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1

FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

1992-01-01

2

Replicative Nature of Indian Research, Essence of Scientific Temper, and Future of Scientific Progress*  

PubMed Central

A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed. PMID:22815607

Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

2004-01-01

3

Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science, Sports and Culture, 1997. Scientific Research: Opening the Door to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines the basic philosophy and policies of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MESSC) about the promotion of scientific research for the future benefits of society. Promoting scientific research in universities and affiliated research institutions, as well as the science and technology deriving from…

Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Tokyo (Japan).

4

Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

Strawn, George O.

2012-01-01

5

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

6

Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.  

PubMed

New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

2014-06-01

7

Scientific Research in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers, historians, and philosophers of science have debated the nature of scientific research in education for more than 100 years. Recent enthusiasm for "evidence-based" policy and practice in education now codified in the federal law that authorizes the bulk of elementary and secondary education programs have brought a new sense of urgency…

Shavelson, Richard J., Ed.; Towne, Lisa, Ed.

2002-01-01

8

The Future of Scientific Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computing technologies are undergoing a dramatic transition. Multicore chips with up to eight cores are now available from many vendors. This trend will continue, with the number of cores on a chip continuing to increase. In fact, many-core chips, e.g., NVIDIA GPUs, are now being seriously explored in many areas of scientific computing. This technology shift presents a challenge for computational science and engineering--the only significant performance increases in the future will be through the increased exploitation of parallelism. At the same time, petascale computers based on these technologies are being deployed at sites across the world. The opportunities arising from petascale computing are enormous--predicting the behavior of complex biological systems, understanding the production of heavy elements in supernovae, designing catalysts at the atomic level, predicting changes in the earth's climate and ecosystems, and designing complex engineered systems. But, petascale computers are very complex systems, built from multi-core and many-core chips with 100,000s to millions of cores, 100s of terabytes to petabytes of memory, and 10,000s of disk drives. The architecture of petascale computers has significant implications for the design of the next generation of science and engineering applications. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the directions in computing technologies as well as describe the petascale computing systems being deployed in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Dunning, Thom

2012-02-01

9

Scientifically Based Research. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest describes the nature and implications of scientifically based research (SBR). SBR grew out of the No Child Left Behind act of 2001, which stipulates that federally funded programs and practices must be grounded in scientifically based research. Scientifically based research is defined here as "persuasive research that empirically…

Beghetto, Ron

10

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 1999 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 1999 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientific and ...

11

Exploring XP for Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we successfully apply XP (Extreme Programming) in a scientific research context? A pilot project at the NASA Langley Research Center tested XPs applicability in this context. Since the cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view, eight of XPs 12 practices seemed incompatible with the existing research culture. Despite initial awkwardness, the authors determined

William A. Wood; William L. Kleb

2003-01-01

12

Top Scientific Visualization Research Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific visualization as currently understood and practiced is still a relatively new discipline. As a result, we visualization researches are not necessarily accustomed to undertaking the sorts of self-examinations that other scientists routinely undergo in relation to their work. Yet if we are to creat a disciplinary culture focused on matters of real scientific importance and committed to real progress,

Chris Johnson

2004-01-01

13

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600.512 Wildlife...PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.512 Scientific research. (a) Scientific research activity . Persons planning to...

2012-10-01

14

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600.512 Wildlife...PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.512 Scientific research. (a) Scientific research activity . Persons planning to...

2013-10-01

15

Research Center for Future Strategy  

E-print Network

#12;04 05 06 08 26 CONTENTS #12;38 40 72 78 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;8 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 9 #12;10 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 11 #12;12 KAIST Research

Hong, Soon Hyung

16

Research Center for Future Strategy  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;02 06 10 24 CONTENTS #12;40 42 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;6 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy STEPPER Society #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 7 #12;8 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 9 #12;10 KAIST Research Center

Kim, Yong Jung

17

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is charged with â??initiating, developing and coordinating high quality international scientific research in the Antarctic regionâ?ť. Given their mission, first-time users will not be surprised to find a number of high-quality resources in their publications area, including complete runs of their bulletins, reports, and topical articles, which address such areas as sea-level changes and climate transformation. For those interested in the governance of the region, there is a separate section dedicated to providing information about the Antarctic Treaty. For more general information, visitors would do well to look at the Antarctic Information section, which provides maps of the region, along with some basic statistics and details about the summer and winter research stations operated by various scientific institutes.

18

The Scientific CouncilThe Scientific Council to the European Research Councilto the European Research Council  

E-print Network

1 The Scientific CouncilThe Scientific Council to the European Research Councilto the European;2 The Scientific CouncilThe Scientific Council to the European Research Councilto the European Research CouncilThe Scientific Council to the European Research Councilto the European Research Council Challenges for

De Cindio, Fiorella

19

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2007 Accomplishment Interactive computing facilities to provide remote visualization capabilities to teams of scientific researchers of high network latency and relatively low network bandwidth. This research project has produced a novel

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

20

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2006 Accomplishment HDF5-Fast fundamental Computer Science technologies and their application in production scientific research tools. Our focuses on research and development activities that bridge a gap between fundamental data management

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

21

DEANSHIP OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FAST TRACK RESEARCH GRANTS  

E-print Network

DEANSHIP OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FAST TRACK RESEARCH GRANTS FAST TRACK RESEARCH PROJECT NO. SF-2007: .................................................................................. Date: ........................... Vice Rector for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research:.............................................................................................................. Date: ........................ Department of Mathematical Sciences Chairman, Research Committee

Omar, Mohammad H.

22

Developing Intuition: The Key to Creative Futures Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Futures research involves speculation about alternative developments based upon existing data and potential choices. Effective futures research requires creativity in scientific practice rather than an overemphasis on reason. In discussing the important role of intuition in futures research, characteristics of creative scientists are reviewed and…

Southern, Stephen; Domzalski, Suzanne

23

Research Into Educational Futures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles examines the subject of educational futures, including discussions of the relevance of the topic to the training of teachers and librarians. Three games for future forecasting (SCIFI, AFAR and FAR) and a mini-delphi technique are included. A scheme for viewing alternative futures in Educational Technology through the use of…

Spitzer, Dean R.

24

Scientific Computation Survey of Research Interests  

E-print Network

Scientific Computation Survey of Research Interests TO THE APPLICANT: Complete this form and return research is of interest to you 1. 2. 3. Return this form to: Scientific Computation University of Minnesota to the Scientific Computation Program at the address listed below. Full Name

Thomas, David D.

25

CIRS: International Center for Scientific Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Center for Scientific Research created this website to provide the public across the globe with access to scientific information. Users can learn about the latest news in physics, astronomy, geology, and other scientific fields. The site features links to researchers and scientific organizations in 222 countries. Visitors can search for links by topic and name. The site features information on the latest awards given to top scientists. Users can also find out about the countless science journals and books.

26

Future course of scientific ocean drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outlining important U.S. scientific problems that, to be properly addressed, must be investigated with a drilling ship was the objective of the U.S. COMmittee on POST-1998 Ocean Drilling (COMPOST), which met in Seattle October 14-15. Members of COMPOST were chosen specifically by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions-U.S. Science Advisory (JOI-USSAC) as representatives of major ongoing ocean sciences initiatives in the United States.The scientific rationale for drilling was examined and COMPOST summarized what the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has done and can do for the following initiatives: Marine Aspects of Earth System History (MESH)

Kappel, E.

27

The research programme Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

The research programme Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use Welcome to a lunch.slu.se/futureagriculture For questions, please contact KatarinaVrede (katarina.vrede@slu.se) About Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use The changes and challenges facing agriculture in the future will be substantial, not only

28

Current Scientific Progress and Future Scientific Prospects Enabled by Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First, we examine current scientific progress and understanding that have been possible through use of spaceborne precipitation radar measurements being provided by the TRMM and CloudSat satellites. Second, we look across a future 20-year time frame to assess how and why anticipated improvements in space radar systems will further advance scientific progress into topic areas once considered beyond the realm of space-based remote sensing. JAXA's 13.8 GHz Ku-band cross-track scanning Precipitation Radar (PR) developed for flight on NASA's non-sun-synchronous, diurnally-precessing TRMM satellite, was the first Earth radar flown in space that was designed specifically for precipitation measurement. Its proven accuracy in measuring global rainfall in the tropics and sub-tropics and its unanticipated longevity in continuing these measurements beyond a full decade have established the standards against which all follow-up and future space radars will be evaluated. In regards to the current PR measurement time series, we will discuss a selection of major scientific discoveries and impacts which have set the stage for future radar measuring systems. In fact, the 2nd contemporary space radar applicable for terrestrial precipitation measurement, i.e., JPL-CSA's 94 GHz nadir-staring Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) flown on NASA's sun-synchronous CloudSat satellite, although designed primarily for measurement of non-precipitating cloud hydrometeors and aerosols, has also unquestionably advanced precipitation measurement because CPR's higher frequency and greatly increased sensitivity (approximately 30 dBZ) has enabled global observations of light rain rate spectrum processes (i.e., rain rates below 0.05 mm per hourand of precipitation processes in the high troposphere (particularly ice phase processes). These processes are beyond reach of the TRMM radar because the PR sensitivity limit is approximately 17 dBZ which means its lower rain rate cutoff is around 0.3 mm per hour and its vertical profiling acuity is greatly limited above the melting layer. Thus, the newer CPR measurements have become important for a variety of scientific reasons that will be highlighted and assessed. In considering scientific progress likely to stem from future precipitation radar systems, we will specifically examine possible scientific impacts from three anticipated missions for which NASA and various of its space agency partners are expected to lead the way. These three missions are: (1) the nearterm Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission; (2) the decadal timeline Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (ACE) Mission; and the post-decadal timeline NEXRAD in Space (NIS) Mission. The observational capabilities of the planned radar systems for each of these three satellite missions are distinct from each other and each provides progressive improvements in precipitation measuring and scientific research capabilities relative to where we are now -- insofar as TRMM PR and the CloudSat CPR capabilities. The potential innovations in scientific research will be discussed in a framework of likely synergisms between next-generation radar capabilities and accessible dynamical and microphysical properties that have heretofore evaded detection.

Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Yang, Song

2008-01-01

29

Mathematical Sciences Scientific Computing Research Environments (SCREMS)  

E-print Network

Mathematical Sciences Scientific Computing Research Environments (SCREMS) Project Summary Description 1. Overview, and Abstracts of Individual Research Projects Continuing advances in computer in research in computational mathematics, notably geometry (GANG1 ) and applied mathematics. In recent years

Sottile, Frank

30

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Ĺrup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

31

Future Internet Research, Services  

E-print Network

Committee: Attila Peth János Sztrik Csaba Attila Szabó András Hajdu Zoltán Gál Gábor Fehér Márton Ispány Péter Bakonyi #12;4 5 Subproject 1 Theoretical foundation of Future Internet Subproject Leader: Attila

Sztrik, János

32

Future Directions in Subglacial Environments Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) exploration and study is poised to be a major focus of Antarctic science for the next decade or more. The foundation for an intensive period of SALE research and field efforts has been provided by substantial improvement in our understanding of these environments, the establishment of SALE research programs by the International Polar Year (IPY) Program Office and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), the funding of several national SALE programs, independent guidance on environmental stewardship issues, and a series of international workshops, meetings, and conferences that have refined SALE scientific objectives. This article summarizes recent developments in subglacial environment exploration and study and describes future research needs.

Kennicutt, Mahlon; Petit, Jean-Robert

2007-03-01

33

Committee issues report, Recommendations for future of scientific ocean drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific ocean drilling as we now know it is scheduled to end in 2003. The National Science Foundation (NSF) directed the Joint Oceanographic Institution's (JOI) U.S. Scientific Advisory Committee (USSAC) to assess U.S. interest in scientific ocean drilling beyond 2003. The Committee for Post 2003 Scientific Drilling (COMPOST-II) met at the University of Miami in February 1997 to address the following questions: What research objectives does the scientific ocean drilling community wish to pursue, and what facilities and funds will be required to achieve those objectives? Committee members were chosen carefully to represent as impartially as possible the U.S. Earth sciences community as a whole.

Purdy, G. Michael; Arthur, Michael A.

34

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

Vermeir, Koen

2013-01-01

35

DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research  

E-print Network

DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research April 10, 2014 Presented to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee by Steve Binkley Associate Director #12;2 Advanced Scientific Computing Research Delivering world leading computational and networking capabilities to extend the frontiers

36

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

Vermeir, Koen

2013-10-01

37

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2006 Accomplishment High Performance collections of scientific data. In recent years, much of the work in computer and computational science has problem. It is generally accepted that as sciences move into the tera- and peta-scale regimes that one

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

38

Student Involvement in Scientific Research  

E-print Network

talk: The THRILL and EXCITEMENT of Computational Materials Research Focus: Predict and understand materials and their properties Use and develop computational tools for materials research Emphasis Requirements for computational materials research Interest in materials and in computation (can jump

Holzwarth, Natalie

39

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center  

E-print Network

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) Science Driven Analytics Wes Bethel research. ­ Compare simulation with experiment. ­ Need analysis in regions defined by data at 100s TB per year; needs to be stored and analyzed; workflow serves a community of over 80 researchers

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

40

Edinburgh Research Explorer Minimal information for reusable scientific software  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Minimal information for reusable scientific software Citation for scientific software developers, who are often researchers, to provide appropriate levels of information to support reuse. Keywords Scientific software, research software, software reuse, software reusability

Millar, Andrew J.

41

The Future of Golgi Research  

PubMed Central

This essay looks backward on the past three decades of research toward understanding the mechanism of macromolecular traffic through and within the Golgi apparatus with an eye to the future. I also explain why I feel the Golgi should continue to hold the attention of molecular cell biologists. PMID:21079007

2010-01-01

42

Introduction Discussion and Future Research  

E-print Network

Food web Dynamics in Aboveground Desert Remnant and Xeric Residential Landscapes Bony Ahmed, Kathleen AIntroduction Discussion and Future Research Questions and Hypotheses Q: How do desert and xeric of herbivores than desert landscapes because xeric landscapes have greater nutrient (N,P) and water availability

Hall, Sharon J.

43

Research Needs and Future Directions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

44

Future Directions for Federal Research Funding  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................86 Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Kansas Medical Center The Status of Researchi Future Directions for Federal Research Funding Merrill Series on The Research Cells: Current Challenges and Future Promise First panel of research administrators Prem Paul

45

Scientific Research at Introduction 4  

E-print Network

York Botanical Garden Faculty Honorary Curators and Research Fellows Selected Research Grants Selected Faculty Publications The New York Botanical Garden Board Botanical Science Committee Library Visiting Rica. #12;3 Preface "The New York Botanical Garden is an advocate for the plant kingdom

Law, Wayne

46

Taking steps to increase the trustworthiness of scientific research.  

PubMed

To enjoy the public's trust, the research community must first be clear about what it is expected to do and then avoid the incidents that prevent it from meeting those expectations. Among other things, there are expectations that published scientific results will be reliable, that research has the potential to contribute to the common good, and that research will be conducted ethically. Consequently, the scientific community needs to avoid lapses that prevent it from meeting these three expectations. This requires a strong commitment to trustworthy research practices, as well as mechanisms that diminish lapses that inevitably occur in complex endeavors such as scientific research. The author presents a model to assess the strength of commitment to trustworthy research and explores proven quality assurance mechanisms that can diminish lapses in research injurious to the public's trust. Some mechanisms identify in advance ways that things can go wrong so that steps can be taken to prevent them from going wrong in the first place. Other mechanisms investigate past errors or near misses to discover their causes so that they can be addressed to avoid similar future instances. The author explains why such methods are useful to efforts to promote research worthy of the public's trust.-Yarborough, M. Taking steps to increase the trustworthiness of scientific research. PMID:24928193

Yarborough, Mark

2014-06-13

47

Recruitment processesRecruitment processes French National Scientific and Technological ResearchFrench National Scientific and Technological Research  

E-print Network

ResearchFrench National Scientific and Technological Research EstablishmentsEstablishments Research NationalFrench National ScientificScientific andand TechnologicalTechnological Research EstablishmentsResearch researcher :: Job openings in December Recruitment based on a scientific program Application review (INRA

Canet, LĂ©onie

48

Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).  

PubMed

These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

2014-09-01

49

Doctoral Preparation of Scientifically Based Education Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding improved ways to train education researchers has taken on new urgency as federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 call for “scientifically based research in education.” The authors of this article suggest an approach to socializing doctoral students to a common “culture of science” (a set

Margaret Eisenhart; Robert L. DeHaan

2005-01-01

50

Scientific research in education: A critical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the debate in the USA about quality in educational research which has underpinned particular approaches to educational research being mandated in federal legislation. It argues that the movement towards 'evidence-based policy and practice' oversimplifies complex problems and is being used to warrant governmental incursion into legislating scientific method. It calls for critical readings of current policy and

Patti Lather

2004-01-01

51

Computer Augmented Research and Scientific Misconduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet and CD-ROMs are now important sources of scientific research. Ob- viously, these computerized tools complement and supplement libraries. For some they seem to replace libraries, and web presentations of published works are used as seemingly infinite resource of texts for term papers, examination work and even research papers. There is evidence that the use of modern in- formation technology,

Wolfgang Coy

2002-01-01

52

USDA Forest Service Research & Development Code of Scientific Ethics  

E-print Network

USDA Forest Service Research & Development Code of Scientific Ethics July 20, 2000 #12;Contents Preamble to Code of Scientific Ethics...................................................... 1 Forest Service Research & Development Code of Scientific Ethics.................... 3 Supporting Materials

53

Crime and punishment in scientific research  

E-print Network

Arguments against scientific misconduct one finds in the literature generally fail to support current policies on research fraud: they may not prove wrong what is typically considered research misconduct and they tend to make wrong things that are not usually seen as scientific fraud, in particular honest errors. I argue that society cannot set a rule enjoining scientists to be honest, so any such rule can only be internal to science. Therefore society cannot legitimately enforce it. Moreover, until an argument is provided to prove that lack of honesty is far worse than lack of technical competence, intentional deceit should not be punished much more harshly than technical errors. Keywords: cheating; ethics; fabrication; falsification; integrity; plagiarism; research fraud; scientific misconduct.

Bouville, Mathieu

2008-01-01

54

THE FUTURE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: ONE SCIENTIST'S PERSPECTIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent explosion of information, especially in digital form, is revolutionizing many fields of scientific endeavor, including the assorted venues scientists use to disseminate their research results. Scientists should take a keen interest in this nascent paradigm shift ­ it is already having a p...

55

Research in Context Scientific Production and Researchers' Experience in Jordan  

E-print Network

1 Research in Context Scientific Production and Researchers' Experience in Jordan Pénélope Larzillière The social and political context of research in Jordan is made up of the national system of research, with its institutions and its policies, plus the complex web of constraints, which ranges from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Scientific objectives of the second programme of Cooperation for Academic and Scientific Research  

E-print Network

1 Scientific objectives of the second programme of Cooperation for Academic and Scientific Research, Cooperation for Academic and Scientific Research) is an original programme developed by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) for the financing of scientific research projects devised and conducted

57

Applications of artificial intelligence to scientific research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing field which is just beginning to make an impact on disciplines other than computer science. While a number of military and commercial applications were undertaken in recent years, few attempts were made to apply AI techniques to basic scientific research. There is no inherent reason for the discrepancy. The characteristics of the problem, rather than its domain, determines whether or not it is suitable for an AI approach. Expert system, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning programs are examples of theoretical topics which can be applied to certain areas of scientific research. Further research and experimentation should eventurally make it possible for computers to act as intelligent assistants to scientists.

Prince, Mary Ellen

1986-01-01

58

Postdoctoral researchers are an essential part of the scientific  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral researchers are an essential part of the scientific community, yet their status's scientific research programs. Postdoctoral scholars often spend long periods of time in academic appoint- ments that give them little opportunity for career development, training, and research independence

59

Guide to Scientific Publication Management for Researchers at the  

E-print Network

Guide to Scientific Publication Management for Researchers at the KTH categories for KTH scientific publications year 2010. 2 I would like to thank Guide to Scientific Publication Management 2 Abstract The aim of this guide

Haviland, David

60

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

61

The United States of America and Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: “What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?”; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: “How will the US continue to foster its strengths?” PMID:20808949

Hather, Gregory J.; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B. Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V.; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

2010-01-01

62

Statement of Principles for Scientific Merit Review* Research funding agencies worldwide identify and support scientific research that creates new knowledge  

E-print Network

Statement of Principles for Scientific Merit Review* Preamble Research funding agencies worldwide identify and support scientific research that creates new knowledge and benefits society. Trusted with government funding, these agencies are publicly accountable for their funded research efforts. As stewards

Anné, Colette

63

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report  

E-print Network

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report 1999-2000 #12;Contents of national and international co-operation in research to realise progress in climate research. Our scientific, Surinam, with generous financial support from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research

Haak, Hein

64

Animals in research. Council on Scientific Affairs.  

PubMed

This report of the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association (AMA) provides brief descriptions of a wide range of medical advances developed with the help of research done on animals. The report contends that to accept the moral reasoning of the animal rights movement would entail a complete cessation of the use of animals in research. The AMA supports the use of animals for biomedical research while also supporting regulatory policies that protect animals from inappropriate use. Animal experimentation benefits veterinary medicine as well as human medicine. A realistic appraisal of research with animals must be considered in terms of benefits and costs to humans. Animal experimentation must be included in the research process if advancement in medical knowledge is to continue. PMID:2724506

65

The Netherlands Code of Conduct for Scientific Practice Principles of good scientific teaching and research  

E-print Network

applies to scientific practice, which is understood to include scien- tific teaching and research at all for Scientific Practice 4 teachers and researchers, reflect the national and international understand- ing of good scientific teaching and research. Under particular circumstances, deviation may be

van Rooij, Robert

66

CHART: An Online Workshop About the Future of Scientific Ocean Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHART (Charting the Future Course of Scientific Ocean Drilling) workshop was a six-week on-line meeting that gathered input from the U.S. science community regarding future research directions for scientific ocean drilling. The CHART workshop was hosted and implemented by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, under the U.S. Science Support Program associated with IODP. The online format allowed researchers who would normally not have the time or resources to travel to a physical meeting to participate in this discussion and allowed Ocean Leadership to archive, in written form, input from every participant, instead of just preserving popular or consensus views. The meeting had six discussion boards, each with initial questions intended to stimulate discussion on current emerging fields, unanswered research questions, implementation strategies, and potential future directions for scientific ocean drilling. The moderators read the posts on a daily basis, interjected comments or questions to stimulate more discussion, and wrote short weekly summaries. Interest in the CHART discussions increased over the course of the workshop and prompted the steering committee to extend the meeting to the final sixth week, allowing time for the participants to complete reading and responding to the new activity. In all, the CHART discussion boards were visited 2,242 times by 695 visitors and resulted in 535 posts. The visitors came to the site from 37 states, the District of Columbia, and 17 countries. The CHART workshop represented the first step in garnering input from U.S. scientists to plan for scientific ocean drilling beyond 2013. The resulting white paper became part of the planning process for the international meeting, INVEST, and will be used to write the science plan for the next scientific drilling program. The white paper also allowed U.S. participants at INVEST to better represent and express the collective vision of the their community.

Meth, C. E.; Ravelo, A. C.

2009-12-01

67

Case Studies in Describing Scientific Research Efforts as Linked Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Web is growing with numerous scientific resources, prompting increased efforts in information management to consider integration and exchange of scientific resources. Scientists have many options to share scientific resources on the Web; however, existing options provide limited support to scientists in annotating and relating research resources resulting from a scientific research effort. Moreover, there is no systematic approach to documenting scientific research and sharing it on the Web. This research proposes the Collect-Annotate-Refine-Publish (CARP) Methodology as an approach for guiding documentation of scientific research on the Semantic Web as scientific collections. Scientific collections are structured descriptions about scientific research that make scientific results accessible based on context. In addition, scientific collections enhance the Linked Data data space and can be queried by machines. Three case studies were conducted on research efforts at the Cyber-ShARE Research Center of Excellence in order to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to create scientific collections. The case studies exposed the challenges and benefits of leveraging the Semantic Web and Linked Data data space to facilitate access, integration and processing of Web-accessible scientific resources and research documentation. As such, we present the case study findings and lessons learned in documenting scientific research using CARP.

Gandara, A.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Gates, A.

2013-12-01

68

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me  

PubMed Central

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

Narlikar, Jayant V.

2008-01-01

69

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me.  

PubMed

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

Narlikar, Jayant V

2008-01-01

70

Trust and the Future of Research  

E-print Network

undermines future trust and, as we shall see, the future functioning of research. As sociologist Niklas Luhmann observed,2 trust sim plifies life. It would be prohibitively time-consuming to consider all

Bandettini, Peter A.

71

Aggregating collective judgment in scientific research Raphal Knstler  

E-print Network

Aggregating collective judgment in scientific research Raphaël Künstler raphael.kunstler@gmail.com Université d'Aix-en-Provence hal-00669026,version1-10Feb2012 #12;Aggregating judgment in scientific research the ability of scientific research to meet this second challenge : is there a procedure of intergenerational

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram (dollars in thousands) FY 2003 FY 2005 Request Advanced Scientific Computing Research Mathematical, Information, and Computational,000 0 3,000 0 Subtotal, Advanced Scientific Computing Research..................... 163,185 203,490 -1

73

Educational research visualizations: Scientific warrants in early-phase research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the integration of advanced visualization methodologies into education in order to create appropriate new forms of research and thereby improving the diffusion and adoption of effective innovations. Beginning with an historical analysis of how meaning making via visualization systems has become an essential engine of science, and how today an appropriate visualization methodology for education can be created as an Educational Research Visualization exemplar. The research on the creation of an ERV provides details of the validation methods and technologies that converge to build this visualization methodology for education so as to create scientific warrants in research's early phases. These forms of visualization are truly scientific visualization methods for education, and use the filming methods of ethnography to create a video database resource.

Zaritsky, Raul Alan

74

Professor Clive Brasier, Forest Research UK Scientific and operational flaws  

E-print Network

Professor Clive Brasier, Forest Research UK Scientific and operational flaws in international researching the behaviour of plant pathogens and on the observations of many scientific colleagues. The permissions of scientific colleagues to use their data or photographs in this talk are gratefully acknowledged

75

50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific...

2010-10-01

76

Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists  

PubMed Central

The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

2015-01-01

77

Drug discovery research in India: current state and future prospects.  

PubMed

Indian civilization developed a strong system of traditional medicine and was one of the first nations to develop a synthetic drug. In the postindependence era, Indian pharmaceutical industry developed a strong base for production of generic drugs. Challenges for the future are to give its traditional medicine a strong scientific base and develop research and clinical capability to consistently produce new drugs based on advances in modern biological sciences. PMID:25050153

Balganesh, Tanjore; Kundu, Tapas K; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Roy, Siddhartha

2014-07-10

78

English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

2014-09-01

79

English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

2014-12-01

80

Burnout: Summary and Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burnout literature is reviewed, compared, and summarized. Based on this process a definition of burnout is proposed encompassing three components: emotional and\\/or physical exhaustion, lowered work productivity, and overdepersonalization. A model to aid researchers is presented accompanied by research questions in need of answer if burnout is to be more fully understood.

Baron Perlman; E. Alan Hartman

1982-01-01

81

NASA RESEARCH PRIORITIESNASA RESEARCH PRIORITIES SCIENTIFIC RETURNSCIENTIFIC RETURN Aquarius Science Goal To understand the regional and global processes  

E-print Network

NASA RESEARCH PRIORITIESNASA RESEARCH PRIORITIES SCIENTIFIC RETURNSCIENTIFIC RETURN Aquarius and ocean circulation and influence present and future climate. Aquarius Science Goal ­ To understand the regional and global processes that couple changes in the water cycle and ocean circulation and influence

Waliser, Duane E.

82

Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract  

PubMed Central

Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy. “By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action.” Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

Resnik, David B.

2009-01-01

83

Institute for Scientific Computing Research Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy (DOE). The maturation of computational simulation as a tool of scientific and engineering research is underscored in the November 2004 statement of the Secretary of Energy that, ''high performance computing is the backbone of the nation's science and technology enterprise''. LLNL operates several of the world's most powerful computers--including today's single most powerful--and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Ultrascale simulation has been identified as one of the highest priorities in DOE's facilities planning for the next two decades. However, computers at architectural extremes are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Furthermore, each successful terascale simulation only points out the need for much better ways of interacting with the resulting avalanche of data. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to LLNL's core missions than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, LLNL must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) served as one of LLNL's main bridges to the academic community with a program of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, workshops, and an active seminar series. The ISCR identifies researchers from the academic community for computer science and computational science collaborations with LLNL and hosts them for short- and long-term visits with the aim of encouraging long-term academic research agendas that address LLNL's research priorities. Through such collaborations, ideas and software flow in both directions, and LLNL cultivates its future workforce. The Institute strives to be LLNL's ''eyes and ears'' in the computer and information sciences, keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be the ''feet and hands'' that carry those advances into the Laboratory and incorporates them into practice. ISCR research participants are integrated into LLNL's Computing and Applied Research (CAR) Department, especially into its Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). In turn, these organizations address computational challenges arising throughout the rest of the Laboratory. Administratively, the ISCR flourishes under LLNL's University Relations Program (URP). Together with the other five institutes of the URP, it navigates a course that allows LLNL to benefit from academic exchanges while preserving national security. While it is difficult to operate an academic-like research enterprise within the context of a national security laboratory, the results declare the challenges well met and worth the continued effort.

Keyes, D E

2005-02-07

84

Scientific Research Training for Gifted High School Students in Hungary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first six years of a new program to organize high-level scientific research training for gifted high school students in Hungary are described. Besides giving top-level research opportunities for talented students in their most receptive age, the program has already helped the establishment of almost two hundred scientific research clubs.…

Csermely, Peter

2003-01-01

85

Statistics and Scientific Method: an Introduction for Students and Researchers.  

E-print Network

Statistics and Scientific Method: an Introduction for Students and Researchers. Peter J. Diggle and interpreting data. This makes it relevant to al- most every kind of scientific investigation. In practice, most scientific data involve some degree of imprecision or uncertainty, and one consequence of this is that data

Diggle, Peter J.

86

Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing Past, Present and Future Changes in Arctic Terrestrial and Marine Systems" (Kananaskis, Alberta/Canada, February 2012). During these workshops, key areas and key scientific themes as well as drilling and site-survey strategies were discussed. Major scientific themes for future Arctic drilling will include: - The Arctic Ocean during the transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions and millennial scale climate changes; - Physical and chemical changes of the evolving Polar Ocean and Arctic gateways; - Impact of Pleistocene/Holocene warming and sea-level rise on upper continental slope and shelf gas hydrates and on shelf permafrost; - Land-ocean interactions; - Tectonic evolution and birth of the Arctic Ocean basin: Arctic ridges, sea floor spreading and global lithosphere processes. When thinking about future Arctic drilling, it should be clearly emphasized that for the precise planning of future Arctic Ocean drilling campaigns, including site selection, evaluation of proposed drill sites for safety and environmental protection, etc., comprehensive site survey data are needed first. This means that the development of a detailed site survey strategy is a major challenge for the coming years. Here, an overview of perspectives and plans for future Arctic Ocean drilling will be presented.

Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

2012-04-01

87

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

Nigg, Joel T.

2012-01-01

88

On the formalization and reuse of scientific research.  

PubMed

The reuse of scientific knowledge obtained from one investigation in another investigation is basic to the advance of science. Scientific investigations should therefore be recorded in ways that promote the reuse of the knowledge they generate. The use of logical formalisms to describe scientific knowledge has potential advantages in facilitating such reuse. Here, we propose a formal framework for using logical formalisms to promote reuse. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by using it in a worked example from biology: demonstrating cycles of investigation formalization [F] and reuse [R] to generate new knowledge. We first used logic to formally describe a Robot scientist investigation into yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) functional genomics [f(1)]. With Robot scientists, unlike human scientists, the production of comprehensive metadata about their investigations is a natural by-product of the way they work. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the research in investigating yeast phenotypes [r(1) = R(f(1))]. This investigation found that the removal of non-essential enzymes generally resulted in enhanced growth. The phenotype investigation was then formally described using the same logical formalism as the functional genomics investigation [f(2) = F(r(1))]. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the phenotype investigation to investigate yeast systems-biology modelling [r(2) = R(f(2))]. This investigation found that yeast flux-balance analysis models fail to predict the observed changes in growth. Finally, the systems biology investigation was formalized for reuse in future investigations [f(3) = F(r(2))]. These cycles of reuse are a model for the general reuse of scientific knowledge. PMID:21490004

King, Ross D; Liakata, Maria; Lu, Chuan; Oliver, Stephen G; Soldatova, Larisa N

2011-10-01

89

Editorial Research Reports on the Scientific Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine reports published in this volume reflect upon the scientific revolution of the 20th century. Technological and scientific achievements are reviewed in the light of changes they have caused in human life. The challenge put forth is whether man can use wisely the new world of options that science opens for him. In this perspective the reports…

Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

90

ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky  

E-print Network

ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky Carnegie Mellon University August, 1998 Page 1 of 28 Ethics and Etiquette in Scientific Research Rules of Conduct for Persons in Authority Department Carnegie Mellon University August, 1998 These notes are available online at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Ethics/ethics

Narasimhan, Priya

91

Patterns of contact and communication in scientific research collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the influence of physical proximity on the development of collaborative relationships between scientific researchers and on the execution of their work. Our evidence is drawn from our own studies of scientific collaborators, as well as from observations of research and development activities collected by other investigators. These descriptions provide the foundation for a discussion of

Robert E. Kraut; Carmen Egido; Jolene Galegher

1988-01-01

92

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

PubMed Central

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children’s development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge. PMID:22642834

Nigg, Joel T.

2015-01-01

93

Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned. Scientific uncertainties, sources, and consequences have been most widely discussed in the review papers. Research papers and mass media tend to emphasize more the certainty of their scientific results or the benefits of the nanotechnology applications. Neither the broad spectrum nor any specifications of uncertainties have been communicated. This indicates that there has been no effective dialogue over scientific uncertainty with the public so far.

Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

2014-05-01

94

Future trends in research in psoriatic arthritis.  

PubMed

Major advances have taken place in the study of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the past several decades. Future trends in research will likely be based on these advances and will span a wide spectrum of activities including further refinement of disease definition and particularly disease pattern. More precise definitions for axial and peripheral disease and in particular arthritis mutilans will be necessary for further genetic and biomarker studies. Early definition of PsA is crucial. Future research will concentrate on identifying genetic and other biomarkers for early diagnosis, disease expression, disease progression, and comorbidities. Newer therapies will be developed as well. PMID:22751608

Gladman, Dafna D

2012-07-01

95

The Frontiers of Resource-Related Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's and tomorrow's challenges with respect to energy rise beyond assessing the volume, type, distribution, and viability of various energy resources. Access to clean, reliable, and affordable energy supplies requires a much more comprehensive understanding of the full costs, benefits, and inherent risks encompassing the entire life cycle of both the energy commodity/capability itself, as well as those supplementary resources needed for energy production and use, such as water and minerals. Research and assessment science conducted by the US Geological Survey (USGS) spans this range from traditional energy resources such as oil, gas, and coal; to currently under utilized resources such as geothermal, wind, and uranium; as well as more long-term future resources such as gas hydrates. With mission space that includes energy and minerals, water, natural hazards, environmental health, ecosystems, and climate and land use change, increasingly USGS is taking advantage of its integrated science approach and its tradition of working with partners to conduct collaborative research developing methodologies that build on traditional energy-related research. The USGS is incorporating scientific information about geologic, geophysical, biologic, hydrologic, and in some cases socio-economic, trade-offs to be considered by decision makers regarding energy resource development and use. This basic resource information informs the Nation's decisions of how to manage a dynamically evolving energy mix in both an economically and environmentally sustainable manner.

McNutt, M. K.

2012-12-01

96

Visualization: Expanding Scientific and Engineering Research Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of scientific visualization to represent the solutions obtained in computational science and engineering is discussed. The short- and long-term needs of those who use visualization tools and those who create them are addressed. For the user a three-tiered model environment is beginning to emerge that categorizes visualization systems by such factors as power, cost, and software support. Workstations

Thomas A. Defanti; Maxine D. Brown; Bruce H. Mccormick

1989-01-01

97

Using scientifically based research to guide educational decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article identifies what scientifically based research (SBR) means in the field of education. It describes how teachers and administrators are required by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to use SBR to select teaching practices, curriculum, and programs. The article is designed to help educators locate and use SBR to increase student learning. It offers improvement goals and action options for administrators, teachers, and policy makers. The value of using scientifically based research is discussed along with information about possible pitfalls and differing points of view about research types. Featured are case studies with examples of how scientifically based research is conducted. Also included are references and a list of resources about scientifically based research in education.

Buchler, Beth; Margolin, Jonathan

2004-01-01

98

National Collaboratories: Applying Information Technology for Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on a National Collaboratory: Establishing the User-Developer Partnership was charged to study and report on the need for and potential of information technology to support collaboration in the conduct of scientific research. To do this, the committee focused on three discrete areas of scientific investigation: (1) oceanography, in…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.

99

Science Teaching as Educational Interrogation of Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…

Ginev, Dimitri

2013-01-01

100

Near-Future RFID Microsoft Research  

E-print Network

Artifacts Near-Future RFID ANAB JAIN Microsoft Research NICOLAI MARQUARDT University of Calgary around RFID, drawing attention to the possibilities of using the technology to connect people in curious, even celebratory ways. In our visions, RFID tagging and sensing has been extended so that tags

Greenberg, Saul

101

Game engines in scientific research - Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: DERIVED FROMCOMPUTER-BASED GAMES.Michael Lewis and Jeffrey Jacobson#GAMEENGINESIN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHenvironments using artistry andtexture maps.The cost of developing evermore realistic simulations hasgrown so huge that even gamedevelopers can no longer rely onrecouping their entire investmentfrom a single game. This has ledto the emergence of gameengines---modular simulationcode---written for a specific gamebut general enough to be used fora family of similar games. ...

Michael Lewis; Jeffrey Jacobson

2002-01-01

102

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

103

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center 2007 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.

Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul

2008-10-23

104

Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

2012-01-01

105

NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

1987-01-01

106

Proposed Spending on Colleges, Their Students, and Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on 1990, 1991, and 1992 spending by the Department of Education and other federal agencies include dollar amounts of student assistance, graduate support, institutional assistance, bilingual education, library resources, aid to disadvantaged, education research and statistics, handicapped education, scientific research, health research and…

Chronicle of Higher Education, 1991

1991-01-01

107

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities, 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data in these tables are collected biennially through the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Congressionally mandated Survey of Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities. The 1999 survey was sent to research-performing colleges and universities in the United States and to U.S. biomedical research institutions that received National…

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

108

30 CFR 580.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 580.11 Section 580.11 Mineral... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard...

2012-07-01

109

30 CFR 580.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?  

... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 580.11 Section 580.11 Mineral... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard...

2014-07-01

110

30 CFR 580.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 580.11 Section 580.11 Mineral... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard...

2013-07-01

111

76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...Evaluation and Research (HFM-17...scientific and medical literature...

2011-11-16

112

Relationships and tasks in scientific research collaborations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer-based aids for researchers and other workers have had individuals rather than groups or teams as their beneficiaries. This is unfortunate, since much work in business, government, and academia is performed by groups of people. In this paper we examine research collaborations as a particularly informative example of group work and propose a model of research collaboration that should

Robert Kraut; Jolene Galegher; Carmen Egido

1986-01-01

113

Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future  

PubMed Central

Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

2014-01-01

114

Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future.  

PubMed

Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

2014-01-01

115

Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

2008-11-01

116

Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: Săo Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality. PMID:24142308

Oliveira, Maria Christina L.; Martelli, Daniella Reis B.; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmăo L.; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Silva, Ana Cristina S. e; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

2013-01-01

117

Exploring the Use of Virtual Worlds as a Scientific Research Platform: The Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA)  

E-print Network

We describe the Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA), the first professional scientific organization based exclusively in virtual worlds (VWs). The goals of MICA are to explore the utility of the emerging VR and VWs technologies for scientific and scholarly work in general, and to facilitate and accelerate their adoption by the scientific research community. MICA itself is an experiment in academic and scientific practices enabled by the immersive VR technologies. We describe the current and planned activities and research directions of MICA, and offer some thoughts as to what the future developments in this arena may be.

Djorgovski, S G; McMillan, S; Vesperini, E; Knop, R; Farr, W; Graham, M J

2009-01-01

118

Overview: Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities, 1998  

NSF Publications Database

October 1999 Overview: Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities ... Overview: Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities, 1998 Portable ...

119

Scientific Research and Agricultural Innovation in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development and interrelationships of agriculture and agricultural research in Israel since 1920, concluding that major contributing factors to successful relationship between research and production in agriculture are a rise in the educational level of the agricultural population and a thorough knowledge of the soil and climate. (JT)

Ben-David, Joseph; Katz, Shaul

1975-01-01

120

How "Scientific" Is Science Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research articles published in the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science…

Lawson, Anton E.

2010-01-01

121

Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

Brown, C. M.

2013-12-01

122

Translational research: current status, challenges and future strategies  

PubMed Central

Advances in translational research are expected to mitigate the recent drought in new drug development. Despite significant progress recently made in biological sciences, the results are decidedly mixed with significant breakthrough in some disease areas while extensive work remains to be completed in other areas. This review article provides a general survey of the current landscape of translational research so as to identify progress and areas of needs and the associated strategy. While significant advances in the development of translational tools have been made in all fronts, the availability of predictive preclinical models remains critical for the success of translational research. This is directly correlated with the success of translational research as illustrated by the recent approval of targeted drug therapies. By the same logic, unexpected side effects can also be explained by laboratory findings, thus completing the translational cycle. Because of this reason, further collaboration between preclinical and clinical scientists is essential. Non-scientific issues have important influence on the future of this endeavor cannot be underestimated either. Nonetheless, with definitive commitment of private industry and public resources, the future of translational research is promising. PMID:22046484

Yu, Dale

2011-01-01

123

Back to the Future: Contrasting Scientific Styles in Understanding Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this rejoinder to Willis, Smagorinsky, and Douglas, the authors discuss how many of the points raised by Willis and Smagorinsky regarding their original article, which appeared in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher, are concerned less with the methods themselves than with different styles of science. The authors of this rejoinder…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Schatschneider, Christopher; Morrison, Frederick J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry J.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.

2009-01-01

124

The Swedish Research Council's Definition of 'Scientific Misconduct': A Critique.  

PubMed

There is no consensus over the proper definition of 'scientific misconduct.' There are differences in opinion not only between countries but also between research institutions in the same country. This is unfortunate. Without a widely accepted definition it is difficult for scientists to adjust to new research milieux. This might hamper scientific innovation and make cooperation difficult. Furthermore, due to the potentially damaging consequences it is important to combat misconduct. But how frequent is it and what measures are efficient? Without an appropriate definition there are no interesting answers to these questions. In order to achieve a high degree of consensus and to foster research integrity, the international dialogue over the proper definition of 'scientific misconduct' must be on going. Yet, the scientific community should not end up with the definition suggested by the Swedish Research Council. The definition the council advocates does not satisfy the ordinary language condition. That is, the definition is not consistent with how 'scientific misconduct' is used by scientists. I will show that this is due to the fact that it refers to false results. I generalise this and argue that no adequate definition of 'scientific misconduct' makes such a reference. PMID:24488724

Salwén, Hĺkan

2015-02-01

125

Optics Development In The Scientific Research And Development Branch (SRDB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly describes some of the past and present optics projects that have been undertaken by the Scientific Research & Development Branch of the Home Office. There is a strong emphasis on carrying through. the results of research. into industry so that the police can fully benefit from this work.

Stevens, Richard J.

1983-06-01

126

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

127

Nutrition and oral infectious diseases: connections and future research.  

PubMed

A workshop on nutrition and oral infectious diseases was held November 5-7, 2000 at the Forsyth Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. The goal of the symposium was to review the current state-of-the-science with regard to nutrition and oral infectious diseases (particularly periodontitis) and then connect the disciplines of nutrition, microbiology, immunology, and clinical periodontology through a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research. The workshop featured five scientific sessions (oral infections and general health, research models, nutrition and infection, nutrition and oral infection, and nutrition, oral health, and life cycle). An agenda with the complete list of speakers together with the recommendations can be found at http://www.forsyth.org/nutrition/recommendations.htm. A brief summary of the workshop is presented in this article. PMID:12060960

Mangan, Dennis F

2002-05-01

128

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences); Margaret Eisenhart (University of Colorado); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2007-08-01

129

Compelled Disclosure of Scientific Research Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal legislation requires that research produced with federal funding be available to the public under the Freedom of Information Act. I raise a concern that this power might be used to harass scientists. The goal of data sharing, however, is important, and should be facilitated through electronic data archiving.

William Gardner

2004-01-01

130

Raising money for scientific research through crowdfunding.  

PubMed

In this article we discuss the utility of crowdfunding from the perspective of individual scientists or laboratory groups looking to fund research. We address some of the main factors determining the success of crowdfunding campaigns, and compare this approach with the use of traditional funding sources. PMID:23219380

Wheat, Rachel E; Wang, Yiwei; Byrnes, Jarrett E; Ranganathan, Jai

2013-02-01

131

Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

132

Can "Scientifically Based Research" Improve Teacher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, Professor Sonia Nieto of the University of Massachusetts-Amherst presented the results of her research on the factors that contribute to the sustainment of the professional vitality and commitment of quality teachers in urban high schools. Through her interactions with the teachers in her study, Professor Nieto identified seven themes…

Mason, Terrence C.

2005-01-01

133

It's about scientific secrecy, dummy: a better equilibrium among genomics patenting, scientific research and health care.  

PubMed

This paper offers a different pragmatic and patent-based approach to concerns regarding the negative effects of genetic-based patenting on advancing scientific research and providing adequate and accessible health care services. At the basis of this approach lies an explication of a mandatory provisional patented paper procedure (PPPA), designed for genetic-based patents and administered by leading scientific journals in the field, while officially acknowledged by the USPTO, and subsequently by other patent offices as well. It is argued that the uniqueness of PPPAs lies in subsequently mitigating the negative ramifications of genetic patents on scientific research and genetic-based health care services, while basing such mitigation on a patents' advocate viewpoint that neither discards the patent system nor jeopardizes its integrity. PMID:21318322

Bentwich, Miriam

2012-06-01

134

7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400.21 Section...Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation...

2014-01-01

135

7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400.21 Section...Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation...

2013-01-01

136

7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400.21 Section...Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation...

2012-01-01

137

76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information...report of scientific and medical literature and information...Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

2011-09-26

138

S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

139

Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling  

SciTech Connect

The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

Not Available

1984-01-01

140

Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

141

Future directions for research in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improving our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (a) preclinical models, (b) experimental therapeutics, (c) early identification and intervention, (d) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria initiative, (e) ecological momentary assessment, (f) neurotechnologies, and (g) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

Damiano, Cara R; Mazefsky, Carla A; White, Susan W; Dichter, Gabriel S

2014-01-01

142

Future etiologic research in occupational cancer.  

PubMed Central

Research focused on occupational exposure has been one of the cornerstones of epidemiological research into the etiology of cancer. It is appropriate to critically assess the contribution of this research effort and to assess the potential for making significant progress in the future in unraveling the etiology of cancer by studying the occupational environment. The study of the occupational environment has indeed been very fruitful. It is likely that there remain many more carcinogens to be discovered, but we have not deployed adequately sensitive study methods. The two major obstacles to quality research have been inadequate exposure assessment and insufficient sample sizes. Quality exposure assessment requires the participation of trained experts (industrial hygienists, chemists, etc.); it also requires an adequate information base on the exposures that occur in different workplaces. We need structures and career paths that facilitate the participation of exposure experts in epidemiological research. We need active large-scale industrial hygiene surveys to better characterize the U.S. workplace. This will be useful for epidemiological studies and for public health purposes. Community-based case-control studies will need to be much larger than they have been traditionally, with 1000 as a minimum number of cases and controls. PMID:8741785

Siemiatycki, J

1995-01-01

143

Guidelines for Investigators in Scientific Research Page 1 of 3 Northwestern University  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Investigators in Scientific Research Page 1 of 3 Northwestern University Guidelines for Investigators in Scientific Research Introduction These Guidelines for Investigators in Scientific Research were in each research unit. 2. The ratio of trainees to preceptors should be small enough to permit scientific

Shahriar, Selim

144

Space research scientific and educational project of Moscow State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific and educational project of space research was initiated in Lomonosov Moscow State University in order to incorporate modern space research in the university and high education, to popularize basics of space physics, and to enhance public interest in space exploration. On 20 January, 2005 the First Russian University Satellite UNIVERSITETSKIY was launched into circular polar orbit (inclination 83 deg., altitude 940-980 km). The onboard scientific complex TATYANA as well as the mission control and information receiving center, was designed and developed in Moscow State University. The scientific program of the mission include measurements of space radiation in different energy channels, and Earth UV luminosity and lightening. A multimedia lectures "Life of the Earth in the Solar Atmosphere" containing the basic information and demonstrations of the heliophysics (including Sun structure and solar activity, heliosphere and geophysics, solar-terrestrial connections and solar influence on the Earth's life) was created for upper high-school and junior university students. For the upper-university students there was created a dozen of special computerized lab exercises based on the experimental quasi-realtime data obtained from our satellites. Students specialized in space physics from a few Russian universities are involved in scientific work based. Educational program of the project (both the multimedia lectures and lab exercises) is concentrated to upper high school, middle university and special level for space physics students. The space research scientific and educational activity of Moscow State University is a non-profit project and is open for all interested parties.

Krasotkin, S. A.; Mjagkova, I. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Radchenko, V. V.; Ryazantseva, M. O.

145

The SCAR Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica Scientific Research Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.

Storey, John W. V.; Abe, Lyu; Andersen, Michael; Anderson, Philip; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Ichikawa, Takashi; Karle, Albrecht; Lloyd, James; Masi, Silvia; Steinbring, Eric; Travouillon, Tony; Tuthill, Peter; Zhou, HongYang

2013-01-01

146

Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

2013-04-01

147

The changing pattern of industrial scientific research collaboration in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fostering closer ties between industry and universities in order to achieve better technology diffusion has become one of the major political issues in Sweden. However, little is known to what extent industries participate in scientific research, what their contribution is to knowledge production. Against the background of the contemporary global changes that are taking place in knowledge production, an attempt

Yoshiko Okubo; Cecilia Sjöberg

2000-01-01

148

Call for Proposals "Scientific Research in Biomedicine" EVALUATION GRID  

E-print Network

Arguments #12;4. INNOVATION Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or methods? Are the aimsCall for Proposals "Scientific Research in Biomedicine" EVALUATION GRID Reference number Applicant arguments and don't fill in the other fields of the evaluation grid (with the exception of the last field

De Cindio, Fiorella

149

Reply to Commentators on “Scientific Culture and Educational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reiterate their core argument that harnessing the epistemological and methodological diversity of the field to advance its common goals is difficult but essential work. And in keeping with the spirit of their article and the Scientific Research in Education report on which it is based, they encourage further debate and self-reflection in the field about these important issues

Michael J. Feuer; Lisa Towne; Richard J. Shavelson

2002-01-01

150

Society for melanoma research and american heart association scientific sessions.  

PubMed

Among the featured topics: oncolytic immunotherapy, BRAF/MEK inhibition, and a programmed death-1 inhibitor at the Society for Melanoma Research; and anticoagulation therapy, an alternative to statins, and endocarditis in the absence of dental antibiotic prophylaxis at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. PMID:25628510

Alexander, Walter

2015-01-01

151

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1984-01-01

152

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report  

E-print Network

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report 2001­2002 #12;2 #12;3 Contents Preface Foreword Recent highlights On the role of cirrus clouds in climate 11 Pathways in the ocean 19 Monitoring of tropical processes relevant to climate change 29 Current projects Climate

Stoffelen, Ad

153

Commentary on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's critique on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," by Anthony F. J. van Raan. It also presents a summary of recent work by the Leiden bibliometrics group, which van Raan has led so ably for more than 15 years. The group has established an excellent…

Lewison, Grant

2005-01-01

154

Basic materials research programs at the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) annually sponsors approximately 5000 research scientists at 1000 universities and laboratories, generating about 10,000 Ph.D. graduates per decade, all expected to publish their basic research findings in peer-reviewed journals. After a brief introduction of the nature of AFOSR's support to basic research in the U.S. and international scientific communities, work it supports

Herbert C. Carlson; K. C. Goretta

2006-01-01

155

The future of scientific communication in the earth sciences: The impact of the internet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Publication on paper of research results following peer-review and editing has been the accepted means of scientific communication for several centuries. Today, the continued growth in the volume of scientific literature, the increased unit costs of archiving paper publications, and the rapidly increasing power and availability of electronic technology are creating tremendous pressures on traditional scientific communication. The earth sciences are not immune from these pressures, and the role of the traditional publication as the primary means of communication is rapidly changing. Electronic publications and network technology are radically altering the relationship between interpretative result and the underlying data. Earth science research institutions, including the Kansas Geological Survey, are experimenting with new forms of on-line publication that assure broad access to research and data and improve application of research results to societal problems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Carr, T.R.; Buchanan, R.C.; Adkins-Heljeson, D.; Mettille, T.D.; Sorensen, J.

1997-01-01

156

Alzforum and SWAN: the present and future of scientific web communities.  

PubMed

Scientists drove the early development of the World Wide Web, primarily as a means for rapid communication, document sharing and data access. They have been far slower to adopt the web as a medium for building research communities. Yet, web-based communities hold great potential for accelerating the pace of scientific research. In this article, we will describe the 10-year experience of the Alzheimer Research Forum ('Alzforum'), a unique example of a thriving scientific web community, and explain the features that contributed to its success. We will then outline the SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) project, in which Alzforum curators are collaborating with informatics researchers to develop novel approaches that will enable communities to share richly contextualized information about scientific data, claims and hypotheses. PMID:17510163

Clark, Tim; Kinoshita, June

2007-05-01

157

Environmental Inquiry: Authentic Scientific Research for High School Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Inquiry (EI) features curriculum materials and online resources developed to help students conduct environmental science research and participate in communities of fellow student scientists. EI includes two levels of inquiry, modeled after professional scientific research. First, students learn specific research protocols, then conduct interactive research projects based on the protocols. Downloadable forms help them design experiments and then analyze, interpret, and present the results. Discussion boards and an online peer-review forum provide opportunities for interaction with fellow students. Topics include toxicology, invasive species, biodegradation, and watershed dynamics. Each of these topic areas is supported by a textbook and web-based resources.

158

Future research into abnormal uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Abnormal uterine bleeding in terms of menstrual disorders and postmenopausal bleeding are common clinical problems in both primary and secondary care. Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have offered opportunities to improve the outcomes of women suffering with these complaints. Future research should concentrate on a robust approach to the assessment of these health technologies, including the use of outcome assessments of importance to patients such as effects on health-related quality of life and taking account of patient preferences. In addition, economic evaluations need to be conducted alongside clinical research to facilitate a rational basis on which to allocate resources and upon which to base clinical decisions. Specific areas highlighted for research in this review include the role of diagnostic technologies incorporating the clinical context within which diagnostic work-up takes place. The clinical application of progesterone antagonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators is a developing area with potential for the treatment of menorrhagia. The place of minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of menstrual dysfunction and fibroid-associated menorrhagia needs more examination, as does the place of outpatient 'ambulatory' settings to provide convenient, effective 'see and treat' targeted services in both primary and secondary care. PMID:17584533

Samuel, Nadia C; Clark, T Justin

2007-12-01

159

SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING AND IMAGING INSTITUTE OVER A DECADE OF CUTTING EDGE RESEARCH  

E-print Network

SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING AND IMAGING INSTITUTE OVER A DECADE OF CUTTING EDGE RESEARCH 2007 #12, scientific computing, and image analysis. The over- arching research objective is to create new scientific within four core tracks. The first track involves research into new techniques for scientific

Utah, University of

160

Colloquium : The future of double ? decay research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current results and future perspectives of 2? decay research are reviewed. The present status of neutrino physics makes it necessary to enhance the sensitivity of 2? decay experiments (in terms of the half-life limit for the neutrinoless mode) to the level of 1026-1028 yr. Requirements for future supersensitivity projects are formulated and it is concluded that such a goal will certainly be reached in the most realistic next generation experiments (e.g., CAMEO, CUORE, GEM, GENIUS, and MAJORANA), where restrictions on the neutrino mass may be pushed down to m?<=0.01-0.05 eV. In addition, the GEM and GENIUS projects may advance the best current limits on the existence of neutralinos-as dark matter candidates-by three orders of magnitude, and at the same time may be able to identify unambiguously the dark matter signal by detection of its seasonal modulation. All of these results will provide crucial tests of the key theoretical models of modern astroparticle physics and cosmology.

Zdesenko, Yuri

2002-06-01

161

Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.  

PubMed

This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article. PMID:18651820

Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

2009-01-01

162

Future directions of delirium research and management.  

PubMed

Delirium is a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring advancements in the clinical and research realms to improve patient outcomes. Increased clinical recognition and utilisation of delirium assessment tools, along with clarification of specific risk factors and presentations in varying patient populations, will be necessary in the future. To improve predictive models for outcomes, the continued development and implementation of delirium assessment tools and severity scoring systems will be required. The interplay between the pathophysiological pathways implicated in delirium and resulting clinical presentations and outcomes will need to guide the development of appropriate prevention and treatment protocols. Multicentre randomised controlled trials of interventional therapies will then need to be performed to test their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting. PMID:23040289

Hughes, Christopher G; Brummel, Nathan E; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Girard, Timothy D; Pandharipande, Pratik P

2012-09-01

163

Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.  

SciTech Connect

Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

Choi, S. U.-S.

1998-10-20

164

Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

2014-01-01

165

7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400...AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities....

2010-01-01

166

3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential Documents...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President...Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem...

2010-01-01

167

Serge Lallemand Research Director at CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research)  

E-print Network

(Ocean Research Institute) & ENS Ulm 1982-1987 o PhD in Marine Geology, 1987 o M.S. in Geology, 1983Serge Lallemand Research Director at CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research://www.gm.univ-montp2.fr/spip/spip.php?article837 Main research interests : geodynamics of subduction zones including

Demouchy, Sylvie

168

Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

2014-01-01

169

Fraud in scientific research - birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research "Concordat", a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research. PMID:24262890

Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

2014-02-01

170

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology  

SciTech Connect

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

Hules, J. [ed.

1996-11-01

171

Toolkit for evaluating impacts of public participation in scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toolkit for Evaluating Impacts of Public Participation in Scientific Research is being developed to meet a major need in the field of visitor studies: To provide project developers and other professionals, especially those with limited knowledge or understanding of evaluation techniques, with a systematic method for assessing project impact that facilitates longitudinal and cross-project comparisons. The need for the toolkit was first identified at the Citizen Science workshop held at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in 2007 (McEver et al. 2007) and reaffirmed by a CAISE inquiry group that produced the recent report: "Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing its Potential for Informal Science Education" (Bonney et al. 2009). This presentation will introduce the Toolkit, show how it is intended to be used, and describe ways that project directors can use their programmatic goals and use toolkit materials to outline a plan for evaluating the impacts of their project.

Bonney, R.; Phillips, T.

2011-12-01

172

The Future of Empirical Methods in Software Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the vision that for all fields of software engineering (SE), empirical research methods should enable the development of scientific knowledge about how useful different SE technologies are for different kinds of actors, performing different kinds of activities, on different kinds of systems. It is part of the vision that such scientific knowledge will guide the develop- ment of

Dag I. K. Sjřberg; Tore Dybĺ; Magne Jřrgensen

2007-01-01

173

The Future of Empirical Methods in Software Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the vision that for all fields of software engineering (SE), empirical research methods should enable the development of scientific knowledge about how useful different SE technologies are for different kinds of actors, performing different kinds of activities, on different kinds of systems. It is part of the vision that such scientific knowledge will guide the development of new

D. I. K. Sjoberg; Tore Dybĺ; M. Jorgensen

2007-01-01

174

Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research: Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of scientific knowledge on intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence, with a particular focus on the measurement of gender patterns. A multimethod analysis of estimates for the incidence and prevalence of intimate and sexual aggression reveals consistencies across some methodologies and inconsistencies across others. In particular, self-report using behavioral checklists such as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales yields results that are very discrepant from other research findings. Contrary to some assertions, self-report studies using simple checklists do not represent "most data" on intimate violence; there are large criminological and public health databases that warrant attention. When these sources are considered and placed in the context of other data on violence and aggression, a clear pattern of gender asymmetry emerges, with males perpetrating more physical and sexual violence than females for virtually every form of violence ever studied. Violence research has been hampered by the conservative forces that affect most social science research, including peer review, grant review, and tenure review processes that discourage methodological innovation and reward incremental research studies. We need to focus resources on scientific and technological innovation to better understand violent phenomena and better serve all those involved in violence. Two examples of self-report methods that do not produce gender symmetry are described. PMID:24464246

Hamby, Sherry

2014-01-24

175

Eigenvector Centrality Based on Shared Research Topics in a Scientific Community  

E-print Network

Eigenvector Centrality Based on Shared Research Topics in a Scientific Community Antonio P researchers and interest groups that join them on the base of shared research topics in a given scientific Scientific communities are commonly defined as networks of scientists, researchers and professionals who aim

Boyer, Edmond

176

Causes of Vulnerability in the Implementation of Scientific Research Among Students in Jordanian Universities  

E-print Network

Causes of Vulnerability in the Implementation of Scientific Research Among Students in Jordanian the reasons for the weaknesses in the implementation of scientific researches among students in Jordanian research, low financial allocations for scientific research, concern for faculty members of overburdened

177

The Interrelated Research of Information Literacy and Scientific Research Ability of Universities Teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the meaning of the information literacy and the status and the analysis of the information literacy and scientific research ability of the college teachers, finally the author puts forward the counter-measures.

Zheng Ying

2009-01-01

178

Males Are Overrepresented among Life Science Researchers Committing Scientific Misconduct  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A review of the United States Office of Research Integrity annual reports identified 228 individuals who have committed misconduct, of which 94% involved fraud. Analysis of the data by career stage and gender revealed that misconduct occurred across the entire career spectrum from trainee to senior scientist and that two-thirds of the individuals found to have committed misconduct were male. This exceeds the overall proportion of males among life science trainees and faculty. These observations underscore the need for additional efforts to understand scientific misconduct and to ensure the responsible conduct of research. PMID:23341553

Fang, Ferric C.; Bennett, Joan W.; Casadevall, Arturo

2013-01-01

179

Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7).

Davidhazy, Andrew

1994-12-01

180

Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

Eisner, Elliot

2006-01-01

181

Cultivating the scientific research ability of undergraduates with thesis and research project combined  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graduation thesis research is an important practical teaching part in training the specialized and the overall quality of students in institutions of higher learning, it is an effective way to train the ability of working independently, scientific research and innovation capacity of students. The combination of thesis and research projects had not only solved the lack of funds at present

Xiuhong Peng; Shijun Ni; Chengshi Qing; Zeqin Li; Chengjiang Zhang

2010-01-01

182

How researchers are using the OPAC of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research Library Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The importance of online public access catalogues (OPACs) has changed in recent years, mainly due to the large number of electronic resources now available. The aim of this study is to learn about and evaluate the use made by researchers of the OPAC of the library network of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research, the largest research institution

Virginia Ortiz-repiso; Virginia Bazán; Agnčs Ponsati; Mario Cottereau

2006-01-01

183

Evaluating Research in Career and Technical Education Using Scientifically-Based Research Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent emphasis on scientifically-based research (SBR) as the government's favored research paradigm has direct implications for career and technical education (CTE). From a practical standpoint, federal funds will now be appropriated exclusively on scholars' readiness and ability to engage the "right" research questions. While the government…

Gemici, Sinan; Rojewski, Jay W.

2007-01-01

184

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-12-31

185

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-01-01

186

Predicting the future: towards symbiotic computational and experimental angiogenesis research.  

PubMed

Understanding the fundamental organisational principles underlying the complex and multilayered process of angiogenesis is the mutual aim of both the experimental and theoretical angiogenesis communities. Surprisingly, these two fields have in the past developed in near total segregation, with neither fully benefiting from the other. However, times are changing and here we report on the new direction that angiogenesis research is taking, where from well-integrated collaborations spring new surprises, experimental predictions and research avenues. We show that several successful ongoing collaborations exist in the angiogenesis field and analyse what aspects of their approaches led them to achieve novel and impactful biological insight. We conclude that there are common elements we can learn from for the future, and provide a list of guidelines to building a successful collaborative venture. Specifically, we find that a near symbiosis of computation with experimentation reaps the most impactful results by close cyclical feedback and communication between the two disciplines resulting in continual refinement of models, experimental directions and our understanding. We discuss high impact examples of predictive modelling from the wider, more established integrated scientific domains and conclude that the angiogenesis community can do nothing but benefit from joining this brave new, integrated world. PMID:23415766

Bentley, Katie; Jones, Martin; Cruys, Bert

2013-05-15

187

A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

Lintz, Elizabeth M.

2008-01-01

188

Web Services Provide Access to SCEC Scientific Research Application Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote computer located elsewhere on the Internet. The value of a web service is that it can (1) run a scientific code without the user needing to install and learn the intricacies of running the code; (2) provide the technical framework which allows a user's computer to talk to the remote computer which performs the service; (3) provide the computational resources to run the code; and (4) bundle several analysis steps and provide the end results in digital or (post-processed) graphical form. Within an NSF-sponsored ITR project coordinated by SCEC, we are constructing web services using architectural protocols and programming languages (e.g., Java). However, because the SCEC community has a rich pool of scientific research software (written in traditional languages such as C and FORTRAN), we also emphasize making existing scientific codes available by constructing web service frameworks which wrap around and directly run these codes. In doing so we attempt to broaden community usage of these codes. Web service wrapping of a scientific code can be done using a "web servlet" construction or by using a SOAP/WSDL-based framework. This latter approach is widely adopted in IT circles although it is subject to rapid evolution. Our wrapping framework attempts to "honor" the original codes with as little modification as is possible. For versatility we identify three methods of user access: (A) a web-based GUI (written in HTML and/or Java applets); (B) a Linux/OSX/UNIX command line "initiator" utility (shell-scriptable); and (C) direct access from within any Java application (and with the correct API interface from within C++ and/or C/Fortran). This poster presentation will provide descriptions of the following selected web services and their origin as scientific application codes: 3D community velocity models for Southern California, geocoordinate conversions (latitude/longitude to UTM), execution of GMT graphical scripts, data format conversions (Gocad to Matlab format), and implementation of Seismic Hazard Analysis application programs that calculate hazard curve and hazard map data sets.

Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Okaya, D.; Kamb, L.; Maechling, P.

2003-12-01

189

Damage Assessment of Structures an Air Force Office of Scientific Research  

E-print Network

Damage Assessment of Structures an Air Force Office of Scientific Research Structural Mechanics Perspective Victor Giurgiutiu, PhD Air Force Office of Scientific Research Structural Mechanics Program 875 Mechanics program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research on the damage assessment of structures

Giurgiutiu, Victor

190

Why Citizen Science? Public participation in scientific research, commonly called citizen  

E-print Network

Findings Why Citizen Science? Public participation in scientific research, commonly called citizen participation in scientific research (PPSR) is on the rise. If we are to capitalize on and leverage. The landscape of public participation in scientific research is rich. Projects vary widely across each

Hall, Sharon J.

191

Exploring the Use of Virtual Worlds as a Scientific Research Platform: The Meta-Institute for  

E-print Network

Exploring the Use of Virtual Worlds as a Scientific Research Platform: The Meta, and to facilitate and accelerate their adoption by the scientific research community. MICA itself is an experiment Lecture Notes Ser., Berlin: Springer Verlag (2009) #12;modern society, including scientific research

Hut, Piet

192

New Distributed Research Practices and Scientific Immersion of Graduate Students with the Support of Technologies  

E-print Network

New Distributed Research Practices and Scientific Immersion of Graduate Students with the Support, creating challenges for the processes of collaborative research, joint supervision and scientific immersion: multidisciplinary research, team work, use of new technologies, scientific objectivity and the respect of ethical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

National Research Council Report:National Research Council Report: "Virtual Reality: Scientific and"Virtual Reality: Scientific and  

E-print Network

-distant future. Leverage criteria. ­ Leverage, cost-effectiveness & ratio of payoff to effort. Science.Leverage criteria. ­­ Leverage, costLeverage, cost--effectiveness & ratio of payoff to effort.effectiveness & ratioPosition Tracking and Mapping #12;Chapters Part II: Research and Technology · Whole-Body Motion, Motion Sickness

McDowell, Perry

194

Water research to support society: past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years. Historical changes in focus areas clearly reflect the shifts in societal needs, going from industrialization to the information society and globalization. Present research needs will be illustrated in the on-going practical work to support water managers and decision makers with hydrological forecasts, climate change impact assessments, improved water status for biodiversity and statistics for dimensioning safe infrastructure. Different approaches to applied research and ways to implement new knowledge in society will be discussed. Future research is suggested to embrace the complexity of the water systems by linking scales, monitoring systems, processes, disciplines and various users. Some ingredients to achieve a coordinated effort in the scientific community will be suggested, based on new technology, multi-data, transparency and the principles of sharing. To handle the problems of the Antropocene, improved knowledge accumulation to advance science and interactions with other disciplines is absolutely necessary. These should be the basic elements of Panta Rhei.

Arheimer, Berit

2014-05-01

195

Evolution of scientific ballooning and its impact on astrophysics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we celebrate the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays on a manned balloon, it seems appropriate to reflect on the evolution of ballooning and its scientific impact. Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Ballooning was revolutionized in 1950 with the introduction of the so-called natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for more than a half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey report supports super-pressure balloon development and the giant step forward it offers with ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights at constant altitudes for about 100 days.

Jones, William Vernon

2014-05-01

196

Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research  

PubMed Central

Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075

Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2008-01-01

197

InventIngFuture Virginia Tech Research CenterArlington  

E-print Network

InventIngFuture the Virginia Tech Research Center­Arlington Virginia Tech is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution. InventIng the Future Virginia Tech Founded in 1872 as a land-grant college, Virginia Tech is the most comprehensive university in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is among the top research

Buehrer, R. Michael

198

Berlin: Scientific Jazz in New Orleans 1 LSUHSC's Kresge Hearing Research Laboratory  

E-print Network

Berlin: Scientific Jazz in New Orleans 1 l LSUHSC's Kresge Hearing Research Laboratory: Scientific Jazz in New Orleans Charles I. Berlin #12;Berlin: Scientific Jazz in New Orleans 2 ABBREVIATIONS NIH MLR = middle-latency response #12;Berlin: Scientific Jazz in New Orleans 3 OAE = otoacoustic emission

199

30 CFR 580.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? 580.21 Section 580...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a...

2012-07-01

200

30 CFR 580.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?  

...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? 580.21 Section 580...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a...

2014-07-01

201

30 CFR 580.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? 580.21 Section 580...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a...

2013-07-01

202

Ethics of Academic Research (2 ECTS) Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) and Scientific Misconduct  

E-print Network

Ethics of Academic Research (2 ECTS) Contents: · Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) and Scientific Misconduct · Ethical (Pre-)Review and the RCR Investigation Process · Questions Pertaining to All authorship, peer review, mentor/trainee responsibilities) · Discipline-Specific Ethical Issues (human

Wahlberg, Niklas

203

Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches to improving diversity in scientific research focus on graduating more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, but graduation with a STEM undergraduate degree alone is not sufficient for entry into graduate school. Undergraduate independent research experiences are becoming more or less a prerequisite…

Bangera, Gita; Brownell, Sara E.

2014-01-01

204

Component research for future propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors affecting the helicopter market for the past, present, and future are reviewed. Acquisition cost, mission reliability, life cycle cost and civil and military aspects are reviewed. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations and the component technology for the engine systems are discussed. The selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency is considered.

Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

1981-01-01

205

Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

2007-06-01

206

Entrepreneurship: Past Research and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions and shortcomings of past entrepreneurship research can be viewed within the context of six research design specifications: purpose, theoretical perspective, focus, level of analysis, time frame and methodology. The authors suggest a unifying definition of the field of entrepreneurship. The recent trend toward theory driven research that is contextual and process oriented is encouraging. It is time for

Murray B. Low; Ian C. MacMillan

1988-01-01

207

A study for sustaining quality improvement of scientific research in Romanian universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the outcomes of a research conducted to identify some solutions that support the improvement process of the academic scientific research in the context of Romania's accession to the European Union. The research starting point for the research has been a survey that has evaluated the way the academic scientific research is perceived by the academic community by

M. Olaru; C. Paunescu; I. M. D. Sandru

208

The Capacity of a Scientific Community: A Study of the Travel and Tourism Research Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research communication and knowledge networking contribute to the capacity building of a scientific community. Tourism and hospitality research associations are characterized by producers and users of multidisciplinary field research, and are exemplars of an applied social scientific community. This study focuses on the role of research associations in the capacity building of an applied research community and consequently in the

Honggen Xiao

2011-01-01

209

BUILDING THE FUTURE OF NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH  

E-print Network

will allow for cutting-edge re- search well into the future as technology evolves. This important addition have begun to rise from the ground and the concrete for the first three floors has been poured. As concrete for upper floors of the build- ing is completed, the construction team will start installation

Klein, Ophir

210

Renewal and Revitalization of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), a body of the International Council for Science (ICSU), has recently completed a major reform. The reform process began with the formation in April 1999 of an ad hoc Group on SCAR Organisation and Strategy, chaired by Philip M. Smith, to review SCAR's mission, governance, and performance. The group recommended a number of changes to SCAR in April 2000. Most of these have now been adopted. SCAR has a new constitution; a new structure; a new executive office, headed for the first time by an executive director; a new strategy, mission, and objectives; and a new science plan (for details, see the SCAR Web site, http://www.scar.org). These changes will enable SCAR to play as important and vital a role at the beginning of the 21st century as it did when it was formed in 1958 to continue the international coordination of Antarctic scientific research that ICSU had begun during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958.

Summerhayes, Colin

2005-03-01

211

TDR research on dengue: recommendations of a scientific working group.  

PubMed

Based on a scientific working group meeting in April 2000, this paper highlights the role of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) in dengue fever prevention and control. Data showed that dengue infection is found in over 100 countries and territories and causes an estimated 50-100 million cases a year. TDR is expected to promote multicenter studies for developing and evaluating community-based mosquito control strategies. On the other hand, in Product Research and Development, a high priority is to develop tests to detect primary or secondary dengue infections early in the course of infection. It was recommended that TDR accelerate development of the current candidates, in collaboration with the current research groups, by appointing a task force with responsibilities for the design and conduct of Phase I-III trials. Finally, it was recommended that other important needed research on dengue, such as case management, clinico-epidemiological diagnosis, and surveillance, should be addressed by other players in the dengue research arena. PMID:12296148

2000-06-01

212

Investigating the Impact on Skill Development of an Undergraduate Scientific Research Skills Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design and subsequent impact of a scientific research skills course. Student understanding of the university research environment, their confidence in finding and using scientific literature and in scientific writing and presentation pre- and post-course was investigated. The findings suggested that understanding of the…

Yeoman, Kay H.; Zamorski, Barbara

2008-01-01

213

The ScienTific council of The european reSearch council  

E-print Network

The ScienTific council of The european reSearch council Bringing great ideas to life ©CNRS ©SP for Research. October 2005 The ERC Scientific Council meets for the first time. February 2007 The ERC The Structure of the erc The ERC consists of a Scientific Council and an Executive Agency. It operates

De Cindio, Fiorella

214

The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

Danch, J. M.

2010-12-01

215

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

216

Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

1980-01-01

217

Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7). The STPL could acquire more technical assignments if examples of the areas where they posses expertise would be circulated around the center. The fact that the STPL owns high speed video capability could be 'advertised' among its customer base if there truly was an interest in building up a customer base in this area. The STPL could participate in events like TOPS as an exhibitor, as well as

Davidhazy, Andrew

1994-01-01

218

A More Comprehensive Index in the Evaluation of Scientific Research: The Single Researcher Impact Factor Proposal  

PubMed Central

Good alternatives to the Impact Factor (IF) algorithm are needed. The Thomson IF represents a limited measure of the importance of an individual article because 80% of a journal's IF is determined by only the 20% of the papers published. In the past few years, several new indexes has been created to provide alternatives to the IF algorithm. These include the removal of self citations from the calculation of the IF using the Adjusted IF, Index Copernicus initiative and other modifications such as the Cited Half-Life IF, Median IF, Disciplinary IF, and Prestige Factor. There is also the Euro-Factor, born in Europe to avoid the strong US centrality, and the English language basis of the Thomson database. One possible strategy to avoid "IF supremacy" is to create a new index, the Single Researcher Impact Factor (SRIF), that would move the evaluation from the power of scientific journals to the quality of single researchers. This measure can take into account the number and quality of the traditional publications and other activities usually associated with being a researcher, such as reviewing manuscripts, writing books, and attending scientific meetings. Also, in funding policy, it might be more useful to consider the merits, contributions, and real impact of all the scientific activities of a single researcher instead of adding only the journals' IF numbers. The major aim of this paper is to propose and describe the SRIF index that could represent a novel option to evaluate scientific research and researchers. PMID:21339895

Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Limonta, Daniel; Sarmiento, Luis; Molinari, Enrico

2010-01-01

219

Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

Samios,N.P.

2008-11-17

220

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in the IPY 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) initiates, develops, and coordinates international scientific research in the Antarctic region. SCAR is assuming a leadership position in the IPY primarily through its five major Scientific Research Programs; ACE, SALE, EBA, AGCS, and ICESTAR; which will be briefly described.Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) promotes the exchange of data and ideas between research groups focusing on the evolution of Antarctica's climate system and ice sheet. The program will: (1) quantitatively assess the climate and glacial history of Antarctica; (2) identify the processes which govern Antarctic change and feed back around the globe; (3) improve our ability to model past changes in Antarctica; and (4)document past change to predict future change in Antarctica. Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) promotes, facilitates, and champions cooperation and collaboration in the exploration and study of subglacial environments in Antarctica. SALE intends to understand the complex interplay of biological, geological, chemical, glaciological, and physical processes within subglacial lake environments through coordinated international research teams. Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic (EBA) will use a suite of modern techniques and interdisciplinary approaches, to explore the evolutionary history of selected modern Antarctic biota, examine how modern biological diversity in the Antarctic influences the way present-day ecosystems function, and thereby predict how the biota may respond to future environmental change. Antarctica and the Global Climate System (AGCS) will investigate the nature of the atmospheric and oceanic linkages between the climate of the Antarctic and the rest of the Earth system, and the mechanisms involved therein. A combination of modern instrumented records of atmospheric and oceanic conditions, and the climate signals held within ice cores will be used to understand past and future climate variability and change in the Antarctic as a result of natural and anthropogenic forcings over the last 100,000 years. Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research (ICESTAR) will study the interactions between and collective behavior of the many component parts of the Earth system, including the interaction between the natural environment and human society. Objectives include specification and prediction of the state of the system and assimilation and integration of data from disparate sources to understand the complex geospace environment.

Kennicutt, M. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Summerhayes, C.

2005-05-01

221

Organizational Errors: Directions for Future Research  

E-print Network

The goal of this chapter is to promote research about organizational errors—i.e., the actions of multiple organizational participants that deviate from organizationally specified rules and can potentially result in adverse ...

Carroll, John Stephen

222

Transportation Research Circular: Future Aviation Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 12th International Workshop on Future Aviation Activities was held in September 2002, and this collection of presentation transcripts was released the following January. Many references to the September 11 terrorist attacks are made, especially concerning airport security measures and changes in the public's views of flying. Speakers also addressed long-term trends in air transportation, such as airspace capacity and general aviation growth. Nearly every kind of aviation was discussed; ranging from domestic to international activities and airports to manufacturers, the event had implications for the industry as a whole.

2003-01-01

223

Component research for future propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

1981-01-01

224

Future Research in Adipose Stem Cell Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adipose stem cells have a bright prospect in regenerative medicine for tissue\\/organ engineering. However, some hurdles may\\u000a hinder the progress of adipose stem cell engineering. Therefore this chapter highlights the advances in adipose stem cell\\u000a researches, and focuses on prospective researches that are needed to overcome the hurdles in adipose stem cell engineering,\\u000a i.e., to identify the various stem cells

Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

225

Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System.  

PubMed

Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L

2010-06-01

226

Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System  

PubMed Central

Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

2010-01-01

227

Research on Families: Current Assessment and Future Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a special issue on research on families with a mentally retarded member. The paper cites advances in descriptive family research, encourages careful study of the research base, and outlines plans for future improvements by identifying the field's strengths and resources. (JDD)

Ramey, Sharon Landesman; And Others

1989-01-01

228

Reshaping the Future of Social Studies: Literature/Research Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature/research review was conducted to provide information to guide future work on the Western Canadian Protocol Social Studies K-12 Project and reflects the researchers' perspectives on topics and subjects reviewed. The review represents a broad synthesis of relevant research and literature in the key areas identified, not an exhaustive…

McKay, Roberta; Gibson, Susan

229

There is no scientific rationale for race-based research.  

PubMed Central

For centuries, the colonial governments used a combination of race and ethnic characteristics to subjugate and control people of color, and scientists of the day provided evidence of the "natural order of things" to support national policies of domination, segregation and control. There have been many examples of events in the past 70 years to suggest that achievements by ethnic peoples are not genetically determined and that race and ethnicity are merely terms to describe external features, language, culture, social mores and folklore. BiDil was the first drug in this country approved by the FDA for use in a single "race" after a clinical trial that enrolled only members of that race. Thus arose the question of the efficacy of doing race-based research in humans. In order for this kind of research to have any scientific basis, each individually defined or self-declared race would have to have a 100% pure gene pool, and the data show that the gene pool among whites, blacks and Hispanics in America is very heterogeneous. This makes for far greater similarities among U.S. citizens than any perceived differences, and genomic science has failed to support the concept of racial categories in medicine. Scientists involved with the first mapping of the human genome have noted that there is no basis in the genetic code for race. That being the case, there appears to be no justification for race-based research among human beings. PMID:17595942

Hoover, Eddie L.

2007-01-01

230

20 Integrating mechanisms and function: prospects for future research  

E-print Network

20 · Integrating mechanisms and function: prospects for future research H. JANE BROCKMANN, RUI F Reproductive Tactics, ed. Rui F. Oliveira, Michael Taborsky, and H. Jane Brockmann. Published by Cambridge

231

The German joint research project "concepts for future gravity satellite missions"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the German joint research project "concepts for future gravity satellite missions", funded by the Geotechnologies programme of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, options and concepts for future satellite missions for precise (time-variable) gravity field recovery are investigated. The project team is composed of members from science and industry, bringing together experts in geodesy, satellite systems, metrology, sensor technology and control systems. The majority of team members already contributed to former gravity missions. The composition of the team guarantees that not only geodetic aspects and objectives are investigated, but also technological and financial constraints are considered. Conversely, satellite, sensor and system concepts are developed and improved in a direct exchange with geodetic and scientific claims. The project aims to develop concepts for both near and mid-term future satellite missions, taking into account e.g. advanced satellite formations and constellations, improved orbit design, innovative metrology and sensor systems and advances in satellite systems.

Reubelt, Tilo; Sneeuw, Nico; Fichter, Walter; Müller, Jürgen

2010-05-01

232

The Future of Research in Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

Duke, Charles

2006-03-01

233

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

234

Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently re- ceiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new- genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared,

Bruce J. Avolio; Fred O. Walumbwa; Todd J. Weber

2009-01-01

235

The Role of Student-Advisor Interactions in Apprenticing Undergraduate Researchers into a Scientific Community of Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are themselves apprentices to faculty members. As such, research mentors of undergraduate students should be aware of the dual scientific and educational aspects of their advising role and its significance in shaping students' identities and career trajectories.

Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.

2011-12-01

236

Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Can a Successful Program of Research Exist without Scientific-Based Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents an attempt at determining if a construct, rather than an instructional method, is supported by scientifically-based research. The purpose of this study was to examine the credibility of evidence-based claims underlying the literature related to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (Shulman, 1986). Using a hybrid…

Holder, K. C.

2004-01-01

237

Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

238

Applying Microsoft Research Technologies to the 4th Paradigm in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In part as a recognition of the ’4th Paradigm’ in scientific discovery, in recent years Microsoft Research has steadily increased\\u000a its interest in the application of computer science tools and technologies to breakthrough science. This has happened in diverse\\u000a areas of research ranging from astronomy to oceanography, from molecular biology to ’big history’ and from sociology to climatology.\\u000a The emergence

Daron G. Green

2011-01-01

239

Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

Puri, Anu

2013-01-01

240

Directions for future research in drug abuse prevention.  

PubMed

This paper describes future directions for research in drug abuse prevention from six perspectives that are relevant to NIH: integrated demand and supply reduction, strategic prevention that addresses whole populations and high risk groups, comprehensive or extended prevention that includes multiple channels and periods for intervention delivery, technology transfer, prevention research methods development, and finally, the overarching perspective of interfacing basic and social science research approaches. Specific research questions are summarized that represent each perspective, with implications for NIH policy. PMID:7845932

Pentz, M A

1994-09-01

241

International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions, and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations, and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2013-01-01

242

International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2014-10-01

243

Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to…

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2007-01-01

244

Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code. We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higher-quality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

2014-05-01

245

Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

2014-01-01

246

Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

1997-01-01

247

S2I2 Exploratory Workshop: Open Source Software as a Foundation for Scientific Research  

E-print Network

S2I2 Exploratory Workshop: Open Source Software as a Foundation for Scientific Research The goal of this workshop is to discuss the viability and potential impact of the creation of a Scientific Software Innovation Institute (S2I2) that would support the use of open source software as a foundation for scientific

Stein, William

248

Scientific Uncertainty in News Coverage of Cancer Research: Effects of Hedging on Scientists' and Journalists' Credibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News reports of scientific research are rarely hedged; in other words, the reports do not contain caveats, limitations, or other indicators of scientific uncertainty. Some have suggested that hedging may influence news consumers' perceptions of scientists' and journalists' credibility (perceptions that may be related to support for scientific

Jensen, Jakob D.

2008-01-01

249

Cultivating Global Science IN OUR RAPIDLY EXPANDING GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ENTERPRISE, GOOD SCIENCE ANYWHERE  

E-print Network

Cultivating Global Science IN OUR RAPIDLY EXPANDING GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ENTERPRISE, GOOD with transparent processes to promote rigorous peer review and scientific integrity. Last year on this page, I and accelerates the pace of scientific discoveries to address the many grand chal- lenges facing humanity

Suresh, Subra

250

The AAAI Fall Symposium on "Discovery Informatics: The Role of AI Research in Innovating Scientific Processes"  

E-print Network

by the growing availability of data, analytic methods, and publications. Many scientific questions requireThe AAAI Fall Symposium on "Discovery Informatics: The Role of AI Research in Innovating Scientific was to discuss the role of AI techniques in improving or innovating scientific discovery processes. This paper

Gil, Yolanda

251

Neurosciences research in space - Future directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

1991-01-01

252

Wildland fire ash: future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdŕ, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdŕ and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdŕ, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdŕ, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdŕ, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-05-01

253

Research for Change: the role of scientific journals publishing mental health research  

PubMed Central

There is an enormous gap between the burden of mental disorders and mental health resources in low- and middle-income countries. The Mental Health: Global Action Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) envisions an active role for research in the multidimensional efforts required to change the current mental health situation in these countries (Research for Change). WHO's strategies to achieve this include developing a research policy and a priority agenda at country level with active collaboration from all stakeholders, building research capacity and infrastructure and involving scientific journals to stimulate and disseminate public health oriented research. A recently agreed joint statement by editors of prominent journals publishing mental health research and WHO sets major objectives and some possible strategies for achieving this. WHO is committed to making Research for Change a reality by working with partners who share this aim. PMID:16633460

Saxena, Shekhar; Sharan, Pratap; Saraceno, Benedetto

2004-01-01

254

Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various scientific disciplines represented in investigations on ISS? Are there lessons specific to human research, technology development, life sciences, and physical sciences that can be used to increase future research accomplishments? Research has been conducted and completed on ISS under a set of challenging constraints during the past 7 years. The history of research accomplished on ISS during this time serves as an indicator of the value and potential of ISS when full utilization begins. By learning from our early experience in completing research on ISS, NASA and our partners can be positioned to optimize research returns as a full crew complement comes onboard, assembly is completed, and research begins in full.

Robinson, Julie A.

2007-01-01

255

The Future Directions of Lupus Research Presented by  

E-print Network

The Future Directions of Lupus Research Presented by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services of Lupus Systemic Autoimmunity 7 Genetics of Human Lupus 8 Environmental Factors 10 Medications 10 Lupus, Special Populations, Epidemiology, and Health Services Research 37 Pediatric Lupus 37 Special

Bandettini, Peter A.

256

The future of performance?related sports biomechanics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of performance?related research in sports biomechanics is presented describing the relevant techniques of data analysis and data processing together with the methods used in experimental and theoretical studies. Advances in data collection and processing techniques which are necessary for the future development of sports biomechanics research are identified. The difficulties associated with experimental studies in sports biomechanics are

M. R. Yeadon; J. H. Challis

1994-01-01

257

PERSPECTIVES Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVES Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics: where to from here? Niko Holderegger Ă? Helene H. Wagner Ă? Participants of the Landscape Genetics Research Agenda Workshop 2007 Received+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Landscape genetics is an emerging inter- disciplinary field that combines

258

How College Affects Students: Ten Directions for Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research literature on how college affects students is expanding at an exponential rate. This paper identifies and discusses ten directions for future research on college impact that have the potential to enhance the quality and importance of the evidence produced.

Pascarella, Ernest T.

2006-01-01

259

Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

2012-01-01

260

The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of ufology demonstrates that cultural packaging—a sort of once-removed indication of scientific authority—can be key in creating knowledge accepted as scientific. This adds a new dimension to the argument that scientific legitimacy is constructed, not just from scientific methodologies and institutional location, but also of language, culture, rhetoric, and symbols. Fringe researchers can make their cases for legitimacy

Anne Cross

2004-01-01

261

The Zooniverse: Cutting Edge Scientific Research in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly scientists and researchers from a multitude of disciplines are finding themselves inundated with more data than they could possibly interpret in a lifetime. Computers can be used entirely or partially for some data analysis; but there are some tasks that are currently best suited to human eyes, ears and brains. Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org) invites members of the public to help researchers analyze and interpret data. To date, hundreds of thousands of volunteers have been involved in classifying images, interpreting sounds and transcribing texts. Zooniverse citizen scientists are providing valuable analyses across a variety of fields, from the hunt for exoplanets in Planet Hunters (planethunters.org) to the transcription of Greek papyri in Ancient Lives (ancientlives.org). Multiple academic publications have resulted from the combined efforts of the Zooniverse community and science teams demonstrating that citizen science is more than ever becoming a well-established method of doing research. Unlike most research projects the data, analysis and interactions with the science teams have an established and visible online presence through the project website and related discussion sites and blogs. These in themselves provide a valuable classroom resource, an opportunity for free and easy access to cutting edge scientific research. Anecdotal evidence exists that teacher can and already do use Zooniverse projects. By providing a rich and varied scaffolding to accompany the Zooniverse projects the opportunity exists for bringing citizen scientists to a wider classroom audience. An audience that may include non-specialist teachers, who require additional support to deliver challenging content, or time strapped educators who haven't the time to develop their own accompanying resources to weave Zooniverse projects into their lessons. During the session we will discuss the recent Zooniverse projects specifically designed to support and promote classroom adoption locally, within the Chicago Public School (CPS) system and nationally within the United States. Introducing ZooTeach, a website where educators may share and search for lesson plans, activities, and resources. Beyond a simple lesson plan repository, ZooTeach is a community where educators are encouraged to modify, comment on, and otherwise actively participate in the educational efforts of Zooniverse. Teacher workshops run at Adler have and will continue to have the dual effect of promoting the Zooniverse and it's educational effort while increasing the pool of resources available nationally via ZooTeach. In house developed teacher guides and interactive tools allowing for the collection and manipulation of data will further enhance the classroom education experience and further lower the bar for entry into the world of citizen science.

Borden, K. A.; Whyte, L. F.; Smith, A.; Tarnoff, A.; Schmitt, H.

2012-12-01

262

The Future of the U.S. Research University  

E-print Network

only. A central characteristic of research universities is that they thrive on synergy that flows from their mixture of research, graduate study, and undergraduate instruction. Each element depends on the other and each is improved by the presence...KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu The Future of the US Research University 2011 by David Shulenburger This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication and Copyright. Please...

Shulenburger, David E.

2011-01-01

263

The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and warming water temperatures. Citizen science projects fulfill the requirements of government granting institutions for outreach and scientific communication. This presentation will highlight marine research projects, which have not only engaged citizens in the scientific process but also discuss the impacts of associated outreach, capacity building and community environmental stewardship.

Burgess, S. N.

2010-12-01

264

A bibliometric analysis of scientific production in mesothelioma research.  

PubMed

This study aims at comparing scientific production in malignant mesothelioma (MM) among countries and evaluating publication trends and impact factor (IF). The PubMed database was searched with a strategy combining keywords listed in the Medical Subject Headings and free-text search. Publications numbers and IF were evaluated both as absolute values and after standardization by population and gross domestic product (GDP). 5240 citations were retrieved from the biennium 1951-1952 (n = 22) to 2005-2006 (n = 535). The 177% increase of MM publications from 1987 to 2006 exceeded by large the corresponding value of total cancer literature (123.5%). In these two decades, 2559 articles with IF were published: 46.4% came from the European Union (EU) (the UK, Italy and France ranking at the top), and 36.2% from the US. The highest mean IF was reported for the US (3.346), followed by Australia (3.318), and EU (2.415, with the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands first). Finland, Sweden and Australia had the best ratio between IF (sum) and resident population or GDP. The number of publications correlated with GDP (p = 0.001) and national MM mortality rates (p = 0.002). An association was found between a country commitment to MM research and the burden of disease (p = 0.04). Asbestos, survival, prognosis, occupational exposure, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry were the most commonly used keywords. This report represents the first effort to explore the geographical and temporal distribution of MM research and its determinants. This is an essential step in understanding science priorities and developing disease control policies. PMID:20170978

Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Casilli, Cristina; Ceppi, Marcello; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Paganuzzi, Michela; Bonassi, Stefano

2010-11-01

265

Research Article Evaluating Scientific Inferences about the Florida Panther  

E-print Network

of the reliability of the scientific literature used to support conservation of Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi restoration, habitat use, Puma concolor coryi, reliability, scientific inference. In 1967, the Florida panther Species Act. Although P. concolor is widespread in South America, Central America, and western North

Beier, Paul

266

A shifting mosaic of scholarly publishing, scientific delivery, and future impact changing the face of learned societies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonprofit scientific societies hope that their activities advance their particular mission and impact their profession and, in the broadest sense, humanity in positive ways. The digital age has provided unprecedented mechanisms to enhance the delivery of science to the world. The marketplace of scientific publishing is a rapidly shifting mosaic of challenges and opportunities, and the responses of nonprofit and commercial publishers vary widely, but their outcomes are still uncertain. The response of the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) provides an example of how a relatively small society has altered its scientific delivery to enhance member benefits while attempting to sustain its economic viability. Since 2000, ASM has moved from a self-publishing, break-even, print-only model to a copublishing agreement with a commercial publisher (Alliance Communications Group, a division of Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas), which now offers members various print and electronic options and generates a shared royalty. Although it is too early to gauge the economic impact of these changes, the ASM leadership clearly attempted to signal its desire for members to view their society as a package of opportunities for edification and involvement rather than just a provider of serial subscriptions. Future challenges facing nonprofit scientific societies include open access, fiscal realities, archiving of publications, and scientific and societal impact; future opportunities include a strengthening of member responsibilities and professionalism, development of data registries to enhance scientific progress, and bundling of like societies. The manner in which nonprofit scientific societies respond to these challenges and opportunities will no doubt affect their sustainability and future impact. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2007-01-01

267

Computer Science Research on Scientific Discovery Ra'ul E. Vald'esP'erez  

E-print Network

Computer Science Research on Scientific Discovery Ra'ul E. Vald'es­P'erez Computer Science Department and Center for Light Microscope Imaging and Biotechnology Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh­science oriented research on scientific discovery. The essay starts by reviewing briefly some of the history

Honavar, Vasant

268

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society mail to perms@amsci.org. ©Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society and other rightsholders #12. On the surface of the antennae, specialized cells each contain a single type of pro- tein receptor

Pichersky, Eran

269

Discussion on the Performance Assessment of Scientific Research Works in Local Institutions of Higher Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance assessment of scientific research works in local institutions of higher learning acts as an important part in scientific research management. At present, there exist such problems in the PA system as improper assessment index, lacking of systematicness in its system, excessive focus on the results, lacking of scientificalness, irrational interest guidance leading to an action for quick result

Yang Deshan; Xu Aizhen

2009-01-01

270

A Call for Evidence: Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spring 2003 issue of the "Learning Point," the North Central Regional Educational Lab's (NCREL) magazine, focuses on the theme "A Call for Evidence Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research." Articles and materials in the issue are: "Wake-Up Call: Facing the Challenge to Use Scientifically Based Research in Schools"…

NCREL's Learning Point, 2003

2003-01-01

271

Diversity: Key to Success of Research Teams of The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A presentation from the invited speaker, Dr. Patricia Molina, given at the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellow Luncheon during EB 2008. Dr. Molina highlights studies showing that diversity in work environments improves the quality of research. She points out that APSĂÂs strategic directions to promote the advancement of underrepresented minority students, and encouraged those in attendance to recognize their essential role in the increasingly global scientific community.

2008-03-21

272

Future Directions in Malignant Hyperthermia Research and Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care. PMID:21709147

Hirshey Dirksen, Sharon J.; Larach, Marilyn Green; Rosenberg, Henry; Brandom, Barbara W.; Parness, Jerome; Lang, Robert Scott; Gangadharan, Meera; Pezalski, Tyler

2011-01-01

273

Portable housing : an exploration into lightweight housing for remote scientific research  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes the design of portable housing for use in scientific research applications in remote locations. Currently, remote research is conducted from tents or other portable shelters. Larger, more hospitable ...

McCluskey, Keith V. (Keith Vincent), 1971-

2002-01-01

274

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

275

AAAS - National Academies Compilation of Resources on Scientific Misconduct and Research Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of resources on the ethics involved in a variety of issues realted to scientific conduct and research integrity including authorship, peer review, collaboration, research animals, and conduct.

2011-05-12

276

International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors’ and investigators’ experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. Research design A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Setting and participants Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Analysis Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. Results The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. Conclusions The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects human rights and produces reliable data. PMID:24534257

Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

2014-01-01

277

The Mock Experiment: Introducing Students to the Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Mock Experiment which introduces both science and non-science majors to the scientific method, literature, and journal articles. Explains guidelines, experiment application, and manuscript evaluation. (YDS)

Sticker, Leeann

2002-01-01

278

Internet--implications for the future of phytopharmacological research.  

PubMed

Modern information technologies and world wide communications through the Internet play a significant role in medicinal plant research across the globe. The phenomenal growth in Internet usage is largely due to the success of World Wide Web. Various useful websites and databases on phytopharmacology are already in the "Net" and many more are being added constantly. The future of phytopharmacological research is handling the existing information in proper way. In this review of the Internet, compilation of important websites is expected to stimulate, instruct and update academicians and researchers involved in phytopharmacological research. PMID:15332489

Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K; Shivananda, B G

2003-11-01

279

A General Guide to Writing Scientific Research Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides instructions on how to write scientific reports. Topics include why we write reports, the basic format (introduction, methods and materials, results, and discussion, or 'IMRaD'), how to state a hypothesis, how to set up tables, graphs and figures, and how to write a discussion. There are also links to additional information, including a sample report, and a list of books on scientific writing.

280

Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

2013-01-01

281

Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

Stoynoff, Stephen

2012-01-01

282

Electronic medical records (EMRs), epidemiology, and epistemology: reflections on EMRs and future pediatric clinical research.  

PubMed

Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly common in pediatric patient care. EMR data represent a relatively novel and rich resource for clinical research. The fact, however, that pediatric EMR data are collected for the purposes of clinical documentation and billing rather than research creates obstacles to their use in scientific investigation. Particular issues include accuracy, completeness, comparability between settings, ease of extraction, and context of recording. Although these problems can be addressed through standard strategies for dealing with partially accurate and incomplete data, a longer-term solution will involve work with pediatric clinicians to improve data quality. As research becomes one of the explicit purposes for which pediatricians collect EMR data, the pediatric clinician will play a central role in future pediatric clinical research. PMID:21622040

Wasserman, Richard C

2011-01-01

283

Research priorities for economic analyses of prevention: current issues and future directions.  

PubMed

In response to growing interest in economic analyses of prevention efforts, a diverse group of prevention researchers, economists, and policy analysts convened a scientific panel, on "Research Priorities in Economic Analysis of Prevention" at the 19th annual conference of the Society for Prevention Research. The panel articulated four priorities that, if followed in future research, would make economic analyses of prevention efforts easier to compare and more relevant to policymakers and community stakeholders. These priorities are: (1) increased standardization of evaluation methods, (2) improved economic valuation of common prevention outcomes, (3) expanded efforts to maximize evaluation generalizability and impact as well as (4) enhanced transparency and communicability of economic evaluations. In this paper, we define three types of economic analyses in prevention, provide context and rationale for these four priorities as well as related sub-priorities, and discuss the challenges inherent in meeting them. PMID:23963624

Crowley, D Max; Hill, Laura Griner; Kuklinski, Margaret R; Jones, Damon E

2014-12-01

284

Measuring Supply Chain Performance: Current Research and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to go some way towards addressing the dearth of research into performance measurement systems and metrics\\u000a of supply chains by critically reviewing the contemporary literature and suggesting possible avenues for future research.\\u000a The article provides a taxonomy of performance measures followed by a critical evaluation of measurement systems designed\\u000a to evaluate the performance of supply chains. The

Craig Shepherd; Hannes Günter

285

Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

Witt, A.C.

2011-01-01

286

BIOSOLIDS RESEARCH AT US EPA: PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE PRESENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation was given at the Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference 2006: Bridging to the Future, March 12-15, 2006. Sally Gutierrez was a panel member of the Opening General Session 5B on March 13, 2006. This presentation talks about the EPA's biosolids research pr...

287

The past, present and future of observational research in marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To introduce the contents of the special issue, and provide an integrative overview of the development of observational methodologies in marketing research, as well as some directions for the future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A historical review of the development of observational methods, beginning with philosophical foundations, is provided. Key philosophical debates are summarized, and trends in observational methods are

Nick Lee; Amanda J. Broderick

2007-01-01

288

Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel  

E-print Network

Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel Robert G. Svitek University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs are medical devices designed to take over or supplement the respiratory function of the lung: oxygenating the blood

Federspiel, William J.

289

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures  

E-print Network

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures Trieu Mai Electricity of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity

Van Veen, Barry D.

290

Rice Genomes: A Grainy View of Future Evolutionary Research  

E-print Network

Rice Genomes: A Grainy View of Future Evolutionary Research Dispatch Kevin Livingstone and Loren H. Rieseberg The draft genome sequences from two subspecies of rice are powerful new tools for gene discovery information needed to combat inherited maladies, the recent com- pletion of two sequences of the rice genome

Rieseberg, Loren

291

Assessing the effects of fire disturbances on ecosystems: A scientific agenda for research and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial questions and responses focusing on (1) links among fire effects, fuels, and climate; (2) fire as a large-scale disturbance; (3) fire-effects modeling structures; and (4) managerial concerns, applications, and decision support. At the present time, understanding of fire effects and the ability to extrapolate fire-effects knowledge to large spatial scales are limited, because most data have been collected at small spatial scales for specific applications. Although we clearly need more large-scale fire-effects data, it will be more expedient to concentrate efforts on improving and linking existing models that simulate fire effects in a georeferenced format while integrating empirical data as they become available. A significant component of this effort should be improved communication between modelers and managers to develop modeling tools to use in a planning context. Another component of this modeling effort should improve our ability to predict the interactions of fire and potential climatic change at very large spatial scales. The priority issues and approaches described here provide a template for fire science and fire management programs in the next decade and beyond.

Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Keane, R.E.; Lenihan, J.M.; McKenzie, D.; Weise, D.R.; Sandberg, D.V.

1999-01-01

292

Large-scale weather systems: A future research priority  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief assessment is provided of both the case against and the case for assigning priority to research on large-scale weather systems (LSWS). The three-fold case against is based upon: the emergence of new overarching themes in environmental science; the fresh emphasis upon other sub-disciplines of the atmospheric science; and the mature state of research and prediction of LSWS. The case for is also supported by three arguments. First is the assertion that LSWS research should not merely be an integral but a major component of future research related to both the new overarching themes and the other sub-disciplines. Second recent major developments in LSWS research, as epitomized by the paradigm shifts in the prediction strategy for LSWS and the emergence of the potential vorticity perspective, testify to the theme’s on-going vibrancy. Third the field’s future development, as exemplified by the new international THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) programme, embodies a perceptive dovetailing of intellectually challenging fundamental research with directed application(s) of societal and economic benefit. It is thus inferred that LSWS research, far from being in demise, will feature at the forefront of the new relationship between science and society.

Davies, Huw C.

2006-12-01

293

The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

Sowell, J.

1999-12-01

294

Forging alliances to meet future research and training needs.  

PubMed

There are countless challenges in meeting the future needs of the biomedical research community. In an era of flattened research budgets, the overarching concern has become how more can be done with less. One approach, still novel for the biomedical research community but proven successful for the commercial sector, is the establishment of strategic alliances. Among federal entities, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Office of Research on Minority Health (ORMH) have as their goal the improvement of the health of the nation's minorities through support for alliances between academic research institutions. These partnerships serve to maximize an institution's opportunity for success, especially with regard to research and training. There are many different opportunities for institutions to establish partnerships, especially among minority institutions, and between minority and majority institutions. Features of successful alliances are described, working partnership models identified, and other opportunities explored. PMID:9253223

Ruffin, J

1997-08-01

295

A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

Mcintyre, Robert M.

1990-01-01

296

Data Fusion for the Discovery of Scientific Impacts in the Hydrologic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data fusion involves approaches and tools for brining together data from a variety of sources. Our application involves the merger of textual information contained in scientific papers with databases containing data on citations. The goal of this exercise is to discover the evolution of scientific ideas in hydrology, and elements that make scientific research impactful. What we have discovered so far indicates that the research topic is one of such important elements which characterize this feature. Previously, selected years (1980, 1985, and 1990-1996) of papers published in Water Resources Research were analyzed and research topic of each paper was determined automatically by textual data mining techniques. Citation data from ISI web of science combined with research strands were analyzed by statistical methods to reveal the impactfulness of the strands. RCI (relative citation impact) is calculated by dividing the percent of citations related to one strand by percent of papers for that strand. As expected, the percent of papers in each research strand varied. What was surprising was the pattern of development of each strand. Pioneering work within a strand attracts the bulk of citations. Within a few years, the ideas are integrated into the field. This data fusion exercise provides insights on the relationship between research topic and scientific impact. Other elements, such as the usage of knowledge (applicability in practice) and the transfer of information (accessibility to practitioners), which make impacts of scientific research are proposed and scrutinized in order to evaluate the development and impactfulness of scientific researches.

Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y.

2002-12-01

297

Product-oriented flavor research: learnings from the past, visions for the future.  

PubMed

In the past flavor research and the development of new flavorings were constantly driven by the interaction of flavor analysis, structure elucidation, and chemical synthesis accompanied by sensory. Highly potent flavor compounds were identified in numerous food products and helped to establish a powerful toolbox for flavorists. Nowadays we experience the merging of various scientific disciplines, for example medicine, biology, chemistry, and various technologies in the field of flavor research, which shows direct impact on our understanding of flavors. At the same time modern life has profoundly changed our eating habits. This situation generates new challenges for product development teams, which represent all facets of technologies. This paper will illustrate different examples for the evolution of product-oriented flavor research and future trends. PMID:16598805

Krammer, Gerhard E; Weckerle, Bernhard; Brennecke, Stefan; Weber, Berthold; Kindel, Günter; Ley, Jakob; Hilmer, Jens-Michael; Reinders, Gerald; Stöckigt, Detlef; Hammerschmidt, Franz Josef; Ott, Frank; Gatfield, Ian; Schmidt, Claus Oliver; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen

2006-04-01

298

Scientific Research and Science in Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web-searchable, bibliographic database of more than 10,000 citations to scientific journal articles, books, proceedings, abstracts, videos, dissertations and theses, raw data, reports, letters, and manuscripts dealing with Yellowstone National Park. Most citations have abstracts, many have additional notes, and all have subject headings assigned to facilitate searches.

Cindy, Kaag; University, Washington S.

299

SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION: FIVE THEMES FROM SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE 5 THEMES ARE: (1) THE DESIRABILITY OF TAKING A SYSTEMIC VIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION IN ANY DISCIPLINE, (2) SEVERAL CHANNELS MAY ACT SYNERGISTICALLY TO BRING ABOUT THE EFFECTIVE TRANSMISSION OF A MESSAGE, (3) INFORMAL AND UNPLANNED COMMUNICATION PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN THE SCIENCE INFORMATION SYSTEM, (4) SCIENTISTS CONSTITUTE PUBLICS, AND (5) SCIENCE INFORMATION SYSTEMS SERVE MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS.

HERBERT MENZEL

1966-01-01

300

How Might Research Inform Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific literacy is now seen as an essential component of informed citizenship and a key curriculum goal in many parts of the world. The relevant literature is vast and replete with a variety of definitions, descriptions, prescriptions, slogans and theoretical perspectives. It addresses not only formal education but also fields as diverse as…

Jenkins, Edgar

2010-01-01

301

Heavy-ion linac for medical and scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), because of its high charge state ions and pulsed operation, is ideally suited as an injector for a heavy-ion linac based on the technology being developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the program to design a Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI). This combination would produce a small efficient heavy ion

1980-01-01

302

Future Directions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Research. An NHLBI Workshop Report  

PubMed Central

The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

Blackwell, Timothy S.; Tager, Andrew M.; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B.; Schwartz, David A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R.; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K.; Chapman, Harold A.; Collard, Harold R.; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S.; Henke, Craig A.; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; King, Talmadge E.; Loyd, James E.; Lawson, William E.; Marsh, Clay B.; Noble, Paul W.; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A.; O’Riordan, Thomas G.; Oury, Tim D.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Wells, Rebecca G.; White, Eric S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Thannickal, Victor J.

2014-01-01

303

Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

2013-01-01

304

50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries...General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be unlawful for any person to:...

2013-10-01

305

50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries...General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be unlawful for any person to:...

2012-10-01

306

BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PUBLICATION ACTIVITY OF A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper sumnarizes bi bliometric i ndicators used for evaluation of publication activity and research progress of research teams in an academic research institute. The main goal of the application of the regularly calculated indicators is to help the researchers in forming an appropriate publication strategy. The Lotka distribution of papers among researchers showed correlation with personal characteristics (position

Peter VINKLER

307

BOOK REVIEW OF "SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY, THIRD ED.: TEXT AND CASES IN RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent, well-publicized cases of scientific misconduct have prompted universities to require graduate training in ethics. This book is geared for science educators and graduate students, but the topics are pertinent to all in scientific research. Several chapters cover general areas relevant for all...

308

Games as a Platform for Student Participation in Authentic Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if…

Magnussen, Rikke; Hansen, Sidse Damgaard; Planke, Tilo; Sherson, Jacob Friis

2014-01-01

309

Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

2002-01-01

310

Aarhus University's code of practice to ensure scientific integrity and responsible conduct of research at Aarhus University  

E-print Network

of research. Definitions 2.-(1) Scientific and scholarly work at Aarhus University must be carried out with due respect for the generally recognised methods of the research area in question, scientific as `scientific dishonesty' or acts and omissions that conflict with `responsible conduct of research' which

311

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 2001. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information on the amount of science and engineering (S&E) research space existing at U.S. colleges, universities, and nonprofit biomedical research institutions based on research data collected biennially through the National Science Foundation. Data are also provided on the adequacy of this research space to meet current…

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

312

Pursuing Scientific Excellence Globally: Internationalising Research as a Policy Target  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International collaboration is a rapidly growing aspect of university research and a priority of research funding agencies. This article investigates the rationales that underlie Canadian federal research councils' support of international research collaborations. Such support has deep roots in Canadian science and technology policy but has…

Lasthiotakis, Helen; Sigurdson, Kristjan; Sá, Creso M.

2013-01-01

313

Space and radiation protection: scientific requirements for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.

Schimmerling, W.

1995-01-01

314

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

...employed to transport the animal; and a written certification...transporting and maintaining the animals and that in his opinion...the well-being of the animal; (4) If the application is for a scientific research permit, a detailed...

2014-10-01

315

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employed to transport the animal; and a written certification...transporting and maintaining the animals and that in his opinion...the well-being of the animal; (4) If the application is for a scientific research permit, a detailed...

2012-10-01

316

Conclusions, reflections, and prospects for future research, policy, and programming.  

PubMed

This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the vulnerability-agency binary. The author encourages more research into how power relations, relationships, and networks shape migration decisions and suggests the need to analyze comparative experiences of families and siblings who are "left behind." Finally, the chapter draws attention to the need for mixed methodological and disciplinary approaches and greater analysis of the intersection of social age and gender issues. PMID:22689526

Clark-Kazak, Christina

2012-01-01

317

Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. In 1984, Dr Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren reported the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers in The Lancet—a discovery that earned them the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005—but what progress have we made since then? Here, we have invited three international experts to give their insights into the advances in H. pylori research over the past 30 years and where research should be focused in the future. PMID:23752823

Fock, Kwong Ming; Graham, David Y.; Malfertheiner, Peter

2014-01-01

318

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2011-01-01

319

Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

Breslavets, A. V.

1974-01-01

320

Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Academy of Sciences committee issued this report on the use of dogs and cats from Class B dealers in NIH funded research. The Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research acknowledges the scientific need for older, genetically diverse, and behaviorally tractable dogs and cats while also calling for the elimination of Class B dealers as suppliers of these animals because of animal welfare concerns.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-05-01

321

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research

Wong, Siu Ling; Kwan, Jenny; Hodson, Derek; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

2009-01-01

322

Reflections and Reconstruction of the Culture of Scientific Research Works in Local Institutions of Higher Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of scientific research acts as an integrated part of the organization culture. In local institutions of higher learning, the research culture shall basically feature scientificalness, advancement, innovativeness as well as humanism. However, during the process of development of research culture, such problems as insufficient understanding of the whole, lacking of institutional construction and ignorance of the spiritual culture

Yang Deshan; Xu Aizhen

2009-01-01

323

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

SciTech Connect

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

1987-01-01

324

Scientific Applications of Optical Instruments to Materials Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity is a unique environment for materials and biotechnology processing. Microgravity minimizes or eliminates some of the effects that occur in one g. This can lead to the production of new materials or crystal structures. It is important to understand the processes that create these new materials. Thus, experiments are designed so that optical data collection can take place during the formation of the material. This presentation will discuss scientific application of optical instruments at MSFC. These instruments include a near-field scanning optical microscope, a miniaturized holographic system, and a phase-shifting interferometer.

Witherow, William K.

1997-01-01

325

SciDB: Open Source DMAS for Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SciDB is a DMAS (Data Management and Analytics Software System) optimized for data management of big data and for big analytics. SciDB is organized around multidimensional array storage, a generalization of relational tables, and is designed to be scalable up to petabytes and beyond. Complex analytics are simplified with SciDB because arrays and vectors are first-class objects with built-in optimized operations. Spatial operators and time-series analysis are easy to express. Interfaces to common scientific tools like R as well as programming languages like C++ and Python are provided.

SciDB Team

2013-11-01

326

Helio-informatics: Preparing For The Future Of Heliophysics Research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidly growing data volumes for space- and ground-based observatories for Sun and heliosphere will soon make it impractical, costly, and perhaps effectively impossible for researchers to download and locally inspect substantial portions of the data archives. By the end of 2008, for example, the Solar Dynamics Observatory will downlink over 2TB/day of compressed data; such a large volume would readily saturate internet connections to the archive site if it were exported to a handful of researchers around the world. We envision a revolution in research methodology towards a mode in which researchers run autonomous event-finding algorithms at a primary data archive in order to pre-select relatively small subsets of the data that can subsequently be inspected and analyzed in detail at a researcher's home institution. Teams from the SDO, Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE missions are developing the infrastructure that is needed to make this into a useful research tool: we are (1) defining standardized event attributes compatible with the Virtual Observatory and EGSO concepts, (2) developing a knowledge base supported by a web-based tool for compound queries based on the contents of solar and heliospheric observations, and (3) assembling a group of researchers who are interested in helping us develop a prototype system while beta-testing it in real scientific studies. We invite you to contact us (a) if you have feature-finding algorithms that you would like to see applied to existing data archives, (b) if you would like to contribute expertise in developing the knowledge-base system, or (c) if you would like to participate in the testing of the system for scientific use. More information on our plans, target dates, and contact information can be found at http://www.lmsal.com/helio-informatics/hpkb/. The helio-informatics project is being developed with support from the HINODE/SOT (NNM07AA01C), SDO/AIA (NNG04EA00C), STEREO/SECCHI (N00173-02-C-2035), and TRACE (NAS5-38099) science investigations.

Schrijver, Carolus J.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Cheung, M. C.; Title, A. M.; Delouille, V.; Hochedez, J.; Berghmans, D.

2007-05-01

327

An Economist's View on Bibliometrically Measuring Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the use of bibliometric instruments has grown and will continue to grow in the future, the quality, availability, and accessibility of data on publications and citations is of tantamount importance. But equally important is a correct use of the data. This means that an important task of the bibliometric field is to highlight not only what…

Veugelers, Reinhilde

2005-01-01

328

Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

Chin, George

1999-01-11

329

Protecting health and scientific research in the Data Protection Regulation (2012/0011(COD)) Position of non-commercial research organisations and academics April 2014  

E-print Network

Protecting health and scientific research in the Data Protection Regulation (2012/0011(COD Regulation adopted by the European Parliament are taken forward. Scientific research generates important enabling health and scientific research to continue. It included a requirement for specific and explicit

Rambaut, Andrew

330

C-IMAGE Teachers at Sea Maiden Voyages: Promoting Authentic Scientific Research in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Integrated Modeling & Analysis of Gulf Ecosystems (C-IMAGE) is one of eight consortia participating in the BP/Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. C-IMAGE is a comprehensive research consortium of 13 national and international universities tasked with evaluating the environmental impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) on coastal ecosystems, the water column and the sea floor. The associated C-IMAGE research cruises provide a unique opportunity for Florida's K12 science educators to participate in the data collection and collaboration process alongside marine scientists as a member of the scientific crew. The mission of the C-IMAGE cruises is to help to answer several fundamental questions about the DWH event and subsequent impacts on the plankton population, reef and fish communities and the microbial communities. Deep sea sediment samples, plankton and fishes collected during these expeditions are the data sources. Sampling activities include the use of the SIPPER plankton sampler, multi-core sediment system and long line surveys to assess fish health. While at sea teachers participate in the at sea research and serve as the ship to shore communicator via social media (FB, Twitter, daily blogs) and LIVE video conferencing with formal and informal classrooms. Marine scientists, post-docs and graduate students participating in the C-IMAGE cruises collaborate with the teacher on board to communicate the science, technology and life at sea experiences to educational and general audiences. Upon return to shore, teachers will translate their At Sea learning experience to understandable inquiry-based lessons about the science and technology encompassing the northern Gulf of Mexico ecology, the DWH event and subsequent impacts. Lessons developed from the cruises will inform a future series of C-IMAGE Teacher Professional Developments during Phase 2 of Outreach activities. The results from three Gulf of Mexico expeditions (Aug-Nov) will be presented: related to teachers' working knowledge of research and sampling procedures as well as metrics for the potential value-added of social media as a mechanism for communicating research with formal and informal audiences. C-IMAGE teachers will engage in research with experts in biological and chemical modeling, marine resource assessment, sedimentary geochemistry and toxicology. This research is made possible by a grant from BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. Contract #SA 12-10/GoMRI-007;

Hine, A. C.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.

2012-12-01

331

Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs  

SciTech Connect

The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-02-01

332

[What will the Future of Psychobiological Research in Eating Disorders Look Like?].  

PubMed

The technical progress of brain imaging methods in recent years have decisively contributed to a better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of eating disorders. However, the identification and detection of underlying neurocircuits is complicated by the aetiological heterogeneity of clinically and psychopathologically defined eating disorder phenotypes. It is against this background that renowned scientists advocate that neurocircuit function should be the starting point for the upward investigation of behavioural responses and the downward research of constitutional genetic and molecular biological factors. According to this theory, psychobiological research of disturbed eating behaviour will follow to a greater extent a transdiagnostic and dimensional approach, and will be based on well characterized neurocircuits in the future. Furthermore, the latest findings in brain research will allow to investigate directly the interaction between neurocircuit function and energy metabolism in eating disorders. The typical onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in puberty suggest that age related biological and psychosocial alterations in this phase of life serve as a trigger for the beginning of the disease. Therefore, a greater integration of the developmental perspective as well as (epi-) genetic aspects in psychobiological research will be of great scientific interest in the future. PMID:25594268

Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2015-01-01

333

Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2013-08-01

334

Scientific Development, Research Organisation and Research Career. Swedish Research on Higher Education, 1983:6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives concerning "research about research" are summarized, based on symposia sponsored by the University of Goteborg in Sweden. It is noted that studies of science, technology, and society (STS) are prevalent in several countries during the 1970s. Based on visits to STS programs in the United States, it is suggested that there are different…

Elzinga, Aant

335

Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

Sever, Thomas L.

2003-01-01

336

A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

2012-01-01

337

Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

1994-01-01

338

Hemostasis research in India: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Hemostasis research in India has a long history considering the fact that it is one of the youngest specialities in the world. If we take creation of prothrombin time (PT) test as one of the beginning of modern hemostsis research, then the specialty is no older than 60 years. School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, Banaras Hindu University, All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Delhi, Christian Medical College at Vellore, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research at Chandigarh, and KEM Hospital at Mumbai contributed substantially in defining various bleeding disorders in our country. Unfortunately, some of these institutes are no longer as active in the field as they used to be. Currently, the Institute of Immunohaematology at Mumbai, Chrstian medical College at Vellore, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Delhi are actively engaged in hemostsis research in India. Developing prenatal diagnostic technologies, mutation detection of various hemostatic disorders, developing low-cost management technologies for hemophilia, and other bleeding disorders are becoming important present day research activity in the area of hemostasis in addition to age old areas of prevalence and unusual case description studies. Entry of many new corporate hospitals, development of structured postgraduate training program in hematology, and easy availability of instruments and reagents are likely to foster further growth in this area of medical research in India in future. PMID:21890571

Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka; Shetty, Shrimati

2012-01-01

339

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research

L. Rowell Huesmann

2007-01-01

340

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for

D. G. Perry; J. S. Dahmann

1987-01-01

341

Revisiting four scientific debates in ocean acidification research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, ocean acidification has gained continuously increasing attention from scientists and a number of stakeholders and has raised serious concerns about its effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. With the increase in interest, funding resources, and the number of scientific investigations focusing on this environmental problem, increasing amounts of data and results have been produced, and a progressively growing and more rigorous understanding of this problem has begun to develop. Nevertheless, there are still a number of scientific debates, and in some cases misconceptions, that keep reoccurring at a number of forums in various contexts. In this article, we revisit four of these topics that we think require further thoughtful consideration including: (1) surface seawater CO2 chemistry in shallow water coastal areas, (2) experimental manipulation of marine systems using CO2 gas or by acid addition, (3) net versus gross calcification and dissolution, and (4) CaCO3 mineral dissolution and seawater buffering. As a summation of these topics, we emphasize that: (1) many coastal environments experience seawater pCO2 that is significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere and is strongly linked to biological processes; (2) addition of acid, base or CO2 gas to seawater can all be useful techniques to manipulate seawater chemistry in ocean acidification experiments; (3) estimates of calcification or CaCO3 dissolution based on present techniques are measuring the net of gross calcification and dissolution; and (4) dissolution of metastable carbonate mineral phases will not produce sufficient alkalinity to buffer the pH and carbonate saturation state of shallow water environments on timescales of decades to hundreds of years to the extent that any potential negative effects on marine calcifiers will be avoided.

Andersson, A. J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

2012-03-01

342

Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research  

PubMed Central

Abstract There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ?20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype–phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as ‘genotype scores’. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been indentified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

2011-01-01

343

Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ?20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

2011-07-01

344

Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.  

PubMed

Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0. PMID:19183518

Foster, Brian C

2008-01-01

345

Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

2007-01-01

346

SSRL Strategic Plan The mission of SSRL is to "enable and support outstanding scientific research by a broad user  

E-print Network

. The goal of SSRL has always been to be "famous for enabling scientific research and producing scientificSSRL Strategic Plan April 2007 The mission of SSRL is to "enable and support outstanding scientific research by a broad user community in a safe environment." Throughout its more than 30-year history, SSRL

Wechsler, Risa H.

347

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of scientists' actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists' actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from…

Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

2009-01-01

348

Future Directions in Computational Mathematics, Algorithms, and Scientific Software. Report of the Panel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The critical role of computers in scientific advancement is described in this panel report. With the growing range and complexity of problems that must be solved and with demands of new generations of computers and computer architecture, the importance of computational mathematics is increasing. Multidisciplinary teams are needed; these are found…

Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA.

349

Providing trusted scientific information to foster healthy marine ecosystems for current and future  

E-print Network

Providing trusted scientific information to foster healthy marine ecosystems for current Marine Ecosystems and their associated Living Marine Resources. To do this, EAP works with NOAA the Nations Living Marine Resources. By providing an Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, EAP ensures that our

350

Triennial Scientific Report | 1 Triennial Scientific Report  

E-print Network

Triennial Scientific Report | 1 Triennial Scientific Report 2007 -2009 KNMI Research #12;2 | Triennial Scientific Report #12;Triennial Scientific Report | 3 Preface 4 Introduction 5 Highlights;4 | Triennial Scientific Report The

Stoffelen, Ad

351

Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.  

PubMed

We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

2014-01-01

352

Qualitative Psychotherapy Research: The Journey So Far and Future Directions.  

PubMed

This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150676

Levitt, Heidi M

2014-08-25

353

Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

Horta, Hugo

2013-01-01

354

Scientifically Based Research and Peer-Reviewed Research under the IDEA: The Legal Definitions, Applications, and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic analysis of the references to "scientifically based research" (SBR) and closely related terms, such as "peer-reviewed research" (PRR), in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) legislation, regulations, commentary, and case law reveal that SBR and its primary variants apply largely to state support obligations, such as…

Zirkel, Perry A.; Rose, Tessie

2009-01-01

355

A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

2014-02-01

356

Enhancing Scientifically-Based Research for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief overview of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) requirement that schools use instructional strategies based on scientifically-based research (SBR) to improve the academic performance of students. Controversies resulting from the definition of SBR, complexities encountered in conducting research in schools, and the…

Ortiz, Alba A.; Yates, James R.

2008-01-01

357

Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

Pepe, Alberto

2010-01-01

358

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.

1981-01-01

359

EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Facility-Wide Management and Storage for Scientific Data  

E-print Network

EMSL Research and Capability Development Proposals Facility-Wide Management and Storage for Scientific Data Project Start Date: Summer 2008 EMSL Lead Investigator Ken Auberry Instrumentation the various possible storage entities becomes more of a burden than the researcher is willing to bear

360

Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

2010-01-01

361

SYMPOSIUM ON NEW SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH RELATED TO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

On February 26-27th, 2004, the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development, held a two-day public symposium on recently published scientific research related to the health effec...

362

Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

2009-01-01

363

Scientifically Based Research and Evidence-Based Education: A Federal Policy Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a look at the federal policy context for the scientifically based research (SBR) and evidence-based education (EBE) initiatives by sharing U.S. Department of Education presentations and related publications about SBR and EBE. It discusses the impact of these policy initiatives on special education research activities.…

Smith, Anne

2003-01-01

364

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

365

Kairos: Proactive Harvesting of Research Paper Metadata from Scientific Conference Web Sites  

E-print Network

Kairos: Proactive Harvesting of Research Paper Metadata from Scientific Conference Web Sites Markus@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract. We investigate the automatic harvesting of research paper metadata from recent scholarly events. Our system, Kairos, combines a focused crawler and an information extraction engine, to convert a list

Kan, Min-Yen

366

Suggested future directions in high-speed transition experimental research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historical developments in the area of high-speed experimental transition research are outlined, and future directions in this area as determined by the panel membership are listed. The directions include measurement and modeling of initial disturbance fields, both in ground facilities and flight, for all modes; development of advanced high-speed instrumentation for disturbance field measurements, measurements of the details of receptivity in multitudinous flows; further development and use of high-speed quiet tunnels; stability and transition studies for multitudinous flows; detailed studies of the transitional region for boundary layers, free flows, vortices separated flows, corner flows, etc.; and studies of flow-chemistry effects on transition phenomena. Applied research such areas as the physics of perforated-surface suction stabilization and the resolution of anomalies in the existing high-speed database is also suggested.

Bushnell, Dennis

1990-01-01

367

Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.  

PubMed

Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. PMID:24607673

Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

2014-04-01

368

Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.  

PubMed

Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information. PMID:21538033

Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

2011-08-01

369

Evaluation of the Scientific Outputs of Researchers with Similar H Index: a Critical Approach  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: h-index has been always reviewed as one of the most useful criteria for evaluating the scientific outputs of researchers by the sciencometric experts. In this study, the h-index of 40 Iranian researchers accompanied with its relationship to assessment criteria of scientific outputs such as the number of articles, scientific age, number of citations and self-citation were reviewed. Materials and Methods: The first part of this study was related to the literature review. But the information of 40 Iranian researchers’ Citation Reports was observational extracted from WOS database and the Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to answer the research hypotheses Results: Citation analysis showed that 40 selected researchers published 877 articles in web of science up to 9 January 2013. These articles have been cited 3858 time. The average of their h-index was estimated 38.5 ±12.12 Correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant and direct relationship between the h-index and the number of papers, the number of citations and self-citation (Sig>0.05) but there was no significant relationship between scientific age and h-index (Sig> 0.05). Conclusions: Analysis of the data showed that the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the researchers with the same h-index had considerable differences. Therefore, only the h-index should not be a criterion for scientific ranking of the researchers and other complementary indexes such as M parameter and G index along with h-index must be used to be able to more accurately determine the degree of scientific influence of the researchers with the same h. PMID:25395728

Ahangar, Hemmat Gholinia; Siamian, Hasan; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

2014-01-01

370

Child and adolescent psychiatry: past scientific achievements and challenges for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide history of scientific achievements in child and adolescent psychopathology is reviewed from the mid-twentieth\\u000a century onwards. Attention is drawn, e.g., to diagnostic distinctions, measures of psychopathology, the several roles of epidemiological\\u000a longitudinal studies, temperament and personality, developmental psychopathology, the use of ‘natural experiments’ to test\\u000a causal inferences, environmental risks, the importance of gene–environment interplay, the relative coming together

Michael Rutter

2010-01-01

371

The Impact of Research Grant Funding on Scientific Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we estimate the impact of receiving an NIH grant on subsequent publications and citations. Our sample consists of all applications (unsuccessful as well as successful) to the NIH from 1980 to 2000 for postdoctoral training grants (F32s) and standard research grants (R01s). Both OLS and regression discontinuity estimates show that receipt of either an NIH postdoctoral fellowship

Brian Jacob; Lars Lefgren

2007-01-01

372

Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

van Raan, Anthony F. J.

2005-01-01

373

Word recognition: The interface of educational policies and scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a tremendous amount of research in educational, cognitive and developmental psychology on the nature and acquisition of reading skills, practitioners have a goldmine of evidence upon which to design effective educational programs for beginning and problem readers. This evidence is highly consistent in terms of delineating different stages of reading that young children pass through, the

Marilyn J. Adams; Maggie Bruck

1993-01-01

374

[Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].  

PubMed

Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

2009-01-01

375

Research Funding for Psychology and Other Scientific Disciplines: An Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1967 to 1982 federally funded research in psychology became increasingly dependent upon money from the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services. This is a return to the funding patterns that existed prior to the Korean war. While exact comparisons cannot be made with figures from before 1967 (because of changes in…

Lowman, Robert P.

376

A Flagship System Scientific research is integral to the  

E-print Network

. The Health Science Center's six col- leges -- Allied Health Sciences, Dentist- ry, Graduate Health Sciences, UTHSC moved into the forefront of re-engineering sci- entific research with the award of an NIH planning science across all of these entities." Involving all six Health Science Cen- ter colleges, the CTSI

Cui, Yan

377

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics IPv6 SNMP Network will become consistent and routine IPv6 SNMP Network Management Goals #12;2/2/10 ·ESnet has a long history - Polling of SNMP MIBs - Handling of asynchronous trap based alerts - GUI input & output Enablers ESnet has

378

Workshops without Walls: Sharing Scientific Research through Educator Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discoveries, large and small, are constantly being made. Whether it is the discovery of a new species or a new comet, it is a challenge to keep up. The media provide some assistance in getting the word out about the discoveries, but not the details or the challenges of the discovery. Professional development is essential for science educators to keep them abreast of the fascinating discoveries that are occurring. The problem is that not every educator has the opportunity to attend a workshop on the most recent findings. NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Education and Public Outreach program has offered a series of multi-site professional development workshops that have taken place at four physical locations sites: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Arizona, as well as over the internet. All sites were linked via the Digital Learning Network, on which scientists and educator specialists shared information about their missions and activities. Participants interacted with speakers across the country to learn about Discovery and New Frontiers class missions. The third such annual workshop without walls, 'Challenge of Discovery,' was held on 9 April 2013. Educators from across the country delved into the stories behind some amazing NASA missions, from conception to science results. They learned how scientists, engineers, and mission operators collaborate to meet the challenges of complex missions to assure that science goals are met. As an example of science and engineering coming together, an Instrument Scientist and a Payload Operations Manager from the MESSENGER mission discussed the steps needed to observe Mercury's north polar region, gather data, and finally come to the conclusion that water ice is present in permanently shadowed areas inside polar impact craters. The participating educators were able to work with actual data and experience how the conclusion was reached. This example and others highlight the potential of such workshops to inform and engage educators.

Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K.; Asplund, S. E.; Cobb, W. H.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

2013-12-01

379

Preventing HIV among Young People: research priorities for the future  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them. PMID:23764629

Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances

2013-01-01

380

Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International Ocean Discovery Programme in October 2013. Key successes encompass technological development, operational procedures in sensitive areas and research into palaeoclimate and shoreline responses to sea level change amongst others. Increased operational flexibility in the new programme only serves to make the future an exciting one for ocean drilling in Europe.

Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

2013-04-01

381

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1960s research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated. Finally, the size of the “media violence effect” is compared with some other well known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

Huesmann, L. Rowell

2009-01-01

382

Some bibliometric correlates of quality in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following kinds of data were collected on three samples of cancer research literature representing three levels of quality: (1) collaboration as measured by the number of authors per paper, (2) quantitative productivity of countries, (3) diachronous citations covering the first five years of publication, (4) total self-citations, (5) proportions of self-citations made by first-named authors, and (6) the extent

S. M. Lawani

1986-01-01

383

Accurate Scientific Visualization in Research and Physics Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate visualization is key in the expression and comprehension of physical principles. Many 3D animation software packages come with built-in numerical methods for a variety of fundamental classical systems. Scripting languages give access to low-level computational functionality, thereby revealing a virtual physics laboratory for teaching and research. Specific examples will be presented: Galilean relativistic hair, energy conservation in complex systems, scattering from a central force, and energy transfer in bi-molecular reactions.

Wendler, Tim

2011-10-01

384

"Collaboration in Scientific Research: Ethical, Philosophical, and Other Perspectives on Scientific Practice" An innovative advanced research course for PhD students from a range of disciplines: Autumn 2012  

E-print Network

"Collaboration in Scientific Research: Ethical, Philosophical, and Other Perspectives on Scientific with philosophy of science and ethics and values. Students' current research is a starting point for discussion Practice" An innovative advanced research course for PhD students from a range of disciplines: Autumn 2012

Heller, Barbara

385

Development of an Expert Resource Network for Students and Advisors Engaging in Authentic Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to increase the the number of secondary students engaging in authentic scientific research and to improve the quality of that research, an online network of scientists and educators is being established. The Network will be assessable to students and advisors participating in the 2012 Monmouth Junior Science Symposium (MJSS), a scientific forum for New Jersey students, but is intended to serve as a model for use by participants in the additional 47 regional science symposia of which the MJSS is part. Hosted on the MJSS website, the Network will consist of contact information and profiles of scientists, educators and other research professionals willing to assist secondary students and their teacher/advisors perform authentic scientific research. Profiles will include area(s) of expertise and level of participation to which the individual is capable. The set of participating experts will have the potential to expand continually as additional professionals with a variety of backgrounds are recruited over time. The Network will also be made available to members of the New Jersey Science Supervisors Association to encourage school districts not currently participating in the MJSS to involve secondary students in conducting authentic scientific research. The Network's effectiveness will be evaluated by surveys completed by MJSS participants and their teacher/advisors included with their research paper submissions.

Danch, J. M.; Aker-bolin, K.

2011-12-01

386

National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research  

PubMed Central

The “h index” proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569–16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities. PMID:17991781

Kinney, A. L.

2007-01-01

387

Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Results/Conclusions Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, A. J.; Huete, A.; Keller, S.; Levetin, E.; Luvall, J.; Meyers, O.; Stylinski, C. D.; VandeWater, P.K.; Vukovic, A.

2013-01-01

388

Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Huete, Alfredo; Keller, Stephen; Levetin, Estelle; Luvall, Jeffrey; Meyers, Orrin; Stylinski, Cathlyn D.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Vukovic, Ana

2013-01-01

389

Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica: a new SCAR Scientific Research Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 2008 the IAU became a union member of the ICSU body SCAR—the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. At the same time, SCAR initiated a Planning Group to establish a Scientific Research Program in Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines.

Storey, J. W. V.

2010-11-01

390

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis\\u000a of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting\\u000a aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field\\u000a of molecular biology. The story of SARS

Siu Ling Wong; Jenny Kwan; Derek Hodson; Benny Hin Wai Yung

2009-01-01

391

Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.  

PubMed

Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions. PMID:24944543

Masic, Izet

2014-04-01

392

A scientific role for Space Station Freedom: Research at the cellular level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific importance of Space Station Freedom is discussed in light of the valuable information that can be gained in cellular and developmental biology with regard to the microgravity environment on the cellular cytoskeleton, cellular responses to extracellular signal molecules, morphology, events associated with cell division, and cellular physiology. Examples of studies in basic cell biology, as well as their potential importance to concerns for future enabling strategies, are presented.

Johnson, Terry C.; Brady, John N.

1993-01-01

393

eCAT: Online electronic lab notebook for scientific research  

PubMed Central

Background eCAT is an electronic lab notebook (ELN) developed by Axiope Limited. It is the first online ELN, the first ELN to be developed in close collaboration with lab scientists, and the first ELN to be targeted at researchers in non-commercial institutions. eCAT was developed in response to feedback from users of a predecessor product. By late 2006 the basic concept had been clarified: a highly scalable web-based collaboration tool that possessed the basic capabilities of commercial ELNs, i.e. a permissions system, controlled sharing, an audit trail, electronic signature and search, and a front end that looked like the electronic counterpart to a paper notebook. Results During the development of the beta version feedback was incorporated from many groups including the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital Boston, Alex Swarbrick's lab at the Garvan Institute in Sydney and Martin Spitaler at Imperial College. More than 100 individuals and groups worldwide then participated in the beta testing between September 2008 and June 2009. The generally positive response is reflected in the following quote about how one lab is making use of eCAT: "Everyone uses it as an electronic notebook, so they can compile the diverse collections of data that we generate as biologists, such as images and spreadsheets. We use to it to take minutes of meetings. We also use it to manage our common stocks of antibodies, plasmids and so on. Finally, perhaps the most important feature for us is the ability to link records, reagents and experiments." Conclusion By developing eCAT in close collaboration with lab scientists, Axiope has come up with a practical and easy-to-use product that meets the need of scientists to manage, store and share data online. eCAT is already being perceived as a product that labs can continue to use as their data management and sharing grows in scale and complexity. PMID:20334629

2009-01-01

394

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists’ Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of scientists’ actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific\\u000a inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists’ actual research: their motivations for scientific\\u000a inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from their research. To do this,\\u000a we interviewed six prominent physicists about

Kyoung-Ae Jang; Ikgyun Kim

2009-01-01

395

Major scientific contributions-period 2005 -2009 Contribution 1 : Description and implementation of a research project on "robots in human  

E-print Network

contributions to this important scientific challenge. This research program is the foundation for the creationMajor scientific contributions- period 2005 -2009 Contribution 1 : Description and implementation of a research project on "robots in human environments" I firstly proposed the research theme "robot sharing

Laugier, Christian

396

A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Abstract Health game research has flourished over the last decade. The number of peer-reviewed scientific publications has surged as the clinical application of health games has diversified. In response to this growth, several past literature reviews have assessed the effectiveness of health games in specific clinical subdomains. The past literature reviews, however, have not provided a general scope of health games independent of clinical context. The present systematic review identified 149 publications. All sources were published before 2011 in a peer-reviewed venue. To be included in this review, publications were required (1) to be an original research, (2) to focus on health, (3) to utilize a sound research design, (4) to report quantitative health outcomes, and (5) to target healthcare receivers. Initial findings showed certain trends in health game publications: Focus on younger male demographics, relatively low number of study participants, increased number of controlled trials, short duration of intervention periods, short duration and frequency of user–game interaction, dominance of exercise and rehab games, lack of underlying theoretical frameworks, and concentration on clinical contexts such as physical activity and nutrition. The review concludes that future research should (1) widen the demographics to include females and elderly, (2) increase the number of participants in controlled trials, (3) lengthen both the intervention period and user–game interaction duration, and (4) expand the application of health games in new clinical contexts. PMID:24416638

Lu, Amy Shirong; Gharghabi, Fardad; Coleman, Whitney

2012-01-01

397

Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.  

PubMed

Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. PMID:23963919

Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

2013-11-01

398

Report of the Independent Scientific Advisory Board Regarding a Research Proposal for Inclusion in the 1997 Smolt Monitoring Program  

E-print Network

Report of the Independent Scientific Advisory Board Regarding a Research Proposal for Inclusion Chinook January 13, 1997 ISAB-97-2 Independent Scientific Advisory Board Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife of scientific talent and financial resources for six decades, yet the puzzle has been slow to yield its secrets

399

Principles of scientific research team formation and evolution.  

PubMed

Research teams are the fundamental social unit of science, and yet there is currently no model that describes their basic property: size. In most fields, teams have grown significantly in recent decades. We show that this is partly due to the change in the character of team size distribution. We explain these changes with a comprehensive yet straightforward model of how teams of different sizes emerge and grow. This model accurately reproduces the evolution of empirical team size distribution over the period of 50 y. The modeling reveals that there are two modes of knowledge production. The first and more fundamental mode employs relatively small, "core" teams. Core teams form by a Poisson process and produce a Poisson distribution of team sizes in which larger teams are exceedingly rare. The second mode employs "extended" teams, which started as core teams, but subsequently accumulated new members proportional to the past productivity of their members. Given time, this mode gives rise to a power-law tail of large teams (10-1,000 members), which features in many fields today. Based on this model, we construct an analytical functional form that allows the contribution of different modes of authorship to be determined directly from the data and is applicable to any field. The model also offers a solid foundation for studying other social aspects of science, such as productivity and collaboration. PMID:24591626

Milojevi?, Staša

2014-03-18

400

Principles of scientific research team formation and evolution  

PubMed Central

Research teams are the fundamental social unit of science, and yet there is currently no model that describes their basic property: size. In most fields, teams have grown significantly in recent decades. We show that this is partly due to the change in the character of team size distribution. We explain these changes with a comprehensive yet straightforward model of how teams of different sizes emerge and grow. This model accurately reproduces the evolution of empirical team size distribution over the period of 50 y. The modeling reveals that there are two modes of knowledge production. The first and more fundamental mode employs relatively small, “core” teams. Core teams form by a Poisson process and produce a Poisson distribution of team sizes in which larger teams are exceedingly rare. The second mode employs “extended” teams, which started as core teams, but subsequently accumulated new members proportional to the past productivity of their members. Given time, this mode gives rise to a power-law tail of large teams (10–1,000 members), which features in many fields today. Based on this model, we construct an analytical functional form that allows the contribution of different modes of authorship to be determined directly from the data and is applicable to any field. The model also offers a solid foundation for studying other social aspects of science, such as productivity and collaboration. PMID:24591626

Milojevi?, Staša

2014-01-01

401

Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents D ...

402

Early Scientific Results and Future Prospects for the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the extraordinarily successful Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009, the Observatory is now fully equipped with a broad array of powerful science instruments that put it at the pinnacle of its scientific power. Relevant to the subject matter of the Beyond 2010 Conference, HST will be well-placed over the next five-plus years to advance our knowledge of the formation of high-redshift galaxies and their growth with cosmic time; the emergence of structure in the early universe via Dark Matter-driven gravitational instability; and the universe's expansion history and any resulting implications for the temporal character of Dark Energy. These are fitting projects for the iconic facility now celebrating its 20th anniversary in orbit.

Niedner, Malcolm B.

2011-03-01

403

[Problems and solutions on transformation of scientific research achievements of acupuncture].  

PubMed

With more and more attention and investment on acupuncture scientific researches, considerable outcomes and achievements has been acquired, but the shortcoming of low transformation rate of acupuncture research achievements is gradually exposed. Nowadays there is no related report on this problem, so based on achievement translational research in other areas and practical situation of acupuncture, the existing problems and solutions are analyzed. As a result, the existing problems include (1) the research content is mainly basic research and clinical research but less acupuncture device research, leading to limited transformation efficiency; (2) the evaluation system and transformation pattern are still needed to be perfect. The solutions are (1) to properly evaluate the research achievements of acupuncture, (2) to advocate the concept and method of translational medicine, (3) to reform the policy and system, and (4) to establish valid platforms covering research, outcomes and transformation. PMID:25335269

Guo, Tai-Pin; Ren, Yu-Lan; Li, Ji; Chen, Liang; Shu, Hong-Ping; Liang, Fan-Rong

2014-08-01

404

Thyroid nodule guidelines: agreement, disagreement and need for future research.  

PubMed

This article reviews agreement, disagreement and need for future research of the thyroid nodule guidelines published by the British Thyroid Association, National Cancer Institute, American Thyroid Association and the joint, transatlantic effort of three large societies, the American Society of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi and the European Thyroid Association, published in 2010. Consensus exists for most topics in the various guidelines. A few areas of disagreement, such as the use of scintigraphy, are mostly due to differences in disease prevalence in different countries. Most of the discordance, for example, on the use of calcitonin screening or fine-needle aspiration cytology classification, could probably be resolved by further expert discussions, as the basis is the same published evidence. Importantly, owing to a current lack of evidence in many areas, clinically very relevant areas of uncertainty need to be addressed by further research. This situation applies, for instance, to better definition of ultrasound malignancy criteria and the evaluation of emerging new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, including molecular markers. For clinicians who advise individual patients, these areas of uncertainty can currently only be resolved by sound management on the basis of clinical judgment, experience and patient preference. PMID:21364517

Paschke, Ralf; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Alexander, Erik; Valcavi, Roberto; Papini, Enrico; Gharib, Hossein

2011-06-01

405

Sports concussion assessment and management: Future research directions.  

PubMed

Abstract Over the past 2 decades, major progress has been achieved toward advancing the translational science of sport-related concussion (SRC), paving the way for evidence-based guidelines for injury diagnosis, evaluation and management. Several key empirical questions on the basic and clinical science of SRC, however, remain unanswered. The aim of this summary article is to highlight gaps in the existing science of SRC and to propose a platform for the next generation of SRC research. The article is framed around addressing two key questions that have major significance to protecting the health and safety of athletes affected by SRC, including: (a) Who is at risk of slow recovery or poor outcome after SRC, and why? (b) How does one modify the risks of slow recovery and poor outcome after SRC? Another aim of this article is to stimulate thought among researchers who will carry the science of SRC into the future, including neuropsychology leaders in the field. Implications for the broader science of traumatic brain injury are also discussed. PMID:25313678

McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T

2015-01-01

406

Future directions of failed implantation and recurrent miscarriage research.  

PubMed

Recurrent implantation failure is today the major reason for women completing several IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts without having achieved a child, and is probably also the explanation for many cases of unexplained infertility. Most causes of recurrent miscarriage are still poorly elucidated, but from a theoretical point of view recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage are suggested to have partly overlapping causes. Recent research has indeed documented that both syndromes can be caused by the same embryonic chromosomal abnormalities and the same maternal endocrine, thrombophilic and immunological disturbances. Consequently, many treatments attempting to normalize these abnormalities have been tested or are currently used in women with both recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. However, no treatment for the two syndromes is at the moment sufficiently documented to justify its routine use. In this review, an overview is given regarding present knowledge about causes that may be common for recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage, and suggestions are put forward for future research that may significantly improve understanding and treatment options for the syndromes. PMID:16820113

Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Kolte, Astrid M

2006-07-01

407

Future developments in brain-machine interface research.  

PubMed

Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition. PMID:21779720

Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2011-01-01

408

The Focal Dystonias: Current Views and Challenges for Future Research  

PubMed Central

The most common forms of dystonia are those that develop in adults and affect a relatively isolated region of the body. Although these adult-onset focal dystonias are most prevalent, knowledge of their etiologies and pathogenesis has lagged behind some of the rarer generalized dystonias, where the identification of genetic defects has facilitated both basic and clinical research. This summary provides a brief review of the clinical manifestations of the adult-onset focal dystonias, focussing attention on less well-understood clinical manifestations that need further study. It also provides a simple conceptual model for the similarities and differences among the different adult-onset focal dystonias, as a rationale for lumping them together as a class of disorders while at the same time splitting them into subtypes. The concluding section outlines some of the most important research questions for the future. Answers to these questions are critical for advancing our understanding of this group of disorders, and for developing novel therapeutics. PMID:23893450

Jinnah, H. A.; Berardelli, Alfredo; Comella, Cynthia; Defazio, Giovanni; DeLong, Mahlon; Factor, Stewart; Galpern, Wendy R.; Hallett, Mark; Ludlow, Christy L.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Rosen, Ami

2013-01-01

409

CABS: Green Energy for Our Nation's Future (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

ScienceCinema

'CABS: Green Energy for our Nation's Future' was submitted by the Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CABS, an EFRC directed by Jan Jaworski at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (lead), Michigan State University, the University of Nebraska, New Mexico Consortium/LANL, and Washington State University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

Jan Jaworski (Director, Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems); Sayre, Richard T. (previous Director); CABS Staff

2011-11-03

410

Scientific research and human rights: a response to Kitcher on the limitations of inquiry.  

PubMed

In his recent work exploring the role of science in democratic societies Kitcher (Science in a democratic society. Prometheus Books, New York, 2011) claims that scientists ought to have a prominent role in setting the agenda for and limits to research. Against the backdrop of the claim that the proper limits of scientific inquiry is John Stuart Mill’s Harm Principle (Kitcher in Science, truth, and democracy. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001), he identifies the limits of inquiry as the point where the outcomes of research could cause harm to already vulnerable populations. Nonetheless, Kitcher argues against explicit limitations on unscrupulous research on the grounds that restrictions would exacerbate underlying social problems. I show that Kitcher’s argument in favor of dissuading inquiry through conventional standards is problematic and falls prey to the same critique he offers in opposition to official bans. I expand the conversation of limiting scientific research by recognizing that the actions that count as ‘science’ are located in the space between ‘thinking’ and ‘doing’. In this space, we often attempt to balance freedom of research, as scientific speech, against the disparate impact citizens might experience in light of such research. I end by exploring if such disparate impact justifies limiting research, within the context of the United States, under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or under international human rights standards more generally. PMID:24235027

Victor, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

411

Survey Research in Athletic Training: The Scientific Method of Development and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide a scientific method for the develop- ment, validation, and correct use of a survey tool. Background: Many athletic trainers are becoming involved in research to benefit either their own situations or the larger profession of athletic training. One of the most common meth- ods used to gain this necessary information is a survey, with either a questionnaire

Paula Sammarone Turocy

412

June 14-16 2004: NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop Meeting Dates June 14-16 2004 Meeting Site One Bethesda Metro Center Bethesda, Maryland 20814 This workshop addressed the biology and the methods of pre-clinical cancer detection.

413

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES AN AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  

E-print Network

in assuring the safety and operational readiness of Air Force fleet. The current fleet has many aging aircraft1 DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES AN AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STRUCTURAL MECHANICS statement A: approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited Keywords: Damage assessment, aging

Giurgiutiu, Victor

414

THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH WORKING GROUP ON MARINE VIRUSES WG 126  

E-print Network

THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH WORKING GROUP ON MARINE VIRUSES ­ WG 126 Virus- CHALLENGES, ROADBLOCKS AND PITFALLS MARKUS G WEINBAUER & STEVEN W. WILHELM I. ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF VIRUS WITH VIRUSES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS JANICE E. LAWRENCE ­ University of New Brunswick, Canada 1035 Coffee Break

Wilhelm, Steven W.

415

Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to and sharing of data are essential for the conduct and advancement of science. This article argues that publicly funded research data should be openly available to the maximum extent possible. To seize upon advancements of cyberinfrastructure and the explosion of data in a range of scientific disciplines, this access to and sharing of publicly funded data must be

Peter W. Arzberger; Peter Schroeder; Anne Beaulieu; Geoffrey C. Bowker; Kathleen Casey; Leif Laaksonen; David Moorman; Paul Uhlir; Paul Wouters

2004-01-01

416

The paradox of scientific excellence and the search for productivity in pharmaceutical research and development.  

PubMed

Scientific advances in specialty areas are proceeding at a rapid rate, but the research and development enterprise seems unable to take full advantage. Harnessing the steady stream of knowledge and inventions from different disciplines is the critical management issue of our time. This article suggests a framework for a management-directed effort to improve productivity by enhancing interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:24458012

Grasela, T H; Slusser, R

2014-05-01

417

Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

1998-01-01

418

Definitions for the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Scientifically-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of scientifically-based research within No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is to identify and disseminate conclusive information on ?what works? in education, with an emphasis on determining what instructional input (curricula, instructional techniques) works to increase student outcomes such as academic achievement and language proficiency.…

Wilde, Judith

2004-01-01

419

The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

2004-01-01

420

March 20 - 22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop - Poster Session  

Cancer.gov

4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA Poster Session Tuesday, March 22, 2006 3:30 – 5:30 p.m. Poster Highlights 5:30 – 6:30 p.m. Chairs Dean Brenner, M.D., University of Michigan David Sidransky,

421

Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets ASP Conference Series, Vol. 294, 2003  

E-print Network

that are now being discovered. New technology is needed to find Earth-like planets that are a factor of several427 Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets ASP Conference Series, Vol. 294, 2003 D-size and Larger Extrasolar Planets W. J. Borucki1 , D. G. Koch1 , G. B. Basri2 , D. A. Caldwell3 , J. F. Caldwell4

422

Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Scientifically Based Research. NCREL Quick Key 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, schools and districts are seeking information to identify, plan, and implement federally funded programs and practices that have been proven to be effective through scientifically based research (SBR). The purpose of this brochure is to help administrators, educators, parents, and…

Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2004

2004-01-01

423

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1986. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Techncial Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1987-01-01

424

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1984 is compiled. Approximately 1650 citations are included comprising formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.

1985-01-01

425

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for Calendar Year 1985  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1985 is presented. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1986-01-01

426

Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

Caruthers, Bill J.

2009-01-01

427

Future Direction of National Fusion Research Tentative translation to English  

E-print Network

Design of Fusion Research ---------------------------------2 (1) Necessity of Centralization Research Centralization Plan -------------------------------------------------------4 (1) Evaluation of Existing Fusion Research Programs --------------------------------4 (2) Centralized Research Programs

428

All students of the Graduate School of Information Science and Technology should read and understand the following guidelines for scientific research before they start research, i.e., at the time they enter the graduate  

E-print Network

and Technology should read and understand the following guidelines for scientific research before they start when writing PhD and Masters' theses. Ethics in Scientific Research Scientific research should collaboration. Dishonest Acts in Scientific Research Even for conducting "proper" research, which

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

429

Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

Taylor, Jacqui

2012-01-01

430

Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

2014-05-01

431

Futurity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Futurity website features "the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada and Australia." Currently, some of the participating universities include Boston University, Duke University, McGill University, and the University of Sheffield. Visitors to the homepage will note that there are four areas on the site: Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Technology, and Society & Culture. Recently profiled news items include a compelling new discovery from New York University about the reality of a tractor beam that can pull microscopic particles. The Society & Culture section is a real find, as it contains engaging pieces like "Is zero tolerance too hard on students?" and "Big banks loom over finance 'ecosystem'." Also, visitors can browse news items by school or by topic area. Finally, the Week's Most Discussed area is a great way to learn about compelling new stories from around the globe.

432

Assessing the Effects of Fire Disturbance on Ecosystems: A Scientific Agenda for Research and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Peterson, David L.; Keane, Robert E.; Lenihan, James M.;McKenzie, Donald; Weise, David R.; Sandberg, David V. 1999. Assessing theeffects of fire disturbance on ecosystems: a scientific agenda for research andmanagement. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-455. Portland, OR: U.S. Department ofAgriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 104 p.A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April

Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson; Robert E. Keane; James M. Lenihan; Donald McKenzie; David R. Weise; David V. Sandberg

1999-01-01

433

Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice  

PubMed Central

Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that attend to the complexity of this process. Key Points Despite research regarding has showed students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, it remains somewhat equivocal. The studies included in this review show students’ improvements on skill, knowledge and tactical development, as we as game play, during the participation in Sport Education units. Some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies exposed superior learning opportunities to girls and lower skill-level students. The effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units can explain these equivocal results. Future research is encouraged to consider the implementation of protocols for student-coaches’ preparation, hybrid models, a retention test, the interaction of gender and skill level, and use research designs that attend to the complexity of the teaching-learning process. PMID:25435778

Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

2014-01-01

434

Regional information network systems on Scientific research - two examples of Ishikawa and Toyama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and Technology Agency has been promoting regional information network systems on scientific research. The common purpose of the systems is to enhance good communications among various researchers in regions as well as between researchers in Tsukuba and researchers in regions, and accordingly to contribute to the evolution of the regional R&D. These network systems with the help of the pursonal computor communication system have been carried out as prototypes since 1988, in not only Tsukuba area, but four other regions. Two of them are in Ishikawa prefecture and Toyama prefecture. The situations and details of the two are explained.

Okuma, Kenji

435

14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes to animal research in 2014  

E-print Network

14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes;14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 2 © 2014 Ipsos MORI ­ all rights://www.ipsos-mori.com/terms. © Ipsos MORI 2014. #12;14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014

Napp, Nils

436

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of scientists’ actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists’ actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from their research. To do this, we interviewed six prominent physicists about why and how they researched and what they obtained from their research results. We also analyzed their published papers. In the previous part of this study, types and features of the physicists’ research motivations were identified (Park and Jang, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 47(3), 401-408, 2005). In this article, as the second part of the study, it was found: (1) Various inquiry skills including theoretical as well as experimental research skills and the social skills of scientific inquiry were used in physicists’ research. (2) New inventions, articulation of, and falsification of the previous findings were regarded as important research results. (3) Physicists’ research processes were often non-linear and cyclical. For each of these findings, implications for teaching scientific inquiry in schools were developed. Finally, we proposed a model of scientific inquiry process consisting of research motives, scientific inquiry skills, and results of inquiry.

Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

2009-01-01

437

Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

Warren, C.D.

1999-07-03

438

An Attempt to Quantify the Economic Benefits of Scientific Research, Science Policy Studies No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a possible methodology for measuring and predicting the future course of the long-range economic benefits of "curiosity-oriented" research. The basic premise is that much pure research tends to give rise to major industries in about one generation. Each industry will have some total economic benefit which can be discounted to a…

Byatt, I. C. R.; Cohen, A. V.

439

ENHANCING SEISMIC CALIBRATION RESEARCH THROUGH SOFTWARE AUTOMATION AND SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at LLNL has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Several achievements in schema design, data visualization, synthesis, and analysis were completed this year. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. As data volumes have increased, scientific information management issues such as data quality assessment, ontology mapping, and metadata collection that are essential for production and validation of derived calibrations have negatively impacted researchers abilities to produce products. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. Significant software engineering and development efforts have produced an object-oriented framework that provides database centric coordination between scientific tools, users, and data. Nearly a half billion parameters, signals, measurements, and metadata entries are all stored in a relational database accessed by an extensive object-oriented multi-technology software framework that includes elements of stored procedures, real-time transactional database triggers and constraints, as well as coupled Java and C++ software libraries to handle the information interchange and validation requirements. Significant resources were applied to schema design to enable recording of processing flow and metadata. A core capability is the ability to rapidly select and present subsets of related signals and measurements to the researchers for analysis and distillation both visually (JAVA GUI client applications) and in batch mode (instantiation of multi-threaded applications on clusters of processors). Development of efficient data exploitation methods has become increasingly important throughout academic and government seismic research communities to address multi-disciplinary large scale initiatives. Effective frameworks must also simultaneously provide the researcher with robust measurement and analysis tools that can handle and extract groups of events effectively and isolate the researcher from the now onerous task of database management and metadata collection necessary for validation and error analysis. Sufficient information management robustness is required to avoid loss of metadata that would lead to incorrect calibration results in addition to increasing the data management burden. Our specific automation methodology and tools improve the researchers ability to assemble quality-controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks also provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built.

Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M

2007-07-06

440

Future research directions for the Great Waters program  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Report to Congress contained Section 112(m), requiring the assessment of the deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay and coastal waters. This program, called the Great Waters program, is required to have a report to Congress in 3 years and every 2 years thereafter. The first Report to Congress is to be released this spring. With the completion of the first Great Waters report and the ensuing discussions within the EPA, it is now appropriate to assess the future needs and direction of the program. One knows where one stands in terms of the state of the knowledge, and what kinds of efforts are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of atmospheric deposition of toxics to aquatic ecosystems. Given that the problem is a vastly complex one, and that research in this area is extremely expensive, the EPA must now determine where efforts are best spent to collect the most important information to meet the mandate of Section 112(m) of the Clean Air Act. The EPA is working on a program strategy to target those most-effective efforts. This paper will describe the strategy and the rationale for its design.

McCullough, M.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

441

Killing me softly--future challenges in apoptosis research.  

PubMed

The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. In this review we focus on three aspects of apoptosis research which we believe are the most crucial and most exciting areas currently investigated and that will need to be better understood in order to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic measures. First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. Second, the complexity of combination therapy is elucidated using the PI3-K-mediated signaling network as a specific example. Here we show that the current clinical approach to sensitize malignancies to apoptosis by maximal, prolonged inhibition of so-called survival pathways can actually be counter productive. Third, we propose that under certain conditions which will need to be clearly defined in future, chronification of a tumor might be preferable to the attempt at a cure. Finally, we discuss further problems with utilizing apoptosis induction in cancer therapy and propose a novel potential therapeutic approach that combines the previously discussed features. PMID:24595238

Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Brühl, Oliver; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

2014-01-01

442

Outlook: the postictal state--future directions for research.  

PubMed

Future directions for research need to include studies of the various experimental and clinical aspects of the postictal state. More specifically, we need reliable and validated instruments that are able to measure the beginning and the end of the postictal period. Although a number of questionnaires are available, we currently have no evidence that these tests are able to assess drug effects on the postictal state, if they exist. In addition to the need for sensitive, reproducible and objective measures of the postictal state, we need instruments to differentiate the specific effects of AEDs or non-pharmacological therapy on the postictal state from indirect effects because of overall reduction in seizure severity. Although it would be naďve to think that the mechanisms of seizure termination are necessarily less complex than those involved in ictal onset, it is certainly worthwhile to explore strategies for the development of a new class of drugs for seizure control that work primarily through mechanisms involved in seizure termination and postictal refractoriness. PMID:20691642

Schmidt, Dieter; Noachtar, Soheyl

2010-10-01

443

Killing Me Softly—Future Challenges in Apoptosis Research  

PubMed Central

The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. In this review we focus on three aspects of apoptosis research which we believe are the most crucial and most exciting areas currently investigated and that will need to be better understood in order to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic measures. First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. Second, the complexity of combination therapy is elucidated using the PI3-K-mediated signaling network as a specific example. Here we show that the current clinical approach to sensitize malignancies to apoptosis by maximal, prolonged inhibition of so-called survival pathways can actually be counter productive. Third, we propose that under certain conditions which will need to be clearly defined in future, chronification of a tumor might be preferable to the attempt at a cure. Finally, we discuss further problems with utilizing apoptosis induction in cancer therapy and propose a novel potential therapeutic approach that combines the previously discussed features. PMID:24595238

Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Brühl, Oliver; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

2014-01-01

444

[Historical notes about scientific research in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.  

PubMed

Medical research in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social has been considered one of the most important in this country for quality and quantity. Thanks to the work and leadership of Benito Coquet, who initiated the building of the National Medical Center in 1961, and the work of two pillars of research, Luis Castelazo and Bernardo Sepúlveda, the Institute successfully improved scientific research. In the years that followed, the Institute fostered the professionalization of research, the creation of research units in different areas of science, the incorporation of consolidated groups of researchers, the relationship with other institutions, the incorporation to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, the editing of a journal to expose outside the work done within the Institute, and the formation of a trust to raise funds for financing. Thanks to all that, institutional research strengthened in all lines, and it was placed first, at certain times, at the national level. PMID:24290017

Zárate, Arturo; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes

2013-01-01

445

Use of human specimens in research: the evolving United States regulatory, policy, and scientific landscape  

PubMed Central

The use of human specimens in research has contributed to significant scientific and medical advancements. However, the development of sophisticated whole genome and informatics technologies and the increase in specimen and data sharing have raised new questions about the identifiability of specimens and the protection of participants in human specimen research. In the US, new regulations and policies are being considered to address these changes. This review discusses the current and proposed regulations as they apply to specimen research, as well as relevant policy discussions. It summarizes the ways that researchers and other stakeholders can provide their input to these discussions and policy development efforts. Input from all the stakeholders in specimen research will be essential for the development of policies that facilitate such research while at the same time protecting the rights and welfare of research participants. PMID:24639889

Bledsoe, Marianna J.; Grizzle, William E.

2013-01-01

446

University of Twente Scientific Integrity Complaints Within the University of Twente all persons involved in education and research have a  

E-print Network

as guidelines for the university as defined in article 1.7 of the Dutch Higher Education and Scientific ResearchUniversity of Twente Scientific Integrity Complaints Procedure Preamble Within the University of Twente all persons involved in education and research have a personal responsibility to maintain

Twente, Universiteit

447

Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.  

PubMed

In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution of power output is both physiologically and biophysically optimal for longer ( > 4 km) time-trials held in conditions of unvarying wind and gradient. For shorter races (e.g. a 1 km time-trial), an 'all out' effort from the start is advised to 'save' time during the initial phase that contributes most to total race time and to optimize the contribution of kinetic energy to race velocity. From a biophysical standpoint, the optimum pacing strategy for road time-trials may involve increasing power in headwinds and uphill sections and decreasing power in tailwinds and when travelling downhill. More research, using models and direct power measurement, is needed to elucidate fully how much such a pacing strategy might save time in a real race and how much a variable power output can be tolerated by a rider. The cyclist's diet is a multifactorial issue in itself and many researchers have tried to examine aspects of cycling nutrition (e.g. timing, amount, composition) in isolation. Only recently have researchers attempted to analyse interrelationships between dietary factors (e.g. the link between pre-race and in-race dietary effects on performance). The thermal environment is a mediating factor in choice of diet, since there may be competing interests of replacing lost fluid and depleted glycogen during and after a race. Given the prevalence of stage racing in professional cycling, more research into the influence of nutrition on repeated bouts of exercise performance and training is required. PMID:14579871

Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

2003-09-01

448

Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than the contaminant of concern. Guidance is needed on incorporating LTM issues and needs earlier in the remedy selection and design process. LTM and remediation designs are usually developed separately, but in many cases they are inextricably linked and sites would benefit from considering them simultaneously. Professional guidance and education are needed on a number of other implementation issues, including criteria for eliminating sampling of particular constituents and for halting LTM, public involvement in LTM optimization, and the fate of monitoring wells that are no longer being sampled.

Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

2002-05-01

449

Ethical and scientific considerations for chemoprevention research in cohorts at genetic risk for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Identification of cohorts at genetic risk for cancer offers unique research opportunities to explore the steps in carcinogenesis, from the inheritance of a predisposing mutation to the development of preinvasive lesions or overt malignancy, and to evaluate interventions to modulate the carcinogenic process. However, cancer prevention strategies for most inherited cancer predisposition syndromes are of unproven benefit, and the potential for adverse psychosocial effects and employment or insurance discrimination associated with genetic testing is substantial. Thus testing for genetic cancer risk remains highly controversial, and the National Center for Human Genome Research and the American Society of Human Genetics advise DNA testing for presymptomatic identification of cancer risk only in the setting of a carefully monitored research environment. The commercial availability of predictive genetic testing, particularly for inherited susceptibility to cancer, has focused attention not only on the urgent need for research in cancer prevention for cohorts at genetic cancer risk but also on ethical considerations surrounding clinical prevention research in genetic risk groups. This paper addresses the interrelationship of ethical and scientific issues in conducting chemoprevention research in these cohorts, especially for those studies which require presymptomatic testing for specific gene mutations as a study entry criterion or as a criterion for stratification. Practical approaches to study design and implementation issues for chemoprevention research in genetic risk cohorts are discussed, emphasizing the interactions of ethical and scientific considerations at all levels of the research process. PMID:9027608

Nayfield, S G

1996-01-01

450

Multilevel Interventions in Health Care: Building the Foundation for Future Research - About  

Cancer.gov

Access articles online or order a free, printed copy of the May 2012 cross-disciplinary publication that aims to expand the scientific base of multilevel intervention research and improve health care and cancer outcomes for individuals.

451

Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress Due to Interdisciplinary Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Special Issue on "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress due to Interdisciplinary Research" reports a number of findings resulting from a collaborative effort run from 2006 until 2013, in the framework of the DFG Priority Program 1257 "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System". Contributions have been arranged along five lines, i.e. (1) improvements in geodesy: satellite mass monitoring through gravimetry and altimetry, (2) applications in large-scale hydrology, (3) applications in solid Earth research, (4) applications in cryospheric research, (5) applications in ocean sciences.

Kusche, Jürgen; Klemann, Volker; Sneeuw, Nico

2014-11-01

452

Alzheimer's disease research: scientific productivity and impact of the top 100 investigators in the field.  

PubMed

The online availability of scientific-literature databases and natural-language-processing (NLP) algorithms has enabled large-scale bibliometric studies within the field of scientometrics. Using NLP techniques and Thomson ISI reports, an initial analysis of the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the neurosciences as well as a summary of the various research foci within the AD scientific community are presented. Citation analyses and productivity filters are applied to post-1984, AD-specific subsets of the PubMed and Thomson ISI Web-of-Science literature bases to algorithmically identify a pool of the top AD researchers. From the initial pool of AD investigators, top-100 rankings are compiled to assess productivity and impact. One of the impact and productivity metrics employed is an AD-specific H-index. Within the AD-specific H-index ranking, there are many cases of multiple AD investigators with similar or identical H-indices. In order to facilitate differentiation among investigators with equal or near-equal H indices, two derivatives of the H-index are proposed: the Second-Tier H-index and the Scientific Following H-index. Winners of two prestigious AD-research awards are highlighted, membership to the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences is acknowledged, and an analysis of highly-productive, high-impact, AD-research collaborations is presented. PMID:19221406

Sorensen, Aaron A

2009-01-01

453

Does the world need a scientific society for research on how to improve healthcare?  

PubMed

In this editorial, we reflect on the arguments for starting a scientific society focused on research on how to improve healthcare. This society would take an inclusive approach to what constitutes healthcare. For instance, it should include mental health healthcare, treatment for substance abuse, the work of allied health professions, and preventive healthcare. The society would be open to researchers from all traditions. Thus, we take an inclusive approach to what constitutes scientific research, as long as it uses rigorous methods, is focused on improving healthcare, and aims at knowledge that can be transferred across settings. The society would primarily target scientific researchers but would invite others with an interest in this area of research, regardless of their discipline, position, field of application, or group affiliation (e.g., improvement science, behavioral medicine, knowledge translation). A society would need fruitful collaboration with related societies and organizations, which may include having combined meetings. Special links may be developed with one or more journals. A website to provide information on relevant resources, events, and training opportunities is another key activity. It would also provide a voice for the field at funding agencies, political arenas, and similar institutions. An organizational structure and financial resources are required to develop and run these activities. Our aim is to start an international debate, to discover if we can establish a shared vision across academics and stakeholders engaged with creating scientific knowledge on how to improve healthcare. We invite readers to express their views in the online questionnaire accessed by following the URL link provided at the end of the editorial. PMID:22376988

Wensing, Michel; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

2012-01-01

454

The Impact of the Next Generation Science Standards on Future Professional Development and Astronomy Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Science Standards will have a profound impact on the future science education of students and professional development for teachers. The science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas laid out in the Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2011) will change the focus and methods of how we prepare teachers to meet these new standards. Extending beyond just the use of inquiry in the classroom, teachers will need support designing and implementing integrated experiences for students that require them to apply knowledge of content and practices. Integrating the three dimensions central to the new standards will pose curricular challenges and create opportunities for innovative space science projects and instruction. The science research and technology community will have an important role in supporting authentic classroom practices as well as training and support of teachers in these new ways of presenting science and technology. These changes will require a new focus for teacher professional development and new ways to research impacts of teacher training and changes in classroom practice. In addition, new and innovative tools will be needed to assess mastery of students’ knowledge of practices and the ways teachers effectively help students achieve these new goals. The astronomy education community has much to offer as K-12 and undergraduate level science educators rethink and redefine what it means to be scientifically literate and figure out how to truly measure the success of these new ways of teaching science.

Buxner, Sanlyn

2013-06-01

455

Solar energy in progress and future research trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive fossil fuel consumption in almost all human activities led to some undesirable phenomena such as atmospheric and environmental pollutions, which have not been experienced before in known human history. Consequently, global warming, greenhouse affect, climate change, ozone layer depletion and acid rain terminologies started to appear in the literature frequently. Since 1970, it has been understood scientifically by experiments

Zekai ?en

2004-01-01

456

Ocean Forecasting and Monitoring Products for Scientific Community: the Mercator Ocean portfolio of Services and the future European Marine Core Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercator Ocean is a French public consortium formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by the six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). The

V. Toumazou; G. Vinay; S. Baudel; D. Palin; D. Kempa; P. Bahurel

2007-01-01

457

CSCW Research in Healthcare: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The healthcare domain is a key area for CSCW research. This workshop on CSCW research in healthcare has three main goals. First, we will explore the contributions that CSCW research has made to our understanding of collaboration in the healthcare setting. Second, we will identify challenges to conducting CSCW research in the healthcare field. Third, we will develop a research

Madhu C. Reddy; Jakob Bardram; Paul Gorman

2010-01-01

458

Preparing undergraduates for the future of scientific collaboration: Benefits, challenges and technological solutions in Distributed REU Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As research problems increasingly require multi-disciplinary approaches they naturally foster scientific collaborations between geographically distributed colleagues. This increasing trend in scientific research, the rapid evolution of communication technology, cognitive research into distance education, and the current generation of undergraduate students' eagerness to embrace and use technology, increases the relevance of distributed REU sites. Like traditional REU sites that host a cohort of students in one geographic location, distributed REU sites also seek to attract, nurture, and retain students in a STEM career pipeline. Distributed REU sites are unique in that some or all of the interns are geographically distributed during the research period. This arrangement allows the REU site to capitalize on distributed scientific resources such as field sites, research facilities, or human capital. At their core, distributed REU sites are fundamentally constructed of elements that have proven to be effective components of any undergraduate research experience. They also strive to develop and employ specialized programming that leverages collaboration tools through a cyberinfrastructure to enable interns to develop meaningful social and academic relationships with one another. Since 2006 the IRIS Consortium and NEES have facilitated separate, NSF funded, distributed REU Sites. Implementation and evaluations of these programs have revealed a number of successes and benefits. Longitudinal tracking indicates that distributed REU Sites are at least as successful as traditional sites in attracting, nurturing, and retaining students in a STEM career pipeline. A distributed arrangement also offers benefits over a traditional REU site, such as the flexibility to place interns at a variety of institutions with mentors making only an annual commitment to participate. This ensures that all mentors are eager to participate and are concerned with their intern's growth. It also exposes all interns to a larger spectrum of research topics and approaches within a field than would be available within a single research site. Evaluations also reveal that fostering social and academic interactions among interns working on generally unrelated projects at separate locations is challenging and requires a consistent, focused effort by the program. In part this is because creating a cohort experience in this situation requires a layer of interaction beyond the networks naturally establish by the interns when co-located. A critical first step is to establish a social presence among the group. This occurs through early face-to-face meetings and then is carried forward as interns transition to virtual interactions. These virtual interactions occur through a variety of technological solutions. Both commercially and freely available technologies such as blogging software, Facebook, an online course management system, virtual worlds, and a variety of online conferencing applications are used to connect the students both synchronously and asynchronously. We have documented the strengths and weaknesses of these individual solutions and show how combinations, combined with programmatic interventions, can offer a suite of functionality necessary to facilitate both social and academic interactions and influence career paths.

Hubenthal, M.; Anagnos, T.

2012-12-01

459

40 Years of the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute for Physical Optics Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented of the activities of the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute for Physical Optics Measurements\\u000a in the area of setting up and upgrading the system for unifying measurements in optical radiometry, which have been obtained\\u000a in the 40 years of the existence of the Institute. Development lines for this area of measurement are considered in relation\\u000a to the latest

V. S. Ivanov

2005-01-01

460

The Benefits and Challenges of Education and Public Outreach Efforts Associated With Scientific Research Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade or so, policies of funding agencies like NSF and NASA have resulted in a dramatic increase of education and public outreach (EPO) programs embedded in scientific research environments. From this phenomenon has risen increased scientist involvement in education & public outreach and a new genre of bridge-builders and leaders in science education--professionals we might call "scientist-educators" or "educator-scientists" (i.e. those who have been building educational capacity at scientific conferences like AGU). This paper summarizes the results of a small, pilot research project begun at the AGU Fall 2003 meeting in a session entitled Benefits & Challenges of Education & Public Outreach Programs Associated with Scientific Research Programs. The author was a co-convenor of the session with David Alexander, Jim Thieman, and Frank Ireton. It was the biggest education session out of 24 approved sessions--at the time the largest number ever for an AGU meeting. Our session's invitees and contributors were scientists and educator-scientists representing multiple AGU space and Earth science disciplines, and including a mix of large, medium, and small EPO programs and projects. The session's presenters and participants were surveyed for their top three benefits and top three challenges in scientist-educator partnerships. During the past year these data have been augmented by contributions from scientists and educators in a 1-day COSEE workshop at Rutgers University and by an open discussion at the AGU Spring 2004 meeting in Montreal. The summary of these results will be a part of a larger set of papers and resources intended to support the integration of exemplary EPO programs with scientific research programs and to provide advice to the novice EPO lead.

Morrow, C. A.

2004-12-01

461

[Spanish National Plan for Scientific Research, Development and Innovation 2008-2011: an opportunity for healthcare research].  

PubMed

Research in health sciences is a core element for success in any strategy aiming to improve health in today's society. The search for a safe, effective and efficient healthcare, that guarantees citizens equitable access to health services, has placed evidence-based clinical practice and research in healthcare in the front line. In this context, the Spanish National Plan for Scientific Research, Development and Innovation (R&D&I) 2008-2011 is the programming tool through which objectives and priorities of the national research policy are set in the mid-term. The present document is an approach to the current Spanish National Plan for R&D&I 2008-2011, which also describes current opportunities for developing research in health care within the Spanish National Health System. PMID:18579065

Catalá-López, Ferrán; Contreras, Mónica

2008-01-01

462

CIHR canadian HIV trials network HIV workshop: ethical research through community participation and strengthening scientific validity  

PubMed Central

The CIHR canadian HIV trials network mandate includes strengthening capacity to conduct and apply clinical research through training and mentoring initiatives of HIV researchers by building strong networks and partnerships on the African continent. At the17th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Africa (ICASA), the CTN facilitated a two-day workshop to address ethical issues in the conduct of HIV research, and career enhancing strategies for young African HIV researchers. Conference attendees were allowed to attend whichever session was of interest to them. We report on the topics covered, readings shared and participants’ evaluation of the workshop. The scientific aspects of ethical research in HIV and career enhancement strategies are relevant issues to conference attendees.

Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Slogrove, Amy; Sas, Jacqueline; Kunda, John; Morfaw, Frederick; Mukonzo, Jackson; Thabane, Lehana

2014-01-01

463

Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations  

MedlinePLUS

... Your contribution can help future generations lead healthier lives. Major medical breakthroughs could not happen without the generosity of clinical trial participants—young and old. You can make a difference by participating in ...

464

Results from a Dozen Years of Election Futures Markets Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Introduction and description of election futures marketsThe Iowa Electronic Markets are small-scale,real-money futures markets conducted bythe University of Iowa College of Business. In this review we focus on the best known of thesemarkets, The Iowa Political Markets.Contracts in these markets are designed so that pricesshould predict election outcomes. The data set contains the results of 49 markets covering 41elections

Joyce Berg; Robert Forsythe; Forrest Nelson; Thomas Rietz

465

Blurring the Line between Teaching and Research: Some Future Challenges for Arts Education Policymakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that changing climate of educational research and teaching will influence how the arts will be taught in the future. Recommends broadening the disciplinary structure of the arts and design curriculum and the use of collaborative research. (CFR)

Koroscik, Judith Smith

1994-01-01

466