  8. Peak power bi-directional transfer from high speed flywheel to electrical regulated bus voltage system: A practical proposal for vehicular technology

    SciTech Connect

    Szabados, B.; Schaible, U.

    1998-03-01

    This paper provides a design outline and implementation procedure for a Secondary Energy Storage Unit (SESU) that can be used to meet the peak energy requirements of an electric vehicle during both acceleration and regenerative braking. The life cycle of the electric vehicle`s batteries can be extended considerably by supplying peak energy requirements from a secondary source. A simulation study was conducted to determine the peak power and energy requirements over the SAE recommended electric vehicle test procedure. A scaled prototype SESU was built using flywheel energy storage, and tests were performed to determine the energy transfer capabilities of a flywheel coupled high speed permanent magnet synchronous machine through the proposed system`s energy storage tank. Results are presented that indicate the necessity of the energy storage tank. An evaluation of the proposed system is also included which indicates the practicality of the system when compared to conventional regenerative control techniques.

  9. Assessment of the efficiency of hydrogen cycles on the basis of off-peak electric energy produced at a nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Bairamov, A. N.; Shatskova, O. V.

    2009-11-01

    The main factors influencing the efficiency of using off-peak electric energy to run hydrogen cycles at a nuclear power station are considered. Indicators characterizing the efficiency of using a hydrogen cycle at a nuclear power station during its operation with superheating live steam in a steam-hydrogen mode are presented. A comparison between the steam-turbine hydrogen cycle and a pumped-storage hydraulic power station in the efficiency of generating peak electric energy (power) and capital investments is given.

  10. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  11. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  12. The all-electric aircraft - In your future?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Cary R.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in all-electric aircraft technology are reviewed with particular attention given to models with a digital fly-by-wire quadraplex control systems and experimental mechanical actuators. It is shown that all-electric technologies can eliminate many traditional design constraints and open up enormous range of design possibilities.

  13. Preliminary Comparison Between Nuclear-Electric and Solar-Electric Propulsion Systems for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppel, Christophe R.; Valentian, Dominique; Latham, Paul; Fearn, David; Bruno, Claudio; Nicolini, David; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Paganucci, F.; Saverdi, Massimo

    2004-02-01

    Recent US and European initiatives in Nuclear Propulsion lend themselves naturally to raising the question of comparing various options and particularly Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) with Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). SEP is in fact mentioned in one of the latest versions of the NASA Mars Manned Mission as a possible candidate. The purpose of this paper is to compare NEP, for instance, using high power MPD, Ion or Plasma thrusters, with SEP systems. The same payload is assumed in both cases. The task remains to find the final mass ratios and cost estimates and to determine the particular features of each technology. Each technology has its own virtues and vices: NEP implies orbiting a sizeable nuclear reactor and a power generation system capable of converting thermal into electric power, with minimum mass and volumes compatible with Ariane 5 or the Space Shuttle bay. Issues of safety and launch risks are especially important to public opinion, which is a factor to be reckoned with. Power conversion in space, including thermal cycle efficiency and radiators, is a technical issue in need of attention if power is large, i.e., of order 0.1 MW and above, and so is power conditioning and other ancillary systems. Type of mission, Isp and thrust will ultimately determine a large fraction of the mass to be orbited, as they drive propellant mass. For manned missions, the trade-off also involves consumables and travel time because of exposure to Solar wind and cosmic radiation. Future manned NEP missions will probably need superconducting coils, entailing cryostat technology. The on-board presence of cryogenic propellant (e.g., LH2) may reassure the feasibility of this technology, implying, however, a trade-off between propellant volume to be orbited and reduced thruster mass. SEP is attractive right now in the mind of the public, but also of scientists involved in Solar system exploration. Some of the appeal derives from the hope of reducing propellant mass because

  14. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system. PMID:23787302

  15. High-Power Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    NASA has sought to utilize high-power solar electric propulsion as means of improving the affordability of in-space transportation for almost 50 years. Early efforts focused on 25 to 50 kilowatt systems that could be used with the Space Shuttle, while later efforts focused on systems nearly an order of magnitude higher power that could be used with heavy lift launch vehicles. These efforts never left the concept development phase in part because the technology required was not sufficiently mature. Since 2012 the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has had a coordinated plan to mature the requisite solar array and electric propulsion technology needed to implement a 30 to 50 kilowatt solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. Multiple solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission concepts have been developed based on these maturing technologies with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission. If implemented, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle will form the basis for a capability that can be cost-effectively evolved over time to provide solar electric propulsion transportation for a range of follow-on mission applications at power levels in excess of 100 kilowatts.

  16. Application of solar electric propulsion to future planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Carl G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Application of solar electric propulsion (SEP) to several near term planetary missions has been investigated and is described in this paper. The missions under consideration include a comet rendezvous-asteroid flyby mission (CRAF), an orbiter mission to Saturn (CASSINI) and a comet nucleus sample return mission (CNSR). Advances in both thruster and solar array technology indicate that these missions could benefit by use of a moderate size solar electric propulsion system. The trajectory scenarios considered in this paper include a solar electric earth gravity assist (SEEGA) mode for all three missions and a SEP rendezvous mode for both the CRAF and CNSR missions. In addition an all SEP propulsion mode and a hybrid SEP-chemical propulsion mode is described for the CNSR mission.

  17. Solar thermal electricity in 1998: An IEA/SolarPACES summary of status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Kolb, G.J.; Meinecke, W.; Trieb, F.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development activities sponsored by countries within the International Energy Agency`s solar thermal working group. SolarPACES, have helped reduce the cost of solar thermal systems to one-fifth that of the early pilot plants. Continued technological improvements are currently being proven in next-generation demonstration plants. These advances, along with cost reductions made possible by scale-up to larger production and construction of a succession of power plants, have made solar thermal systems the lowest-cost solar energy in the world and promise cost-competitiveness with fossil-fuel plants in the future. Solar thermal technologies are appropriate for a wide range of applications, including dispatchable central-station power plants where they can meet peak-load to near-base-load needs of a utility, and distributed, modular power plants for both remote and grid-connected applications. In this paper, the authors present the collective position of the SolarPACES community on solar electricity-generating technology. They discuss the current status of the technology and likely near-term improvements; the needs of target markets; and important technical and financial issues that must be resolved for success in near-term global markets.

  18. Advanced Hall Electric Propulsion for Future In-space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    2001-01-01

    The Hall thruster is an electric propulsion device used for multiple in-space applications including orbit raising, on-orbit maneuvers, and de-orbit functions. These in-space propulsion functions are currently performed by toxic hydrazine monopropellant or hydrazine derivative/nitrogen tetroxide bi-propellant thrusters. The Hall thruster operates nominally in the 1500 sec specific impulse regime. It provides greater thrust to power than conventional gridded ion engines, thus reducing trip times and operational life when compared to that technology in Earth orbit applications. The technology in the far term, by adding a second acceleration stage, has shown promise of providing over 4000s Isp, the regime of the gridded ion engine and necessary for deep space applications. The Hall thruster system consists of three parts, the thruster, the power processor, and the propellant system. The technology is operational and commercially available at the 1.5 kW power level and 5 kW application is underway. NASA is looking toward 10 kW and eventually 50 kW-class engines for ambitious space transportation applications. The former allows launch vehicle step-down for GEO missions and demanding planetary missions such as Europa Lander, while the latter allows quick all-electric propulsion LEO to GEO transfers and non-nuclear transportation human Mars missions.

  19. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  20. Double transmission peaks electromagnetically induced transparency induced by simultaneously exciting the electric and magnetic resonance in one unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zheng, Bu-Sheng; Li, Hai-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate a metamaterial formed by a planar array of a metallic L-shaped structure and a cut wire (CW), which behaves as an analogue of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The double transmission peaks are formed by the destructive interference of two bright-modes and a quasi-dark mode. The two bright-modes are respectively excited by the L-shaped structure and CW. The unit structure itself performs a quasi-dark mode. The group refractive indexes are over 20 in the first transmission peak, and 117 in the second transmission peak, thus offering potential applications in slow light devices. Finally, all the above characteristics are achieved in just one simple unit cell. Project supported by the Chinese Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20123218110017), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61307052 and 61471368), the Foundation of Aeronautical Science, China (Grant No. 20121852030), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. kfjj20150407).

  1. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  2. Ionospheric Electric Field and Energetic Particles; Past Successes, Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, A. S.

    2005-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (1957-58) saw a step-increase in the number of ionospheric observations in both polar regions and the establishment of the World Data Centres allowing free exchange of information. Exploitation of these data from such networks of observatories, combined with the early satellite measurements, demonstrated that electric fields and energetic particles driven by solar wind-magnetosphere interactions are of paramount importance in determining the structure and dynamics of the high-latitude ionosphere. Over the next five decades, much greater understanding of the interactions of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system has been achieved. Many features and phenomena can now be predicted with a good degree of accuracy, given the initial solar wind conditions. A few scientific milestones will be presented, many of which have resulted from technical innovations, such as coherent and incoherent radars, and optical imaging. The International Heliophysical and Polar Years offer an excellent opportunity to address the outstanding issues of geospace research. Specific examples will be described. These include the spatial and temporal deposition of energy into the ionosphere and thermosphere by particles and electric fields both on the day side and nightside as a result of reconnection and substorms, and the interaction of micro-scale processes on the meso and macro-scale structure of the coupled system. Such complex topics can now be addressed for the first time with the enhanced capabilities of the ground-based networks of observatories, well complemented by remote sensing from satellites. The outcome will be much improved understanding of the closely-coupled SW-M-I-T system and hence better predictions both for space weather and Sun-Earth connections.

  3. Critical review: Uncharted waters? The future of the electricity-water nexus.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kelly T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation often requires large amounts of water, most notably for cooling thermoelectric power generators and moving hydroelectric turbines. This so-called "electricity-water nexus" has received increasing attention in recent years by governments, nongovernmental organizations, industry, and academics, especially in light of increasing water stress in many regions around the world. Although many analyses have attempted to project the future water requirements of electricity generation, projections vary considerably due to differences in temporal and spatial boundaries, modeling frameworks, and scenario definitions. This manuscript is intended to provide a critical review of recent publications that address the future water requirements of electricity production and define the factors that will moderate the water requirements of the electric grid moving forward to inform future research. The five variables identified include changes in (1) fuel consumption patterns, (2) cooling technology preferences, (3) environmental regulations, (4) ambient climate conditions, and (5) electric grid characteristics. These five factors are analyzed to provide guidance for future research related to the electricity-water nexus. PMID:25486256

  4. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats' Health Status by On-Line Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland's health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals' pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors. PMID:26307993

  5. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors. PMID:26307993

  6. New econometric approach to modelling peak load pricing policies: the case of electricity demand by large industrial customers

    SciTech Connect

    Jazayeri, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study relates the kWh consumption and the maximum instantaneous demand through a reasonable and simple inequity based on the property of the load curve. The model of analysis includes this inequality and two equations relating the kWh consumption and kW demand to their respective prices. The error term in the first equation is assumed to be normally distributed, and the error term in the second equation is assumed to have an asymptotic distribution similar to that of the largest extremes. Relating the two equations through the inequality necessitates the formation of the convolution of the normal and the extreme value distributions. Such a distribution is formed and the maximum-likelihood estimation technique along with methods of numerical analysis are utilized to estimate the parameters of this system of equations. In addition, the method of estimation is applied to time-of-use electricity pricing which preserve the basic structure of Hopkinson rate, introduction of demand and energy charges, and allows application of distinct demand and energy charges to different periods of the day or season.

  7. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  8. Current and future greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation in China: implications for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Han, Weijian; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-06-17

    China's oil imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have grown rapidly over the past decade. Addressing energy security and GHG emissions is a national priority. Replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) offers a potential solution to both issues. While the reduction in petroleum use and hence the energy security benefits of switching to EVs are obvious, the GHG benefits are less obvious. We examine the current Chinese electric grid and its evolution and discuss the implications for EVs. China's electric grid will be dominated by coal for the next few decades. In 2015 in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, EVs will need to use less than 14, 19, and 23 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 183 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. In 2020, in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou EVs will need to use less than 13, 18, and 20 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 137 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. EVs currently demonstrated in China use 24-32 kWh/100 km. Electrification will reduce petroleum imports; however, it will be very challenging for EVs to contribute to government targets for GHGs emissions reduction. PMID:24853334

  9. Historical Review of Electric Household Appliances using Induction-Heating and Future Challenging Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents historical progress on technology evolution of the electric and electronic household appliances using the inverter, especially for Induction-Heating applications, which have been put in practical use as the desk-top cooker for the first time at home in 1974 until being applied to the rice cooker and the multi-burner cooking heater. It also describes the future innovative evolution of the power semiconductor switching devices and the inverter circuit topologies supporting its progressive developments. Looking back its progress, the future trends on consumer power electronics is discussed on the practical problem in the future.

  10. Optimum hydrogen generation capacity and current density of the PEM-type water electrolyzer operated only during the off-peak period of electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Tsutomu; Sakaki, Yoshinori

    A requirement for widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles in the transportation sector will be ready availability of pure hydrogen at prices that result in operating costs comparable to, or less than, that of gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles. The existing electrical power grid could be used as the backbone of the hydrogen infrastructure system in combination with water electrolyzers. A water electrolyzer can contribute to the load leveling by changing operational current density in accordance with the change of electricity demand. The optimum hydrogen generation capacity and current density of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)-type water electrolyzer operated only during the off-peak period of electricity demand in respect of both the shortest time required for start and the higher efficiency of water electrolysis are obtained as 500 Nm 3 h -1 and 30 kA m -2, respectively. This PEM-type water electrolyzer could be used in the hydrogen refueling stations and energy storage systems constructed around hydrogen.

  11. Integrated impacts of future electricity mix scenarios on select southeastern US water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, D.; Meldrum, J.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Davis, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies on the relationship between thermoelectric cooling and water resources have been made at coarse geographic resolution and do not adequately evaluate the localized water impacts on specific rivers and water bodies. We present the application of an integrated electricity generation-water resources planning model of the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint (ACF) and Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) rivers based on the regional energy deployment system (ReEDS) and the water evaluation and planning (WEAP) system. A future scenario that includes a growing population and warmer, drier regional climate shows that benefits from a low-carbon, electricity fuel-mix could help maintain river temperatures below once-through coal-plants. These impacts are shown to be localized, as the cumulative impacts of different electric fuel-mix scenarios are muted in this relatively water-rich region, even in a warmer and drier future climate.

  12. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  13. This is not your father`s oldsmobile: Electric cooperatives venture into the future

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    In this time of industry-wide challenge and opportunity, many rural electric cooperatives face serious disadvantages rooted in size and technology. But as a group they also command important advantages: consumer ownership, nonprofit operation, and local control. The strong and innovative systems should be among the survivors of the coming struggle. For America`s electric utilities, the future, as Yogi Berra said, {open_quotes}ain`t what it used to be.{close_quotes} Electric utilities are being dislodged from their comfortable, century-old monopoly positions. They are falling or jumping into the real world of cutthroat competition where companies thrive or perish. Market forces are fraying cost-plus pricing. Uncertainty has replaced forecasts. Change has supplanted methodical deliberation. Risk has revalued assets. New market circumstances have revolutionized operations. Electric companies are scrambling to survive; entrepreneurs are scrambling to capture market share.

  14. Future cost-competitive electricity systems and their impact on US CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Alexander E.; Clack, Christopher T. M.; Alexander, Anneliese; Dunbar, Adam; Wilczak, James; Xie, Yuanfu

    2016-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation are a major cause of anthropogenic climate change. The deployment of wind and solar power reduces these emissions, but is subject to the variability of the weather. In the present study, we calculate the cost-optimized configuration of variable electrical power generators using weather data with high spatial (13-km) and temporal (60-min) resolution over the contiguous US. Our results show that when using future anticipated costs for wind and solar, carbon dioxide emissions from the US electricity sector can be reduced by up to 80% relative to 1990 levels, without an increase in the levelized cost of electricity. The reductions are possible with current technologies and without electrical storage. Wind and solar power increase their share of electricity production as the system grows to encompass large-scale weather patterns. This reduction in carbon emissions is achieved by moving away from a regionally divided electricity sector to a national system enabled by high-voltage direct-current transmission.

  15. Enabling Renewable Energy and the Future Grid with Advanced Electricity Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun; Baskaran, Suresh; Imhoff, Carl H.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2010-08-06

    Environmental concerns about using fossil fuels and their resource constrains, along with that on energy security, have spurred great interests in generating electrical energy from renewable sources such as wind and solar. The variable and stochastic nature of renewable sources however makes solar and wind power difficult to manage, especially at high levels of penetration. To effectively use the intermittent renewable energy and enable its delivery demand electrical energy storage (EES) that can also improve the reliability, stability, and efficiency of the electrical grid, which is expected to support plug-in electrical vehicles; enable real-time, two-way communication to balance demand and supply. While EES has gained wide attention for hybrid and electrical vehicle (e.g. plug-in-hybrid electrical) needs, public awareness and understanding of the critical challenges in energy storage for renewable integration and the future grid is relatively lacking. This paper examines the benefits and challenges of EES, in particular electrochemical storage or battery technologies, and discusses the fundamental principles, economics, and feasibility of the storage technologies. It intends to provide an understanding of the needs and challenges of electrical storage technologies for the stationary applications and offer general directions of research and development to the materials community.

  16. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    Thailand has a critical need for effective long-term energy planning because of the country's rapidly increasing energy consumption. In this study, the demand for electricity by the residential sector is modeled using a framework that provides detailed estimates of the timing and spatial distribution of changes in energy demand. A population model was developed based on the Cohort-Component method to provide estimates of population by age, sex and urban/non-urban residency in each province. A residential electricity end user model was developed to estimate future electricity usage in urban and non-urban households of the seventy-six provinces in Thailand during the period 1999--2019. Key variables in this model include population, the number of households, family household size, and characteristics of eleven types of electric household appliance such as usage intensity, input power, and saturation rate. The methodology employed in this study is a trending method which utilizes expert opinion to estimate future variables based on a percentage change from the most current value. This study shows that from 1994 to 2019 Thailand will experience an increase in population from 55.4 to 83.6 million. Large percentage population increases will take place in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakarn, Nakhon Pathom and Chonburi. At a national level, the residential electricity consumption will increase from approximately 19,000 to 8 1,000 GWh annually. Consumption in non-urban households will be larger than in urban households, with respective annual increases of 8.0% and 6.2% in 2019. The percent increase of the average annual electricity consumption will be four times the average annual percent population increase. Increased electricity demand is largely a function of increased population and increased demand for high-energy appliances such as air conditioners. In 1994, air conditioning was responsible for xx% of total residential electricity demand. This study estimates that in

  17. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  18. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  19. A Single-Factor Model Analysis of Electricity Futures Price and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Takenori

    This paper presents a single-factor model to describe the fluctuation of the electricity futures price for its trading risk management. An autoregressive moving-average model (ARMA(2, 1) process) was used to express the stochastic process of the price, instead of a conventionally used Malkov process such as the AR(1) process, where the ARMA(2, 1) process becomes a hybrid of short- and long-term mean-reversion processes in the continuous time model. This model was applied to the analysis of the price of the electricity futures (the PJM Monthly) traded at the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). The result showed that the model well explained the term structure of the volatility of futures price with respect to the time to maturity, which is important for estimating its trading risk. The expected long-term fixed electricity price and its confidence interval were also estimated by using the obtained model function of the forward curve and its parameters.

  20. A broadband characterisation of Martian soil analogues. Electrical properties as an aid for future Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegler, Alexander; Kargl, Guenter

    We report on laboratory investigations on the electrical properties of Martian soil analogue materials in a broadband frequency range (1 Hz -20 MHz) in comparison and complementary to previous work. The presented data were acquired with a high-precision impedance spectrometer and with a potential planetary mission instrument which covers a narrower frequency range. A profound knowledge of the electrical characteristics of Martian soil and sub-soil layers may provide a more comprehensive view on data collected in the past as well as data probably obtained in future. Therefore, we present the frequency dependent electrical properties of several Martian soil simulants, as e.g. JSC-Mars 1, Salten Skov, and suitable local materials. The broadband measurements were performed with a high-precision impedance spectrometer. Additional measurements with the Permittivity Probe (PP), a part of the HP3 instrument designed for the ExoMars/Humboldt Station, are presented. As a bore hole type instrument PP is intended to perform subsoil measurements during and after penetration into the ground. With a comparable wide frequency range of 4 -20000 Hz PP could provide huge information in future planetary space missions presenting ground truth for orbiting radar instruments. In the working frequency range of PP special interest will also be given to the electrical properties of water and dry-ice layers.

  1. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  2. Structural change in industry and futures for the electricity industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.; Harris, G.

    1995-06-01

    The electricity supply industry in the United States has been experiencing major technological changes and economics of the business have altered dramatically since the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This opening of power generation business to competition was under-pinned by significant increases in gas turbine efficiency, commercialization of smaller units with high efficiencies, low gas prices, and cost consciousness on the part of independent power producers (IPPs) and major industrial customers. The pace of change continues to accelerate, driven by ongoing technological innovations and customer demands for better, more customized services and lower costs. The purpose of this report is to provoke further thought on the likely course of structural change in the electric utility industry over the next twenty years. The prime focus of the report is on technological change and its impact on economics, and the resulting organizational and structural change. This report begins with a brief look at structural change in several capital-intensive industries to identify common patterns applicable to the electricity industry. The industries selected have network-like operations, similar to the electric utility industry. This is followed by two scenarios which illuminate different plausible futures for the electric power industry. The report concludes with insights on the potential course of regulations and suitable strategies to prosper during the transition phase.

  3. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  4. Batteries for electric drive vehicles: Evaluation of future characteristics and costs through a Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    Uncertainty about future costs and operating attributes of electric drive vehicles (EVs and HEVs) has contributed to considerable debate regarding the market viability of such vehicles. One way to deal with such uncertainty, common to most emerging technologies, is to pool the judgments of experts in the field. Data from a two-stage Delphi study are used to project the future costs and operating characteristics of electric drive vehicles. The experts projected basic vehicle characteristics for EVs and HEVs for the period 2000-2020. They projected the mean EV range at 179 km in 2000, 270 km in 2010, and 358 km in 2020. The mean HEV range on battery power was projected as 145 km in 2000, 212 km in 2010, and 244 km in 2020. Experts` opinions on 10 battery technologies are analyzed and characteristics of initial battery packs for the mean power requirements are presented. A procedure to compute the cost of replacement battery packs is described, and the resulting replacement costs are presented. Projected vehicle purchase prices and fuel and maintenance costs are also presented. The vehicle purchase price and curb weight predictions would be difficult to achieve with the mean battery characteristics. With the battery replacement costs added to the fuel and maintenance costs, the conventional ICE vehicle is projected to have a clear advantage over electric drive vehicles through the projection period.

  5. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Bent, Russell W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Gregory

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  7. [Methods of brain stimulation based on weak electric current--future tool for the clinician?].

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Tuukka; Lehto, Soili M

    2016-01-01

    Methods of brain stimulation based on a weak electric current are non-invasive neuromodulation techniques. They include transcranial direct current, alternating current and random noise stimulation. These methods modify the membrane potential of neurons without triggering the action potential, and have been successfully utilized to influence cognition and regulation of emotions in healthy experimental subjects. In clinical studies, indications of the efficacy of these techniques have been obtained in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, memory disorders and pain as well as in stroke rehabilitation. It is hoped that these techniques will become established as part of the care and rehabilitation of psychiatric and neurologic patients in the future. PMID:27017784

  8. Assessment of arid lands plants as future energy crops for the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.E.; Brooks, W.H.

    1981-12-01

    This technical report has been prepared to assess and estimate the prospects of utilizing selected native arid lands plant species (terpene- and nonterpene-containing species) as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and to familiarize nonspecialists with some major problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies. The assessment includes descriptions of the processing and production technologies associated with the various plant species as well as recommendations for research procedures and development programs specific to arid lands. Suggestions about the agronomic and economic parameters of growing these plants as energy-source crops are also included.

  9. I've Got the Music in Me: A Study of Peak Musical Memory Age and the Implications for Future Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlich, R. Nicholas; Browning, Leigh; Westermann, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychologists have demonstrated the effect music has on the human brain, and that a peak "musical memory age" occurs around 14, when normal bodily maturation is in progress. A group of 114 college students between the ages of 19 and 25 was exposed to short clips of the top 20 songs from each of the 11 years during their youth; participants…

  10. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  11. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-04-28

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  12. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  13. Propulsion Electric Grid Simulator (PEGS) for Future Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos; Dever, Timothy; Brown, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the aerospace industry and academia, has begun the development of technology for a future hybrid-wing body electric airplane with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. It is essential to design a subscale system to emulate the TeDP power grid, which would enable rapid analysis and demonstration of the proof-of-concept of the TeDP electrical system. This paper describes how small electrical machines with their controllers can emulate all the components in a TeDP power train. The whole system model in Matlab/Simulink was first developed and tested in simulation, and the simulation results showed that system dynamic characteristics could be implemented by using the closed-loop control of the electric motor drive systems. Then we designed a subscale experimental system to emulate the entire power system from the turbine engine to the propulsive fans. Firstly, we built a system to emulate a gas turbine engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft. We programmed the first motor and its drive to mimic the speed-torque characteristic of the gas turbine engine, while the second motor and drive act as a generator and produce a torque load on the first motor. Secondly, we built another system of two PM motors and drives to emulate a motor driving a propulsive fan. We programmed the first motor and drive to emulate a wound-rotor synchronous motor. The propulsive fan was emulated by implementing fan maps and flight conditions into the fourth motor and drive, which produce a torque load on the driving motor. The stator of each PM motor is designed to travel axially to change the coupling between rotor and stator. This feature allows the PM motor to more closely emulate a wound-rotor synchronous machine. These techniques can convert the plain motor system into a unique TeDP power grid emulator that enables real-time simulation performance

  14. Brayton Power Conversion Unit Tested: Provides a Path to Future High-Power Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    Closed-Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. Advantages include high efficiency, long life, and high power density for power levels from about 10 kWe to 1 MWe, and beyond. An additional benefit for Brayton is the potential for the alternator to deliver very high voltage as required by the electric thrusters, minimizing the mass and power losses associated with the power management and distribution (PMAD). To accelerate Brayton technology development for NEP, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a low-power NEP power systems testbed that utilizes an existing 2- kWe Brayton power conversion unit (PCU) from previous solar dynamic technology efforts. The PCU includes a turboalternator, a recuperator, and a gas cooler connected by gas ducts. The rotating assembly is supported by gas foil bearings and consists of a turbine, a compressor, a thrust rotor, and an alternator on a single shaft. The alternator produces alternating-current power that is rectified to 120-V direct-current power by the PMAD unit. The NEP power systems testbed will be utilized to conduct future investigations of operational control methods, high-voltage PMAD, electric thruster interactions, and advanced heat rejection techniques. The PCU was tested in Glenn s Vacuum Facility 6. The Brayton PCU was modified from its original solar dynamic configuration by the removal of the heat receiver and retrofitting of the electrical resistance gas heater to simulate the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. Then, the Brayton PCU was installed in the 3-m test port of Vacuum Facility 6, as shown. A series of tests were performed between June and August of 2002 that resulted in a total PCU operational time of about 24 hr. An initial test sequence on June 17 determined that the reconfigured unit was fully operational. Ensuing tests provided the operational data needed to characterize PCU

  15. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  16. Remote Sensing of Surface Electric Potential on the Moon: A New Technique Using ENAs for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.

    2013-09-01

    Electric potential at lunar surface provides essential information for understanding fundamental science and environment of the Moon, which directly impacts on future lunar exploration. Here we present a new technique of remote sensing of surface electric potential at the Moon [4]. The technique relies on the energy spectra of the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) backscattered from the Moon. We applied this technique to the existing dataset of ENAs, and created the first 2-D image of the electric potential distribution near a magnetic anomaly. The result revealed that the magnetized area provides a preferable landing site of the Moon, while strong surface potential exists.

  17. Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.H.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full capability to assist in the development of the nuclear engine. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has formed a team of experts with Martin Marietta for mission analysis. Science Applications International (SAIC) for flight safety analysis, Westinghouse for the nuclear subsystem, and Rocketdyne for the engine system. INEL is the overall program manager and manager for test facility design, construction and operation. The INEL team has produced plans for both the engine system and the ground test facility. AFAL has funded the INEL team to perform mission analyses to evaluate the cost, performance and operational advantages for a nuclear rocket engine in performing Air Force Space Missions. For those studies, the Advanced Nuclear Rocket Engine (ANRE), a scaled down NERVA derivative, was used as the baseline nuclear engine to compare against chemical engines and nuclear electric engines for performance of orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. 3 tabs.

  18. A Cryogenic High-Power-Density Bearingless Motor for Future Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a high-power-density switched-reluctance cryogenic motor for all-electric and pollution-free flight. However, cryogenic operation at higher rotational speeds markedly shortens the life of mechanical rolling element bearings. Thus, to demonstrate the practical feasibility of using this motor for future flights, a non-contact rotor-bearing system is a crucial technology to circumvent poor bearing life that ordinarily accompanies cryogenic operation. In this paper, a bearingless motor control technology for a 12-8 (12 poles in the stator and 8 poles in the rotor) switched-reluctance motor operating in liquid nitrogen (boiling point, 77 K (-196 C or -321 F)) was presented. We pushed previous disciplinary limits of electromagnetic controller technique by extending the state-of-the-art bearingless motor operating at liquid nitrogen for high-specific-power applications. The motor was levitated even in its nonlinear region of magnetic saturation, which is believed to be a world first for the motor type. Also we used only motoring coils to generate motoring torque and levitation force, which is an important feature for developing a high specific power motor.

  19. Co-benefits and trade-offs between future electricity generation and water use on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential to electricity generation. Power plant cooling water is responsible for 40-50% of total freshwater withdrawals in Europe (Rübbelke et al., 2011) and the United States (Kenny et al., 2009). In accordance with growing demands for electricity generation, water demands could be increased. There is concern that the water demands for electricity generation could compete with other major water users. Additionally, many countries are required reviewing energy policies to mitigate climate change. Thermal power replaced low carbon power like renewable energy, nuclear power, Carbon Capture and Storage as a mitigation technology. However, influences of such climate change mitigation technologies on water demands are still uncertain. In this study, we calculated freshwater demands for electricity generation by using the data set of future electricity generation in the twenty-first century which estimated by the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model, and assessed the overall effects of electricity generation on water demands under the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways and the Representative Concentration Pathways which were adopted by IPCC AR5. Water demands for electricity generation depends on cooling types, such as once-through cooling and recirculating cooling. We also took into account cooling system pathways. The result might be useful for deciding energy policies which aim for reduction of water demands, especially in regions experiencing water scarcity.

  20. Hubbert's Peak: A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Oil and its by-products, as used in manufacturing, agriculture, and transportation, are the lifeblood of today's 7 billion-person population and our 65T world economy. Despite this importance, estimates of future oil production seem dominated by wishful thinking rather than quantitative analysis. Better studies are needed. In 1956, Dr. M.King Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Thus, the peak of oil production is referred to as ``Hubbert's Peak.'' Prof. Al Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on population and oil. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. This paper extends this line of work to include analyses of individual countries, inclusion of multiple Gaussian peaks, and analysis of reserves data. While this is not strictly a predictive theory, we will demonstrate a ``closed'' story connecting production, oil-in-place, and reserves. This gives us the ``most likely'' estimate of future oil availability. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  1. Electricity's Future: The Shift to Efficiency and Small-Scale Power. Worldwatch Paper 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Electricity, which has largely supplanted oil as the most controversial energy issue of the 1980s, is at the center of some of the world's bitterest economic and environmental controversies. Soaring costs, high interest rates, and environmental damage caused by large power plants have wreaked havoc on the once booming electricity industry.…

  2. Electric hitchhiker: On the Tour de Sol with the cars of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, W.

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the tour of 50 electric vehicles over 5 daily stages, 311 miles, from New York City to Washington, D.C. The history of both the tour and the electric vehicle development is described, along with the performance of the vehicles on the current tour.

  3. Electric utilities in the future: Competition is certain, the impact is not

    SciTech Connect

    Rudden, R.J.; Hornich, R.

    1994-05-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey conducted by R.J. Rudden Associates and Fitch Investors Service that polled state commissions on their practices, policies, attitudes, and opinions regarding electric utility competition. The Rudden/Fitch Survey addressed six different forms of competition that will most greatly influence electric markets - wholesale wheeling, retail wheeling, self-serving wheeling, self-generation, fuel substitution, and municipalization. Dramatic changes are affecting the US electric utility industry as legislative actions and regulatory policies increasingly promote competition. Although unprecedented in the electric power industry, these changes are not so unusual when compared to the extensive deregulation that has already occurred in the railroad, trucking, airline, and telecommunications industries. While the electric utility industry is not poised for immediate, broad-based deregulation, selective deregulation and accelerating competition will have significant implications for all industry stakeholders.

  4. Modelling a demand driven biogas system for production of electricity at peak demand and for production of biomethane at other times.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, R; Wall, D; Murphy, J D

    2016-09-01

    Four feedstocks were assessed for use in a demand driven biogas system. Biomethane potential (BMP) assays were conducted for grass silage, food waste, Laminaria digitata and dairy cow slurry. Semi-continuous trials were undertaken for all feedstocks, assessing biogas and biomethane production. Three kinetic models of the semi-continuous trials were compared. A first order model most accurately correlated with gas production in the pulse fed semi-continuous system. This model was developed for production of electricity on demand, and biomethane upgrading. The model examined a theoretical grass silage digester that would produce 435kWe in a continuous fed system. Adaptation to demand driven biogas required 187min to produce sufficient methane to run a 2MWe combined heat and power (CHP) unit for 60min. The upgrading system was dispatched 71min following CHP shutdown. Of the biogas produced 21% was used in the CHP and 79% was used in the upgrading system. PMID:27240240

  5. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185967

  6. Stochastic acceleration in peaked spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zasenko, V.; Zagorodny, A.; Weiland, J.

    2005-06-15

    Diffusion in velocity space of test particles undergoing external random electric fields with spectra varying from low intensive and broad to high intensive and narrow (peaked) is considered. It is shown that to achieve consistency between simulation and prediction of the microscopic model, which is reduced to Fokker-Planck-type equation, it is necessary, in the case of peaked spectrum, to account for temporal variation of diffusion coefficient occurring in the early stage. An analytical approximation for the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a time and velocity dependent diffusion coefficients is proposed.

  7. The rise of electric two-wheelers in China: Factors for their success and implications for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan Xavier

    This dissertation examines the rise, present use, and future growth of the electric two-wheeler (E2W, a.k.a. E2W or e-scooter) in China, the world's most successful electric-drive vehicle. The E2W market has been experiencing tremendous growth with over 30 million now in regular use on Chinese streets. The adoption of E2W technology is significant because, along with their air quality and energy (low-carbon) benefits compared to gasoline powered motorcycles, E2Ws are driving the development of improved and lower cost batteries and may lead to a shift toward larger three-and four-wheel electric vehicles (EV). This dissertation explores three questions: why the E2W market grew so rapidly in China, what factors are driving and resisting its growth, and how future growth might impact the adoption of electric vehicles. In Chapter 1, the context for this analysis is built by describing China's transportation past, present, and future challenges. E2Ws are also introduced and compared with gasoline-powered motorcycles on several metrics, such as performance, air emissions, and energy use. In Chapter 2, data from the literature was collected and analyzed to understand the history and important reasons for E2W growth in China. To supplement these data, the author and colleagues interviewed leaders of E2W and battery companies and toured several manufacturing plants. In Chapter 3, E2W and bicycles users were surveyed to understand how and why they use (or don't use) E2Ws. In Chapter 4, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries commonly used in today's E2Ws were laboratory tested to determine their performance characteristics. Data were also compiled on their cost, and on the cost and performance of Li-ion batteries. In Chapter 5, the future of E2Ws in China was assessed by integrating data from the previous three chapters and from the literature to create a force-field analysis of the E2W market. This chapter concludes by examining the spillover effects E2W market growth may

  8. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  9. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  11. [Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  12. Electric discharge in the Martian atmosphere, Paschen curves and implications for future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L. K.; ten Kate, I. L.; Battel, S. J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2010-11-01

    Electric discharge between two electrically charged surfaces occurs at a well-defined, gas-dependent combination of atmospheric pressure and the distance between those two surfaces, as described by Paschen's law. The understanding of when the discharge will occur in the conditions present on Mars is essential for designing space-flight hardware that will operate on the Martian surface as well as understanding electrical discharge processes occurring in the Martian atmosphere. Here, we present experimentally measured Paschen curves for a gas mixture representative of the Martian atmosphere and compare our results to breakdown voltages of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and helium as measured with our system and from the literature. We will discuss possible implications for instrument development as well as implications for processes in the Martian atmosphere. The DC voltage at which electric discharge occurred between two stainless steel spheres was measured at pressures from 10 -2 to 100 torr in all gases. We measured a minimum voltage for discharge in the Mars ambient atmosphere of 410 ± 10 V at 0.3 torr cm. As an application, the breakdown properties of space-qualified, electrical wires to be used in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) were studied.

  13. Electric Discharge in the Martian Atmosphere, Paschen Curves and Implications for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Heidi L. K.; ten Kate, I. L.; Battel, S. J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2010-10-01

    Electric discharge between two electrically charged surfaces occurs at a well-defined, gas-dependent combination of atmospheric pressure and the distance between those two surfaces, as described by Paschen's law. The understanding of when the discharge will occur in the conditions present on Mars is essential for designing space flight hardware that will operate on the Martian surface as well as understanding electrical discharge processes occurring in the Martian atmosphere. We present experimentally measured Paschen curves for a gas mixture representative of the Martian atmosphere and compare our results to breakdown voltages of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and helium as measured with our system and from the literature. We will discuss possible implications for instrument development as well as implications for processes in the Martian atmosphere. The DC voltage at which electric discharge occurred between two stainless steel spheres was measured at pressures from 10-2 to 100 torr in all gases. We measured a minimum voltage for discharge in the Mars ambient atmosphere of 410±10 volts at 0.3 torr cm. As an application, the breakdown properties of space-qualified, electrical wires to be used in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) were studied. H. Manning was funded in the framework of the Sample Analysis at Mars development; I. ten Kate was funded by the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  14. Future trends in electrical energy generation economics in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. W.; Fox, G. R.; Shah, R. P.; Stewart, P. J.; Vermilyea, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Developments related to the economics of coal-fired systems in the U.S. are mainly considered. The historical background of the U.S. electric generation industry is examined and the U.S. electrical generation characteristics in the year 1975 are considered. It is pointed out that coal-fired power plants are presently the largest source of electrical energy generation in the U.S. Questions concerning the availability and quality of coal are investigated. Currently there are plans for converting some 50 large oil and gas-fired generating plants to coal, and it is expected that coal will be the fuel used in almost all fossil-fired base load additions to generating capacity. Aspects of advanced energy conversion from coal are discussed, taking into account the performance and economic potential of the energy conversion systems.

  15. Evidence of Medium Scale (~50 km) Undulations Observed at Sunset in the Equatorial Ionosphere by Electric Field and Plasma Density Probes on the C/NOFS Satellite Below the F-Peak in Conjunction with Larger Scale (~500 km) Depletions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Electric field and plasma density observations gathered on the C/NOFS satellite are presented in cases where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the satellite perigee of 400 km near sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite frequently show evidence of "medium scale" (40-80 km) undulations in conjunction with, yet distinct from, series of periodic, larger scale (200-800 km) density depletions. The observations suggest that a second category of wavelike variations of the bottomside plasma density may be important for the subsequent development of the larger scale density depletions and their associated "spread-F" irregularities. The electric fields associated with the medium scale undulations are typically a few mV/m with density variations of a few percent in which upwards E x B drifts are associated with their depletions. The undulations are observed both before and after local sunset and are typically observed, in the satellite frame as it journeys from west to east, prior to the onset of the larger scale depletions. We present examples of these medium scale undulations and discuss their implications for driving the larger scale depletions, possibly in a manner similar to that discussed by Hysell and Kudeki [2004], Kudeki et al. [2007], and others.

  16. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  17. Aspect of Home Electric Appliances Damages due to Lightning and Future Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Soeda, Masahiro

    This paper shows the investigation results on the change of lightning damages of home electric appliances, which has been done 4 times from 1987 through 2006. The rate of damaged households out of monitors (%/household/year) was around 0.6% in 1980's as well as 1990's. On the other hand, it is over 2% in 2006, when the society has become the fully developed information one. The rapid increase of lightning damages is attributed to the wide spread of home electric appliances with wires for telecommunication such as personal computers, new type telephones and facsimile machines as well as those with grounding wires such as water heaters.

  18. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  19. The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D.T.; Wilson, R.E.; Martin, K.E.; Litzenberger, W.H.; Hauer, J.F.; Overholt, P.N.; Sobajic, D.J.

    1998-11-01

    Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.

  20. Future electricity: The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the 'greenest' IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint) shows the largest WF increase over time: an increase by a factor four over the period 2010-2035. In 2010, electricity from solar, wind, and geothermal contributed 1.8% to the total. The increase of this contribution to 19.6% in IEA's '450 scenario' contributes significantly to the decrease of the WF of the global electricity and heat sector, but is offset by the simultaneous increase of the use of firewood and hydropower. Only substantial growth in the fractions of energy sources with small WFs - solar, wind, and geothermal energy - can contribute to a lowering of the WF of the electricity and heat sector in the coming decades. The fifth energy scenario - adapted from the IEA 450 scenario but based on a quick transition to solar, wind and geothermal energy and a minimum in bio-energy - is the only scenario that shows a strong decline in both carbon footprint (-66%) and consumptive WF (-12%) in 2035 compared to the reference year 2010. PMID:27387812

  1. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  2. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-04-01

    The California Energy Commission directed the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions to analyze possible future scenarios for the California electricity system and assess transmission research and development (R&D) needs, with special emphasis on prioritizing public-interest R&D needs, using criteria developed by the Energy Commission. The scenarios analyzed in this report are not predictions, nor do they express policy preferences of the project participants or the Energy Commission. The public-interest R&D needs that are identified as a result of the analysis are one input that will be considered by the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research staff in preparing a transmission R&D plan.

  3. Options Impacting the Electric System of the Future (ESF); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, Karlynn

    2015-08-10

    As utilities are faced with adapting to new technologies, technology and policy due diligence are necessary to ensure the development of a future grid that brings greater value to utilities and their consumers. This presentation explores the different kinds of future directions the power industry could consider to create, discussing key components necessary for success. It will also discuss the practical application and possible strategies for utilities and innovators to implement smart technologies that will enable an ultimate ‘intelligent’ grid capable of two-way communication, interoperability, and greater efficiency and system resiliency.

  4. A preliminary estimate of future communications traffic for the electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Diverse new generator technologies using renewable energy, and to improve operational efficiency throughout the existing electric power systems are presented. A description of a model utility and the information transfer requirements imposed by incorporation of dispersed storage and generation technologies and implementation of more extensive energy management are estimated. An example of possible traffic for an assumed system, and an approach that can be applied to other systems, control configurations, or dispersed storage and generation penetrations is provided.

  5. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  6. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  7. How much do electric drive vehicles matter to future U.S. emissions?

    PubMed

    Babaee, Samaneh; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles--known collectively as electric drive vehicles (EDVs)--may represent a clean and affordable option to meet growing U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) demand. The goal of this study is 2-fold: identify the conditions under which EDVs achieve high LDV market penetration in the U.S. and quantify the associated change in CO2, SO2, and NOX emissions through midcentury. We employ the Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES), a bottom-up energy system model, along with a U.S. data set developed for this analysis. To characterize EDV deployment through 2050, varying assumptions related to crude oil and natural gas prices, a CO2 policy, a federal renewable portfolio standard, and vehicle battery cost were combined to form 108 different scenarios. Across these scenarios, oil prices and battery cost have the biggest effect on EDV deployment. The model results do not demonstrate a clear and consistent trend toward lower system-wide emissions as EDV deployment increases. In addition to the trade-off between lower tailpipe and higher electric sector emissions associated with plug-in vehicles, the scenarios produce system-wide emissions effects that often mask the effect of EDV deployment. PMID:24386958

  8. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs. PMID:23865424

  9. Electric vehicles — are they a realistic option for the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunckley, M.

    In the 1970s, as a result of rising oil prices and supply shortages, the concept of an 'electric vehicle programme' saw increased attention from legislative bodies, the automotive industry and general public groups. At that time, numerous 'experts' foresaw oil and fossil fuels running out early in the twenty-first century. As a result, a number of key issues came to the fore under the broad heading 'energy conservation'. A major part of this initiative was the need for a rethink of the automotive vehicle — the electric vehicle was considered a solution. In the event, the oil crisis of the 1970s came and went and the pressing debate for energy conservation and new vehicles went back into a more considered perspective. What emerged in the early 1980s was a new way of looking at automobiles. Cars were to become generally smaller and more fuel efficient. To add to the development of the car of the 1980s came a further new issue — the environment itself. The car became known as the single largest contributant to pollution. Increasing numbers of vehicles came to be seen as literally choking to death the planet earth. The next step in the story of the evolution of the vehicle was to control exhaust-gas emissions. One city, Los Angeles, even went so far as to legislate that by 1998, 2% of all new vehicles in the State must be 'zero gas' emitting. More North American states were to follow, to a point that every major car manufacturer in the world took note and has now embarked on a programme to develop a 'zero-gas' emitting vehicle. Today, the concept of an electric vehicle is back in focus. Throughout the world, the media are highlighting the electric vehicle as the next generation of transportation. The cynics argue that they have heard it all before, others believe that this time it could actually happen. For the battery industry, the implications could be enormous, and would change the industry as it is known worldwide. This paper discusses the options and

  10. Integrated DEA models and grey system theory to evaluate past-to-future performance: a case of Indian electricity industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Nguyen, Nhu-Ty; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better "past-present-future" insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry. PMID:25821854

  11. Updates on gastric electrical stimulation to treat obesity: Systematic review and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ryan; Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current state-of-the-art of gastric electrical stimulation to treat obesity. METHODS: Systematic reviews of all studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of different types of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on obesity. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies consisting of a total of 33 different trials were included in the systematic review for data analysis. Weight loss was achieved in most studies, especially during the first 12 mo, but only very few studies had a follow-up period longer than 1 year. Among those that had a longer follow-up period, many were from the Transcend® (Implantable Gastric Stimulation) device group and maintained significant weight loss. Other significant results included changes in appetite/satiety, gastric emptying rate, blood pressure and neurohormone levels or biochemical markers such as ghrelin or HbA1c respectively. CONCLUSION: GES holds great promises to be an effective obesity treatment. However, stronger evidence is required through more studies with a standardized way of carrying out trials and reporting outcomes, to determine the long-term effect of GES on obesity. PMID:25228944

  12. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Schwartz, Lisa C.; Fadrhonc, Emily Martin

    2015-06-01

    Many regulators, utilities, customer groups, and other stakeholders are reevaluating existing regulatory models and the roles and financial implications for electric utilities in the context of today’s environment of increasing distributed energy resource (DER) penetrations, forecasts of significant T&D investment, and relatively flat or negative utility sales growth. When this is coupled with predictions about fewer grid-connected customers (i.e., customer defection), there is growing concern about the potential for serious negative impacts on the regulated utility business model. Among states engaged in these issues, the range of topics under consideration is broad. Most of these states are considering whether approaches that have been applied historically to mitigate the impacts of previous “disruptions” to the regulated utility business model (e.g., energy efficiency) as well as to align utility financial interests with increased adoption of such “disruptive technologies” (e.g., shareholder incentive mechanisms, lost revenue mechanisms) are appropriate and effective in the present context. A handful of states are presently considering more fundamental changes to regulatory models and the role of regulated utilities in the ownership, management, and operation of electric delivery systems (e.g., New York “Reforming the Energy Vision” proceeding).

  13. Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Demonstration to Support Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.

    2012-01-01

    Human and robotic exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable, and reliable. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is highly advantageous because of its favorable in-space mass transfer efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. The NASA studies have demonstrated that this advantage becomes highly significant as missions progress beyond Earth orbit. Recent studies of human exploration missions and architectures evaluated the capabilities needed to perform a variety of human exploration missions including missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The studies demonstrated that SEP stages have potential to be the most cost effective solution to perform beyond LEO transfers of high mass cargoes for human missions. Recognizing that these missions require power levels more than 10X greater than current electric propulsion systems, NASA embarked upon a progressive pathway to identify critical technologies needed and a plan for an incremental demonstration mission. The NASA studies identified a 30kW class demonstration mission that can serve as a meaningful demonstration of the technologies, operational challenges, and provide the appropriate scaling and modularity required. This paper describes the planning options for a representative demonstration 30kW class SEP mission.

  14. Peak Experience Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  15. Reducing Peak Demand by Time Zone Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2014-09-01

    For a large country like India, the electrical power demand is also large and the infrastructure cost for power is the largest among all the core sectors of economy. India has an emerging economy which requires high rate of growth of infrastructure in the power generation, transmission and distribution. The current peak demand in the country is approximately 1,50,000 MW which shall have a planned growth of at least 50 % over the next five years (Seventeenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority, Government of India, March 2007). By implementing the time zone divisions each comprising of an integral number of contiguous states based on their total peak demand and geographical location, the total peak demand of the nation can be significantly cut down by spreading the peak demand of various states over time. The projected reduction in capital expenditure over a plan period of 5 years is substantial. Also, the estimated reduction in operations expenditure cannot be ignored.

  16. Linking brain electrical signals elicited by current outcomes with future risk decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Jiang, Yang; Luo, Wenbo; Zhang, Jian; Luo, Yue-jia

    2014-01-01

    The experience of current outcomes influences future decisions in various ways. The neural mechanism of this phenomenon may help to clarify the determinants of decision-making. In this study, thirty-nine young adults finished a risky gambling task by choosing between a high- and a low-risk option in each trial during electroencephalographic data collection. We found that risk-taking strategies significantly modulated mean amplitudes of the event-related potential (ERP) component P3, particularly at the central scalp. The event-related spectral perturbation and the inter-trial coherence measurements of the independent component analysis (ICA) data indicated that the “stay” vs. “switch” electrophysiological difference associated with subsequent decision-making was mainly due to fronto-central theta and left/right mu independent components. Event-related cross-coherence results suggested that the neural information of action monitoring and updating emerged in the fronto-central cortex and propagated to sensorimotor area for further behavior adjustment. Based on these findings of ERP and event-related oscillation (ERO) measures, we propose a neural model of the influence of current outcomes on future decisions. PMID:24672447

  17. Myths of electric regulation: Looking at the future of energy through entrepreneurial eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, T.R.

    1999-11-01

    The US will shortly experience a building boom of new, efficient distributed power plants and a resultant drop in the cost of energy and the pollution associated with energy production. This is a predictable result of unleashing competition in the electric business. The speed of these advances will depend on how fast lawmakers modernize present regulations to eliminate barriers to efficiency. Deregulation has started and the industry is already on the slippery slope of competition, where no monopolist can continue to cling to the old and inefficient ways. It is possible to discern the direction of a competition-driven energy industry from the patterns in other recently deregulated industries. Winners will focus on extracting more value from all raw material and will offer sophisticated energy generation, energy distribution, and energy management to each industrial and commercial firm and each institution. Proven technology will be packaged in small, mass produced CHP plants placed at the sites of thermal users. Costs of CHP will fall due to emerging mass production and growing knowledge of installers and designers. The current electric transmission and distribution system will prove to have been tremendously overbuilt. Gas distribution pipes will enjoy increased use. Fossil fuel use will drop significantly. Finally, the unleashing of this competition will cause the US to drop its carbon dioxide emissions to well below the targets of the Kyoto protocol, while reducing the cost of energy to industry and all citizens. This may not reduce greenhouse gas emissions enough to mitigate climate change, but it is low-hanging fruit and will buy time for advances in renewable energy economics.

  18. METHOD OF PEAK CURRENT MEASUREMENT

    DOEpatents

    Baker, G.E.

    1959-01-20

    The measurement and recording of peak electrical currents are described, and a method for utilizing the magnetic field of the current to erase a portion of an alternating constant frequency and amplitude signal from a magnetic mediums such as a magnetic tapes is presented. A portion of the flux from the current carrying conductor is concentrated into a magnetic path of defined area on the tape. After the current has been recorded, the tape is played back. The amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape immediately adjacent the defined flux area and the amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape within the area are compared with the amplitude of the signal from an unerased portion of the tape to determine the percentage of signal erasure, and thereby obtain the peak value of currents flowing in the conductor.

  19. 100 years of microbial electricity production: three concepts for the future

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Jan B. A.; Verstraete, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have been explored according to three main concepts: to produce energy from organic substrates, to generate products and to provide specific environmental services. In this work, by using an engineering approach, biological conversion rates are calculated for BES resp. anaerobic digestion. These rates are compared with currents produced by chemical batteries and chemical fuel cells in order to position BES in the ‘energy’‐market. To evaluate the potential of generating various products, the biochemistry behind the biological conversion rates is examined in relation to terminal electron transfer molecules. By comparing kinetics rather than thermodynamics, more insight is gained in the biological bottlenecks that hamper a BES. The short‐term future for BES research and its possible application is situated in smart niches in sustainable environmental development, i.e. in processes where no large currents or investment cost intensive reactors are needed to obtain the desired results. Some specific examples are identified. PMID:21958308

  20. Future all-electric transportation communication and recharging via wireless power beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Ronald J.

    2001-02-01

    12 Pollution-free transportation in the new millennium will be provided by the recharging of a vehicle's non-polluting on- board energy storage unit (batteries, flywheel, ultracapacitors, etc.) as the vehicle travels unrestricted down the roadway. The backbone of this new transportation system will be wireless power transmission using laser or microwave energy technology to replenish the energy storage unit on these non-polluting vehicles while maintaining an all-important communication link for safety, security, data transmission, etc. The proposed system allows the same freedom of movement currently enjoyed by Americans with the internal combustion engine powered automobile. The all- electric vehicle transportation system has the same power, maneuverability and range capability provided by today's vehicles. The many laser-based tracking and communication challenges proposed by this new system along with vehicle configurations for energy conversion in this non-polluting transportation system will be discussed. The main concern during system operation, safety, will be addressed with specific design considerations.

  1. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-05-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ϕ≥0.7 to 0.8).

  2. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  3. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  4. Demands For Solar Electricity From The BRICS Countries In The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    BRICS countries are presently among the leading the economic powers globally, but their increasing demands for energy and sustainable future requires renewed technical progress on implementation of renewable energy (e.g., solar energy) and a sustainable solution rather than extracting finite natural resources. BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) face both social and environmental pressures as their economy keeps growing. The rapid development of technology in BRICS inevitably altered their culture and behavior, as reflected by education, gender equality, health, and other demographic/socio-economic indicators. These changes coupled with land use/land cover change have altered ecosystem services, as reflected by NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Global climatic changes also drives the demand for sustainable energy. With a focus on solar energy, we analyzed time series of energy consuming behaviors, government policies, and the ecosystem services. Structural equation modeling was applied to confirm the relationships among societal transition, ecosystem services, and climate change. We compared the energy consumption patterns for the five countries and forecasted the changes through 2025. We found that government policies significantly influenced energy consumption behaviors for BRICS and that solar energy usage would continue to increase to 2025 and beyond.

  5. Predicting Future Hourly Residential Electrical Consumption: A Machine Learning Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Richard E; New, Joshua Ryan; Parker, Lynne Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Whole building input models for energy simulation programs are frequently created in order to evaluate specific energy savings potentials. They are also often utilized to maximize cost-effective retrofits for existing buildings as well as to estimate the impact of policy changes toward meeting energy savings goals. Traditional energy modeling suffers from several factors, including the large number of inputs required to characterize the building, the specificity required to accurately model building materials and components, simplifying assumptions made by underlying simulation algorithms, and the gap between the as-designed and as-built building. Prior works have attempted to mitigate these concerns by using sensor-based machine learning approaches to model energy consumption. However, a majority of these prior works focus only on commercial buildings. The works that focus on modeling residential buildings primarily predict monthly electrical consumption, while commercial models predict hourly consumption. This means there is not a clear indicator of which techniques best model residential consumption, since these methods are only evaluated using low-resolution data. We address this issue by testing seven different machine learning algorithms on a unique residential data set, which contains 140 different sensors measurements, collected every 15 minutes. In addition, we validate each learner's correctness on the ASHRAE Great Energy Prediction Shootout, using the original competition metrics. Our validation results confirm existing conclusions that Neural Network-based methods perform best on commercial buildings. However, the results from testing our residential data set show that Feed Forward Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Linear Regression methods perform poorly, and that Hierarchical Mixture of Experts (HME) with Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) performs best - a technique not previously applied to this domain.

  6. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  7. Make peak flow a habit!

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  8. Hale Central Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  9. Impact Crater with Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a classic example of a martian impact crater with a central peak. Central peaks are common in large, fresh craters on both Mars and the Moon. This peak formed during the extremely high-energy impact cratering event. In many martian craters the central peak has been either eroded or buried by later sedimentary processes, so the presence of a peak in this crater indicates that the crater is relatively young and has experienced little degradation. Observations of large craters on the Earth and the Moon, as well as computer modeling of the impact process, show that the central peak contains material brought from deep beneath the surface. The material exposed in these peaks will provide an excellent opportunity to study the composition of the martian interior using THEMIS multi-spectral infrared observations. The ejecta material around the crater can is well preserved, again indicating relatively little modification of this landform since its initial creation. The inner walls of this approximately 18 km diameter crater show complex slumping that likely occurred during the impact event. Since that time there has been some downslope movement of material to form the small chutes and gullies that can be seen on the inner crater wall. Small (50-100 m) mega-ripples composed of mobile material can be seen on the floor of the crater. Much of this material may have come from the walls of the crater itself, or may have been blown into the crater by the wind. The Story When a meteor smacked into the surface of Mars with extremely high energy, pow! Not only did it punch an 11-mile-wide crater in the smoother terrain, it created a central peak in the middle of the crater. This peak forms kind of on the 'rebound.' You can see this same effect if you drop a single drop of milk into a glass of milk. With craters, in the heat and fury of the impact, some of the land material can even liquefy. Central peaks like the one

  10. INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

    1984-01-01

    The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

  11. Peak of Desire

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    In three studies, we explore the existence of an evolved sensitivity to the peak as consistent with the evolutionary origins of many of our basic preferences. Activating the evolved motive of mating activates related adaptive mechanisms, including a general sensitivity to cues of growth and decay associated with determining mate value in human courtship. We establish that priming the mating goal also activates as well an evaluative bias that influences how people evaluate cues of growth. Specifically, living kinds that are immature or past their prime are devalued, whereas living kinds at their peak become increasingly valued. Study 1 establishes this goal-driven effect for human stimuli indirectly related to the mating goal. Studies 2 and 3 establish that the evaluative bias produced by the active mating goal extends to living kinds but not artifacts. PMID:18578847

  12. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  13. DIAMOND PEAK WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    No metallic mineral resources were identified during a mineral survey of the Diamond Peak Wilderness in Oregon. Cinder cones within the wilderness contain substantial cinder resources, but similar deposits that are more accessible occur outside the wilderness. The area could have geothermal resources, but available data are insufficient to evaluate their potential. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas of the High Cascades outside the wilderness, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the several Cascade wilderness could be made.

  14. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training☆

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings. PMID:23770059

  15. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings. PMID:23770059

  16. Advanced medium-voltage bidirectional dc-dc conversion systems for future electric energy delivery and management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haifeng

    2011-12-01

    The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed generation systems Furthermore, power electronics systems can provide additional intelligent energy management, grid stability and power quality capabilities. Medium-voltage isolated dc-dc converter will become one of the key interfaces for grid components with moderate power ratings. To address the demand of medium voltage (MV) and high power capability for future electric energy delivery and management systems, the power electronics community and industry have been reacting in two different ways: developing semiconductor technology or directly connecting devices in series/parallel to reach higher nominal voltages and currents while maintaining conventional converter topologies; and by developing new converter topologies with traditional semiconductor technology, known as multilevel converters or modular converters. The modular approach uses the well-known, mature, and cheaper power semiconductor devices by adopting new converter topologies. The main advantages of the modular approach include: significant improvement in reliability by introducing desired level of redundancy; standardization of components leading to reduction in manufacturing cost and time; power systems can be easily reconfigured to support varying input-output specifications; and possibly higher efficiency and power density of the overall system. Input-series output-parallel (ISOP) modular configuration is a good choice to realize MV to low voltage (LV) conversion for utility application. However, challenges still remain. First of all, for the high-frequency MV utility application, the low

  17. Electric load management and energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kheir, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

  18. Kitt Peak speckle camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Mcalister, H. A.; Robinson, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The speckle camera in regular use at Kitt Peak National Observatory since 1974 is described in detail. The design of the atmospheric dispersion compensation prisms, the use of film as a recording medium, the accuracy of double star measurements, and the next generation speckle camera are discussed. Photographs of double star speckle patterns with separations from 1.4 sec of arc to 4.7 sec of arc are shown to illustrate the quality of image formation with this camera, the effects of seeing on the patterns, and to illustrate the isoplanatic patch of the atmosphere.

  19. Conversations about electricity and the future: Findings of an international seminar and lessons from a year of surprises

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, A.D.; Fowler, K.

    1991-06-01

    In January 1990 thirty-two experts from twelve countries convened for a five-day working Seminar on the Berkeley Campus of the University of California to discuss electricity supply and demand. The participants brought with them deep and diverse backgrounds in energy issues. A major concern of the First 1990 Group on Electricity was the potential impact of electricity shortages on the environment, just at a time of growing awareness of environmental deterioration. These concerns extend from local problems to nations, regions and global impacts. Indeed, because of the importance of electricity in our lives, potential electric power shortages already foreseeable in this decade could overwhelm public concern for the environment, unless critical, long-leadtime measures are taken very soon. The First 1990 Group on Electricity's Findings and Conclusions, the thinking that led to them, and the impact of events in the intervening year form the content of this book.

  20. In Brief: Timing of peak oil uncertain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    According to the Hubbert peak theory, oil production in any geographic area will follow a bellshaped curve. The timing of the `peak' in global oil production is important because after that point, there will be less and less oil available for consumption. A new report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office found that most studies estimate that peak oil production will occur sometime between now and 2040. The uncertainty in these estimates could be reduced with better information about worldwide supply and demand, and alternative fuels and transportation technologies could mitigate the effects of a global decline in oil production. However, the report found no coordinated U.S. federal strategy to address these issues. The report, ``Uncertainty about Future Oil Supply Makes It Important to Develop a Strategy for Addressing a Peak and Decline in Oil Production,'' is available at http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-283

  1. Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: A review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.; Doulgeris, Georgios; Singh, Riti

    2011-07-01

    This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft. Technological limitations and challenges of this specific technology are also considered in combination with an all electric aircraft concept, as means of predicting the challenges associated with the design process of a next generation commercial aircraft.

  2. Make peak flow a habit!

    MedlinePlus

    Checking your peak flow is one of the best ways to control your asthma and to keep it from getting worse. Asthma attacks ... Most times, they build slowly. Checking your peak flow can tell you if an attack is coming, ...

  3. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  4. The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin MacKay

    The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

  5. Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on the Operations and Future Development of the U.S. Electricity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Cohen, S. M.; Averyt, K.; Macknick, J.; Meldrum, J.; Sullivan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate reliability concerns for the power sector through changes in water availability and air temperatures. The power sector is responsible for 41% of U.S. freshwater withdrawals, primarily for power plant cooling needs, and any changes in the water available for the power sector, given increasing competition among water users, could affect decisions about new power plant builds and reliable operations for existing generators. Similarly, increases in air temperatures can reduce power plant efficiencies, which in turn increases fuel consumption as well as water withdrawal and consumption rates. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water runoff projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) data are applied to surface water available to generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water availability for the 134 electricity balancing regions in the ReEDS model. In addition, air temperature changes are considered for their impacts on electricity load, transmission capacity, and power plant efficiencies and water use rates. Mean climate projections have only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water access to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states, which experience reduced water access purchases and a greater share of water acquired from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  6. Decoupling approximation design using the peak to peak gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Cornel

    2013-04-01

    Linear system design for accurate decoupling approximation is examined using the peak to peak gain of the error system. The design problem consists in finding values of system parameters to ensure that this gain is small. For this purpose a computationally inexpensive upper bound on the peak to peak gain, namely the star norm, is minimized using a stochastic method. Examples of the methodology's application to tensegrity structures design are presented. Connections between the accuracy of the approximation, the damping matrix, and the natural frequencies of the system are examined, as well as decoupling in the context of open and closed loop control.

  7. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  8. Partial Discharge Characteristics of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials in Electrical Insulation: A Review of Sample Preparation Techniques, Analysis Methods, Potential Applications, and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326

  9. Partial discharge characteristics of polymer nanocomposite materials in electrical insulation: a review of sample preparation techniques, analysis methods, potential applications, and future trends.

    PubMed

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Arief, Yanuar Z; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326

  10. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated emission limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon Emissions but may or may not benefit Acid Rain emissions by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant reductions in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.

  11. Integrated DEA Models and Grey System Theory to Evaluate Past-to-Future Performance: A Case of Indian Electricity Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better “past-present-future” insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry. PMID:25821854

  12. Analysis of the need for intermediate and peaking technologies in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Barrager, S.M.; Campbell, G.L.

    1980-04-01

    This analysis was conducted to assess the impact of load management on the future need for intermediate- and peak-generating technologies (IPTs) such as combustion turbines, pumped storage, and cycling coal plants. There will be a reduced need for IPTs if load-management activities such as time-of-use pricing, together with customer-owned energy-storage devices, hot-water-heater controls, and interruptible service, can economically remove most of the variation from electric-power demands. Therefore, the analysis assesses the need for IPTs in an uncertain future, which will probably include load management and time-differentiated electricity prices. Section 2 provides a condensed description of the models used in the analysis. (Details and data sets are contained in the appendixes.) Results of sensitivities on growth rates, model parameters, and appliance saturations are discussed in Section 3, which also contains the analysis of the potential impacts of customer energy storage, appliance control, and time-of-use pricing. The future need for intermediate and peaking technologies is analyzed in Section 4.

  13. How to use your peak flow meter

    MedlinePlus

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  14. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  15. Analysis of the need for intermediate and peaking technologies in the year 2000. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrager, S.M.; Campbell, G.L.

    1980-04-01

    This analysis was conducted to assess the impact of load management on the future need for intermediate- and peak-generating technologies (IPTs) such as combustion turbines, pumped storage, and cycling coal plants. There would be a reduced need for IPTs if load-management activities such as time-of-use pricing, together with customer-owned energy-storage devices, hot-water-heater controls, and interruptible service can economically remove most of the variation from electric power demands. The objective of this analysis is to assess the need for IPTs in an uncertain future, which will probably include load management and time-differentiated electricity prices. The analysis is exploratory in nature and broad in scope. It does not attempt to predict the future or to model precisely the technical characteristics or economic desirability of load management. Rather, its purpose is to provide research and development planners with some basic insights into the order of magnitude of possible hourly demand shifts on a regional basis and to determine the impact of load management on daily and seasonal variations in electricity demand.

  16. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    PubMed

    Mills, Harriet L; Riley, Steven

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city); population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods). Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible. PMID:24722420

  17. Two classes of speculative peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2001-10-01

    Speculation not only occurs in financial markets but also in numerous other markets, e.g. commodities, real estate, collectibles, and so on. Such speculative movements result in price peaks which share many common characteristics: same order of magnitude of duration with respect to amplitude, same shape (the so-called sharp-peak pattern). Such similarities suggest (at least as a first approximation) a common speculative behavior. However, a closer examination shows that in fact there are (at least) two distinct classes of speculative peaks. For the first, referred to as class U, (i) the amplitude of the peak is negatively correlated with the price at the start of the peak (ii) the ensemble coefficient of variation exhibits a trough. Opposite results are observed for the second class that we refer to as class S. Once these empirical observations have been made we try to understand how they should be interpreted. First, we show that the two properties are in fact related in the sense that the second is a consequence of the first. Secondly, by listing a number of cases belonging to each class we observe that the markets in the S-class offer collection of items from which investors can select those they prefer. On the contrary, U-markets consist of undifferentiated products for which a selection cannot be made in the same way. All prices considered in the paper are real (i.e., deflated) prices.

  18. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  19. Climate Change and Future U.S. Electricity Infrastructure: the Nexus between Water Availability, Land Suitability, and Low-Carbon Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J.; Halter, T.; Hejazi, M. I.; Jensen, E.; Liu, L.; Olson, J.; Patel, P.; Vernon, C. R.; Voisin, N.; Zuljevic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models project the future electricity generation mix under different policy, technology, and socioeconomic scenarios, but they do not directly address site-specific factors such as interconnection costs, population density, land use restrictions, air quality, NIMBY concerns, or water availability that might affect the feasibility of achieving the technology mix. Moreover, since these factors can change over time due to climate, policy, socioeconomics, and so on, it is important to examine the dynamic feasibility of integrated assessment scenarios "on the ground." This paper explores insights from coupling an integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA) with a geospatial power plant siting model (the Capacity Expansion Regional Feasibility model, CERF) within a larger multi-model framework that includes regional climate, hydrologic, and water management modeling. GCAM-USA is a dynamic-recursive market equilibrium model simulating the impact of carbon policies on global and national markets for energy commodities and other goods; one of its outputs is the electricity generation mix and expansion at the state-level. It also simulates water demands from all sectors that are downscaled as input to the water management modeling. CERF simulates siting decisions by dynamically representing suitable areas for different generation technologies with geospatial analyses (informed by technology-specific siting criteria, such as required mean streamflow per the Clean Water Act), and then choosing siting locations to minimize interconnection costs (to electric transmission and gas pipelines). CERF results are compared across three scenarios simulated by GCAM-USA: 1) a non-mitigation scenario (RCP8.5) in which conventional fossil-fueled technologies prevail, 2) a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5) in which the carbon price causes a shift toward nuclear, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), and renewables, and 3) a repeat of scenario (2) in which CCS technologies are

  20. Measuring Your Peak Flow Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... meter. Proper cleaning with mild detergent in hot water will keep your peak flow meter working accurately and may keep you healthier. Related Content News: American Lung Association Applauds EPA’s Update to Cross-State Air Pollution Rule News: American Lung Association Invests More Than $ ...

  1. Peak Stress Testing Protocol Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of peak flows during wet weather is a common challenge across the country for municipal wastewater utilities with separate and/or combined sewer systems. Increases in wastewater flow resulting from infiltration and inflow (I/I) during wet weather events can result in op...

  2. STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiwan, A.; Khadra, L.; Shahab, W.; Olgaard, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Students in developing countries interested in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering & math) often choose majors that will improve their job opportunities in their home country when they graduate, e.g. engineering or medicine. Geoscience might be chosen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, but rarely as a primary major unless there are local economic natural resources. The Institute of International Education administers the ExxonMobil Middle East and North Africa region scholars program designed to develop skilled students with a focus on geoscience and to build relationships with academic leaders by offering select faculty the opportunity to participation in the AGU fall meeting. At the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), research in electrical engineering applied to medicine has potential links to geosciences. In geophysics, neural wavelet analysis (NWA) is commonly used to process complex seismic signals, e.g. for interpreting lithology or identifying hydrocarbons. In this study, NWA was used to characterize cardiac arrhythmias. A classification scheme was developed in which a neural network is used to identify three types of arrhythmia by distinct frequency bands. The performance of this scheme was tested using patient records from two electrocardiography (ECG) databases. These records contain normal ECG signals, as well as abnormal signals from atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrhythmias. The continuous wavelet transform is applied over frequencies of 0-50 Hz for times of 0-2s. For a normal ECG, the results show that the strongest signal is in a frequency range of 4-10 Hz. For AF, a low frequency ECG signal in the range of 0-5 Hz extends over the whole time domain. For VT, the low frequency spectrum is in the range of 2-10 Hz, appearing as three distinct bands. For VF, a continuous band in the range of 2-10 Hz extends over the whole time domain. The classification of

  3. Satisfying winter peak-power demand with phased gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.H.; Moss, T.E.; Ravikumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study, commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration, was to investigate application of this concept to the Pacific Northwest. Coal gasification combined-cycle (GCC) plants are receiving serious attention from eastern utilities. Potomac Electric (PEPCO) has engaged Fluor Technology to perform conceptual and preliminary engineering for a nominal 375-MW coal GCC power generation facility to be located in northern Montgomery County, Maryland. Other eastern utilities are engaged in site-specific investigations of satisfying future power requirements employing this alternative, which involves an environmentally superior method of using coal. Coal is combined with oxygen to produce a medium-heating-value fuel gas as an alternative to natural gas. The fuel gas, cleaned to remove sulfur compounds, is burned in gas turbine-generator sets. The hot exhaust gas is used to generate steam for additional power generation. The gasification combined cycle plant is highly efficient and has a high level of flexibility to meet power demands. This study provided background for consideration of one alternative for satisfying winter peak-load demand. The concept is feasible, depending on the timing of the installation of the gasification system, projections of the cost and the availability of natural gas, and restrictions on the use of natural gas. It has the advantage of deferring capacity addition and capital outlay until power is needed and economics are favorable.

  4. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  5. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  6. Sample distribution in peak mode isotachophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Shimon; Schwartz, Ortal; Bercovici, Moran

    2014-01-15

    We present an analytical study of peak mode isotachophoresis (ITP), and provide closed form solutions for sample distribution and electric field, as well as for leading-, trailing-, and counter-ion concentration profiles. Importantly, the solution we present is valid not only for the case of fully ionized species, but also for systems of weak electrolytes which better represent real buffer systems and for multivalent analytes such as proteins and DNA. The model reveals two major scales which govern the electric field and buffer distributions, and an additional length scale governing analyte distribution. Using well-controlled experiments, and numerical simulations, we verify and validate the model and highlight its key merits as well as its limitations. We demonstrate the use of the model for determining the peak concentration of focused sample based on known buffer and analyte properties, and show it differs significantly from commonly used approximations based on the interface width alone. We further apply our model for studying reactions between multiple species having different effective mobilities yet co-focused at a single ITP interface. We find a closed form expression for an effective-on rate which depends on reactants distributions, and derive the conditions for optimizing such reactions. Interestingly, the model reveals that maximum reaction rate is not necessarily obtained when the concentration profiles of the reacting species perfectly overlap. In addition to the exact solutions, we derive throughout several closed form engineering approximations which are based on elementary functions and are simple to implement, yet maintain the interplay between the important scales. Both the exact and approximate solutions provide insight into sample focusing and can be used to design and optimize ITP-based assays.

  7. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users. PMID:23909006

  8. Peak phosphorus - peak food? The need to close the phosphorus cycle.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The peak in the world production of phosphorus has been predicted to occur in 2033, based on world reserves of rock phosphate (URR) reckoned at around 24,000 million tonnes (Mt), with around 18,000 Mt remaining. This figure was reckoned-up to 71,000 Mt, by the USGS, in 2012, but a production maximum during the present century is still highly probable. There are complex issues over what the demand will be for phosphorus in the future, as measured against a rising population (from 7 billion to over 9 billion in 2050), and a greater per capita demand for fertiliser to grow more grain, in part to feed animals and meet a rising demand for meat by a human species that is not merely more populous but more affluent. As a counterweight to this, we may expect that greater efficiencies in the use of phosphorus - including recycling from farms and of human and animal waste - will reduce the per capita demand for phosphate rock. The unseen game changer is peak oil, since phosphate is mined and recovered using machinery powered by liquid fuels refined from crude oil. Hence, peak oil and peak phosphorus might appear as conjoined twins. There is no unequivocal case that we can afford to ignore the likelihood of a supply-demand gap for phosphorus occurring sometime this century, and it would be perilous to do so. PMID:23901632

  9. Microwave peak absorption frequency of liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guangze; Chen, Mingdong

    2008-09-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is a new effective method which has practical applications in many fields. Microwave heating is one of its physical mechanisms, and it also has the characteristic of selectivity. When the applied microwave frequency equals a certain absorption frequency of the material (or specific component), the material will intensively absorb microwave energy. This is also known as resonant absorption, and the frequency is called the peak absorption frequency which depends on the physical structure of the material. In this work, dynamic hydrogen bond energy was included in molecular activation energy; with the liquid cell model, the expression of interaction energy between dipolar molecules was derived. The rotational relaxation time was gotten from the Eyring viscosity formula. Then based on the relationship between dielectric dissipation coefficient and relaxation time, the expression of microwave peak absorption frequency as a function of the material physical structure, rotational inertia and electrical dipole moment of molecules was established. These theoretical formulas were applied to water and benzene, and the calculated results agree fairly well with the experimental data. This work can not only deepen the study of the interaction between microwave and material, but also provide a possible guide for the experiment of microwave-assisted extraction.

  10. The Sacramento Peak fast microphotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrambide, M. R.; Dunn, R. B.; Healy, A. W.; Porter, R.; Widener, A. L.; November, L. J.; Spence, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sacramento Peak Observatory Fast Microphotometer translates an optical system that includes a laser and photodiode detector across the film to scan the Y direction. A stepping motor moves the film gate in the X direction. This arrangement affords high positional accuracy, low noise (0.002 RMS density units), modest speed (5000 points/second), large dynamic range (4.5 density units), high stability (0.005 density units), and low scattered light. The Fast Microphotometer is interfaced to the host computer by a 6502 microprocessor.

  11. Solar investigation at Terskol Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlov-Vasiljev, K. A.; Vasiljeva, I. E.

    2003-04-01

    During 1980--1990 regular observations of the solar disk spectrum and active solar structures were carried out with SEF-1 and ATsU-26 telescopes at Terskol Peak in the framework of the program ``Energy distribution in the solar spectrum in absolute energy units''. In order to refine the fine structure of telluric lines, observations with ATsU-26 telescope were carried out in parallel. This telescope was also used for the investigation of the solar active structures. In this paper the observational technique is described. The obtained results and energy distribution in the solar disk center in absolute energy units are presented.

  12. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  13. Maxometers (peak wind speed anemometers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W.; Camp, D. W.; Turner, R. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An instrument for measuring peak wind speeds under severe environmental conditions is described, comprising an elongated cylinder housed in an outer casing. The cylinder contains a piston attached to a longitudinally movable guided rod having a pressure disk mounted on one projecting end. Wind pressure against the pressure disk depresses the movable rod. When the wind reaches its maximum speed, the rod is locked by a ball clutch mechanism in the position of maximum inward movement. Thereafter maximum wind speed or pressure readings may be taken from calibrated indexing means.

  14. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  15. Determination of peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Kano, S; Burton, D L; Lanteri, C J; Sly, P D

    1993-10-01

    It is still unknown whether peak expiratory flow (PEF) is determined by "wave speed" flow limitation in the airways. To investigate the influences of airway mechanical properties on PEF, five healthy adults performed maximal forced expiratory effort (MFEE) manoeuvres, in the standard manner and following breathholds at total lung capacity (TLC) of 2 s and 10 s. Oesophageal pressure (Poes) was measured as an index of respiratory effort. Subjects also performed a MFEE following a 10 s breathhold during which intrathoracic pressure was voluntarily raised by a Valsalva manoeuvre, which would increase transmural pressure and cross-sectional area of the extrathoracic airway. Additional MFEEs were performed with the neck fully flexed and extended, to change longitudinal tracheal tension. In separate studies, PEF was measured with a spirometer and with a pneumotachograph. Breathholds at TLC (2 s and 10 s), and neck flexion reduced PEF by a mean of 9.8% (SD 2.9%), 9.6% (SD 1.6%), and 8.7% (SD 2.8%), respectively, when measured with the spirometer. The same pattern of results was seen when measured with the pneumotachograph. These reductions occurred despite similar respiratory effort. Voluntarily raising intrathoracic pressure during a 10 s breathhold did not reverse a fall in PEF. MFEE manoeuvre with neck extension did not result in an increase in PEF, the group mean % changes being -3.0% (SD 5.0%). We conclude that these results do not allow the hypothesis that "wave-speed" (Vws) is reached at PEF to be rejected. A breathhold at TLC could increase airway wall compliance by allowing stress-relaxation of the airway, thus reducing the "Vws" achievable. PMID:8287953

  16. Electric vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains proceedings on electric vehicle technology. Topics covered include: flow-by lead-acid---improving the performance standard for EV battery systems; Townobile purpose-built electric commuter cars, vans and mini-buses; An electric van with extended range; and The future of electric vehicles in meeting the air quality challenges in Southern California.

  17. Peak Ring Craters and Multiring Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding of the mechanics of peak-ring crater and basin formation has expanded greatly due to the high precision data on lunar gravity from GRAIL. Peak rings coincide with the edges of underlying mantle uplifts on the Moon.

  18. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  19. Discourse Peak as Zone of Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longacre, Robert E.

    Defining peak as the climax of discourse, this paper argues that it is important to identify peak in order to get at the overall grammar of a given discourse. The paper presents case studies in which four instances of peak in narrative discourses occur in languages from four different parts of the world. It also illustrates the occurrence of a…

  20. Peak expiratory flow at increased barometric pressure: comparison of peak flow meters and volumetric spirometer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P S; Ng, C; Bennett, M

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an intensive care treatment, some of whom have pre-existing airway obstruction. Spirometers are the ideal instruments for measuring airway obstruction, but peak flow meters are useful and versatile devices. The behaviour of both types of device was therefore studied in a hyperbaric unit under conditions of increased pressure. It is important to have a non-electrical indicator of airway obstruction, to minimize the fire risk in the hyperoxic environment. The hypothesis was tested that, assuming that dynamic resistance is unchanged, both the Wright's standard and mini-peak flow meters would over-read peak expiratory flow (PEF) under increased pressure when compared with a volumetric spirometer, as the latter is unaffected by air density. It was postulated that a correction factor could be derived so that PEF meters could be used in this setting. Seven normal subjects performed volume-dependent spirometry to derive PEF, and manoeuvres using both standard and mini PEF meters at sea level, under hyperbaric conditions at 303, 253 and 152 kPa (3, 2.5 and 1.5 atmospheres respectively; 1 atmosphere absolute=101.08 kPa), and again at sea level. There was a progressive and significant decline in PEF with increasing pressure as measured by the spirometer (69.46+/-0.8% baseline at 303 kPa compared with 101 kPa), while the PEF meters showed a progressive increase in their readings (an increase of 7.86+/-1.69% at 303 kPa with the mini PEF meter). Using these data points, a correction factor was derived which allows appropriate values to be calculated from the Wright's meter readings under these conditions. PMID:10600666

  1. A new approach for modeling the peak utility impacts from a proposed CUAC standard

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris; Chan, Peter; Coughlin, Katie

    2004-08-01

    This report describes a new Berkeley Lab approach for modeling the likely peak electricity load reductions from proposed energy efficiency programs in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This method is presented in the context of the commercial unitary air conditioning (CUAC) energy efficiency standards. A previous report investigating the residential central air conditioning (RCAC) load shapes in NEMS revealed that the peak reduction results were lower than expected. This effect was believed to be due in part to the presence of the squelch, a program algorithm designed to ensure changes in the system load over time are consistent with the input historic trend. The squelch applies a system load-scaling factor that scales any differences between the end-use bottom-up and system loads to maintain consistency with historic trends. To obtain more accurate peak reduction estimates, a new approach for modeling the impact of peaky end uses in NEMS-BT has been developed. The new approach decrements the system load directly, reducing the impact of the squelch on the final results. This report also discusses a number of additional factors, in particular non-coincidence between end-use loads and system loads as represented within NEMS, and their impacts on the peak reductions calculated by NEMS. Using Berkeley Lab's new double-decrement approach reduces the conservation load factor (CLF) on an input load decrement from 25% down to 19% for a SEER 13 CUAC trial standard level, as seen in NEMS-BT output. About 4 GW more in peak capacity reduction results from this new approach as compared to Berkeley Lab's traditional end-use decrement approach, which relied solely on lowering end use energy consumption. The new method has been fully implemented and tested in the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) version of NEMS and will routinely be applied to future versions. This capability is now available for use in future end-use efficiency or other policy analysis that requires

  2. Mass-concentration relation and weak lensing peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, V. F.; Camera, S.; Sereno, M.; Covone, G.; Maoli, R.; Scaramella, R.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The statistics of peaks in weak lensing convergence maps is a promising tool for investigating both the properties of dark matter haloes and constraining the cosmological parameters. Aims: We study how the number of detectable peaks and its scaling with redshift depend upon the cluster's dark matter halo profiles and use peak statistics to constrain the parameters of the mass-concentration (MC) relation. We investigate which constraints the Euclid mission can set on the MC coefficients taking degeneracies with the cosmological parameters into account, too. Methods: To this end, we first estimated the number of peaks and its redshift distribution for different MC relations and found that the steeper the mass dependence and the greater the normalisation, the larger the number of detectable clusters, with the total number of peaks changing up to 40% depending on the MC relation. We then performed a Fisher matrix forecast of the errors on the MC relation parameters, as well as on cosmological parameters. Results: We find that peak number counts detected by Euclid can determine the normalization Av, the mass Bv, redshift Cv slopes, and intrinsic scatter σv of the MC relation to an unprecedented accuracy, which is σ(Av) /Av = 1%, σ(Bv) /Bv = 4%, σ(Cv) /Cv = 9%, and σ(σv) /σv = 1% if all cosmological parameters are assumed to be known. If we relax this severe assumption, constraints are degraded, but remarkably good results can be restored by setting only some of the parameters or combining peak counts with Planck data. This precision can give insight into competing scenarios of structure formation and evolution and into the role of baryons in cluster assembling. Alternatively, for a fixed MC relation, future peak counts can perform as well as current BAO and SNeIa when combined with Planck.

  3. On the trail of double peak hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Juilleret, Jérôme; François Iffly, Jean; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A double peak hydrograph features two peaks as a response to a unique rainfall pulse. The first peak occurs at the same time or shortly after the precipitation has started and it corresponds to a fast catchment response to precipitation. The delayed peak normally starts during the recession of the first peak, when the precipitation has already ceased. Double peak hydrographs may occur for various reasons. They can occur (i) in large catchments when lag times in tributary responses are large, (ii) in urban catchments where the first peak is often caused by direct surface runoff on impervious land cover, and the delayed peak to slower subsurface flow, and (iii) in non-urban catchments, where the first and the delayed discharge peaks are explained by different runoff mechanisms (e.g. overland flow, subsurface flow and/or deep groundwater flow) that have different response times. Here we focus on the third case, as a formal description of the different hydrological mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across catchments with diverse physiographic characteristics is still needed. Based on a review of studies documenting double peak events we have established a formal classification of catchments presenting double peak events based on their regolith structure (geological substratum and/or its weathered products). We describe the different hydrological mechanisms that trigger these complex hydrological dynamics across each catchment type. We then use hydrometric time series of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture and groundwater levels collected in the Weierbach (0.46 km2) headwater catchment (Luxembourg) to better understand double peak hydrograph generation. Specifically, we aim to find out (1) if the generation of a double peak hydrograph is a threshold process, (2) if the hysteretic relationships between storage and discharge are consistent during single and double peak hydrographs, and (3) if different functional landscape units (the hillslopes

  4. Chirped pulse amplification: Present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Maine, P.; Strickland, D.; Pessot, M.; Squier, J.; Bado, P.; Mourou, G.; Harter, D.

    1988-01-01

    Short pulses with ultrahigh peak powers have been generated in Nd: glass and Alexandrite using the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. This technique has been successful in producing picosecond terawatt pulses with a table-top laser system. In the near future, CPA will be applied to large laser systems such as NOVA to produce petawatt pulses (1 kJ in a 1 ps pulse) with focused intensities exceeding 10/sup /plus/21/ W/cm/sup 2/. These pulses will be associated with electric fields in excess of 100 e/a/sub o//sup 2/ and blackbody energy densities equivalent to 3 /times/ 10/sup 10/ J/cm/sup 3/. This petawatt source will have important applications in x-ray laser research and will lead to fundamentally new experiments in atomic, nuclear, solid-state, plasma, and high-energy density physics. A review of present and future designs are discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Technical Potential for Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2002-12-13

    Restructuring is attempting to bring the economic efficiency of competitive markets to the electric power industry. To at least some extent it is succeeding. New generation is being built in most areas of the country reversing the decades-long trend of declining reserve margins. Competition among generators is typically robust, holding down wholesale energy prices. Generators have shown that they are very responsive to price signals in both the short and long term. But a market that is responsive only on the supply side is only half a market. Demand response (elasticity) is necessary to gain the full economic advantages that restructuring can offer. Electricity is a form of energy that is difficult to store economically in large quantities. However, loads often have some ability to (1) conveniently store thermal energy and (2) defer electricity consumption. These inherent storage and control capabilities can be exploited to help reduce peak electric system consumption. In some cases they can also be used to provide system reliability reserves. Fortunately too, technology is helping. Advances in communications and control technologies are making it possible for loads ranging from residential through commercial and industrial to respond to economic signals. When we buy bananas, we don't simply take a dozen and wait a month to find out what the price was. We always ask about the price before we decide how many bananas we want. Technology is beginning to allow at least some customers to think about their electricity consumption the same way they think about most of their other purchases. And power system operators and regulators are beginning to understand that customers need to remain in control of their own destinies. Many customers (residential through industrial) are willing to respond to price signals. Most customers are not able to commit to specific responses months or years in advance. Electricity is a fluid market commodity with a volatile value to both

  6. [Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future. Second year third quarter report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy`s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants` names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State`s campus.

  7. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  8. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  9. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  10. The Boson peak in supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line TW. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih. PMID:23771033

  11. Weld peaking on heavy aluminum structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E.; Poorman, R.; Sexton, J.

    1978-01-01

    Weld peaking is usually undesirable in any welded structure. In heavy structures, the forces involved in the welding process become very large and difficult to handle. With the shuttle's solid rocket booster, the weld peaking resulted in two major problems: (1) reduced mechanical properties across the weld joint, and (2) fit-up difficulties in subsequent assembly operation. Peaking from the weld shrinkage forces can be fairly well predicted in simple structures; however, in welding complicated assemblies, the amount of peaking is unpredictable because of unknown stresses from machining and forming, stresses induced by the fixturing, and stresses from welds in other parts of the assembly. When excessive peaking is encountered, it can be corrected using the shrinkage forces resulting from the welding process. Application of these forces is discussed in this report.

  12. Multiscale peak alignment for chromatographic datasets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Na; Ferro, Miguel

    2012-02-01

    Chromatography has been extensively applied in many fields, such as metabolomics and quality control of herbal medicines. Preprocessing, especially peak alignment, is a time-consuming task prior to the extraction of useful information from the datasets by chemometrics and statistics. To accurately and rapidly align shift peaks among one-dimensional chromatograms, multiscale peak alignment (MSPA) is presented in this research. Peaks of each chromatogram were detected based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and aligned against a reference chromatogram from large to small scale gradually, and the aligning procedure is accelerated by fast Fourier transform cross correlation. The presented method was compared with two widely used alignment methods on chromatographic dataset, which demonstrates that MSPA can preserve the shapes of peaks and has an excellent speed during alignment. Furthermore, MSPA method is robust and not sensitive to noise and baseline. MSPA was implemented and is available at http://code.google.com/p/mspa. PMID:22222564

  13. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-01

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at . PMID:26514234

  14. PeakRanger: A cloud-enabled peak caller for ChIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), coupled with massively parallel short-read sequencing (seq) is used to probe chromatin dynamics. Although there are many algorithms to call peaks from ChIP-seq datasets, most are tuned either to handle punctate sites, such as transcriptional factor binding sites, or broad regions, such as histone modification marks; few can do both. Other algorithms are limited in their configurability, performance on large data sets, and ability to distinguish closely-spaced peaks. Results In this paper, we introduce PeakRanger, a peak caller software package that works equally well on punctate and broad sites, can resolve closely-spaced peaks, has excellent performance, and is easily customized. In addition, PeakRanger can be run in a parallel cloud computing environment to obtain extremely high performance on very large data sets. We present a series of benchmarks to evaluate PeakRanger against 10 other peak callers, and demonstrate the performance of PeakRanger on both real and synthetic data sets. We also present real world usages of PeakRanger, including peak-calling in the modENCODE project. Conclusions Compared to other peak callers tested, PeakRanger offers improved resolution in distinguishing extremely closely-spaced peaks. PeakRanger has above-average spatial accuracy in terms of identifying the precise location of binding events. PeakRanger also has excellent sensitivity and specificity in all benchmarks evaluated. In addition, PeakRanger offers significant improvements in run time when running on a single processor system, and very marked improvements when allowed to take advantage of the MapReduce parallel environment offered by a cloud computing resource. PeakRanger can be downloaded at the official site of modENCODE project: http://www.modencode.org/software/ranger/ PMID:21554709

  15. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, H.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  16. Molten salt thermal energy storage for utility peaking loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, A.; Haslett, R.; Joyce, J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of thermal energy storage (TES) in molten salts to increase the capacity of power plants. Five existing fossil and nuclear electric utility plants were selected as representative of current technology. A review of system load diagrams indicated that TES to meet loads over 95% of peak was a reasonable goal. Alternate TES heat exchanger locations were evaluated, showing that the stored energy should be used either for feedwater heating or to generate steam for an auxiliary power cycle. Specific salts for each concept are recommended. Design layouts were prepared for one plant, and it was shown that a TES tube/shell heat exchanger system could provide about 7% peaking capability at lower cost than adding steam generation capacity. Promising alternate heat exchanger concepts were also identified.

  17. Electrical circuit for data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an electrical circuit for determining characteristic voltages, such as maximum, minimum, average and root mean squared voltages, of a time-varying electrical signal. The circuit comprises a positive and a negative peak detector that feed the positive and negative voltage peaks detected in each of a series of time intervals into a solid-state multiplexer controlled by a process controller. The time intervals are generated by the process controller in combination with a clocking, circuit. The multiplexer applies the positive and negative peak voltages to a set of four capacitors, apply the positive peak to one capacitor during one interval and then the negative peak to that capacitor in a subsequent interval so that each capacitor is alternatingly accumulating a positive peak then a negative peak to obviate the need for resetting each capacitor. After the positive peak voltage is applied to one capacitor, the connection is switched during the next interval for reading the negative peak voltage, then switched again for applying, a negative peak voltage, then switched once more for reading the negative peak voltage, the multiplexer serving, as a solid state commutator for switching the electrical connection. Alternatively, peak maximum and minimum voltage detectors may be replaced with circuitry designed to obtain the additional characteristic voltages desired in each interval.

  18. Peaks theory and the excursion set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2012-11-01

    We describe a model of dark matter halo abundances and clustering which combines the two most widely used approaches to this problem: that based on peaks and the other based on excursion sets. Our approach can be thought of as addressing the cloud-in-cloud problem for peaks and/or modifying the excursion set approach so that it averages over a special subset, rather than all possible walks. In this respect, it seeks to account for correlations between steps in the walk as well as correlations between walks. We first show how the excursion set and peaks models can be written in the same formalism, and then use this correspondence to write our combined excursion set peaks model. We then give simple expressions for the mass function and bias, showing that even the linear halo bias factor is predicted to be k-dependent as a consequence of the non-locality associated with the peak constraint. At large masses, our model has little or no need to rescale the variable δc from the value associated with spherical collapse, and suggests a simple explanation for why the linear halo bias factor appears to lie above that based on the peak-background split at high masses when such a rescaling is assumed. Although we have concentrated on peaks, our analysis is more generally applicable to other traditionally single-scale analyses of large-scale structure.

  19. Extreme value statistics of weak lensing shear peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischke, R.; Maturi, M.; Bartelmann, M.

    2016-02-01

    The statistics of peaks in weak gravitational lensing maps is a promising technique to constrain cosmological parameters in present and future surveys. Here we investigate its power when using general extreme value statistics which is very sensitive to the exponential tail of the halo mass function. To this end, we use an analytic method to quantify the number of weak lensing peaks caused by galaxy clusters, large-scale structures and observational noise. Doing so, we further improve the method in the regime of high signal-to-noise ratios dominated by non-linear structures by accounting for the embedding of those counts into the surrounding shear caused by large-scale structures. We derive the extreme value and order statistics for both overdensities (positive peaks) and underdensities (negative peaks) and provide an optimized criterion to split a wide field survey into subfields in order to sample the distribution of extreme values such that the expected objects causing the largest signals are mostly due to galaxy clusters. We find good agreement of our model predictions with a ray-tracing N-body simulation. For a Euclid-like survey, we find tight constraints on σ8 and Ωm with relative uncertainties of ˜10-3. In contrast, the equation of state parameter w0 can be constrained only with a 10 per cent level, and wa is out of reach even if we include redshift information.

  20. The model electric restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.J.; Oatman, P.A. ); Claar, C.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Restaurants are the most intensive users of energy of all types of commercial buildings. As a result, they have some of the highest energy costs. New and existing restaurants are important customers to electric utilities. Many opportunities exist to use electricity to improve restaurant energy performance. This report discusses a project in which computer simulations were used to investigate restaurant energy subsystem performance and to assess the potential for electric equipment to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak demand improve load factors, and reduce energy cost in new all-electric restaurants. The project investigated typical restaurant designs for all-electric and gas/electric facilities and compared them to high efficiency electric options in all-electric restaurants. This analysis determined which investiments in high-efficiency electric equipment are attractive for restaurant operators. Improved equipment for food preparation, heating and cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and lighting subsystem was studied in cafeteria, full menu, fast food, and pizza restaurants in Atlanta, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. In addition to the actual rate structures, four synthetic rate structures were used to calculate energy costs, so that the results can be applied to other locations. The results indicate that high efficiency and improved all-electric equipment have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption, peak demand, and operating costs in almost all restaurants in all locations. The all-electric restaurants, with a combination of improved equipment, also offer the customer a competitive choice in fuels in most locations. 12 refs., 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  1. Spatial Ion Peak Compression and its Utility in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Tang, Keqi; Webb, Ian K.; Baker, Erin S.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept for ion spatial peak compression is described, and discussed primarily in the context of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Using theoretical and numerical methods, the effects of using non-constant (e.g., linearly varying) electric fields on ion distributions (e.g., an ion mobility peak) is evaluated both in the physical and temporal domains. The application of linearly decreasing electric field in conjunction with conventional drift field arrangements is shown to lead to a reduction in IMS physical peak width. When multiple ion packets (i.e. peaks) in a selected mobility window are simultaneously subjected to such fields, there is ion packet compression, i.e., a reduction in peak widths for all species. This peak compression occurs with only a modest reduction of resolution, and which can be quickly recovered as ions drift in a constant field after the compression event. Compression also yields a significant increase in peak intensities. Ion mobility peak compression can be particularly useful for mitigating diffusion driven peak spreading over very long path length separations (e.g., in cyclic multi-pass arrangements), and for achieving higher S/N and IMS resolution over a selected mobility range. PMID:27052738

  2. Spatial Ion Peak Compression and its Utility in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Tang, Keqi; Webb, Ian K.; Baker, Erin S.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-06-01

    A novel concept for ion spatial peak compression is described, and discussed primarily in the context of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Using theoretical and numerical methods, the effects of using non-constant (e.g., linearly varying) electric fields on ion distributions (e.g., an ion mobility peak) is evaluated both in the physical and temporal domains. The application of a linearly decreasing electric field in conjunction with conventional drift field arrangements is shown to lead to a reduction in IMS physical peak width. When multiple ion packets (i.e., peaks) in a selected mobility window are simultaneously subjected to such fields, there is ion packet compression (i.e., a reduction in peak widths for all species). This peak compression occurs with only a modest reduction of resolution, which can be quickly recovered as ions drift in a constant field after the compression event. Compression also yields a significant increase in peak intensities. Ion mobility peak compression can be particularly useful for mitigating diffusion-driven peak broadening over very long path length separations (e.g., in cyclic multi-pass arrangements), and for achieving higher S/N and IMS resolution over a selected mobility range.

  3. Spatial Ion Peak Compression and its Utility in Ion Mobility Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Sandilya V B; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Tang, Keqi; Webb, Ian K; Baker, Erin S; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    A novel concept for ion spatial peak compression is described, and discussed primarily in the context of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Using theoretical and numerical methods, the effects of using non-constant (e.g., linearly varying) electric fields on ion distributions (e.g., an ion mobility peak) is evaluated both in the physical and temporal domains. The application of a linearly decreasing electric field in conjunction with conventional drift field arrangements is shown to lead to a reduction in IMS physical peak width. When multiple ion packets (i.e., peaks) in a selected mobility window are simultaneously subjected to such fields, there is ion packet compression (i.e., a reduction in peak widths for all species). This peak compression occurs with only a modest reduction of resolution, which can be quickly recovered as ions drift in a constant field after the compression event. Compression also yields a significant increase in peak intensities. Ion mobility peak compression can be particularly useful for mitigating diffusion-driven peak broadening over very long path length separations (e.g., in cyclic multi-pass arrangements), and for achieving higher S/N and IMS resolution over a selected mobility range. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27052738

  4. Spatial Ion Peak Compression and its Utility in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Tang, Keqi; Webb, Ian K.; Baker, Erin S.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    A novel concept for ion spatial peak compression is described, and discussed primarily in the context of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Using theoretical and numerical methods, the effects of using non-constant (e.g., linearly varying) electric fields on ion distributions (e.g., an ion mobility peak) is evaluated both in the physical and temporal domains. The application of a linearly decreasing electric field in conjunction with conventional drift field arrangements is shown to lead to a reduction in IMS physical peak width. When multiple ion packets (i.e., peaks) in a selected mobility window are simultaneously subjected to such fields, there is ion packet compression (i.e., a reduction in peak widths for all species). This peak compression occurs with only a modest reduction of resolution, which can be quickly recovered as ions drift in a constant field after the compression event. Compression also yields a significant increase in peak intensities. Ion mobility peak compression can be particularly useful for mitigating diffusion-driven peak broadening over very long path length separations (e.g., in cyclic multi-pass arrangements), and for achieving higher S/N and IMS resolution over a selected mobility range.

  5. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  6. Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157852.html Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet This year's vaccine ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be the mildest in the ...

  7. Observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Presents an abridged version of a chapter from the author's book "In Quest of Telescopes." Includes personal experiences at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and comments on telescopes, photographs, and making observations. (SK)

  8. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  9. Forward-peaked scattering of polarized light.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2014-11-15

    Polarized light propagation in a multiple scattering medium is governed by the vector radiative transfer equation. We analyze the vector radiative transfer equation in asymptotic limit of forward-peaked scattering and derive an approximate system of equations for the Stokes parameters, which we call the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker-Planck approximation provides valuable insight into several outstanding issues regarding the forward-peaked scattering of polarized light such as the polarization memory phenomenon. PMID:25490484

  10. Cosmic microwave background acoustic peak locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Knox, L.; Mulroe, B.; Narimani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and 12 extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g. that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 deg out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models versus numerical calculations. Here, we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential transients, neutrino free-streaming, the breakdown of tight coupling, the shape of the primordial power spectrum, details of the geometric projection from three to two dimensions, and the thickness of the last scattering surface. We also compare the peak locations determined from Planck measurements to expectations under the Λ cold dark matter model. Taking into account how the peak locations were determined, we find them to be in agreement.

  11. Peak Effect in High-Tc Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xinsheng

    1996-03-01

    Like many low-Tc superconductors, high-quality YBCO single crystals are found(X.S. Ling and J.I. Budnick, in Magnetic Susceptibility of Superconductors and Other Spin Systems), edited by R.A. Hein, T.L. Francavilla, and D.H. Liebenberg (Plenum Press, New York, 1991), p.377. to exhibit a striking peak effect. In a magnetic field, the temperature dependence of the critical current has a pronounced peak below T_c(H). Pippard(A.B. Pippard, Phil. Mag. 19), 217 (1969)., and subsequently Larkin and Ovchinnikov(A.I. Larkin and Yu.N. Ovchinnikov, J. Low Temp. Phys. 34), 409 (1979)., attributed the onset of the peak effect to a softening of the vortex lattice. In this talk, the experimental discovery^1 of the peak effect in high-Tc superconductors will be described, followed by a brief historical perspective of the understanding of this phenomenon and a discussion of a new model(X.S. Ling, C. Tang, S. Bhattacharya, and P.M. Chaikin, cond-mat/9504109, (NEC Preprint 1995).) for the peak effect. In this model, the peak effect is an interesting manifestation of the vortex-lattice melting in the presence of weak random pinning potentials. The rise of critical current with increasing temperature is a signature of the ``melting'' of the Larkin domains. This work is done in collaboration with Joe Budnick, Chao Tang, Shobo Bhattacharya, Paul Chaikin, and Boyd Veal.

  12. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Price, Phillip N.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-17

    We present methods for analyzing commercial and industrial facility 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building managers to better understand their facility's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to ask the right questions to discover opportunities for demand response, energy efficiency, electricity waste elimination, and peak load management. We primarily focus on demand response. Methods discussed include graphical representations of electric load data, a regression-based electricity load model that uses a time-of-week indicator variable and a piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence, and the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads and demand response behavior. In the future, these methods could be translated into easy-to-use tools for building managers.

  13. Parallel Planar-Processed and Ion-Induced Electrically Isolated Future Generation AlGaN/GaN HEMT for Gas Sensing and Opto-Telecommunication Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Bokhari, S. H.; Khan, L. A.; Amin, F.; Hussain, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Ion-implanted AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT) devices were studied thoroughly to look into the possibilities of enhancing efficiency for high-power and high-frequency electronic and gas sensing applications. A dedicated experimental design was created in order to study the influence of the physical parameters in response to high energy (by virtue of in-situ beam heating due to highly energetic implantation) ion implantation to the active device regions in nitride HEMT structures. Disorder or damage created in the HEMT structure was then studied carefully with electrical characterization techniques such as Hall, I-V and G-V measurements. The evolution of the electrical characteristics affecting the high-power, high-frequency and ultra-high efficiency gas sensing operations were also analyzed by subjecting the HEMT active device regions to progressive time-temperature annealing cycles. Our suggested model can also provide a functional process engineering window to control the extent of 2D Electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices undergoing a full cycle of thermal impact (i.e. from a desirable conductive region to a highly compensated one).

  14. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOEpatents

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Kandasamy, Anand

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  15. Predicting Peak Flows following Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Dobre, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Following forest fires, peak flows in perennial and ephemeral streams often increase by a factor of 10 or more. This increase in peak flow rate may overwhelm existing downstream structures, such as road culverts, causing serious damage to road fills at stream crossings. In order to predict peak flow rates following wildfires, we have applied two different tools. One is based on the U.S.D.A Natural Resource Conservation Service Curve Number Method (CN), and the other is by applying the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) to the watershed. In our presentation, we will describe the science behind the two methods, and present the main variables for each model. We will then provide an example of a comparison of the two methods to a fire-prone watershed upstream of the City of Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, where a fire spread model was applied for current fuel loads, and for likely fuel loads following a fuel reduction treatment. When applying the curve number method, determining the time to peak flow can be problematic for low severity fires because the runoff flow paths are both surface and through shallow lateral flow. The WEPP watershed version incorporates shallow lateral flow into stream channels. However, the version of the WEPP model that was used for this study did not have channel routing capabilities, but rather relied on regression relationships to estimate peak flows from individual hillslope polygon peak runoff rates. We found that the two methods gave similar results if applied correctly, with the WEPP predictions somewhat greater than the CN predictions. Later releases of the WEPP model have incorporated alternative methods for routing peak flows that need to be evaluated.

  16. Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Grid of the Future White Paper on Review of Recent Reliability Issues and Systems Events

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    1999-12-01

    This report is one of six reports developed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program in Power System Integration and Reliability (PSIR). The objective of this report is to review, analyze, and evaluate critical reliability issues demonstrated by recent disturbance events in the North America power system. Eleven major disturbances are examined, most occurring in this decade. The strategic challenge is that the pattern of technical need has persisted for a long period of time. For more than a decade, anticipation of market deregulation has been a major disincentive to new investments in system capacity. It has also inspired reduced maintenance of existing assets. A massive infusion of better technology is emerging as the final option to continue reliable electrical services. If an investment in better technology will not be made in a timely manner, then North America should plan its adjustments to a very different level of electrical service. It is apparent that technical operations staff among the utilities can be very effective at marshaling their forces in the immediate aftermath of a system emergency, and that serious disturbances often lead to improved mechanisms for coordinated operation. It is not at all apparent that such efforts can be sustained through voluntary reliability organizations in which utility personnel external to those organizations do most of the technical work. The eastern interconnection shows several situations in which much of the technical support has migrated from the utilities to the Independent System Operator (ISO), and the ISO staffs or shares staff with the regional reliability council. This process may be a natural and very positive consequence of utility restructuring. If so, the process should be expedited in regions where it is less advanced.

  17. The comparative effectiveness of serving peak loads in the variants of providing nuclear power plants with a base load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenin, V. M.; Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2012-07-01

    The present paper reports the results of an investigation into the effectiveness of serving peak loads in the variants of providing nuclear power plants with a base load through unloading condensing power plants, combined heat and power (CHP) plants, combined-cycle thermal power plants during night-time off-peak hours, the use of the off-peak electric power for power and heat supply, and water electrolysis with the use of hydrogen and oxygen for production of the peak electric power, as compared with the variant of the development of pumped storage hydropower plants.

  18. Improved Simulation of Peak Flows Under Climate Change: Post-Processing or Multi-Objective Calibration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Booij, M. J.; Xu, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have large impacts on peak flows. There are, however, large uncertainties in the simulation of peak flows by hydrological models. This study aims to improve the simulation of peak flows under climate change in Lanjiang catchment, East China by comparing two approaches: post-processing of peak flows and multi-objective calibration. Two hydrological models (SWAT and GR4J) are employed to simulate the daily flows and the peaks-over-threshold method is used to extract peak flows from the simulated daily flows. Three post-processing methods, namely the quantile mapping method and two generalized linear models, are set up to correct the biases in the simulated raw peak flows. Besides, a multi-objective calibration of the GR4J model by taking the peak flows into account in the calibration process is carried out. The regional climate model PRECIS with boundary forcing from two GCMs (HadCM3 and ECHAM5) under greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B is applied to produce the climate data for the baseline period and the future period 2011-2040. The results show that the post-processing methods, particularly quantile mapping method, can correct the biases in the raw peak flows effectively. The multi-objective calibration also resulted in a good simulation performance of peak flows. The final estimated peak flows in the future period show an obvious increase compared with those in the baseline period, indicating there are probably more frequent floods in Lanjiang catchment in the future.

  19. Nasal peak inspiratory flow at altitude.

    PubMed

    Barry, P W; Mason, N P; Richalet, J P

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated whether there are changes in nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIF) during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. During operation Everest III (COMEX '97), eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m in a hypobaric chamber. NPIF was recorded at simulated altitudes of 0 m, 5,000 m and 8,000 m. Oral peak inspiratory and expiratory flow (OPIF, OPEF) were also measured. Ambient air temperature and humidity were controlled. NPIF increased by a mean +/- SD of 16 +/- 12% from sea level to 8,000 m, whereas OPIF increased by 47 +/- 14%. NPIF rose by 0.085 +/- 0.03 L x s(-1) per kilometre of ascent (p<0.05), significantly less than the rise in OPIF and OPEF of 0.35 +/- 0.10 and 0.33 +/- 0.04 L x s(-1) per kilometre (p<0.0005). Nasal peak inspiratory flow rises with ascent to altitude. The rise in nasal peak inspiratory flow with altitude was far less than oral peak inspiratory flow and less than the predicted rise according to changes in air density. This suggests flow limitation at the nose, and occurs under controlled environmental conditions, refuting the hypothesis that nasal blockage at altitude is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. Further work is needed to determine if nasal blockage limits activity at altitude. PMID:11843316

  20. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  1. Automatic Locking of Laser Frequency to an Absorption Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic system adjusts the frequency of a tunable laser, eventually locking the frequency to a peak in the optical absorption spectrum of a gas (or of a Fabry-Perot cavity that has an absorption peak like that of a gas). This system was developed to enable precise locking of the frequency of a laser used in differential absorption LIDAR measurements of trace atmospheric gases. This system also has great commercial potential as a prototype of means for precise control of frequencies of lasers in future dense wavelength-division-multiplexing optical communications systems. The operation of this system is completely automatic: Unlike in the operation of some prior laser-frequency-locking systems, there is ordinarily no need for a human operator to adjust the frequency manually to an initial value close enough to the peak to enable automatic locking to take over. Instead, this system also automatically performs the initial adjustment. The system (see Figure 1) is based on a concept of (1) initially modulating the laser frequency to sweep it through a spectral range that includes the desired absorption peak, (2) determining the derivative of the absorption peak with respect to the laser frequency for use as an error signal, (3) identifying the desired frequency [at the very top (which is also the middle) of the peak] as the frequency where the derivative goes to zero, and (4) thereafter keeping the frequency within a locking range and adjusting the frequency as needed to keep the derivative (the error signal) as close as possible to zero. More specifically, the system utilizes the fact that in addition to a zero crossing at the top of the absorption peak, the error signal also closely approximates a straight line in the vicinity of the zero crossing (see Figure 2). This vicinity is the locking range because the linearity of the error signal in this range makes it useful as a source of feedback for a proportional + integral + derivative control scheme that

  2. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  3. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Becker Peak stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. A.; Housen, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of plutonic rocks, although subject to uncertainty due to lack of paleohorizontal control, can provide important constrains of patterns of regional deformation, and can play a role in evaluation of tectonic models and reconstructions. Many plutonic rocks of the Cascades have been well-studied via paleomagnetism, but there are many that lack robust data sets. One such pluton, the Beckler Peak stock, is a late Cretaceous tonalitic stock, with biotite and amphibole K-Ar ages of 93 to 82 Ma (Engels and Crowder, 1971, Yeats and Engels, 1971). The Beckler Peak stock is considered to be a companion body to the larger Mt. Stuart Batholith, but is separated from the Mt. Stuart Batholith by the Evergreen Fault. For this study five paleomagnetic sites were sampled from the Beckler Peak stock near Skykomish, Washington. After low temperature and thermal demagnetization site means were calculated for the four sites where at least two samples survived demagnetization. Unblocking temperatures were indicative of magnetite and hematite as the carriers of remanence. Two of the site means were disregarded due to anomalous directions likely due to sites being from very large slump blocks. The two acceptable site means, along with a Beckler Peak stock site mean from Beck and Noson (1972) and another from Housen et al. (2003) give a stock-wide mean of D = 3.8°, I = 41.9°, k = 32.9, and α95 = 16.2°. This direction is consistent with mean directions for the Mount Stuart batholith determined by Beck and Noson (1972), Beck et al. (1981), and Housen et al. (2003). This directional consistency supports an association between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith, or at least that these two plutonic bodies were emplaced in the same structural block, and that any post-magnetization deformation (such as rotation and/or tilt associated with the Evergreen Fault) between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith was minor.

  5. MOSES AND DENNISON PEAK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lipton, David A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was conducted in the Moses and Dennison Peak Roadless Areas, southeastern Sierra Nevada, California. One area within the Moses Roadless Area is classified as having substantiated mineral-resource potential for small base-metal skarn deposits. Additionally, geochemical data indicate probable potential for small base-metal skarn deposits from one locality within Dennison Peak Roadless Area and for small tungsten skarn deposits from a region within Moses Roadless Area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  6. Relationships between peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and modified mercalli intensity in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Heaton, T.H.; Kanamori, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed regression relationships between Modified Mercalli Intensity (Imm) and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV) by comparing horizontal peak ground motions to observed intensities for eight significant California earthquakes. For the limited range of Modified Mercalli intensities (Imm), we find that for peak acceleration with V ??? Imm ??? VIII, Imm = 3.66 log(PGA) - 1.66, and for peak velocity with V ??? Imm ??? IX, Imm = 3.47 log(PGV) + 2.35. From comparison with observed intensity maps, we find that a combined regression based on peak velocity for intensity > VII and on peak acceleration for intensity < VII is most suitable for reproducing observed Imm patterns, consistent with high intensities being related to damage (proportional to ground velocity) and with lower intensities determined by felt accounts (most sensitive to higher-frequency ground acceleration). These new Imm relationships are significantly different from the Trifunac and Brady (1975) correlations, which have been used extensively in loss estimation.

  7. Three-peak GRBs and their implications for central engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Méndez, Enrique; Fraija, Nissim; Patricelli, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    GRB 110709B presented a peculiar three-peak lightcurve; this burst twice triggered the BAT detector onboard Swift. The two triggers were separated by ∼10 min. In order to explain such an event, we unify into a single description the millisecond (ms) protomagnetar and the collapsar central-engine models. We find that such a scenario could produce GRBs with three peaks. One for the ms-protomagnetar stage, a second one for the BH-formation event and a third one for the collapsar phase. We show that the three peaks for GRB 110709B originate from different phases of the same collapsing object. We estimate the energies and timescales of the different episodes of this burst using our model and compare with previous results as well as with a reanalysis we perform on the data. We show that not only the light curve, but also the photon index evolution and the delay between the prompt emission and the afterglow of the second central-engine activity phase point toward a model like the one proposed here. We find that, with reasonable assumptions, our model correctly describes the activity in GRB 110709B. We further suggest careful study of future GRBs lightcurves which may help show the validity of our model. If our model is correct, this would be the first time that the formation of a BH from a core-collapse event is observed unimpededly.

  8. Correlated peak relative light intensity and peak current in triggered lightning subsequent return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between peak relative light intensity L(R) and stroke peak current I(R) is examined for 39 subsequent return strokes in two triggered lightning flashes. One flash contained 19 strokes and the other 20 strokes for which direct measurements were available of the return stroke peak current at ground. Peak currents ranged from 1.6 to 21 kA. The measurements of peak relative light intensity were obtained from photographic streak recordings using calibrated film and microsecond resolution. Correlations, significant at better than the 0.1 percent level, were found for several functional relationships. Although a relation between L(R) and I(R) is evident in these data, none of the analytical relations considered is clearly favored. The correlation between L(R) and the maximum rate of current rise is also examined, but less correlation than between L(R) and I(R) is found. In addition, the peak relative intensity near ground is evaluated for 22 dart leaders, and a mean ratio of peak dart leader to peak return stroke relative light intensity was found to be 0.1 with a range of 0.02-0.23. Using two different methods, the peak current near ground in these dart leaders is estimated to range from 0.1 to 6 kA.

  9. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Short, David

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in predicting peak winds at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron requested the AMU develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network , Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) surface observations, and CCAFS sounding s from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created mul tiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence , the temperature inversion depth and strength, wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft.

  10. Absorption, Creativity, Peak Experiences, Empathy, and Psychoticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; And Others

    Tellegen and Atkinson suggested that the trait of absorption may play a part in meditative skill, creativity, capacity for peak experiences, and empathy. Although the absorption-meditative skill relationship has been confirmed, other predictions have not been tested. Tellegen and Atkinson's Absorption Scale was completed by undergraduates in four…

  11. Six Ways To Foster Peak Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla, Christine; Wells, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses six initiatives that organizations can support to ensure peak performance: individual knowledge portfolios; mentoring and apprenticeship relationships; electronic conferencing systems; organizational knowledge repository; community of practice; reward and recognition. Defines each initiative and describes how to make each one work in an…

  12. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-07-31

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

  13. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World oil Shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffeyes, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Global oil production will probably reach a peak sometime during this decade. After the peak, the world's production of crude oil will fall, never to rise again. The world will not run out of energy, but developing alternative energy sources on a large scale will take at least 10 years. The slowdown in oil production may already be beginning; the current price fluctuations for crude oil and natural gas may be the preamble to a major crisis. In 1956, the geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s.1 Almost everyone, inside and outside the oil industry, rejected Hubbert's analysis. The controversy raged until 1970, when the U.S. production of crude oil started to fall. Hubbert was right. Around 1995, several analysts began applying Hubbert's method to world oil production, and most of them estimate that the peak year for world oil will be between 2004 and 2008. These analyses were reported in some of the most widely circulated sources: Nature, Science, and Scientific American.2 None of our political leaders seem to be paying attention. If the predictions are correct, there will be enormous effects on the world economy. Even the poorest nations need fuel to run irrigation pumps. The industrialized nations will be bidding against one another for the dwindling oil supply. The good news is that we will put less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The bad news is that my pickup truck has a 25-gallon tank.

  14. Peak structural response to nonstationary random excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinozuka, M.; Yang, J.-N.

    1971-01-01

    Study establishes distribution function of peak response values, based on frequency interpretation. Excitations considered include impact loading on landing gears and aircraft gust loading. Because of relative severity of excitations, prediction of fatigue and maximum response characteristics is important part of task of structural analysis and design.

  15. Double-peak subauroral ion drifts (DSAIDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Wenbin; Chen, Bo

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports double-peak subauroral ion drifts (DSAIDs), which is unique subset of subauroral ion drifts (SAIDs). A statistical analysis has been carried out for the first time with a database of 454 DSAID events identified from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program observations from 1987 to 2012. Both case studies and statistical analyses show that the two velocity peaks of DSAIDs are associated with two ion temperature peaks and two region-2 field-aligned currents (R2-FACs) peaks in the midlatitude ionospheric trough located in the low-conductance subauroral region. DSAIDs are regional and vary significantly with magnetic local time. DSAIDs can evolve from/to SAIDs during their lifetimes, which are from several minutes to tens of minutes. Comparisons between the ionospheric parameters of DSAIDs and SAIDs indicate that double-layer region-2 field-aligned currents (R2-FACs) may be the main driver of DSAIDs. It is also found that DSAIDs happen during more disturbed conditions compared with SAIDs.

  16. Linearity between temperature peak and bioenergy CO2 emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Gasser, Thomas; Bright, Ryan M.; Ciais, Philippe; Strømman, Anders H.

    2014-11-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bioenergy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bioenergy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO2 emissions from bioenergy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR; ref. ) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bioenergy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bioenergy CO2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO2 emissions from bioenergy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 °C by 2100, early emissions from bioenergy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bioenergy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years).

  17. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  18. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  19. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to

  1. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Sustained Fixation Induced Changes in Phoria and Convergence Peak Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun H.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Han, Sang J.; Alvarez, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to investigate the influence of phoria adaptation on convergence peak velocity from responses located at different initial vergence positions. Methods Symmetrical 4° convergence step responses and near dissociated phoria (measured at 40 cm from the subject's midline) were recorded from six subjects with normal binocular vision using an infrared limbus tracking system with a haploscope. Two different sustained fixations (1° and 16° convergent rotation along the subject's midline) were used to study whether phoria had an influence on the peak velocity of convergence responses located at two initial vergence positions (1° or ‘far’ steps and 12° or ‘near’ steps). Results Phoria was significantly adapted after a sustained fixation task at near (16°) and far (1°) (p<0.002). A repeated measures ANOVA showed that convergence far steps were significantly faster than the near steps (p<0.03). When comparing convergence steps with the same initial vergence position, steps measured after near phoria adaptation were faster than responses after far adaptation (p<0.02). A regression analysis demonstrated that the change in phoria and the change in convergence peak velocity were significantly correlated for the far convergence steps (r = 0.97, p = 0.001). A weaker correlation was observed for the near convergence steps (r = 0.59, p = 0.20). Conclusion As a result of sustained fixation, phoria was adapted and the peak velocity of the near and far convergence steps was modified. This study has clinical considerations since prisms, which evoke phoria adaptation, can be prescribed to help alleviate visual discomfort. Future investigations should include a systematic study of how prisms may influence convergence and divergence eye movements for those prescribed with prisms within their spectacles. PMID:21698110

  3. Electricity demand and storage dispatch modeling for buildings and implications for the smartgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    As an enabler for demand response (DR), electricity storage in buildings has the potential to lower costs and carbon footprint of grid electricity while simultaneously mitigating grid strain and increasing its flexibility to integrate renewables (central or distributed). We present a stochastic model to simulate minute-by-minute electricity demand of buildings and analyze the resulting electricity costs under actual, currently available DR-enabling tariffs in New York State, namely a peak/offpeak tariff charging by consumed energy (monthly total kWh) and a time of use tariff charging by power demand (monthly peak kW). We then introduce a variety of electrical storage options (from flow batteries to flywheels) and determine how DR via temporary storage may increase the overall net present value (NPV) for consumers (comparing the reduced cost of electricity to capital and maintenance costs of the storage). We find that, under the total-energy tariff, only medium-term storage options such as batteries offer positive NPV, and only at the low end of storage costs (optimistic scenario). Under the peak-demand tariff, however, even short-term storage such as flywheels and superconducting magnetic energy offer positive NPV. Therefore, these offer significant economic incentive to enable DR without affecting the consumption habits of buildings' residents. We discuss implications for smartgrid communication and our future work on real-time price tariffs.

  4. Efficient Use of Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickett, Arnold P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are advanced technologies which may offer an opportunity to meet the world's future energy needs while minimizing the environmental impact. Savings to both suppliers and consumers are described. International electricity usage is compared. Government standards for the manufacture of electrical products in the United States are…

  5. Predicting VO2peak from Submaximal- and Peak Exercise Models: The HUNT 3 Fitness Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Loe, Henrik; Nes, Bjarne M.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is seldom assessed in health care settings although being inversely linked to cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to develop VO2peak prediction models for men and women based on directly measured VO2peak from a large healthy population Methods VO2peak prediction models based on submaximal- and peak performance treadmill work were derived from multiple regression analysis. 4637 healthy men and women aged 20–90 years were included. Data splitting was used to generate validation and cross-validation samples. Results The accuracy for the peak performance models were 10.5% (SEE = 4.63 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) and 11.5% (SEE = 4.11 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) for men and women, respectively, with 75% and 72% of the variance explained. For the submaximal performance models accuracy were 14.1% (SEE = 6.24 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) and 14.4% (SEE = 5.17 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) for men and women, respectively, with 55% and 56% of the variance explained. The validation and cross-validation samples displayed SEE and variance explained in agreement with the total sample. Cross-classification between measured and predicted VO2peak accurately classified 91% of the participants within the correct or nearest quintile of measured VO2peak. Conclusion Judicious use of the exercise prediction models presented in this study offers valuable information in providing a fairly accurate assessment of VO2peak, which may be beneficial for risk stratification in health care settings. PMID:26794677

  6. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  7. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 1/2 main feedwater pump trip transient

    SciTech Connect

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G; Hiltbrand, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    A RETRAN-02 MOD5 model of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station was developed by TU Electric for the purpose of performing core reload safety analyses. In order to qualify this model, comparisons against plant transient data from a partial loss of main feedwater flow were performed. These comparisons demonstrated that good representations of the plant response could be obtained with RETRAN-02 and the user-developed models of the primary-to-secondary heat transfer and plant control systems.

  8. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on... 12 and 13, T. 7 N., R. 4 W. on the Yountville U.S.G.S. map; (10) Then following the section boundary... elevation, located in section 10, T. N., R. 4 W.; (12) Then northwest in a straight line approximately...

  9. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on... 12 and 13, T. 7 N., R. 4 W. on the Yountville U.S.G.S. map; (10) Then following the section boundary... elevation, located in section 10, T. N., R. 4 W.; (12) Then northwest in a straight line approximately...

  10. Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipway, B. J.

    2015-04-01

    Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment that can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down that can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. While multimodal aerosol with N different dispersion characteristics requires 2N+1 inputs to calculate the activation fraction, only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables are needed. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap, physically based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and Numerical Weather Prediction models.

  11. [Fast spectral modeling based on Voigt peaks].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Dai, Lian-kui

    2012-03-01

    Indirect hard modeling (IHM) is a recently introduced method for quantitative spectral analysis, which was applied to the analysis of nonlinear relation between mixture spectrum and component concentration. In addition, IHM is an effectual technology for the analysis of components of mixture with molecular interactions and strongly overlapping bands. Before the establishment of regression model, IHM needs to model the measured spectrum as a sum of Voigt peaks. The precision of the spectral model has immediate impact on the accuracy of the regression model. A spectrum often includes dozens or even hundreds of Voigt peaks, which mean that spectral modeling is a optimization problem with high dimensionality in fact. So, large operation overhead is needed and the solution would not be numerically unique due to the ill-condition of the optimization problem. An improved spectral modeling method is presented in the present paper, which reduces the dimensionality of optimization problem by determining the overlapped peaks in spectrum. Experimental results show that the spectral modeling based on the new method is more accurate and needs much shorter running time than conventional method. PMID:22582612

  12. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Romero, E.; Vives, O.

    2016-02-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, ET^{miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m_{tilde{g}} ≲ 1.2 TeV, together with a heavy neutralino NLSP of m_{tilde{χ }} ≳ 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out.

  13. Eyesight and the solar Wien peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, James M.

    2003-03-01

    It is sometimes said that humans see best at yellow-green wavelengths because they have evolved under a Sun whose blackbody spectrum has a Wien peak in the green part of the spectrum. However, as a function of frequency, the solar blackbody spectrum peaks in the infrared. Why did human vision not evolve toward a peak sensitivity in this range, if the eye is an efficient quantum detector of photons? The puzzle is resolved if we assume that natural selection acted in such a way as to maximize the amount of energy that can be detected by the retina across a range of wavelengths (whose upper and lower limits are fixed by biological constraints). It is then found that our eyes are indeed perfectly adapted to life under a class G2 star. Extending this reasoning allows educated guesses to be made about the kind of eyesight that might have evolved in extrasolar planetary systems such as that of the red dwarf Gliese 876.

  14. Impacts of climate change on sub-regional electricity demand and distribution in the southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Melissa R.; Fernandez, Steven J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2016-08-01

    High average temperatures lead to high regional electricity demand for cooling buildings, and large populations generally require more aggregate electricity than smaller ones do. Thus, future global climate and population changes will present regional infrastructure challenges regarding changing electricity demand. However, without spatially explicit representation of this demand or the ways in which it might change at the neighbourhood scale, it is difficult to determine which electricity service areas are most vulnerable and will be most affected by these changes. Here we show that detailed projections of changing local electricity demand patterns are viable and important for adaptation planning at the urban level in a changing climate. Employing high-resolution and spatially explicit tools, we find that electricity demand increases caused by temperature rise have the greatest impact over the next 40 years in areas serving small populations, and that large population influx stresses any affected service area, especially during peak demand.

  15. Quantifying peak discharges for historical floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    It is usually advantageous to use information regarding historical floods, if available, to define the flood-frequency relation for a stream. Peak stages can sometimes be determined for outstanding floods that occurred many years ago before systematic gaging of streams began. In the United States, this information is usually not available for more than 100-200 years, but in countries with long cultural histories, such as China, historical flood data are available at some sites as far back as 2,000 years or more. It is important in flood studies to be able to assign a maximum discharge rate and an associated error range to the historical flood. This paper describes the significant characteristics and uncertainties of four commonly used methods for estimating the peak discharge of a flood. These methods are: (1) rating curve (stage-discharge relation) extension; (2) slope conveyance; (3) slope area; and (4) step backwater. Logarithmic extensions of rating curves are based on theoretical plotting techniques that results in straight line extensions provided that channel shape and roughness do not change significantly. The slope-conveyance and slope-area methods are based on the Manning equation, which requires specific data on channel size, shape and roughness, as well as the water-surface slope for one or more cross-sections in a relatively straight reach of channel. The slope-conveyance method is used primarily for shaping and extending rating curves, whereas the slope-area method is used for specific floods. The step-backwater method, also based on the Manning equation, requires more cross-section data than the slope-area ethod, but has a water-surface profile convergence characteristic that negates the need for known or estimated water-surface slope. Uncertainties in calculating peak discharge for historical floods may be quite large. Various investigations have shown that errors in calculating peak discharges by the slope-area method under ideal conditions for

  16. Investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings in cooling dominated climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Fady

    This investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings contributes to the global international efforts in reducing energy consumption and is related directly to energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Work reported here involves computer aided building energy simulation of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes coupled with empirical energy consumption data gathered from monitoring an array of energy efficient residential homes. The latter have been implemented for peak load reduction strategies. In addition non-energy efficient residential homes have been monitored to compare performance to the energy efficient homes. This study demonstrates the crucial importance of energy efficiency and peak load reduction strategies in sustaining the energy needs of the southwest US region using Las Vegas for the actual setting. It provides the largest energy consumption data set examined, specifically peak consumption, from energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes at this location. The study demonstrates the peak load reduction benefits of a variety of strategies, namely roof-integrated PV panels, energy efficient building envelope, and substation battery storage. The study focuses on the month of August 2011 and shows how the load reduction can reach 75% at peak times during that month using the computer aided energy simulation. Moreover, the study compares the recorded electrical consumption data from the collection of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes and proves the simulation results in reaching the 75% reduction in electrical consumption at peak times. The study also tries to marry the gathered electrical consumption data of the energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes with the computer simulation model. This is done to reach an actual representative model which behaves similarly to the average of the group of energy and non-energy efficient homes. The benefit of the

  17. Measuring non-local Lagrangian peak bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Desjacques, Vincent; Paranjape, Aseem

    2014-06-01

    We investigate non-local Lagrangian bias contributions involving gradients of the linear density field, for which we have predictions from the excursion set peak formalism. We begin by writing down a bias expansion which includes all the bias terms, including the non-local ones. Having checked that the model furnishes a reasonable fit to the halo mass function, we develop a one-point cross-correlation technique to measure bias factors associated with χ2-distributed quantities. We validate the method with numerical realizations of peaks of Gaussian random fields before we apply it to N-body simulations. We focus on the lowest (quadratic) order non-local contributions -2χ _{10}(k_1\\cdot k_2) and χ _{01}[3(k_1\\cdot k_2)^2-k_1^2 k_2^2], where k_1, k_2 are wave modes. We can reproduce our measurement of χ10 if we allow for an offset between the Lagrangian halo centre-of-mass and the peak position. The sign and magnitude of χ10 is consistent with Lagrangian haloes sitting near linear density maxima. The resulting contribution to the halo bias can safely be ignored for M = 1013 M⊙ h-1, but could become relevant at larger halo masses. For the second non-local bias χ01 however, we measure a much larger magnitude than predicted by our model. We speculate that some of this discrepancy might originate from non-local Lagrangian contributions induced by non-spherical collapse.

  18. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  19. VFDs: Are They Electrical Parasites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ned

    2013-01-01

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are electronic speed controllers used mainly to modulate and reduce the overall speed and power consumption of an electrical motor. They can be used as soft starters for equipment that has a large rotational mass, thus reducing belt ware and large electrical peaks when starting large pieces of equipment. VFDs have…

  20. Calculating weighted estimates of peak streamflow statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, Timothy A.; Berenbrock, Charles; Kiang, Julie E.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Federal guidelines for flood-frequency estimation, the uncertainty of peak streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flow at a streamgage, can be reduced by combining the at-site estimate with the regional regression estimate to obtain a weighted estimate of the flow statistic. The procedure assumes the estimates are independent, which is reasonable in most practical situations. The purpose of this publication is to describe and make available a method for calculating a weighted estimate from the uncertainty or variance of the two independent estimates.

  1. PeakVizor: Visual Analytics of Peaks in Video Clickstreams from Massive Open Online Courses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Chen, Yuanzhe; Liu, Dongyu; Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Qu, Huamin

    2016-10-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) aim to facilitate open-access and massive-participation education. These courses have attracted millions of learners recently. At present, most MOOC platforms record the web log data of learner interactions with course videos. Such large amounts of multivariate data pose a new challenge in terms of analyzing online learning behaviors. Previous studies have mainly focused on the aggregate behaviors of learners from a summative view; however, few attempts have been made to conduct a detailed analysis of such behaviors. To determine complex learning patterns in MOOC video interactions, this paper introduces a comprehensive visualization system called PeakVizor. This system enables course instructors and education experts to analyze the "peaks" or the video segments that generate numerous clickstreams. The system features three views at different levels: the overview with glyphs to display valuable statistics regarding the peaks detected; the flow view to present spatio-temporal information regarding the peaks; and the correlation view to show the correlation between different learner groups and the peaks. Case studies and interviews conducted with domain experts have demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of PeakVizor, and new findings about learning behaviors in MOOC platforms have been reported. PMID:26661473

  2. Documented and potential extreme peak discharges and relation between potential extreme peak discharges and probable maximum flood peak discharges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, W.H.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted a study of extreme flood potential for Texas. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and their contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum expected peak discharge that could occur at a stream site. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were aggregated for 832 sites with and without streamflow-gaging stations in natural basins in Texas. A potential extreme peak discharge curve was developed for each of 11 hydrologic regions in Texas and for the State as a whole, based on documented extreme peak discharges and associated contributing drainage areas. The curve envelops, for a large range of drainage areas, the largest documented extreme peak discharges. Potential extreme peak discharges estimated from the curves were compared to probable maximum flood peak discharges estimated from various simulation models.

  3. Outreach Plans for Storm Peak Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. We plan to create a unique summer undergraduate education experiences for students of diversity at Storm Peak Laboratory. As stressed by the College Pathways to Science Education Standards [Siebert and McIntosh, 2001], to support changes in K-12 science education transformations must first be made at the college level, including inquiry-oriented opportunities to engage in meaningful research. These workshops will be designed to allow students to experience the excitement of science, increasing their likelihood of pursing careers within the fields of scientific education or research.

  4. Low peak-power laser ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, S. G.; Cleary, A.; Veres, I. A.; Culshaw, B.; Thursby, G.; McKee, C.; Swift, C.; Armstrong, I.

    2011-09-01

    Techniques for the successful excitation of guided ultrasonic waves using a low peak-power laser ultrasonic source are discussed and compared with more conventional Q-switched laser sources. The paper considers acoustic propagation in thin plates, in which the frequencies used, typically only the fundamental guided wave modes, are considered. Aspects of excitation and detection geometry are considered along with the physical mechanisms of photo-acoustic generation and the practical issues surrounding available source wavelengths and power outputs. Understanding of the effects of these constraints is critical for the successful application of the technique. Continuous wave excitation and fully arbitrary modulation schemes are compared, and a technique to control the bandwidth of Golay code modulation is introduced. It is shown that earlier work by the authors was capable of guided wave detection at peak-power densities of 104 W cm- 2. Later work has focussed on the use of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers combined with Golay code modulation to improve the recovered signal-to-noise ratio. Two key applications of the techniques are considered: material properties measurements (using inversion of dispersion curve data) and acoustic emission system calibration.

  5. Water-Constrained Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Modeling Under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.; Corsi, F.; Prousevitch, A.; Rangwala, I.

    2015-12-01

    Over 80% of U.S. electricity generation uses a thermoelectric process, which requires significant quantities of water for power plant cooling. This water requirement exposes the electric sector to vulnerabilities related to shifts in water availability driven by climate change as well as reductions in power plant efficiencies. Electricity demand is also sensitive to climate change, which in most of the United States leads to warming temperatures that increase total cooling-degree days. The resulting demand increase is typically greater for peak demand periods. This work examines the sensitivity of the development and operations of the U.S. electric sector to the impacts of climate change using an electric sector capacity expansion model that endogenously represents seasonal and local water resource availability as well as climate impacts on water availability, electricity demand, and electricity system performance. Capacity expansion portfolios and water resource implications from 2010 to 2050 are shown at high spatial resolution under a series of climate scenarios. Results demonstrate the importance of water availability for future electric sector capacity planning and operations, especially under more extreme hotter and drier climate scenarios. In addition, region-specific changes in electricity demand and water resources require region-specific responses that depend on local renewable resource availability and electricity market conditions. Climate change and the associated impacts on water availability and temperature can affect the types of power plants that are built, their location, and their impact on regional water resources.

  6. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  7. Primary electric propulsion for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.; Terdan, F. F.; Myers, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    A general methodology is presented which allows prediction of the overall characteristics of thrust systems employing electron-bombardment ion thrusters. Elements of the thrust system are defined and their characteristics presented in a parametric fashion. Two system approaches are evaluated where power management and control elements and thruster characteristics were substantially different. For an assumed system approach, the methodology presented predicts overall system properties, such as input power and mass, when major mission and thrust system parameters, such as trip time and specific impulse, are assumed.

  8. Hubbert's Peak, The Coal Question, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, D.

    2008-12-01

    The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) makes projections in terms of scenarios that include estimates of oil, gas, and coal production. These scenarios are defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios or SRES (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). It is striking how different these scenarios are. For example, total oil production from 2005 to 2100 in the scenarios varies by 5:1 (Appendix SRES Version 1.1). Because production in some of the scenarios has not peaked by 2100, this ratio would be comparable to 10:1 if the years after 2100 were considered. The IPCC says "... the resultant 40 SRES scenarios together encompass the current range of uncertainties of future GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions arising from different characteristics of these models ..." (Nakicenovic et al., 2000, Summary for Policy Makers). This uncertainty is important for climate modeling, because it is larger than the likely range for the temperature sensitivity, which the IPCC gives as 2.3:1 (Gerard Meehl et al., 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report, Chapter 10, Global Climate Projections, p. 799). The uncertainty indicates that we could improve climate modeling if we could make a better estimate of future oil, gas, and coal production. We start by considering the two major fossil-fuel regions with substantial exhaustion, US oil and British coal. It turns out that simple normal and logistic curve fits to the cumulative production for these regions give quite stable projections for the ultimate production. By ultimate production, we mean total production, past and future. For US oil, the range for the fits for the ultimate is 1.15:1 (225- 258 billion barrels) for the period starting in 1956, when King Hubbert made his prediction of the peak year of US oil production. For UK coal, the range is 1.26:1 for the period starting in 1905, at the time of a Royal Commission on coal supplies. We extend this approach to find fits for world oil and gas production, and by a regional

  9. Mineral resources of the Redcloud Peak and Handies Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Hinsdale County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, R.F.; Grauch, R.I.; Hon, K.; Bove, D.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Korzeb, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Redcloud Peak and Handies Peak Wilderness Study Areas are located 2-12 mi southwest of Lake City, CO. Much of the study areas has high mineral resource potential for precious and base metals in various ore deposit types. The rest of the study areas has moderate potential for these commodities. Two areas in the Redcloud Peak study area have moderate potential for molybdenum and copper in quartz monzonite-associated porphyry deposits. Part of the Handies Peak study area has moderate potential for molybdenum in granite-related porphyry deposits. The southwestern part of the Redcloud Peak study area has high potential for uranium in vein-type deposits. Moderate potential for this commodity extends over other parts of both study areas. The mineral resource potential for gold and silver (in clastic-sediment-hosted disseminated-type epithermal deposits) is low in those parts of both study areas underlain by the Henson Member of the Silverton Volcanics. The mineral and energy resource potential for aluminum (in alunite deposits), uranium (in disseminated deposits), and geothermal sources is low throughout both study areas. Based on currently available data, there is no energy resource potential for coal, oil, and natural gas. The study areas have no identified resources.

  10. Twin Peaks in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The prominent hills dubbed 'Twin Peaks' approximately 1-2 kilometers away were imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A lander petal and deflated airbag are at the bottom of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  11. NMR solvent peak suppression by nonlinear excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, Malcolm H.

    1988-03-01

    Most existing NMR solvent peak suppression sequences provide a satisfactory dependence of the intensity of excited signals on frequency but poor phase characteristics. In practice this leads to spectral distortions which generally become more severe as the frequency selectivity of the sequence is increased. However, it is shown that by working well outside the linear response regime, excitation schemes which combine high frequency selectivity with good phase properties may be devised. Sequences of six rectangular radio-frequency pulses were discovered using a combination of coherent averaging theory to treat the near-resonant behavior and numerical simulation further from resonance. Extensive use of symmetry greatly simplifies both the coherent averaging calculations and the numerical simulations. The new pulse sequences have been given the acronym NERO (nonlinear excitation rejecting on-resonance). Experimental spectra of an enzyme in dilute aqueous solution are shown.

  12. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  13. DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. THE CASE OF EQUAL PEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.; Stevens, A. C.; Rosario, D. J. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: acs0196@mail.utexas.edu

    2012-06-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked narrow lines (DPAGNs) may be caused by kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs, bipolar outflows, or rotating gaseous disks. We examine the class of DPAGNs in which the two narrow-line components have closely similar intensity as being especially likely to involve disks or jets. Two spectroscopic indicators support this likelihood. For DPAGNs from Smith et al., the 'equal-peaked' objects (EPAGNs) have [Ne V]/[O III]ratios lower than for a control sample of non-double-peaked AGNs. This is unexpected for a pair of normal AGNs in a galactic merger, but may be consistent with [O III] emission from a rotating ring with relatively little gas at small radii. Also, [O III]/H{beta} ratios of the redshifted and blueshifted systems in the EPAGN are more similar to each other than in a control sample, suggestive of a single ionizing source and inconsistent with the binary interpretation.

  14. A framework for understanding and generating integrated solutions for residential peak energy demand.

    PubMed

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  15. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  16. Campus Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Most people in the United States, no matter how extensive their education, have never had a course dealing primarily with the future. But they have had at least one course, and probably many courses, dealing with the past. Most also have never questioned why the past is so emphasized in formal education while the future--the only arena over which…

  17. Peak, multi-peak and broadband absorption in graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloua, R.; Kebbab, Z.; Chiker, F.; Khadraoui, M.; Sahraoui, K.; Bouzidi, A.; Medles, M.; Mathieu, C.; Benramdane, N.

    2014-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of enhancing light absorption in graphene-based one dimensional photonic crystal. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve total light absorption at technologically important wavelengths using one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystals. By means of the transfer matrix method, we investigate the effect of refractive indices and layer numbers on the optical response of the structure. We found that it is possible to achieve one peak, multi-peak or broadband, and complete optical absorption. As a result, the proposed photonic structures enable myriad potential applications such as photodetection, shielding and optical sensing.

  18. Effect of shading devices on building energy use and peak demand in Minnesota. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, B.D.; Jones, J.W.; Grasso, M.M.; Hitzfelder, D.D.

    1990-12-01

    The report presents the results of an analytical study of the effect of shading devices on annual heating, cooling, and total energy use, on peak electric demand, and on energy cost savings in single-family residences, a small office, a school, and a high-rise office in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Using an hour-by-hour building energy analysis model, savings were simulated for interior and exterior shading devices. Energy cost savings were calculated using Northern States Power (NSP) Company utility rates; however, no analysis of the costs of installing and operating these devices was made. Results are presented in terms of annual energy cost savings and peak electric demand reductions, with each shading device in place, as compared to baseline reference cases for three prototypical residences and a prototypical small office, elementary school, and high-rise office building. The devices are ranked in terms of energy cost savings, as well as peak demand reduction. While the best-performing devices have annual cooling energy savings ranging up to over 30%, the annual energy cost savings (at NSP utility rates in effect in 1989) range up to only 4% for the residences and 10% for the office buildings, but less than 1% for the school. Summer peak electric demand reductions are more significant: up to 20% for the residences, 12% for the offices, and 3% for the school.

  19. Constraining the mass-concentration relation through weak lensing peak function

    SciTech Connect

    Mainini, R.; Romano, A. E-mail: anna.romano@oar.inaf.it

    2014-08-01

    Halo masses and concentrations have been studied extensively, by means of N-body simulations as well as observationally, during the last decade. Nevertheless, the exact form of the mass-concentration relation is still widely debated. One of the most promising method to estimate masses and concentrations relies on gravitational lensing from massive halos. Here we investigate the impact of the mass-concentration relation on halo peak abundance in weak lensing shear maps relying on the aperture mass method for peak detections. After providing a prescription to take into account the concentration dispersion (always neglected in previous works) in peak number counts predictions, we assess their power to constrain the mass-concentration relation by means of Fisher matrix technique. We find that, when combined with different cosmological probes, peak statistics information from near-future weak lensing surveys provides an interesting and complementary alternative method to lessen the long standing controversy about the mass-concentration relation.

  20. Peak power scaling of thulium-doped ultrafast fiber laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Martin; Gaida, Christian; Stutzki, Fabian; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    We investigate challenges for scaling the output peak power of thulium-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification systems (FCPA) to and beyond the GW-level. A major limitation for reaching high peak powers in the 2 μm regime is the presence of strong water vapor absorption features that cause detrimental propagation effects in the spatial and the temporal domain. Based on the investigation and understanding of these effects mitigation strategies have been developed, that have been one of the keys to demonstrate a new record pulse peak power of more than 200 MW from a thulium-based ultrafast fiber laser. Future experiments can ultimately lead to a further increase of pulse peak power way beyond the GW-level.

  1. Peaking at Zero: Null Subjects and Other Indicators of Peak in Konni Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Mike

    An analysis of story telling in Konni, a language spoken in Ghana, focused on how the climax of a story is characterized. The texts studied are six oral folk tales; two are appended, and portions of all are used as illustrations in the text of the report. First, the definition and characteristics of "peak," or climax of a story are discussed. This…

  2. Autocorrelation peaks in congruential pseudorandom number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Merrick, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The complete correlation structure of several congruential pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) of the same type and small cycle length was studied to deal with the problem of congruential PRNG almost repeating themselves at intervals smaller than their cycle lengths, during simulation of bandpass filtered normal random noise. Maximum period multiplicative and mixed congruential generators were studied, with inferences drawn from examination of several tractable members of a class of random number generators, and moduli from 2 to the 5th power to 2 to the 9th power. High correlation is shown to exist in mixed and multiplicative congruential random number generators and prime moduli Lehmer generators for shifts a fraction of their cycle length. The random noise sequences in question are required when simulating electrical noise, air turbulence, or time variation of wind parameters.

  3. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  4. NOx control buys to peak in `98

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-10-01

    Titles I and IV of the Clean Air Act provide the legislative framework for a huge NOx reduction program now in operation. This reduction will have a substantial effect in reducing ground-level ozone. A new McIlvaine report concludes that US utilities and industrial companies during the next 10 years will spend more than $800 million annually to meet CAA`s NOx-control regulations. Much of that investment will be for low-NOx burners, which minimize NOx formation. Many utilities and industrial boilers can be retrofitted with a new generation of burners; however, this technology achieves less than 50% NOx reduction. Post-combustion technologies, such as selective catalytic reduction and selective noncatalytic reduction, can reduce NOx as much as 90%. Therefore, plants needing greater NOx reduction will use post-combustion technologies, often in combination with low-NOx burners. The peak order year for NOx-control equipment will be 1998, primarily because Title IV of CAA requires utilities to comply by 2000. Many industrial sources also will be ordering equipment in 1998.

  5. North Twin Peak in super resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This pair of images shows the result of taking a sequence of 25 identical exposures from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) of the northern Twin Peak, with small camera motions, and processing them with the Super-Resolution algorithm developed at NASA's Ames Research Center.

    The upper image is a representative input image, scaled up by a factor of five, with the pixel edges smoothed out for a fair comparison. The lower image allows significantly finer detail to be resolved.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    The super-resolution research was conducted by Peter Cheeseman, Bob Kanefsky, Robin Hanson, and John Stutz of NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA. More information on this technology is available on the Ames Super Resolution home page at

    http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/ group/super-res/

  6. MEASURING PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY THROUGH WEAK-LENSING PEAK COUNTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, Laura; Hilbert, Stefan; Smith, Robert E.; Schneider, Peter; Desjacques, Vincent

    2011-02-10

    We explore the possibility of detecting primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type using weak-lensing peak counts. We measure the peak abundance in sets of simulated weak-lensing maps corresponding to three models f{sub NL} = 0, - 100, and 100. Using survey specifications similar to those of EUCLID and without assuming any knowledge of the lens and source redshifts, we find the peak functions of the non-Gaussian models with f{sub NL} = {+-}100 to differ by up to 15% from the Gaussian peak function at the high-mass end. For the assumed survey parameters, the probability of fitting an f{sub NL} = 0 peak function to the f{sub NL} = {+-}100 peak functions is less than 0.1%. Assuming the other cosmological parameters are known, f{sub NL} can be measured with an error {Delta}f{sub NL} {approx} 13. It is therefore possible that future weak-lensing surveys like EUCLID and LSST may detect primordial non-Gaussianity from the abundance of peak counts, and provide information complementary to that obtained from the cosmic microwave background.

  7. Temperature and electrical memory of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinkai; Zakri, Cécile; Grillard, Fabienne; Neri, Wilfrid; Poulin, Philippe

    2014-05-15

    We report in this work studies of the shape memory behavior of polymer fibers loaded with carbon nanotubes or graphene flakes. These materials exhibit enhanced shape memory properties with the generation of a giant stress upon shape recovery. In addition, they exhibit a surprising temperature memory with a peak of generated stress at a temperature nearly equal to the temperature of programming. This temperature memory is ascribed to the presence of dynamical heterogeneities and to the intrinsic broadness of the glass transition. We present recent experiments related to observables other than mechanical properties. In particular nanocomposite fibers exhibit variations of electrical conductivity with an accurate memory. Indeed, the rate of conductivity variations during temperature changes reaches a well defined maximum at a temperature equal to the temperature of programming. Such materials are promising for future actuators that couple dimensional changes with sensing electronic functionalities.

  8. Surface sensitivity of elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.

    2016-08-01

    New theoretical model describing the sampling depth of elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) has been proposed. Surface sensitivity of this technique can be generally identified with the maximum depth reached by trajectories of elastically backscattered electrons. A parameter called the penetration depth distribution function (PDDF) has been proposed for this description. Two further parameters are descendant from this definition: the mean penetration depth (MPD) and the information depth (ID). From the proposed theory, relatively simple analytical expressions describing the above parameters can be derived. Although the Monte Carlo simulations can be effectively used to estimate the sampling depth of EPES, this approach may require a considerable amount of computations. In contrast, the analytical model proposed here (AN) is very fast and provides the parameters PDDF, MPD and ID that very well compare with results of MC simulations. As follows from detailed comparisons performed for four elements (Al, Ni, Pd and Au), the AN model practically reproduced complicated emission angle dependences of the MPDs and the IDs, correctly indicating numerous maximum and minimum positions. In the energy range from 200 eV to 5 keV, the averaged percentage differences between MPDs obtained from the MC and the AN models were close to 4%. An important conclusion resulting from the present studies refers to the procedure of determination of the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) from EPES. Frequently, the analyzed sample is deposited as a thin overlayer on a smooth substrate. From an analysis of the presently obtained IDs, is follows that 99% of trajectories in analyzed experimental configurations reaches depth not exceeding 2.39 in units of IMFP. Thus, one can postulate that a safe minimum thickness of an overlayer should be larger than about 3 IMFPs. For example, the minimum thickness of an Al overlayer shoud be about 8 nm at 5000 eV.

  9. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  10. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  11. Cancer Systems Biology: a peak into the future of patient care?

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Henrica M. J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Ram, Prahlad T.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, scientific research has focused on studying individual events, such as single mutations, gene function or the effect of the manipulation of one protein on a biological phenotype. A range of technologies, combined with the ability to develop robust and predictive mathematical models, is beginning to provide information that will enable a holistic view of how the genomic and epigenetic aberrations in cancer cells can alter the homeostasis of signalling networks within these cells, between cancer cells and the local microenvironment, at the organ and organism level. This systems biology process needs to be integrated with an iterative approach wherein hypotheses and predictions that arise from modelling are refined and constrained by experimental evaluation. Systems biology approaches will be vital for developing and implementing effective strategies to deliver personalized cancer therapy. Specifically, these approaches will be important to select those patients most likely to benefit from targeted therapies as well as for the development and implementation of rational combinatorial therapies. Systems biology can help to increase therapy efficacy or bypass the emergence of resistance, thus converting the current (often short term) effects of targeted therapies into durable responses, ultimately to improve quality of life and provide a cure. PMID:24492837

  12. Peak morphology and scalp topography of the pharyngeal sensory-evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing is dependent upon sensory input to the brainstem and cortex. The event-related evoked potential provides a measure of neuronal electrical activity as it relates to a specific stimulus. Air-puff stimulation to the posterior pharyngeal wall produces a sensory-evoked potential (PSEP) waveform. The goal of this study was to characterize the scalp topography and morphology for the component peaks of the PSEP waveform. Twenty-five healthy men and women served as research participants. PSEPs were measured via a 32-electrode cap (10-20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Air puffs were delivered directly to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. The PSEP waveform is characterized by four early- and mid-latency component peaks: an early positivity (P1) and negativity (N1), followed by a mid-latency positivity (P2) and negativity (N2). The early positive peak P1 is localized bilaterally to the lateral parietal scalp, the N1 medially in the frontoparietal region, and the P2 and N2 with diffuse scalp locations. Somatosensory and premotor regions are possible anatomical correlates of peak locations. Based on the latencies of the peaks, they are likely analogous to somatosensory- and respiratory-related evoked potential peaks. PMID:20890713

  13. ITALIAN PEAK AND ITALIAN PEAK MIDDLE ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skipp, Betty; Lambeth, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    The Italian Peak and Italian Peak Middle Roadless Areas, in southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho, contain areas of probable mineral-resource potential based on combined geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies and prospect examination. Small areas along the western, southern, and northeastern boundaries of the roadless areas have probable mineral resource potential for zinc, lead, silver, and uranium. An area of probable resource potential just east of and including a part of the Birch Creek mining district, may contain stratabound and fault-controlled silver and base metals, even though geochemical anomalies are low, and extensive prospecting has not identified any significant mineralization. The roadless areas are a part of the overthrust belt, and oil and gas possibilities must be assessed.

  14. D-peaks: a visual tool to display ChIP-seq peaks along the genome.

    PubMed

    Brohée, Sylvain; Bontempi, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    ChIP-sequencing is a method of choice to localize the positions of protein binding sites on DNA on a whole genomic scale. The deciphering of the sequencing data produced by this novel technique is challenging and it is achieved by their rigorous interpretation using dedicated tools and adapted visualization programs. Here, we present a bioinformatics tool (D-peaks) that adds several possibilities (including, user-friendliness, high-quality, relative position with respect to the genomic features) to the well-known visualization browsers or databases already existing. D-peaks is directly available through its web interface http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/dpeaks/ as well as a command line tool. PMID:23132505

  15. Optical Parametric Amplification for High Peak and Average Power

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I

    2001-11-26

    Optical parametric amplification is an established broadband amplification technology based on a second-order nonlinear process of difference-frequency generation (DFG). When used in chirped pulse amplification (CPA), the technology has been termed optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). OPCPA holds a potential for producing unprecedented levels of peak and average power in optical pulses through its scalable ultrashort pulse amplification capability and the absence of quantum defect, respectively. The theory of three-wave parametric interactions is presented, followed by a description of the numerical model developed for nanosecond pulses. Spectral, temperature and angular characteristics of OPCPA are calculated, with an estimate of pulse contrast. An OPCPA system centered at 1054 nm, based on a commercial tabletop Q-switched pump laser, was developed as the front end for a large Nd-glass petawatt-class short-pulse laser. The system does not utilize electro-optic modulators or multi-pass amplification. The obtained overall 6% efficiency is the highest to date in OPCPA that uses a tabletop commercial pump laser. The first compression of pulses amplified in highly nondegenerate OPCPA is reported, with the obtained pulse width of 60 fs. This represents the shortest pulse to date produced in OPCPA. Optical parametric amplification in {beta}-barium borate was combined with laser amplification in Ti:sapphire to produce the first hybrid CPA system, with an overall conversion efficiency of 15%. Hybrid CPA combines the benefits of high gain in OPCPA with high conversion efficiency in Ti:sapphire to allow significant simplification of future tabletop multi-terawatt sources. Preliminary modeling of average power limits in OPCPA and pump laser design are presented, and an approach based on cascaded DFG is proposed to increase the average power beyond the single-crystal limit. Angular and beam quality effects in optical parametric amplification are modeled

  16. Automatic quality assessment and peak identification of auditory brainstem responses with fitted parametric peaks.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Joaquin T; de la Torre, Angel; Alvarez, Isaac; Segura, Jose Carlos; Thornton, A Roger D; Sainz, Manuel; Vargas, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The recording of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is used worldwide for hearing screening purposes. In this process, a precise estimation of the most relevant components is essential for an accurate interpretation of these signals. This evaluation is usually carried out subjectively by an audiologist. However, the use of automatic methods for this purpose is being encouraged nowadays in order to reduce human evaluation biases and ensure uniformity among test conditions, patients, and screening personnel. This article describes a new method that performs automatic quality assessment and identification of the peaks, the fitted parametric peaks (FPP). This method is based on the use of synthesized peaks that are adjusted to the ABR response. The FPP is validated, on one hand, by an analysis of amplitudes and latencies measured manually by an audiologist and automatically by the FPP method in ABR signals recorded at different stimulation rates; and on the other hand, contrasting the performance of the FPP method with the automatic evaluation techniques based on the correlation coefficient, FSP, and cross correlation with a predefined template waveform by comparing the automatic evaluations of the quality of these methods with subjective evaluations provided by five experienced evaluators on a set of ABR signals of different quality. The results of this study suggest (a) that the FPP method can be used to provide an accurate parameterization of the peaks in terms of amplitude, latency, and width, and (b) that the FPP remains as the method that best approaches the averaged subjective quality evaluation, as well as provides the best results in terms of sensitivity and specificity in ABR signals validation. The significance of these findings and the clinical value of the FPP method are highlighted on this paper. PMID:24661606

  17. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  18. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality.

    PubMed

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-05-19

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  19. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    PubMed Central

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O.; Lauridsen, Felicia B.; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  20. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing ofelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen

    2006-06-29

    This paper investigates how critical-peak pricing (CPP)affects households with different usage and income levels, with the goalof informing policy makers who are considering the implementation of CPPtariffs in the residential sector. Using a subset of data from theCalifornia Statewide Pricing Pilot of 2003-2004, average load changeduring summer events, annual percent bill change, and post-experimentsatisfaction ratings are calculated across six customer segments,categorized by historical usage and income levels. Findings show thathigh-use customers respond significantly more in kW reduction than dolow-use customers, while low-use customers save significantly more inpercentage reduction of annual electricity bills than do high-usecustomers results that challenge the strategy of targeting only high-usecustomers for CPP tariffs. Across income levels, average load and billchanges were statistically indistinguishable, as were satisfaction ratesresults that are compatible with a strategy of full-scale implementationof CPP rates in the residential sector. Finally, the high-use customersearning less than $50,000 annually were the most likely of the groups tosee bill increases about 5 percent saw bill increases of 10 percent ormore suggesting that any residential CPP implementation might considertargeting this customer group for increased energy efficiencyefforts.

  1. Fracture Permeability Evolution in Desert Peak Quartz Monzonite

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, S R; Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Viani, B E; Roberts, S K

    2005-05-10

    Fracture flow experiments are being conducted on quartz monzonite core from the Desert Peak East EGS site, Churchill County, Nevada. The flow experiments are conducted at temperatures of 167-169 C and 5.5 MPa confining pressure through artificial fractures. Two injection fluids, a saline solution and a silica-bearing solution, have been used to date. Flow rates are typically 0.02 mL/min, but other rates have been used. The fracture surfaces are characterized with a contact profilometer. The profilometry data demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate statistically similar fracture surfaces and enable us to map aperture variations, which we use in numerical simulations. Effluent samples are collected for chemical analysis. The fluid pressure gradient is measured across the specimen and effective hydraulic apertures are calculated. The experiments show a reduction in permeability over time for both injection fluids, but a more rapid loss of permeability was observed for the silica-bearing solution. The calculated hydraulic aperture is observed to decrease by 17% for the saline solution and 75% for the silica-bearing fluid, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurements, which are sensitive to the ionic content of the pore fluid, provide additional evidence of fluid-rock interactions.

  2. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow generated by a computer driven, servo controlled pump and their response was compared with that of a pneumotachograph. RESULTS: For each device tested the readings were highly repeatable to within the limits of accuracy with which the pointer position can be assessed by eye. The between instrument variation in reading for six identical devices expressed as a 95% confidence limit was, on average across the range of flows, +/- 8.5 l/min for the Mini-Wright, +/- 7.9 l/min for the Vitalograph, and +/- 6.4 l/min for the Ferraris. PEF meters based on the Wright meter all had similar error profiles with overreading of up to 80 l/min in the mid flow range from 300 to 500 l/min. This overreading was greatest for the Mini-Wright and Ferraris devices, and less so for the original Wright and Vitalograph meters. A Micro-Medical Turbine meter was accurate up to 400 l/min and then began to underread by up to 60 l/min at 720 l/min. For the low range devices the Vitalograph device was accurate to within 10 l/min up to 200 l/min, with the Mini-Wright overreading by up to 30 l/min above 150 l/min. CONCLUSION: Although the Mini-Wright, Ferraris, and Vitalograph meters gave remarkably repeatable results their error profiles for the full range meters will lead to important errors in recording PEF variability. This may lead to incorrect diagnosis and bias in implementing strategies of asthma treatment based on PEF measurement. PMID:1465746

  3. Particle tower technology applied to metallurgic plants and peak-time boosting of steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbeck, Lars; Buck, Reiner; Prosin, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Using solar tower technology with ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium to preheat scrap for induction furnaces in foundries provides solar generated heat to save electricity. With such a system an unsubsidized payback time of only 4 years is achieved for a 70000t/a foundry in Brazil. The same system can be also used for heat treatment of metals. If electricity is used to heat inert atmospheres a favorable economic performance is also achievable for the particle system. The storage in a particle system enables solar boosting to be restricted to only peak times, enabling an interesting business case opportunity.

  4. Random walkers with extreme value memory: modelling the peak-end rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rosemary J.

    2015-05-01

    Motivated by the psychological literature on the ‘peak-end rule’ for remembered experience, we perform an analysis within a random walk framework of a discrete choice model where agents’ future choices depend on the peak memory of their past experiences. In particular, we use this approach to investigate whether increased noise/disruption always leads to more switching between decisions. Here extreme value theory illuminates different classes of dynamics indicating that the long-time behaviour is dependent on the scale used for reflection; this could have implications, for example, in questionnaire design.

  5. Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents these results.

  6. Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Space Shuttle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2000-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria applicable to current and future aerospace vehicles. The paper provides estimates on the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating the probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents a summary of these results.

  7. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... completed Peak Inventory Value Report is received by us. Coverage term. A period of time that begins on the... otherwise modify any other provision of your Nursery Crop Insurance Policy. 4. Peak Insurance Period... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163...

  9. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... completed Peak Inventory Value Report is received by us. Coverage term. A period of time that begins on the... otherwise modify any other provision of your Nursery Crop Insurance Policy. 4. Peak Insurance Period... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163...

  10. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... completed Peak Inventory Value Report is received by us. Coverage term. A period of time that begins on the... otherwise modify any other provision of your Nursery Crop Insurance Policy. 4. Peak Insurance Period... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163...

  11. Peak Shift Phenomenon: A Teaching Activity for Basic Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulus discrimination is a standard subject in undergraduate courses presenting basic principles of learning, and a particularly interesting aspect of discrimination is the peak shift phenomenon. Peak shift occurs in generalization tests following intradimensional discrimination training as a displacement of peak responding away from the S+ (a…

  12. Reward Value Effects on Timing in the Peak Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effect of motivational variables on timing in the peak procedure. In Experiment 1, rats received a 60-s peak procedure that was coupled with long-term, between-phase changes in reinforcer magnitude. Increases in reinforcer magnitude produced a leftward shift in the peak that persisted for 20 sessions of training. In…

  13. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.163 Nursery peak inventory endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Peak Inventory Endorsement This endorsement is not continuous and must...

  14. Peak water limits to freshwater withdrawal and use

    PubMed Central

    Gleick, Peter H.; Palaniappan, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater resources are fundamental for maintaining human health, agricultural production, economic activity as well as critical ecosystem functions. As populations and economies grow, new constraints on water resources are appearing, raising questions about limits to water availability. Such resource questions are not new. The specter of “peak oil”—a peaking and then decline in oil production—has long been predicted and debated. We present here a detailed assessment and definition of three concepts of “peak water”: peak renewable water, peak nonrenewable water, and peak ecological water. These concepts can help hydrologists, water managers, policy makers, and the public understand and manage different water systems more effectively and sustainably. Peak renewable water applies where flow constraints limit total water availability over time. Peak nonrenewable water is observable in groundwater systems where production rates substantially exceed natural recharge rates and where overpumping or contamination leads to a peak of production followed by a decline, similar to more traditional peak-oil curves. Peak “ecological” water is defined as the point beyond which the total costs of ecological disruptions and damages exceed the total value provided by human use of that water. Despite uncertainties in quantifying many of these costs and benefits in consistent ways, more and more watersheds appear to have already passed the point of peak water. Applying these concepts can help shift the way freshwater resources are managed toward more productive, equitable, efficient, and sustainable use. PMID:20498082

  15. Implications of ``peak oil'' for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Unconstrained CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of "proven" and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO2 limit. It is also important to "stretch" conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era "beyond fossil fuels". We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  16. Z -peaked excess from heavy gluon decays to vectorlike quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, Natascia

    2015-06-01

    A 3 sigma excess has been recently announced by ATLAS in events with Z -peaked dilepton pairs, jets, and large transverse missing energy. We interpret this finding in the context of composite Higgs/Randall-Sundrum theories. We find that composite Higgs theories with custodial symmetry protection to the Z b b ¯ coupling predict a significant contribution to Z Z b b (and to h h b b ) final states coming from heavy gluon decays to pairs of bottom partner vectorlike quarks. The heavy gluon to vectorlike quark signal is largely accepted by the ATLAS selection if one of the Z bosons in the Z Z b b final state decays leptonically and the other to neutrinos. For a bottom partner of ˜900 GeV , we find that the ATLAS excess can be reproduced by composite Higgs models, in an experimentally allowed parameter space, for heavy gluon masses roughly in a range 1.87-2.15 TeV and for heavy gluon couplings to light quarks within ˜(0.3 - 0.65 )gS . We briefly discuss the implication of this result for future experimental tests.

  17. Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, V. K.; Chen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but future widespread commercialization requires a considerable reduction in capital costs. Determining the appropriate battery size for the intended power range can help minimize the amount of materials needed, thereby reducing capital costs. A physics-based model is an essential tool for predicting the power range of large scale VRFB systems to aid in the design optimization process. This paper presents a modeling framework that accounts for the effects of flow rate on the pumping losses, local mass transfer rate, and nonuniform vanadium concentration in the cell. The resulting low-order model captures battery performance accurately even at high power densities and remains computationally practical for stack-level optimization and control purposes. We first use the model to devise an optimal control strategy that maximizes battery life during discharge. Assuming optimal control is implemented, we then determine the upper efficiency limits of a given VRFB system and compare the net power and associated overpotential and pumping losses at different operating points. We also investigate the effects of varying the electrode porosity, stack temperature, and total vanadium concentration on the peak power.

  18. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  19. The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael, Ed.; Lentz, Tony, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The past, present, and future of oral interpretation are explored in this publication. Separate articles deplore a lack of growth and development in the area of oral interpretation, examine oral interpretation's current status, describe the ideal beginning oral interpretation course, point to the value of oral interpretation in the college…

  20. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  1. Does the Brain Detect 3G Mobile Phone Radiation Peaks? An Explorative In-Depth Analysis of an Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether third generation mobile phone radiation peaks result in event related potentials. Thirty-one healthy females participated. In this single-blind, cross-over design, a 15 minute mobile phone exposure was compared to two 15 minute sham phone conditions, one preceding and one following the exposure condition. Each participant was measured on two separate days, where mobile phone placement was varied between the ear and heart. EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Epochs of 1200ms, starting 200ms before and lasting until 1000ms after the onset of a radiation peak, were extracted from the exposure condition. Control epochs were randomly selected from the two sham phone conditions. The main a-priori hypothesis to be tested concerned an increase of the area in the 240-500ms post-stimulus interval, in the exposure session with ear-placement. Using multilevel regression analyses the placement*exposure interaction effect was significant for the frontal and central cortical regions, indicating that only in the mobile phone exposure with ear-placement an enlarged cortical reactivity was found. Post-hoc analyses based on visual inspection of the ERPs showed a second significantly increased area between 500-1000ms post-stimulus for almost every EEG location measured. It was concluded that, when a dialing mobile phone is placed on the ear, its radiation, although unconsciously, is electrically detected by the brain. The question of whether or not this cortical reactivity results in a negative health outcome has to be answered in future longitudinal experiments. PMID:25962168

  2. Gas compression in lungs decreases peak expiratory flow depending on resistance of peak flowmeter.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, O F; Pedersen, T F; Miller, M R

    1997-11-01

    It has recently been shown (O. F. Pedersen T. R. Rasmussen, O. Omland, T. Sigsgaard, P. H. Quanjer. and M. R. Miller. Eur. Respir. J. 9: 828-833, 1996) that the added resistance of a mini-Wright peak flowmeter decreases peak expiratory flow (PEF) by approximately 8% compared with PEF measured by a pneumotachograph. To explore the reason for this, 10 healthy men (mean age 43 yr, range 33-58 yr) were examined in a body plethysmograph with facilities to measure mouth flow vs. expired volume as well as the change in thoracic gas volume (Vb) and alveolar pressure (PA). The subjects performed forced vital capacity maneuvers through orifices of different sizes and also a mini-Wright peak flowmeter. PEF with the meter and other added resistances were achieved when flow reached the perimeter of the flow-Vb curves. The mini-Wright PEF meter decreased PEF from 11.4 +/- 1.5 to 10.3 +/- 1.4 (SD) l/s (P < 0.001), PA increased from 6.7 +/- 1.9 to 9.3 +/- 2.7 kPa (P < 0.001), an increase equal to the pressure drop across the meter, and caused Vb at PEF to decrease by 0.24 +/- 0.09 liter (P < 0.001). We conclude that PEF obtained with an added resistance like a mini-Wright PEF meter is a wave-speed-determined maximal flow, but the added resistance causes gas compression because of increased PA at PEF. Therefore, Vb at PEF and, accordingly, PEF decrease. PMID:9375314

  3. Electrical spiking in bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Santopolo, Luisa; Frascella, Arcangela; Giovannetti, Luciana; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In nature, biofilms are the most common form of bacterial growth. In biofilms, bacteria display coordinated behaviour to perform specific functions. Here, we investigated electrical signalling as a possible driver in biofilm sociobiology. Using a multi-electrode array system that enables high spatio-temporal resolution, we studied the electrical activity in two biofilm-forming strains and one non-biofilm-forming strain. The action potential rates monitored during biofilm-forming bacterial growth exhibited a one-peak maximum with a long tail, corresponding to the highest biofilm development. This peak was not observed for the non-biofilm-forming strain, demonstrating that the intensity of the electrical activity was not linearly related to the bacterial density, but was instead correlated with biofilm formation. Results obtained indicate that the analysis of the spatio-temporal electrical activity of bacteria during biofilm formation can open a new frontier in the study of the emergence of collective microbial behaviour. PMID:25392401

  4. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  5. Memory Effect Manifested by a Boson Peak in Metallic Glass.

    PubMed

    Luo, P; Li, Y Z; Bai, H Y; Wen, P; Wang, W H

    2016-04-29

    We explore the correlation between a boson peak and structural relaxation in a typical metallic glass. Consistent with enthalpy recovery, a boson peak shows a memory effect in an aging-and-scan procedure. Single-step isothermal aging produces a monotonic decrease of enthalpy and boson peak intensity; for double-step isothermal aging, both enthalpy and boson peak intensity experience, coincidently, an incipient increase to a maximum and a subsequent decrease toward the equilibrium state. Our results indicate a direct link between slow structural relaxation and fast boson peak dynamics, which presents a profound understanding of the two dynamic behaviors in glass. PMID:27176528

  6. Memory Effect Manifested by a Boson Peak in Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, P.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wen, P.; Wang, W. H.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the correlation between a boson peak and structural relaxation in a typical metallic glass. Consistent with enthalpy recovery, a boson peak shows a memory effect in an aging-and-scan procedure. Single-step isothermal aging produces a monotonic decrease of enthalpy and boson peak intensity; for double-step isothermal aging, both enthalpy and boson peak intensity experience, coincidently, an incipient increase to a maximum and a subsequent decrease toward the equilibrium state. Our results indicate a direct link between slow structural relaxation and fast boson peak dynamics, which presents a profound understanding of the two dynamic behaviors in glass.

  7. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  8. Study on peak shape fitting method in radon progeny measurement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Abdumomin, Kadir; Tang, Yushi; Guo, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    Alpha spectrum measurement is one of the most important methods to measure radon progeny concentration in environment. However, the accuracy of this method is affected by the peak tailing due to the energy losses of alpha particles. This article presents a peak shape fitting method that can overcome the peak tailing problem in most situations. On a typical measured alpha spectrum curve, consecutive peaks overlap even their energies are not close to each other, and it is difficult to calculate the exact count of each peak. The peak shape fitting method uses combination of Gaussian and exponential functions, which can depict features of those peaks, to fit the measured curve. It can provide net counts of each peak explicitly, which was used in the Kerr method of calculation procedure for radon progeny concentration measurement. The results show that the fitting curve fits well with the measured curve, and the influence of the peak tailing is reduced. The method was further validated by the agreement between radon equilibrium equivalent concentration based on this method and the measured values of some commercial radon monitors, such as EQF3220 and WLx. In addition, this method improves the accuracy of individual radon progeny concentration measurement. Especially for the (218)Po peak, after eliminating the peak tailing influence, the calculated result of (218)Po concentration has been reduced by 21 %. PMID:25920795

  9. On correlation between zero bias conductance peaks and topological invariants in semiconductor Rashba nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Amit; Sau, Jay

    The observed zero bias peak in tunneling conductance experiments on semiconductor Rashba nanowire is a signature of presence of Majorana zero modes. Characteristics of zero bias conductance peak (ZBCP) namely, height, width and peak splitting, are a function of microscopic parameters. Zero modes have finite splitting as a result of finiteness of the nanowire rendering the ground state only approximately topological i.e. zero modes are only approximately Majoranas. We calculate the scattering matrix topological invariant to quantify the quality of approximate Majorana modes and study its relation to observed characteristics of ZBCP. Furthermore we study the effect of dephasing on the topological invariant. Finally, we draw connection between the characteristics of the ZBCP and probability of observing non-Abelian statistics in proposed future experiments involving braiding of Majorana modes. Work is done in collaboration with Sankar Das Sarma and supported by LPS-MPO-CMTC, Microsoft Q, Univ. of Maryland startup grants and JQI-NSF-PFC.

  10. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  11. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  12. Twilight of the electric dinosaurs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L. Jr. )

    1990-11-22

    This article examines the future practicality of large electric generating plants and various technologies for transmitting energy other than electricity. The author describes advantages, cost and methods of chemical energy transmission in the form of methanol. Uses, production (including environmental impacts) and supply of methanol are also discussed.

  13. Valuing Confrontations with the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests teaching methods and materials for use by high school and college social studies teachers as they help students develop valuing skills. Entitled Valuing Confrontation With The Future (VCF), the materials promote consideration of provocative episodes such as electrical stimulation of the human brain and a congressional ban on large pets…

  14. Relationships between Electroencephalographic Spectral Peaks Across Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    van Albada, S. J.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which electroencephalographic spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification. PMID:23483663

  15. The relevance of food peak architecture in trophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Vatka, Emma; Orell, Markku; Rytkönen, Seppo

    2016-04-01

    Phenological shifts and associated changes in the temporal match between trophic levels have been a major focus of the study of ecological consequences of climate change. Previously, the food peak has been thought to respond as an entity to warming temperatures. However, food peak architecture, that is, timings and abundances of prey species and the level of synchrony between them, determines the timing and shape of the food peak. We demonstrate this with a case example of three passerine prey species and their predator. We explored temporal trends in the timing, height, width, and peakedness of prey availabilities and explained their variation with food peak architecture and ambient temperatures of prebreeding and breeding seasons. We found a temporal match between the predator's breeding schedule and food availability. Temporal trends in the timing of the food peak or in the synchrony between the prey species were not found. However, the food peak has become wider and more peaked over time. With more peaked food availabilities, predator's breeding success will depend more on the temporal match between its breeding schedule and the food peak, ultimately affecting the timing of breeding in the predator population. The height and width of the food peak depended on the abundances and breeding season lengths of individual prey species and their reciprocal synchronies. Peakednesses of separate prey species' availability distributions alone explained the peakedness of the food peak. Timing and quantity of food production were associated with temperatures of various time periods with variable relevance in different prey species. Alternating abundances of early and late breeding prey species caused high annual fluctuation in the timing of the food peak. Interestingly, the food peak may become later even when prey species' schedules are advanced. Climate warming can thus produce unexpected changes in the food availabilities, intervening in trophic interactions. PMID

  16. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  17. A compact nonlinear fiber-based optical autocorrelation peak discriminator.

    PubMed

    Fok, M P; Deng, Y; Prucnal, P R

    2009-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-based optical autocorrelation peak discriminator. The approach exploits four-wave mixing in a 37-cm highly-nonlinear bismuth-oxide fiber that provides a passive and compact means for rejecting cross-correlation peaks. The autocorrelation peak discriminator plays an important role in improving the detection of optical CDMA signals. Eye diagrams and bit-error rates are measured at different power ratios. Significant receiver sensitivity improvements are obtained and error-floors are removed. The experimental results show that the autocorrelation peak discriminator works well even when the amplitudes of individual cross-correlation peaks are higher than that of the autocorrelation peak. PMID:19506641

  18. Force Irregularity Following Maximal Effort: The After-Peak Reduction.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Barbara M; Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa; Spirduso, Waneen

    2016-08-01

    Irregularities in force output are present throughout human movement and can impair task performance. We investigated the presence of a large force discontinuity (after-peak reduction, APR) that appeared immediately following peak in maximal effort ramp contractions performed with the thumb adductor and ankle dorsiflexor muscles in 25 young adult participants (76% males, 24% females; M age 24.4 years, SD = 7.1). The after-peak reduction displayed similar parameters in both muscle groups with comparable drops in force during the after-peak reduction minima (thumb adductor: 27.5 ± 7.5% maximal voluntary contraction; ankle dorsiflexor: 25.8 ± 6.2% maximal voluntary contraction). A trend for the presence of fewer after-peak reductions with successive ramp trials was observed, suggesting a learning effect. Further investigation should explore underlying neural mechanisms contributing to the after-peak reduction. PMID:27502241

  19. Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

  20. Snoek peaks of carbon in Fe-Ni meteorites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, M.; Wert, C.

    1996-12-01

    Most Fe-Ni meteorites are a two phase mixture of fcc and bcc phases. The authors secured six samples of Fe contents from 95% to 85% all of which were thought to contain small amounts of carbon. They found no Snoek peaks in the as-received condition for any of the six. After being heated and cooled, three showed pronounced Snoek peaks, three showed no Snoek peaks.

  1. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  2. Electric emissions from electrical appliances.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N; Cech, R; Schröttner, J

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intracorporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. PMID:18083998

  3. Zener Relaxation Peak in an Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng-Cun; Cheng, He-Fa; Gong, Chen-Li; Wei, Jian-Ning; Han, Fu-Sheng

    2002-11-01

    We have studied the temperature spectra of internal friction and relative dynamic modulus of the Fe-(25 wt%)Cr-(5 wt%)Al alloy with different grain sizes. It is found that a peak appears in the internal friction versus temperature plot at about 550°C. The peak is of a stable relaxation and is reversible, which occurs not only during heating but also during cooling. Its activation energy is 2.5 (+/- 0.15) eV in terms of the Arrhenius relation. In addition, the peak is not obvious in specimens with a smaller grain size. It is suggested that the peak originates from Zener relaxation.

  4. Improved Peak Cancellation for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Lilin; Xiao, Yue; Ni, Wei; Li, Shaoqian

    This letter presents an improved peak cancellation (PC) scheme for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The main idea is based on a serial peak cancellation (SPC) mode for alleviating the peak regrowth of the conventional schemes. Based on the SPC mode, two particular algorithms are developed with different tradeoff between PAPR and computational complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed scheme has a better tradeoff among PAPR, complexity and signal distortion than the conventional schemes.

  5. Neutron-induced peaks in Ge detectors from evaporation neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gete, E.; Measday, D. F.; Moftah, B. A.; Saliba, M. A.; Stocki, T. J.

    1997-02-01

    We have studied the peak shapes at 596 and 691 keV resulting from fast neutron interactions inside germanium detectors. We have used neutrons from a 252Cf source, as well as from the 28Si(μ -, nv), and 209Bi(π -, xn) reactions to compare the peaks and to check for a dependence of peak shape on the incoming neutron energy. In our investigation, no difference between these three measurements has been observed. In a comparison of these peak shapes with other studies, we found similar results to ours except for those measurements using monoenergetic neutrons in which a significant variation with neutron energy has been observed.

  6. Peak Doctor v 1.0.0 Labview Version

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, Scott

    2014-05-29

    PeakDoctor software works interactively with its user to analyze raw gamma-ray spectroscopic data. The goal of the software is to produce a list of energies and areas of all of the peaks in the spectrum, as accurately as possible. It starts by performing an energy calibration, creating a function that describes how energy can be related to channel number. Next, the software determines which channels in the raw histogram are in the Compton continuum and which channels are parts of a peak. Then the software fits the Compton continuum with cubic polynomials. The last step is to fit all of the peaks with Gaussian functions, thus producing the list.

  7. Implications of 'Peak Oil' for Atmospheric CO2 and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharecha, P. A.; Hansen, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Unconstrained CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of "proven" and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration -- and recent trends are toward lower estimates -- we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired facilities without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO2 limit. It is also important to "stretch" conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era "beyond fossil fuels". We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO2 below 450 ppm. It is also plausible that CO2 can be returned below 350 ppm by 2100 or sooner, if more aggressive mitigation measures are enacted, most notably a phase-out of global coal emissions by circa 2030 and large- scale reforestation, primarily in the tropics but also in temperate regions.

  8. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  9. Renal Function Is Associated With Peak Exercise Capacity in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Baumgartner, Amy; Maahs, David M.; Cherney, David Z.; Pyle, Laura; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Reusch, Jane E.; Nadeau, Kristen J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease are strongly related in adults with type 1 diabetes, yet little is known about this relationship in adolescents prior to the onset of detectable clinical disease. We hypothesized that cardiopulmonary fitness would be directly associated with albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and inversely related to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty-nine adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 13 nondiabetic control subjects of similar pubertal stage and BMI had insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate [GIR]), measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and lean body mass, measured by DEXA. Cardiopulmonary fitness was measured by cycle ergometry to obtain peak volume of oxygen (VO2peak), and renal function was measured by eGFR using the Bouvet equation (measuring creatinine and cystatin C levels) and ACR. RESULTS Adolescents (15.5 ± 2.2 years of age) with type 1 diabetes (6.3 ± 3.8 years diabetes duration) had reduced VO2peak (31.5 ± 6.3 vs. 36.2 ± 7.9 mL/kg ⋅ min, P = 0.046) and VO2peak/lean kg (43.7 ± 7.0 vs. 51.0 ± 8.6 mL/lean kg ⋅ min, P = 0.007) compared with nondiabetic control subjects. eGFR was inversely associated with VO2peak and VO2peak/lean kg after adjusting for sex, Tanner stage, GIR, HbA1c level, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol level (β ± SE, VO2peak: −0.19 ± 0.07, P = 0.02; VO2peak/lean kg: −0.19 ± 0.09, P = 0.048). Moreover, participants in the highest tertile for eGFR had significantly lower sex- and Tanner-adjusted VO2peak and VO2peak/lean kg compared with participants in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents with type 1 diabetes had reduced exercise capacity, which was strongly associated with renal health, independent of insulin sensitivity. Future studies should examine the underlying interrelated pathophysiology in order to identify probable targets for treatment to reduce

  10. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  11. 75 FR 34787 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC; Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit... aircraft as weapons. In response to the attacks and intelligence information subsequently obtained, the... review of information provided by the intelligence community, the Commission has determined that...

  12. Technology Demonstration Summary Shirco Electric Infrared Incineration At The Peak Oil Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, a critical assessment is made of the performance of the transportable Shirco Infrared Thermal Destruction System during three separate test runs at an operating feed rate of 100 tons per day. Th...

  13. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  14. Peak flowmeter resistance decreases peak expiratory flow in subjects with COPD.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R; Pedersen, O F

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the added resistance of a mini-Wright peak expiratory flow (PEF) meter reduced PEF by approximately 8% in normal subjects because of gas compression reducing thoracic gas volume at PEF and thus driving elastic recoil pressure. We undertook a body plethysmographic study in 15 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), age 65.9 +/- 6.3 yr (mean +/- SD, range 53-75 yr), to examine whether their recorded PEF was also limited by the added resistance of a PEF meter. The PEF meter increased alveolar pressure at PEF (Ppeak) from 3.7 +/- 1.4 to 4.7 +/- 1.5 kPa (P = 0.01), and PEF was reduced from 3.6 +/- 1.3 l/s to 3.2 +/- 0.9 l/s (P = 0.01). The influence of flow limitation on PEF and Ppeak was evaluated by a simple four-parameter model based on the wave-speed concept. We conclude that added external resistance in patients with COPD reduced PEF by the same mechanisms as in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the much lower Ppeak in COPD patients is a consequence of more severe flow limitation than in healthy subjects and not of deficient muscle strength. PMID:10904063

  15. HVDC transmission: a path to the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Teichler, Stephen L.; Levitine, Ilia

    2010-05-15

    Direct current transmission has been the poor stepchild of the U.S. electric industry. Although early-generation plants were based on DC technology, it was soon deemed uneconomical to transmit electricity over long distances, but it now appears poised for a change. Both the increasing technical potential and changing economics of HVDC lines promise a growing role in the future. (author)

  16. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics - Status and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational studies of middle atmosphere electrodynamics are reviewed. Attention is given to observations of large electric fields in the mesosphere and stratosphere which suggest magnitudes of about one volt per sq m. Recommendations are offered with respect to areas of future study, with emphasis on studies of the morphology of large electric fields, and their relationship with external influences such as magnetospheric electric fields and tropospheric thunderstorms.

  17. Imaging and characterizing root systems using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemna, A.; Weigand, M.; Kelter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Zimmermann, E.; Walter, A.

    2011-12-01

    of the soil-root interface (phase peak in the range of 10 Hz) and the root tissue (phase peak above 10 kHz). Importantly, our measurements prove an almost linear relationship between root mass and the electrical polarizability associated with the low-frequency relaxation, suggesting the potential of the method to quantify root structural parameters. In future studies we will in particular investigate a hypothesized relationship between time constant and effective root radius. Based on our results, we believe that spectral EIT, by combining the spatial resolution benefits of a tomographic method with the diagnostic capability of spectroscopy, can be developed into a valuable tool for imaging, characterizing, and monitoring root systems both at laboratory and field scales.

  18. WEAK-LENSING PEAK FINDING: ESTIMATORS, FILTERS, AND BIASES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2011-07-10

    Large catalogs of shear-selected peaks have recently become a reality. In order to properly interpret the abundance and properties of these peaks, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the clustering of source galaxies, among themselves and with the lens. In addition, the preferred selection of magnified galaxies in a flux- and size-limited sample leads to fluctuations in the apparent source density that correlate with the lensing field. In this paper, we investigate these issues for two different choices of shear estimators that are commonly in use today: globally normalized and locally normalized estimators. While in principle equivalent, in practice these estimators respond differently to systematic effects such as magnification and cluster member dilution. Furthermore, we find that the answer to the question of which estimator is statistically superior depends on the specific shape of the filter employed for peak finding; suboptimal choices of the estimator+filter combination can result in a suppression of the number of high peaks by orders of magnitude. Magnification and size bias generally act to increase the signal-to-noise {nu} of shear peaks; for high peaks the boost can be as large as {Delta}{nu} {approx} 1-2. Due to the steepness of the peak abundance function, these boosts can result in a significant increase in the observed abundance of shear peaks. A companion paper investigates these same issues within the context of stacked weak-lensing mass estimates.

  19. Greatest Moments in Interpersonal Communication: Peak Communication Experiencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ron

    In an exploratory study of peak communication experiences (PCEs), 36 male and 50 female undergraduates from a speech communication course were asked to describe their PCEs using 19 descriptors derived from A. Maslow's model of the generalized peak experience. Two-thirds or more of both sexes used 10 of these 19 descriptors to characterize their…

  20. Peak Alert Time and Rapport between Residence Hall Roommates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether peak alert time is related to compatibility for college roommates. Data from 66 male pairs and from 55 female pairs of roommates revealed that pairs who were similar on self-reported peak circadian alertness had higher levels of rapport. (Author/NB)

  1. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—California, 1960, photoinspected 1975; and (3) Highland Springs Quadrangle—California, 1959, photorevised... straight line, crossing onto the Asti map, to the unnamed 2,769-foot peak located south of Salty Spring... Highland Springs map, to the unnamed 2,792-foot peak in the northeast quadrant of section 21, T12N,...

  2. 46. Peaks of Otter. View of the Johnson Farm, one ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Peaks of Otter. View of the Johnson Farm, one of two historic structures left at peak of otter. The farm's interpretation focuses on the 1930's. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. PAVIS: a tool for Peak Annotation and Visualization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weichun; Loganantharaj, Rasiah; Schroeder, Bryce; Fargo, David; Li, Leping

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a web-based tool, Peak Annotation and Visualization (PAVIS), for annotating and visualizing ChIP-seq peak data. PAVIS is designed with non-bioinformaticians in mind and presents a straightforward user interface to facilitate biological interpretation of ChIP-seq peak or other genomic enrichment data. PAVIS, through association with annotation, provides relevant genomic context for each peak, such as peak location relative to genomic features including transcription start site, intron, exon or 5'/3'-untranslated region. PAVIS reports the relative enrichment P-values of peaks in these functionally distinct categories, and provides a summary plot of the relative proportion of peaks in each category. PAVIS, unlike many other resources, provides a peak-oriented annotation and visualization system, allowing dynamic visualization of tens to hundreds of loci from one or more ChIP-seq experiments, simultaneously. PAVIS enables rapid, and easy examination and cross-comparison of the genomic context and potential functions of the underlying genomic elements, thus supporting downstream hypothesis generation. PMID:24008416

  5. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aft peak bulkhead. 171.090 Section 171.090 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an...

  6. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  7. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  8. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  9. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  10. Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

    2000-01-01

    Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

  11. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  12. Fracture Permeability Evolution in Rock from the Desert Peak EGS Site

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, S R; Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Burton, E A; Robertson-Tait, A; Morris, C; Kasameyer, P

    2004-04-08

    Fluid flow experiments are being conducted on core specimens of quartz monzonite retrieved from depths of about 1 km at the Desert Peak East EGS site in Churchill County, Nevada. Our immediate goal is to observe permeability evolution in fractures at pressure and temperature conditions appropriate to the Desert Peak geothermal site. Longer term, we aim to evaluate mechanisms that control the evolution of fracture permeability. In the experiments saline water is flowed through an artificial fracture at a constant rate of 0.02 ml/min over a period of several weeks. The constant flow tests are interrupted at selected times for shorter tests in which flow is either stopped or varied between 0 and 2.0 ml/min. The experiments to date were conducted at a confining pressure of 5.5 MPa, pore pressures of 1.38 MPa or 2.07 MPa and temperatures of 167- 169 C. Measurements include differential pressure and electrical resistance across the specimen. The short-term variable flow rate experiments allow us to calculate the effective hydraulic aperture of the fracture at various times during the experiment. Changes in electrical resistivity provide indirect evidence of ongoing mineral dissolution and precipitation processes that are expected to change fracture permeability over time. The early experiments have shown that electrical resistivity rises during flow and falls during intervals in which flow is stopped.

  13. Photoelectric return-stroke velocity and peak current estimates in natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional photoelectric return stroke velocities from 130 strokes are presented, including 86 negative natural, 41 negative triggered, one positive triggered, and two positive natural return strokes. For strokes starting near the ground and exceeding 500 m in length, the average velocity is 1.3 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for natural return strokes and 1.2 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for triggered return strokes. For strokes with lengths less than 500 m, the average velocities are slightly higher. Using the transmission line model (TLM), the shortest segment one-dimensional return stroke velocity, and either the maximum or plateau electric field, it is shown that natural strokes have a peak current distribution that is lognormal with a median value of 16 kA (maximum E) or 12 kA (plateau E). Triggered lightning has a medium peak current value of 21 kA (maximum E) or 15 kA (plateau E). Correlations are found between TLM peak currents and velocities for triggered and natural subsequent return strokes, but not between TLM peak currents and natural first return stroke velocities.

  14. Demonstration of Smart Building Controls to Manage Building Peak Loads: Innovative Non-Wires Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-12-22

    As a part of the non-wires solutions effort, BPA in partnership with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exploring the use of two distributed energy resources (DER) technologies in the City of Richland. In addition to demonstrating the usefulness of the two DER technologies in providing peak demand relief, evaluation of remote direct load control (DLC) is also one of the primary objectives of this demonstration. The concept of DLC, which is used to change the energy use profile during peak hours of the day, is not new. Many utilities have had success in reducing demand at peak times to avoid building new generation. It is not the need for increased generation that is driving the use of direct load control in the Northwest, but the desire to avoid building additional transmission capacity. The peak times at issue total between 50 and 100 hours a year. A transmission solution to the problem would cost tens of millions of dollars . And since a ?non wires? solution is just as effective and yet costs much less, the capital dollars for construction can be used elsewhere on the grid where building new transmission is the only alternative. If by using DLC, the electricity use can be curtailed, shifted to lower use time periods or supplemented through local generation, the existing system can be made more reliable and cost effective.

  15. Options for Kentucky's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

  16. Solar Power for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of NASA missions and technology development efforts are discussed. Future spacecraft will need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of missions. One application driving development of these future arrays is solar electric propulsion.

  17. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Staudt, Rhonda L.

    2008-05-28

    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 – 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Power’s share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Power’s GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: • A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use • An advanced electrical energy storage system • A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements • A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) • Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL

  18. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  19. Optical generation of single-cycle 10 MW peak power 100 GHz waves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Calendron, Anne-Laure; Ravi, Koustuban; Zhou, Chun; Hemmer, Michael; Reichert, Fabian; Zhang, Dongfang; Cankaya, Huseyin; Zapata, Luis E; Matlis, Nicholas H; Kärtner, Franz X

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of 100 GHz single-cycle pulses with up to 10 MW of peak power using optical rectification and broadband phase matching via the tilted pulse front (TPF) technique in lithium niobate. The optical driver is a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG amplifier providing tens of mJ energy, ~5 ps long laser pulses. We obtain a high THz pulse energy up to 65 µJ with 31.6 MV/m peak electric field when focused close to its diffraction limit of 2.5 mm diameter. A high optical-to-THz energy conversion efficiency of 0.3% at 85 K is measured in agreement with numerical simulations. This source is of great interest for a broad range of applications, such as nonlinear THz field-matter interaction and charged particle acceleration for ultrafast electron diffraction and table-top X-ray sources. PMID:27607709

  20. Evaluation of different time domain peak models using extreme learning machine-based peak detection for EEG signal.

    PubMed

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Cumming, Paul; Mubin, Marizan

    2016-01-01

    Various peak models have been introduced to detect and analyze peaks in the time domain analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In general, peak model in the time domain analysis consists of a set of signal parameters, such as amplitude, width, and slope. Models including those proposed by Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle are routinely used to detect peaks in EEG signals acquired in clinical studies of epilepsy or eye blink. The optimal peak model is the most reliable peak detection performance in a particular application. A fair measure of performance of different models requires a common and unbiased platform. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the four different peak models using the extreme learning machine (ELM)-based peak detection algorithm. We found that the Dingle model gave the best performance, with 72 % accuracy in the analysis of real EEG data. Statistical analysis conferred that the Dingle model afforded significantly better mean testing accuracy than did the Acir and Liu models, which were in the range 37-52 %. Meanwhile, the Dingle model has no significant difference compared to Dumpala model. PMID:27462484

  1. Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A.; Marian, L.; Dietrich, J. P.; Suchyta, E.; Aleksić, J.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S. L.; Chang, C.; Eifler, T. F.; Hartley, W. G.; Huff, E. M.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Nicola, A.; Samuroff, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Weller, J.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, I. Sevilla-Noarbe R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Shear peak statistics has gained a lot of attention recently as a practical alternative to the two point statistics for constraining cosmological parameters. We perform a shear peak statistics analysis of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data, using weak gravitational lensing measurements from a 139 deg2 field. We measure the abundance of peaks identified in aperture mass maps, as a function of their signal-to-noise ratio, in the signal-to-noise range 0peak counts as a function of cosmological parameters we use a suite of N-body simulations spanning 158 models with varying Ωm and σ8, fixing w = -1, Ωb = 0.04, h = 0.7 and ns = 1, to which we have applied the DES SV mask and redshift distribution. In our fiducial analysis we measure σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.6 = 0.77 ± 0.07, after marginalising over the shear multiplicative bias and the error on the mean redshift of the galaxy sample. We introduce models of intrinsic alignments, blending, and source contamination by cluster members. These models indicate that peaks with mathcal {S} / mathcal {N}>4 would require significant corrections, which is why we do not include them in our analysis. We compare our results to the cosmological constraints from the two point analysis on the SV field and find them to be in good agreement in both the central value and its uncertainty. We discuss prospects for future peak statistics analysis with upcoming DES data.

  2. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Understanding the double peaked El Niño in coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Felicity S.; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Brown, Jaclyn N.; Marsland, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-06-01

    Coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) simulate a diverse range of El Niño-Southern Oscillation behaviors. "Double peaked" El Niño events—where two separate centers of positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies evolve concurrently in the eastern and western equatorial Pacific—have been evidenced in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 CGCMs and are without precedent in observations. The characteristic CGCM double peaked El Niño may be mistaken for a central Pacific warming event in El Niño composites, shifted westwards due to the cold tongue bias. In results from the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator coupled model, we find that the western Pacific warm peak of the double peaked El Niño event emerges due to an excessive westward extension of the climatological cold tongue, displacing the region of strong zonal SST gradients towards the west Pacific. A coincident westward shift in the zonal current anomalies reinforces the western peak in SST anomalies, leading to a zonal separation between the warming effect of zonal advection (in the west Pacific) and that of vertical advection (in the east Pacific). Meridional advection and net surface heat fluxes further drive growth of the western Pacific warm peak. Our results demonstrate that understanding historical CGCM El Niño behaviors is a necessary precursor to interpreting projections of future CGCM El Niño behaviors, such as changes in the frequency of eastern Pacific El Niño events, under global warming scenarios.

  4. Reduction in peak oxygen uptake after prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnitude of the reduction in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) after bed rest is directly proportional to the level of pre-bed rest peak VO2 is tested. Complete pre and post-bed rest working capacity and body weight data were obtained from studies involving 24 men (19-24 years old) and 8 women (23-34 years old) who underwent bed rest for 14-20 days with no remedial treatments. Results of regression analyses of the present change in post-bed rest peak VO2 on pre-bed rest peak VO2 with 32 subjects show correlation coefficients of -0.03 (NS) for data expressed in 1/min and -0.17 for data expressed in ml/min-kg. In addition, significant correlations are found that support the hypothesis only when peak VO2 data are analyzed separately from studies that utilized the cycle ergometer, particularly with subjects in the supine position, as opposed to data obtained from treadmill peak VO2 tests. It is concluded that orthostatic factors, associated with the upright body position and relatively high levels of physical fitness from endurance training, appear to increase the variability of pre and particularly post-bed rest peak VO2 data, which would lead to rejection of the hypothesis.

  5. Two density peaks in low magnetic field helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Ouyang, J. T. E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com; Liu, Z. W.; Chen, Q. E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we report two density peaks in argon helicon plasma under an axial magnetic field from 0 G to 250 G with Boswell-type antenna driven by radio frequency (RF) power of 13.56 MHz. The first peak locates at 40–55 G and the second one at 110–165 G, as the RF power is sustainably increased from 100 W to 250 W at Ar pressure of 0.35 Pa. The absorbed power of two peaks shows a linear relationship with the magnetic field. End views of the discharge taken by intensified charge coupled device reveal that, when the first peak appeared, the discharge luminance moves to the edge of the tube as the magnetic field increases. For the second peak, the strong discharge area is centered at the two antenna legs after the magnetic field reaches a threshold value. Comparing with the simulation, we suggest that the efficient power absorption of two peaks at which the efficient power absorption mainly appears in the near-antenna region is due to the mode conversion in bounded non-uniform helicon plasma. The two low-field peaks are caused, to some extent, by the excitation of Trivelpiece-Gould wave through non-resonance conversion.

  6. A simple pharmacokinetics subroutine for modeling double peak phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2006-04-01

    Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs. Numerous reasons have been implicated in causing the double peak. DRUG-KNT--a pharmacokinetic software developed previously for fitting one and two compartment kinetics using the iterative curve stripping method--was modified and a revised subroutine was incorporated to solve double-peak models. This subroutine considers the double peak as two hypothetical doses administered with a time gap. The fitting capability of the presented model was verified using four sets of data showing double peak profiles extracted from the literature (piroxicam, ranitidine, phenazopyridine and talinolol). Visual inspection and statistical diagnostics showed that the present algorithm provided adequate curve fit disregarding the mechanism involved in the emergence of the secondary peaks. Statistical diagnostic parameters (RSS, AIC and R2) generally showed good fitness in the plasma profile prediction by this model. It was concluded that the algorithm presented herein provides adequate predicted curves in cases of the double peak phenomenon. PMID:16400712

  7. Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

    The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

  8. Resonant Orbits and the High Velocity Peaks toward the Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Evans, N. Wyn; Shen, Juntai

    2015-10-01

    We extract the resonant orbits from an N-body bar that is a good representation of the Milky Way, using the method recently introduced by Molloy et al. By decomposing the bar into its constituent orbit families, we show that they are intimately connected to the boxy-peanut shape of the density. We highlight the imprint due solely to resonant orbits on the kinematic landscape toward the Galactic center. The resonant orbits are shown to have distinct kinematic features and may be used to explain the cold velocity peak seen in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment commissioning data. We show that high velocity peaks are a natural consequence of the motions of stars in the 2:1 orbit family and that stars on other higher order resonances can contribute to the peaks. The locations of the peaks vary with bar angle and, with the tacit assumption that the observed peaks are due to the 2:1 family, we find that the locations of the high velocity peaks correspond to bar angles in the range {10}\\circ ≲ {θ }{bar}≲ 25^\\circ . However, some important questions about the nature of the peaks remain, such as their apparent absence in other surveys of the Bulge and the deviations from symmetry between equivalent fields in the north and south. We show that the absence of a peak in surveys at higher latitudes is likely due to the combination of a less prominent peak and a lower number density of bar supporting orbits at these latitudes.

  9. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

  10. Reliability quantification and visualization for electric microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Mayank

    The electric grid in the United States is undergoing modernization from the state of an aging infrastructure of the past to a more robust and reliable power system of the future. The primary efforts in this direction have come from the federal government through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). This has provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with 4.5 billion to develop and implement programs through DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) over the a period of 5 years (2008-2012). This was initially a part of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) which was later modified by Recovery Act. As a part of DOE's Smart Grid Programs, Smart Grid Investment Grants (SGIG), and Smart Grid Demonstration Projects (SGDP) were developed as two of the largest programs with federal grants of 3.4 billion and $600 million respectively. The Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration (RDSI) demonstration projects were launched in 2008 with the aim of reducing peak electricity demand by 15 percent at distribution feeders. Nine such projects were competitively selected located around the nation. The City of Fort Collins in co-operative partnership with other federal and commercial entities was identified to research, develop and demonstrate a 3.5MW integrated mix of heterogeneous distributed energy resources (DER) to reduce peak load on two feeders by 20-30 percent. This project was called FortZED RDSI and provided an opportunity to demonstrate integrated operation of group of assets including demand response (DR), as a single controllable entity which is often called a microgrid. As per IEEE Standard 1547.4-2011 (IEEE Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems), a microgrid can be defined as an electric power system which has following characteristics: (1) DR and load are present, (2) has the ability to disconnect from

  11. Peak Oil, Urban Form, and Public Health: Exploring the Connections

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, Nikhil; Knaap, Gerrit-Jan; Knaap, Isolde

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the relationships between peak oil and urban form, travel behavior, and public health. Peak oil will affect the general economy, travel behavior, and urban form through income and substitution effects; however, because of the wide range of substitution possibilities, the impacts are likely to be gradual and relatively small. Furthermore, we suggest that changes in travel behavior and increases in urban density will have both favorable and unfavorable effects on public health. To mitigate the adverse impacts and to maximize the positive effects of peak oil, we recommend that careful attention should be paid to urban design and public health responses for a range of urbanization patterns. PMID:21778494

  12. A model of peak production in oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Wiener, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model for oil production on the basis of simple physical considerations. The model provides a basic understanding of Hubbert's empirical observation that the production rate for an oil-producing region reaches its maximum when approximately half the recoverable oil has been produced. According to the model, the oil production rate at a large field must peak before drilling peaks. We use the model to investigate the effects of several drilling strategies on oil production. Despite the model's simplicity, predictions for the timing and magnitude of peak production match data on oil production from major oil fields throughout the world.

  13. Determination of the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Lebanowski, Logan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-08-01

    A physically motivated function was developed to accurately determine the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter and to overcome biases present in many commonly used methods. The function is the convolution of a detector resolution function with the sum of a delta function, which represents the complete absorption of energy, and a tail function, which describes the partial absorption of energy and depends on the detector materials and structures. Its performance was tested with the simulation of three typical cases. The accuracy of the extracted peak value, resolution, and peak area was improved by an order of magnitude on average, relative to the Crystal Ball function.

  14. Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

    2011-02-01

    Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

  15. Giant backscattering peak in angle-resolved Andreev reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Beenakker, C.W.J.; Melsen, J.A.; Brouwer, P.W.

    1995-05-15

    It is shown analytically and by numerical simulation that the angular distribution of Andreev reflection by a disordered normal-metal--superconductor junction has a narrow peak at the angle of incidence. The peak is higher than the well-known coherent backscattering peak in the normal state, by a large factor {ital G}/{ital G}{sub 0} (where {ital G} is the conductance of the junction and {ital G}{sub 0}=2{ital e}{sup 2}/{ital h}). The enhanced backscattering can be detected by means of ballistic point contacts.

  16. The Spectrum of the Night Sky Over Kitt Peak: Changes Over Two Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip

    2010-10-01

    New absolute spectrophotometry of the Kitt Peak night sky has been obtained in 2009-2010, which we compare to previously published data obtained in 1988 and 1999, allowing us to look for changes over the past two decades. A comparison of the data between 1988, 1999, and 2009-2010 reveals that the sky brightness of Kitt Peak has stayed remarkably constant over the past 20 yr. Compared to 1988, the 2009-2010 data show no change in the sky brightness at zenith though, as expected, the sky glow has increased most dramatically in the direction of Tucson. Comparison between the 1999 and 2009-2010 data suggests that the sky has actually decreased in brightness compared to 10 yr ago. However, both of the older data sets were taken during times of increased solar activity. When we correct the measurements for the solar irradiance fluctuations, we find that compared to 20 yr ago, the sky is ~0.1 mag brighter at zenith and ~0.3 mag brighter toward Tucson. But even after these corrections, we still find that the sky over Kitt Peak is comparable to what it was 10 yr ago at zenith and ~0.1 mag darker toward Tucson. This suggests that the strengthened lighting ordinances established by the city of Tucson and Pima County in the early 2000s have been quite effective. With some care, the Kitt Peak night sky will remain this dark many years into the future.

  17. Electrical stator

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  18. A Report on Educational Partnerships Supporting the Galileo Centre at Banded Peak School in Rocky View School Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, D. Michele; Gladstone, Brenda

    This report describes the school-business partnerships that have contributed to the success of the Galileo Center at Banded Peak School in Bragg Creek, Alberta, in its first full year of operation. It summarizes partnership activities and initiatives that have been implemented in the school and suggests directions for future linkages. The need for…

  19. Analytical design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage for pulsed power peak

    SciTech Connect

    Netter, D.; Leveque, J.; Rezzoug, A.; Caron, J.P.; Sargos, F.M.

    1996-09-01

    A Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage can be used to produce very high pulsed power peak. A superconducting coil is magnetically coupled with another coil linked to the load. During the storage phase, the current is constant. In order to transfer the energy to the load, the authors cause the quench of the superconducting coil. It is very important to know the efficiency of the transfer and how much energy is discharged in the Helium vessel. In this paper, they propose an analytical method which enables to calculate very quickly the electrical parameters of such a device.

  20. The Future of Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Doug

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the near term future of human space exploration in terms of possible mission scenarios, propulsion technologies, orbital dynamics that lead to Low-Energy Transfer from Earth-Moon LI to Solar Libration Points and Return Potential Staging Point for Human Mars Missions. It also examines the required evolution of mission architecture, solar electric propulsion concept, vehicle concepts for future Mars missions, and an overview of a Mars Mission, Also in this presentation are pictures of several historic personages and occasions, and a view of a Mars Meteorite (i.e., ALH84001.0)

  1. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  2. PolyaPeak: Detecting Transcription Factor Binding Sites from ChIP-seq Using Peak Shape Information

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Ji, Hongkai

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful technology for detecting genomic regions where a protein of interest interacts with DNA. ChIP-seq data for mapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) have a characteristic pattern: around each binding site, sequence reads aligned to the forward and reverse strands of the reference genome form two separate peaks shifted away from each other, and the true binding site is located in between these two peaks. While it has been shown previously that the accuracy and resolution of binding site detection can be improved by modeling the pattern, efficient methods are unavailable to fully utilize that information in TFBS detection procedure. We present PolyaPeak, a new method to improve TFBS detection by incorporating the peak shape information. PolyaPeak describes peak shapes using a flexible Pólya model. The shapes are automatically learnt from the data using Minorization-Maximization (MM) algorithm, then integrated with the read count information via a hierarchical model to distinguish true binding sites from background noises. Extensive real data analyses show that PolyaPeak is capable of robustly improving TFBS detection compared with existing methods. An R package is freely available. PMID:24608116

  3. Peak Doctor v 1.0.0 Labview Version

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-29

    PeakDoctor software works interactively with its user to analyze raw gamma-ray spectroscopic data. The goal of the software is to produce a list of energies and areas of all of the peaks in the spectrum, as accurately as possible. It starts by performing an energy calibration, creating a function that describes how energy can be related to channel number. Next, the software determines which channels in the raw histogram are in the Compton continuum andmore » which channels are parts of a peak. Then the software fits the Compton continuum with cubic polynomials. The last step is to fit all of the peaks with Gaussian functions, thus producing the list.« less

  4. Corona discharge ionization of paracetamol molecule: Peak assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, H.; Farrokhpour, H.

    2015-01-01

    Ionization of paracetamol was investigated using ion mobility spectrometry equipped with a corona discharge ionization source. The measurements were performed in the positive ion mode and three peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations were used to correlate the peaks to related ionic species of paracetamol. Two peaks were attributed to protonated isomers of paracetamol and the other peak was attributed to paracetamol fragment ions formed by dissociation of the N-C bond after protonation of the nitrogen atom. It was observed that three sites of paracetamol compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depending on the sample concentration. The ratio of ion products could be predicted from the internal proton affinity of the protonation sites at each concentration.

  5. Corona discharge ionization of paracetamol molecule: peak assignment.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, H; Farrokhpour, H

    2015-01-25

    Ionization of paracetamol was investigated using ion mobility spectrometry equipped with a corona discharge ionization source. The measurements were performed in the positive ion mode and three peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations were used to correlate the peaks to related ionic species of paracetamol. Two peaks were attributed to protonated isomers of paracetamol and the other peak was attributed to paracetamol fragment ions formed by dissociation of the N-C bond after protonation of the nitrogen atom. It was observed that three sites of paracetamol compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depending on the sample concentration. The ratio of ion products could be predicted from the internal proton affinity of the protonation sites at each concentration. PMID:25128677

  6. Periodic transmission peak splitting in one dimensional disordered photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper we present ways to modulate the periodic transmission peaks arising in disordered one dimensional photonic structures with hundreds of layers. Disordered structures in which the optical length nd (n is the refractive index and d the layer thickness) is the same for each layer show regular peaks in their transmission spectra. A proper variation of the optical length of the layers leads to a splitting of the transmission peaks. Notably, the variation of the occurrence of high and low refractive index layers, gives a tool to tune also the width of the peaks. These results are of highest interest for optical application, such as light filtering, where the manifold of parameters allows a precise design of the spectral transmission ranges.

  7. The Calculation of Adsorption Isotherms from Chromatographic Peak Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between adsorption isotherms and elution peak shapes in gas chromatography, and describes a laboratory experiment which involves the adsorption of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene on alumina at different temperatures. (MLH)

  8. Global flood hazard mapping using statistical peak flow estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, C.; Mouton, F.

    2011-01-01

    Our aim is to produce a world map of flooded areas for a 100 year return period, using a method based on large rivers peak flow estimates derived from mean monthly discharge time-series. Therefore, the map is supposed to represent flooding that affects large river floodplains, but not events triggered by specific conditions like coastal or flash flooding for instance. We first generate for each basin a set of hydromorphometric, land cover and climatic variables. In case of an available discharge record station at the basin outlet, we base the hundred year peak flow estimate on the corresponding time-series. Peak flow magnitude for basin outlets without gauging stations is estimated by statistical means, performing several regressions on the basin variables. These peak flow estimates enable the computation of corresponding flooded areas using hydrologic GIS processing on digital elevation model.

  9. Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A; Neymark, J

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

  10. Detail view of the decorative element at the peak of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the decorative element at the peak of the gabled dormer of the northwest corner bay of the west façade - Oregon State Fairgrounds Grandstand, 2330 Seventeenth Avenue, Northeast, Salem, Marion, OR

  11. 48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF STONY MAN MOUNTAIN (EL. 4,011). LOOKING NORTHEAST. STONY MAN OVERLOOK VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  12. Ischemic preconditioning does not improve peak exercise capacity at sea level or simulated high altitude in trained male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Elizabeth A; Maher, Jennifer L; Nash, Mark S; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Kressler, Jochen; Jacobs, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to tissues, including skeletal muscle, and has the potential to improve intense aerobic exercise performance, especially that which results in arterial hypoxemia. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of IPC of the legs on peak exercise capacity (W(peak)), submaximal and peak cardiovascular hemodynamics, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) in trained males at sea level (SL) and simulated high altitude (HA; 13.3% FIO2, ∼ 3650 m). Fifteen highly trained male cyclists and triathletes completed 2 W(peak) tests (SL and HA) and 4 experimental exercise trials (10 min at 55% altitude-specific W(peak) then increasing by 30 W every 2 min until exhaustion) with and without IPC. HA resulted in significant arterial hypoxemia during exercise compared with SL (73% ± 6% vs. 93% ± 4% SpO2, p < 0.001) that was associated with 21% lower W(peak) values. IPC did not significantly improve W(peak) at SL or HA. Additionally, IPC failed to improve cardiovascular hemodynamics or SpO2 during submaximal exercise or at W(peak). In conclusion, IPC performed 45 min prior to exercise does not improve W(peak) or systemic oxygen delivery during submaximal or peak exercise at SL or HA. Future studies must examine the influence of IPC on local factors, such as working limb blood flow, oxygen delivery, and arteriovenous oxygen difference as well as whether the effectiveness of IPC is altered by the volume of muscle made ischemic, the timing prior to exercise, and high altitude acclimatization. PMID:25474566

  13. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  14. Improvements to science operations at Kitt Peak National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1998-07-01

    In recent years Kitt Peak National Observatory has undertaken a number of innovative projects to optimize science operations with the suite of telescopes we operate on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Changing scientific requirements and expectations of our users, evolving technology and declining budgets have motivated the changes. The operations improvements have included telescope performance enhancements--with the focus on the Mayall 4-m--modes of observing and scheduling, telescope control and observing systems, planning and communication, and data archiving.

  15. Standard Test Data and Peak Fitting for XPS Measurements

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Standard Test Data and Peak Fitting for XPS Measurements (Web, free access)   This web site provides an extensive set of simulated photoelectron spectroscopy data for users to test software for determining the positions and intensities of overlapping peaks. Users download the data, perform their analyses, and then upload their results. A Java program evaluates the results and provides a graphical presentation of the errors in the user's analyses.

  16. Martian cratering and central peak statistics - Mariner 9 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordell, B. M.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 imagery shows that central peaked craters occur much more frequently in the Martian south polar region than in typical equatorial areas, and that both regions have crater size frequency distributions characteristic of saturation. Several arguments indicate that a preferential production mechanism, e.g., pingo formation made possible by subsurface permafrost confined to Martian polar regions, may account for the central peak excess in the south polar region.

  17. Electrical conductivity of ice VII

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Taku; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Yagi, Takehiko; Aoki, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    It was discovered that a peak appears near a pressure of Pc = 10 GPa in the electrical conductivity of ice VII as measured through impedance spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) during the process of compression from 2 GPa to 40 GPa at room temperature. The activation energy for the conductivity measured in the cooling/heating process between 278 K and 303 K reached a minimum near Pc. Theoretical modelling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the origin of this unique peak is the transition of the major charge carriers from the rotational defects to the ionic defects. PMID:25047728

  18. Which are the highest peaks in the US Arctic? Fodar settles the debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Matt; DesLauriers, Kit

    2016-06-01

    Though an outstanding achievement for their time, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the eastern Alaskan Arctic nonetheless contain significant errors, and in this paper we address one of them. Specifically, USGS maps of different scale made in the late 1950s alternate between Mt. Chamberlin and Mt. Isto as the tallest peak in the US Arctic. Given that many of the peaks here are close in height and covered with glaciers, recent climate change may also have changed their height and their order. We resolved these questions using fodar, a new airborne photogrammetric technique that utilizes structure-from-motion (SfM) software and requires no ground control, and validated it using GPS measurements on the peaks as well as airborne lidar. Here we show that Mt. Chamberlin is currently the third tallest peak and that the order and elevations of the five tallest mountains in the US Arctic are Mt. Isto (2735.6 m), Mt. Hubley (2717.6 m), Mt. Chamberlin (2712.3 m), Mt. Michelson (2698.1 m), and an unnamed peak (2694.9 m); these heights are relative to the NAVD88 GEOID12A vertical datum. We find that it is indeed plausible that this ranking has changed over time and may continue to change as summit glaciers continue to shrink, though Mt. Isto will remain the highest under current climate trends. Mt. Isto is also over 100 m taller than the highest peak in Arctic Canada, making it the highest peak in the North American Arctic. Fodar elevations compared to within a few centimeters of our ground-based GPS measurements of the peaks made a few days later and our complete validation assessment indicates a measurement uncertainty of better than ±20 cm (95 % RMSE). By analyzing time series of fodar maps, we were able to detect topographic change on the centimeter level on these steep slopes, indicating that fodar can be used to measure mountain snow packs for water resource availability or avalanche danger, glacier volume change, and slope subsidence, as

  19. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  20. Which are the highest peaks in the US Arctic? Fodar settles the debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.; DesLauriers, K.

    2015-12-01

    While creation of the United States Geological Survey's topographic maps of the eastern Alaska Arctic were an outstanding accomplishment for their time, they nonetheless contained significant errors when made in the late 1950s. One notable discrepancy relates to the tallest peak in the US Arctic: USGS maps of different scale alternate between Mt Chamberlin and Mt Isto. Given that many of the peaks here are close in height and covered with glaciers, recent climate change may also have changed their height and their order. We resolved these questions using fodar, a new airborne photogrammetric technique that utilizes Structure-from-Motion (SfM) software and requires no ground control, and validated it using GPS measurements on the peaks and using airborne lidar. Here we show that Mt Chamberlin is currently the 3rd tallest peak and that the order and elevations of the five tallest mountains in the US Arctic are Mt Isto (2735.6 m), Mt. Hubley (2717.6 m), Mt. Chamberlin (2712.3 m), Mt. Michelson (2698.1 m), and an unnamed peak (2694.9 m); these orthometric heights relative to the NAVD88 vertical datum, established with use of GEOID12B. We find that it is indeed plausible that this ranking has changed over time and may continue to change as summit glaciers continue to shrink, though Mt Isto will remain the highest under current climate trends. Mt Isto is also over 100 m higher than the highest peak in the Canadian Arctic, making it the highest peak in the North American Arctic. Fodar elevations compared to within a few centimeters of our ground-based GPS measurements of the peaks made a few days later and our complete validation assessment indicates a measurement uncertainty of better than ±20 cm (95 % RMSE). By analyzing time-series of fodar maps, we were able to detect topographic change on the centimeter-level on these steep slopes, indicating that fodar can be used to measure mountain snow packs for water resource availability or avalanche danger, to measure glacier

  1. Characterizing Earthquake Rupture Properties Using Peak High-Frequency Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    Teleseismic array back-projection (BP) of high frequency (~1Hz) seismic waves has been recently applied to image the aftershock sequence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The BP method proves to be effective in capturing early aftershocks that are difficult to be detected due to the contamination of the mainshock coda wave. Furthermore, since the event detection is based on the identification of the local peaks in time series of the BP power, the resulting event location corresponds to the peak high-frequency energy rather than the hypocenter. In this work, we show that the comparison between the BP-determined catalog and conventional phase-picking catalog provides estimates of the spatial and temporal offset between the hypocenter and the peak high-frequency radiation. We propose to measure this peak high-frequency shift of global earthquakes between M4.0 to M7.0. We average the BP locations calibrated by multiple reference events to minimize the uncertainty due to the variation of 3D path effects. In our initial effort focusing on the foreshock and aftershock sequence of the 2014 Iquique earthquake, we find systematic shifts of the peak high-frequency energy towards the down-dip direction. We find that the amount of the shift is a good indication of rupture length, which scales with the earthquake magnitude. Further investigations of the peak high frequency offset may provide constraints on earthquake source properties such as rupture directivity, rupture duration, rupture speed, and stress drop.

  2. Non-Gaussian bias: insights from discrete density peaks

    SciTech Connect

    Desjacques, Vincent; Riotto, Antonio; Gong, Jinn-Ouk E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org

    2013-09-01

    Corrections induced by primordial non-Gaussianity to the linear halo bias can be computed from a peak-background split or the widespread local bias model. However, numerical simulations clearly support the prediction of the former, in which the non-Gaussian amplitude is proportional to the linear halo bias. To understand better the reasons behind the failure of standard Lagrangian local bias, in which the halo overdensity is a function of the local mass overdensity only, we explore the effect of a primordial bispectrum on the 2-point correlation of discrete density peaks. We show that the effective local bias expansion to peak clustering vastly simplifies the calculation. We generalize this approach to excursion set peaks and demonstrate that the resulting non-Gaussian amplitude, which is a weighted sum of quadratic bias factors, precisely agrees with the peak-background split expectation, which is a logarithmic derivative of the halo mass function with respect to the normalisation amplitude. We point out that statistics of thresholded regions can be computed using the same formalism. Our results suggest that halo clustering statistics can be modelled consistently (in the sense that the Gaussian and non-Gaussian bias factors agree with peak-background split expectations) from a Lagrangian bias relation only if the latter is specified as a set of constraints imposed on the linear density field. This is clearly not the case of standard Lagrangian local bias. Therefore, one is led to consider additional variables beyond the local mass overdensity.

  3. Peak suppression in ESEEM spectra of multinuclear spin systems.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Stefan; Calle, Carlos; Mitrikas, George; Schweiger, Arthur

    2005-11-01

    We have observed a disturbing suppression effect in three-pulse ESEEM and HYSCORE spectra of systems with more than one nucleus coupled to the electron spin. For such systems, the ESEEM signal contains internuclear combination peaks of varying intensity. At the same time, the peaks at the basic ESEEM frequencies are reduced in intensity, up to the point of complete cancellation. For both three-pulse ESEEM and HYSCORE, the amplitude of a peak of a given nucleus depends not only on its modulation depth parameter k and the tau-dependent blind-spot term b, but also on k and b of all other nuclei. Peaks of nuclei with shallow modulations can be strongly suppressed by nuclei with deep modulations. This cross-suppression effect explains the observation that HYSCORE (1)H peaks are often very weak or even undetectable in the presence of strong (14)N peaks. Due to this distortion of intensities, ESEEM spectra have to be analysed very carefully. We present a theoretical analysis of this effect based on the product rules, numerical computations, and illustrative experimental data on Cu(gly)(2). In experiments, the impact of this cross suppression can be alleviated by a proper choice of tau values, remote echo detection, and matched pulses. PMID:16112885

  4. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  5. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  6. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  7. Electricity production using solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or gasified by using concentrated solar radiation for generating power. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is an increasing need for energy in the future. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling.

  8. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Liu, Cheng; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  9. Measuring peak expiratory flow in general practice: comparison of mini Wright peak flow meter and turbine spirometer.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K P; Mullee, M A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate taken by the mini Wright peak flow meter and the turbine spirometer. DESIGN--Pragmatic study with randomised order of use of recording instruments. Phase 1 compared a peak expiratory flow type expiration recorded by the mini Wright peak flow meter with an expiration to forced vital capacity recorded by the turbine spirometer. Phase 2 compared peak expiratory flow type expirations recorded by both meters. Reproducibility was assessed separately. SETTING--Routine surgeries at Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton. SUBJECTS--212 Patients aged 4 to 78 presenting with asthma or obstructive airways disease. Each patient contributed only once to each phase (105 in phase 1, 107 in phase 2), but some entered both phases on separate occasions. Reproducibility was tested on a further 31 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--95% Limits of agreement between measurements on the two meters. RESULTS--208 (98%) Of the readings taken by the mini Wright meter were higher than the corresponding readings taken by the turbine spirometer, but the 95% limits of agreement (mean difference (2 SD] were wide (1 to 173 l/min). Differences due to errors in reproducibility were not sufficient to predict this level of disagreement. Analysis by age, sex, order of use, and the type of expiration did not detect any significant differences. CONCLUSIONS--The two methods of measuring peak expiratory flow rate were not comparable. The mini Wright meter is likely to remain the preferred instrument in general practice. PMID:2142611

  10. Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

  11. Technology and application options for future battery power regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Carpenter, C.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, utilities have been interested in battery storage as an option to supply peak power through load leveling. Recently, other benefits of battery storage have been identified which potentially have equal or greater value to electric utilities. These benefits are power regulation functions including area regulation, area protection, spinning reserve, power factor correction, thermal unit minimum loading, and the ability to absorb qualifying facilities. Lead-acid batteries similar to those manufactured for automotive and industrial uses are currently being marketed for utility applications. Compared to the traditional fooded-cell battery that regulates routine watering and maintenance, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can meet many of the requirements or power regulation at significantly lower operating and maintenance costs. This paper presents an overview of future battery storage applications and technologies. Trends in the utility industry and the future role of battery storage will be addressed with an emphasis on power regulation options. Discussions on battery storage for specific power regulation applications are presented as well as the status of advanced battery development in Europe, Japan, and the United States.

  12. Verification of 1921 peak discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington, using 2003 peak-discharge data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.; Kresch, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The 1921 peak discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington (U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 12194000), was verified using peak-discharge data from the flood of October 21, 2003, the largest flood since 1921. This peak discharge is critical to determining other high discharges at the gaging station and to reliably estimating the 100-year flood, the primary design flood being used in a current flood study of the Skagit River basin. The four largest annual peak discharges of record (1897, 1909, 1917, and 1921) were used to determine the 100-year flood discharge at Skagit River near Concrete. The peak discharge on December 13, 1921, was determined by James E. Stewart of the U.S. Geological Survey using a slope-area measurement and a contracted-opening measurement. An extended stage-discharge rating curve based on the 1921 peak discharge was used to determine the peak discharges of the three other large floods. Any inaccuracy in the 1921 peak discharge also would affect the accuracies of the three other largest peak discharges. The peak discharge of the 1921 flood was recalculated using the cross sections and high-water marks surveyed after the 1921 flood in conjunction with a new estimate of the channel roughness coefficient (n value) based on an n-verification analysis of the peak discharge of the October 21, 2003, flood. The n value used by Stewart for his slope-area measurement of the 1921 flood was 0.033, and the corresponding calculated peak discharge was 240,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Determination of a single definitive water-surface profile for use in the n-verification analysis was precluded because of considerable variation in elevations of surveyed high-water marks from the flood on October 21, 2003. Therefore, n values were determined for two separate water-surface profiles thought to bracket a plausible range of water-surface slopes defined by high-water marks. The n value determined using the flattest plausible slope was 0

  13. Estimating peak oxygen uptake based on postexercise measurements in swimming.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Diego; Iglesias, Xavier; Schuller, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Uwe; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of postexercise measurements in estimating peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) in swimming, we compared oxygen uptake (V̇O2) measurements during supramaximal exercise with various commonly adopted methods, including a recently developed heart rate - V̇O2 modelling procedure. Thirty-one elite swimmers performed a 200-m maximal swim where V̇O2 was measured breath-by-breath using a portable gas analyzer connected to a respiratory snorkel, 1 min before, during, and 3 min postexercise. V̇O2peak(-20-0) was the average of the last 20 s of effort. The following postexercise measures were compared: (i) first 20-s average (V̇O2peak(0-20)); (ii) linear backward extrapolation (BE) of the first 20 s (BE(20)), 30 s, and 3 × 20-, 4 × 20-, and 3 or 4 × 20-s averages; (iii) semilogarithmic BE at 20 s (LOG(20)) and at the other same time intervals as in linear BE; and (iv) predicted V̇O2peak using mathematical modelling (pV̇O2(0-20)]. Repeated-measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni tests compared V̇O2peak (criterion) and each estimated value. Pearson's coefficient of determination (r(2)) was used to assess correlation. Exercise V̇O2peak(-20-0) (mean ± SD 3531 ± 738 mL·min(-1)) was not different (p > 0.30) from pV̇O2(0-20) (3571 ± 735 mL·min(-1)), BE(20) (3617 ± 708 mL·min(-1)), or LOG(20) (3627 ± 746 mL·min(-1)). pV̇O2(0-20) was very strongly correlated with exercise V̇O2peak (r(2) = 0.962; p < 0.001), and showed a low standard error of the estimate (146 mL·min(-1), 4.1%) and the lowest mean difference (40 mL·min(-1); 1.1%). We confirm that the new modelling procedure based on postexercise V̇O2 and heart rate measurements is a valid and accurate procedure for estimating V̇O2peak in swimmers and avoids the estimation bias produced by other methods. PMID:27226382

  14. Errors in trough: peak ratio determinations induced by patient behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dutrey-Dupagne; Vaur; Genès; Mallion; Meredith; Elkik

    1996-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Trough: peak ratio is often used to evaluate the duration of antihypertensive action. Whatever the method of measurement chosen, trough effect has to be measured 24 h after the last drug intake for a once daily regimen. Peak effect is usually measured 4-6 h after drug intake. If patients' compliance to therapeutic instructions is perfect, then the 'intrinsic' trough: peak ratio of the drug is equal to the measured trough: peak ratio. Some patients do not follow these instructions, leading to biases in the evaluation of the ratio. For trough evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the last dose of the drug the day before blood pressure measurement. However, if some patients (n1) wrongly take the drug in the morning of the visit, they will be evaluated at peak (type A error). For peak evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the drug a few hours before blood pressure measurement. If some patients (n2) miss their morning dose, they will be evaluated at trough (type B error). METHODS: In the MACH 1 study, the use of an electronic pill count monitor allowed us to quantify n1/N and n2/N. A total of 452 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 received written instructions to take their last dose during the morning of the day before the visit, whereas patients of group 2 had to take their last dose on the morning of the visit. RESULTS: Electronic pill-box recording revealed that 32.9%: of patients in group 1 committed type A error, whereas 27.7% of patients in group 2 committed type B error. The resulting 'pill-box corrected' trough: peak ratio was lower (87.5% for diastolic blood pressure and 93.1% for systolic blood pressure) than the uncorrected trough: peak ratio (95.2% for diastolic blood pressure and 96.0% for systolic blood pressure) of the population. CONCLUSION: The random behaviour of patients, with respect to treatment compliance, results in a systematic overestimation of the measured trough

  15. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

    2010-12-01

    Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

  16. Using vehicle-to-grid technology for frequency regulation and peak-load reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Corey D.; Zhang, K. Max

    This paper explores the potential financial return for using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a grid resource. While there is little financial incentive for individuals when the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service is used exclusively for peak reduction, there is a significant potential for financial return when the V2G service is used for frequency regulation. We propose that these two uses for V2G technology are not mutually exclusive, and that there could exist a "dual-use" program that utilizes V2G for multiple uses simultaneously. In our proposition, V2G could be used for regulation on a daily basis to ensure profits, and be used for peak reduction on days with high electricity demand and poor ambient air quality in order to reap the greatest environmental benefits. The profits for the individual in this type of dual-use program are close to or even higher than the profits experienced in either of the single-use programs. More importantly, we argue that the external benefits of this type of program are much greater as well. At higher V2G participation rates, our analysis shows that the market for regulation capacity could become saturated by V2G-based regulation providers. At the same time, there is plenty of potential for widespread use of V2G technology, especially if the demand for regulation, reserves, and storage grows as more intermittent renewable resources are being incorporated into the power systems.

  17. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  18. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  19. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  20. Variable threshold method for ECG R-peak detection.

    PubMed

    Kew, Hsein-Ping; Jeong, Do-Un

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a wearable belt-type ECG electrode worn around the chest by measuring the real-time ECG is produced in order to minimize the inconvenient in wearing. ECG signal is detected using a potential instrument system. The measured ECG signal is transmits via an ultra low power consumption wireless data communications unit to personal computer using Zigbee-compatible wireless sensor node. ECG signals carry a lot of clinical information for a cardiologist especially the R-peak detection in ECG. R-peak detection generally uses the threshold value which is fixed. There will be errors in peak detection when the baseline changes due to motion artifacts and signal size changes. Preprocessing process which includes differentiation process and Hilbert transform is used as signal preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, variable threshold method is used to detect the R-peak which is more accurate and efficient than fixed threshold value method. R-peak detection using MIT-BIH databases and Long Term Real-Time ECG is performed in this research in order to evaluate the performance analysis. PMID:21695499