Science.gov

Sample records for future scientific research

  1. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  2. Replicative Nature of Indian Research, Essence of Scientific Temper, and Future of Scientific Progress*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed. PMID:22815607

  3. Kroeze et al.: Future Trends in N Transport by Rivers TheScientificWorld (2001) 1 Research Article

    E-print Network

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    2001-01-01

    1 Kroeze et al.: Future Trends in N Transport by Rivers TheScientificWorld (2001) 1 Research as regional results are presented. Future Trends in Worldwide River Nitrogen Transport and Related Nitrous.kroeze@wimek.cmkw.wau.nl; sybil@imcs.rutgers.edu © 2001 with author. We analyze possible future trends in dissolved inorganic

  4. GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Yann; Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Zambelli, Pietro; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter; Di Leo, Margherita

    2015-04-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is known for its capacity to spatially enhance the management of natural resources. While being often used as an analytical tool, it also represents a collaborative scientific platform to develop new algorithms. Thus, it is critical that GIS software as well as the algorithms are open and accessible to anybody [18]. We present how GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists to implement and perform geoprocessing tasks. We will show how integrating scientific algorithms into GRASS GIS helps to preserve reproducibility of scientific results over time [15]. Moreover, subsequent improvements are tracked in the source code version control system and are immediately available to the public. GRASS GIS therefore acts as a repository of scientific peer-reviewed code, algorithm library, and knowledge hub for future generation of scientists. In the field of hydrology, with the various types of actual evapotranspiration (ET) models being developed in the last 20 years, it becomes necessary to inter-compare methods. Most of already published ETa models comparisons address few number of models, and small to medium areas [3, 6, 7, 22, 23]. With the large amount of remote sensing data covering the Earth, and the daily information available for the past ten years (i.e. Aqua/Terra-MODIS) for each pixel location, it becomes paramount to have a more complete comparison, in space and time. To address this new experimental requirement, a distributed computing framework was designed, and created [3, 4]. The design architecture was built from original satellite datasets to various levels of processing until reaching the requirement of various ETa models input dataset. Each input product is computed once and reused in all ETa models requiring such input. This permits standardization of inputs as much as possible to zero-in variations of models to the models internals/specificities. All of the ET models are available in the new GRASS GIS version 7 as imagery modules and replicability is complete for future research. A set of modules for multiscale analysis of landscape structure was added in 1992 by [1], who developed the r.le model similar to FRAGSTATS ([10]). The modules were gradually improved to become r.li in 2006. Further development continued, with a significant speed up [9] and new interactive user interface. The development of spatial interpolation module v.surf.rst started in 1988 [11] and continued by introduction of new interpolation methods and finally full integration into GRASS GIS version 4 [13]. Since then it was improved several times [8]. The module is an important part of GRASS GIS and is taught at geospatial modeling courses, for example at North Carolina State University [14]. GRASS GIS entails several modules that constitute the result of active research on natural hazard. The r.sim.water simulation model [12] for overland flow under rainfall excess conditions was integrated into the Emergency Routing Decision Planning system as a WPS [17]. It was also utilized by [16] and is now part of Tangible Landscape, a tangible GIS system, which also incorporated the r.damflood, a dam break inundation simulation [2]. The wildfire simulation toolset, originally developed by [24], implementing Rothermel's model [21], available through the GRASS GIS modules r.ros and r.spread, is object of active research. It has been extensively tested and recently adapted to European fuel types ([5, 19, 20]). References [1] Baker, W.L., Cai, Y., 1992. The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system. Landscape Ecology, 7(4):291-302. [2] Cannata M. and Marzocchi R., 2012. Two-dimensional dam break flooding simulation: a GIS embedded approach. - Natural Hazards 61(3):1143-1159. [3] Chemin, Y.H., 2012. A Distributed Benchmarking Framework for Actual ET Models. In Evapotranspiration - Remote Sensing and Modeling, Intech (Eds). [4] Chemin, Y. H. , 2014. Remote Sensing Raster Programming, 3rd Ed., Lulu (Eds). [5] Di Leo, M., de Rigo, D

  5. Future Programmes Scientific Steering Committee

    E-print Network

    Page Foreword Future Programmes Scientific Steering Committee Scientific Policy Statement Programme, because of the quality of people and science at the Institute, and a responsibility, to the UK community the Scientific Steering Committee which is at the heart of the peer review process for selecting programmes; from

  6. The future scientific CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

  7. Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, George O.

    2012-01-01

    As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

  8. Students' Research-Informed Socio-scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.

  9. Scientific Research in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J., Ed.; Towne, Lisa, Ed.

    This book presents a report on the nature and value of scientific research and with the increasing trend in evidence-based education, explains the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry and inquiry in other disciplines. Contents include: (1) "Accumulation of Scientific Knowledge"; (2) "Guiding Principles for Scientific Inquiry";…

  10. Students' Research-Informed Socio-Scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on "socio-scientific issues"; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with…

  11. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

    2014-06-01

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

  12. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  13. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Transforming education into an evidence-based field depends in no small part on a strong base of scientific knowledge to inform educational policy and practice. Advancing Scientific Research in Education makes select recommendations for strengthening scientific education research and targets federal agencies, professional associations, and…

  14. Student Involvement in Scientific Research

    E-print Network

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    classwork, provides a first-hand experience of the scientific method For example, picture yourself hereStudent Involvement in Scientific Research Department of Physics Sept. 5 & 12, 2012 #12;Department

  15. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The title of this report reveals its purpose precisely: to spur actions that will advance scientific research in education. The recommendations for accomplishing this goal, detailed in this report, build on the National Research Council (NRC) report "Scientific Research in Education" (National Research Council, 2002). That report offers an…

  16. [The present and future of cardiac CT in research and clinical practice: moderated discussion and scientific debate with representatives from the four main vendors].

    PubMed

    Dewey, M; de Vries, H; de Vries, L; Haas, D; Leidecker, C

    2010-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of the heart using computed tomography (CT) is an increasingly important diagnostic approach for patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography has recently received great attention because it provides imaging of the coronary arteries and quantification of the coronary plaque burden with a spatial and temporal resolution not available with any other noninvasive imaging test. In this moderated scientific debate we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different technical solutions to CT imaging of the fast moving heart including its small and tortuous coronary arteries. Our discussion goes into the details of developments regarding larger Z-axis coverage (320-row volume CT, high pitch spiral acquisition), improved temporal resolution (dual-source CT, adaptive multi-segment reconstruction, and shorter gantry rotation times with air-bearing gantries), improved spatial resolution (high-definition detectors), and improved reconstruction algorithms (iterative reconstruction, cone beam reconstruction). The discussion also touches on the future technological developments that will be necessary to further improve the acceptance and widespread clinical use of cardiac CT, focusing on radiation exposure reduction and independence from heart rate. Finally, the representatives of the four main vendors explain the most important research projects regarding cardiac CT that they plan to pursue in the near future. PMID:20234975

  17. International scientific cooperation: past and future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, J. G.

    1987-09-01

    This article addresses some non-scientific, yet no less significant, aspects of international cooperation in science, focuses on the social responsibility of the scientists engaged in cooperative research, and relates this to Marcel Nicolet's role in and contributions to international programs.

  18. The Future of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report looks at the future opportunities and challenges facing the UK university research base and makes recommendations as to how the system can respond to these. It comes at a time when the UK has elected its first coalition government for 70 years and is facing unprecedented economic challenges. The report is aimed at policy makers…

  19. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600... research. (a) Scientific research activity. Persons planning to conduct scientific research activities on board a scientific research vessel in the EEZ that may be confused with fishing are encouraged to...

  20. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600... research. (a) Scientific research activity. Persons planning to conduct scientific research activities on board a scientific research vessel in the EEZ that may be confused with fishing are encouraged to...

  1. Tunisian women in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2013-03-01

    The number of Tunisian women conducting scientific research is comparable to that of countries where educating girls has been going on much longer. Although women play an increasingly important role in the field of research, they rarely hold positions of responsibility. Enormous similarities exist between the degree of integration of Tunisian women in science and technology and that of developed countries. Since independence and the removal of discrimination between girls and boys, Tunisian women have been catching up very quickly.

  2. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

  3. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

  4. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

  5. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

  6. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

  7. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...considered to be a scientific research activity. The Regional Administrator...or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant...catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director. [61 FR...

  8. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...considered to be a scientific research activity. The Regional Administrator...or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant...catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director. [61 FR...

  9. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...considered to be a scientific research activity. The Regional Administrator...or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant...catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director. [61 FR...

  10. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...considered to be a scientific research activity. The Regional Administrator...or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant...catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director. [61 FR...

  11. Museum Education Research: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Museum Education: Roundtable Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Six museum education and learning researchers discuss the need to study how people learn and behave in museums and what kind of current research studies should be undertaken. Mary Ellen Munley, in "Back to the Future: A Call for Coordinated Research Programs in Museums," describes the differences between the terms "evaluation,""audience research,"…

  12. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures... vessel for research purposes, unless otherwise indicated. (b) Catches taken by any vessel for...

  13. Turning research find ings and scientific infor

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    is the age old challenge for the scientific community. While some scientists are content to merely adTurning research find ings and scientific infor mation into usable forms and applications vance our knowledge of a certain subject, we at ONRC are tasked with actually applying scientific

  14. Current Scientific Progress and Future Scientific Prospects Enabled by Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Yang, Song

    2008-01-01

    First, we examine current scientific progress and understanding that have been possible through use of spaceborne precipitation radar measurements being provided by the TRMM and CloudSat satellites. Second, we look across a future 20-year time frame to assess how and why anticipated improvements in space radar systems will further advance scientific progress into topic areas once considered beyond the realm of space-based remote sensing. JAXA's 13.8 GHz Ku-band cross-track scanning Precipitation Radar (PR) developed for flight on NASA's non-sun-synchronous, diurnally-precessing TRMM satellite, was the first Earth radar flown in space that was designed specifically for precipitation measurement. Its proven accuracy in measuring global rainfall in the tropics and sub-tropics and its unanticipated longevity in continuing these measurements beyond a full decade have established the standards against which all follow-up and future space radars will be evaluated. In regards to the current PR measurement time series, we will discuss a selection of major scientific discoveries and impacts which have set the stage for future radar measuring systems. In fact, the 2nd contemporary space radar applicable for terrestrial precipitation measurement, i.e., JPL-CSA's 94 GHz nadir-staring Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) flown on NASA's sun-synchronous CloudSat satellite, although designed primarily for measurement of non-precipitating cloud hydrometeors and aerosols, has also unquestionably advanced precipitation measurement because CPR's higher frequency and greatly increased sensitivity (approximately 30 dBZ) has enabled global observations of light rain rate spectrum processes (i.e., rain rates below 0.05 mm per hourand of precipitation processes in the high troposphere (particularly ice phase processes). These processes are beyond reach of the TRMM radar because the PR sensitivity limit is approximately 17 dBZ which means its lower rain rate cutoff is around 0.3 mm per hour and its vertical profiling acuity is greatly limited above the melting layer. Thus, the newer CPR measurements have become important for a variety of scientific reasons that will be highlighted and assessed. In considering scientific progress likely to stem from future precipitation radar systems, we will specifically examine possible scientific impacts from three anticipated missions for which NASA and various of its space agency partners are expected to lead the way. These three missions are: (1) the nearterm Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission; (2) the decadal timeline Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (ACE) Mission; and the post-decadal timeline NEXRAD in Space (NIS) Mission. The observational capabilities of the planned radar systems for each of these three satellite missions are distinct from each other and each provides progressive improvements in precipitation measuring and scientific research capabilities relative to where we are now -- insofar as TRMM PR and the CloudSat CPR capabilities. The potential innovations in scientific research will be discussed in a framework of likely synergisms between next-generation radar capabilities and accessible dynamical and microphysical properties that have heretofore evaded detection.

  15. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

  16. The Future of Research Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Tim; De Waard, Anita; Herman, Ivan; Hovy, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11331 “The Future of Research Communication”. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers from these different disciplines, whose core research goal is changing the formats, standards, and means by which we communicate science. PMID:26317061

  17. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300.104 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...

  18. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  19. The future of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Boat, Thomas F

    2007-11-01

    The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities. PMID:17950318

  20. Comparison of Scientific Research Projects of Education Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altunay, Esen; Tonbul, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Many studies indicate that knowledge and knowledge production are the main predictors of social development, welfare and the ability to face the future with confidence. It could be argued that knowledge production is mainly carried out by universities. This study compares 1266 scientific research projects (SRPs) completed by faculties of education…

  1. Scientific Research in Education: A Socratic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boody, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Socrates and Admetus discuss the value of scientific research in education. They conclude that although RCTs have their place, they are not a panacea for education, and that the push for them by NCLB is not warranted.

  2. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  3. DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    E-print Network

    , multicore-computing future and data-intensive science. Provide technological innovations for U Next Generation of Scientific Innovation 5FESAC Briefing April 10, 2014 #12;Exascale Computing: billion-way concurrency, energy consumption · Productive system ­ Usable by a wide variety of scientists

  4. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  5. The culture of scientific research.

    PubMed

    Joynson, Catherine; Leyser, Ottoline

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the UK-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics carried out a series of engagement activities, including an online survey to which 970 people responded, and 15 discussion events at universities around the UK to explore the culture of research in the UK and its effect on ethical conduct in science and the quality of research. The findings of the project were published in December 2014 and the main points are summarised here. We found that scientists are motivated in their work to find out more about the world and to benefit society, and that they believe collaboration, multidisciplinarity, openness and creativity are important for the production of high quality science. However, in some cases, our findings suggest, the culture of research in higher education institutions does not support or encourage these goals or activities. For example, high levels of competition and perceptions about how scientists are assessed for jobs and funding are reportedly contributing to a loss of creativity in science, less collaboration and poor research practices. The project led to suggestions for action for funding bodies, research institutions, publishers and editors, professional bodies and individual researchers. PMID:25866623

  6. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  7. Scientifically Based Reading Research: Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute of Child Health Development, under the direction of Congress and the Secretary of Education, created the National Reading Panel to study scientifically based reading research. The Reading First initiative under President Bush's No Child Left Behind Act focused on five of the panel's research topics: phonemic…

  8. Ethical Virtues in Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane’s defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity. PMID:23074991

  9. Scientific Research at Introduction 4

    E-print Network

    Law, Wayne

    Plant Research Laboratory Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Laboratory William and Lynda Steere Herbarium Lu-Myers Squibb Foundation, Inc. Ildiko and Gilbert Butler The Louis Calder Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Lewis B. The Lillian Goldman Charitable Trust Charles Hayden Foundation William Randolph Hearst Foundation

  10. Future Directions for Federal Research Funding

    E-print Network

    i Future Directions for Federal Research Funding Merrill Series on The Research. ..................................................................................................1 Director, National Institute of Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders, NIH NIDCD and Stem Cells: Current Challenges and Future Promise First panel of research administrators Prem Paul

  11. Crime and punishment in scientific research

    E-print Network

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Arguments against scientific misconduct one finds in the literature generally fail to support current policies on research fraud: they may not prove wrong what is typically considered research misconduct and they tend to make wrong things that are not usually seen as scientific fraud, in particular honest errors. I argue that society cannot set a rule enjoining scientists to be honest, so any such rule can only be internal to science. Therefore society cannot legitimately enforce it. Moreover, until an argument is provided to prove that lack of honesty is far worse than lack of technical competence, intentional deceit should not be punished much more harshly than technical errors. Keywords: cheating; ethics; fabrication; falsification; integrity; plagiarism; research fraud; scientific misconduct.

  12. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits for scientific research. 15.22... for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific research. Each... description of the scientific research to be conducted on the exotic bird requested, including: (i)...

  13. Future prospects in depression research.

    PubMed

    Holtzheimer, Paul E; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2006-01-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling, and often difficult-to-treat illness. Decades of research into the neurobiology and treatment of depression have greatly advanced our ability to manage this disorder. However, a number of challenges remain. A substantial number of depressed patients do not achieve full remission despite optimized treatment. For patients who do achieve resolution of symptoms, depression remains a highly recurrent illness, and repeated episodes are common. Finally, little is known about how depression might be prevented, especially in individuals at increased risk. In the face of these challenges, a number of exciting research efforts are currently under way and promise to greatly expand our knowledge of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of depression. This review highlights these future prospects for depression research with a specific focus on lines of investigation likely to generate novel, more effective treatment options. PMID:16889104

  14. Divine Earth's future (and pay your bills)... Improve Scientific Data Analysis for Earth's Climate

    E-print Network

    Zender, Charles

    Divine Earth's future (and pay your bills)... Scientific Computing Programmer Improve Scientific Data Analysis for Earth's Climate The Climate and Scientific Computing group in the Department of Earth under- standing of Earth's climate. The candidate will: Improve robustness, optimize, document

  15. Community Resources for Enabling Research in Distributed Scientific Workflows

    E-print Network

    Deelman, Ewa

    1 Community Resources for Enabling Research in Distributed Scientific Workflows Rafael Ferreira da, scientific workflows have been used extensively by the scientific research community to exploit coarse--A significant amount of recent research in scientific workflows aims to develop new techniques, algorithms

  16. Applications of artificial intelligence to scientific research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing field which is just beginning to make an impact on disciplines other than computer science. While a number of military and commercial applications were undertaken in recent years, few attempts were made to apply AI techniques to basic scientific research. There is no inherent reason for the discrepancy. The characteristics of the problem, rather than its domain, determines whether or not it is suitable for an AI approach. Expert system, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning programs are examples of theoretical topics which can be applied to certain areas of scientific research. Further research and experimentation should eventurally make it possible for computers to act as intelligent assistants to scientists.

  17. Methods of Scientific Research: Teaching Scientific Creativity at Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.

  18. On Modeling Research Work for Describing and Filtering Scientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, Miguel-Ángel

    Existing models for Research Information Systems (RIS) properly address the description of people and organizations, projects, facilities and their outcomes, e.g. papers, reports or patents. While this is adequate for the recording and accountability of research investments, helping researchers in finding relevant people, organizations or results requires considering both the content of research work and also its context. The content is not only related to the domain area, but it requires modeling methodological issues as variables, instruments or scientific methods that can then be used as search criteria. The context of research work is determined by the ongoing projects or scientific interests of an individual or a group, and can be expressed using the same methodological concepts. However, modeling methodological issues is notably complex and dependent on the scientific discipline and research area. This paper sketches the main requirements for those models, providing some motivating examples that could serve as a point of departure for future attempts in developing an upper ontology for research methods and tools.

  19. Report of the UK Research Integrity Futures

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Report of the UK Research Integrity Futures Working Group Chair: Professor Dame Janet Finch September 2010 #12;Report of the UK Research Integrity Futures Working Group, 2010 1 Report of the UK Research Integrity Futures Working Group September 2010 Contents: 1. Executive Summary and Recommendations

  20. Energy Frontier Research Centers Science for our Nation's Energy Future

    E-print Network

    Siefert, Chris

    Energy Frontier Research Centers Science for our Nation's Energy Future US Department of Energy processes to ensure safe and economically feasible storage of carbon dioxide and other byproducts of energy building scientific leadership through the active involvement of students and post-docs, CFSES developed

  1. The United States of America and Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Hather, Gregory J.; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B. Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V.; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: “What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?”; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: “How will the US continue to foster its strengths?” PMID:20808949

  2. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  3. International Scientific Unions and Global Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation will deal with the role that international scientific unions play in coordinating international research efforts. Rather than give a general, theoretical, talk on the role that ICSU - the International Council of Science - plays in International Science, I will briefly outline their role and then focus on a case study relevant to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). I will compare the scientific activities, and the outreach and education activities, of two major international research programs - the International Year of Planet Earth and the International Polar Year. These were two of the IGY+50 activities. Past informal polls of conference attendees to determine how many had heard of each IGY+50 event result in. eGY (electronic Geophysical Year) 1% IHY (International Heliophysical Year) 4% IYPE (International Year of Planet Earth) 31% IPY (International Polar Year) 64% Why is IPY the one of which most scientists are aware?

  4. Research Councils UK Statement of Expectations for Research Fellowships and Future Research Leaders

    E-print Network

    Research Councils UK Statement of Expectations for Research Fellowships and Future Research Leaders Research Councils' fund fellowships and future research leaders to: attract excellent researchers of this statement the term `fellow' includes individuals funded through fellowships or future research leaders

  5. Future Secretariat: an innovation research coordination and governance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Johan, R.; Cramer, W.; Fukushi, K.; Allard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth, an emerging global sustainability research program, will be managed by a novel, internationally distributed secretariat spanning the globe and providing a platform for co-design, co-production, and co-delivery of knowledge to support research on the earth system, global development and transformation toward sustainability. The Future Earth secretariat has an innovative structure consisting of five global hubs functioning as a single entity; these hubs are located in Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, and the United States. The secretariat's reach is extended through a set of regional hubs covering Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, with the potential to expand to additional areas. This secretariat will operate under the auspices of the Future Earth Governing Council The Future Earth Secretariat will support and enable the implementation of knowledge-sharing between research and stakeholder communities to enable society to cope with and to alter global environmental trends, and to transition society toward sustainability. The secretariat will provide coordination support to over 25 global environmental core projects and committees; coordinate scientific work across the whole Future Earth agenda; develop and implement innovative mechanisms for bottom-up inputs, synthesis and integration. Future Earth, as a research program, aims to support global transformations toward sustainability through partnerships among scientific and stakeholder communities worldwide. It brings together existing international environmental research core projects associated with DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the International Human Dimensions Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme—to support coordinated, interdisciplinary research that can be used by decision makers seeking to reduce their impact and provide more sustainable products and services. USGCRP partners with Future Earth through scientific participation in and annual funding for its constituent programs.

  6. Scientific Research: What it Means to Me.

    PubMed

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2008-01-01

    This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

  7. Scientific Research: What it Means to Me

    PubMed Central

    Narlikar, Jayant V.

    2008-01-01

    This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

  8. The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Murray

    2003-01-01

    Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

  9. [Ethical principles in human scientific research].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers. PMID:7732235

  10. 34 CFR 300.35 - Scientifically based research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scientifically based research. 300.35 Section 300.35... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.35 Scientifically based research. Scientifically based research has the meaning given the term in section 9101(37) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...

  11. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for scientific research. 15.22... for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific research. Each...: (1) A description of the exotic bird(s) to be imported, including: (i) The common and...

  12. Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research (PHASR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Samantha S.

    1992-01-01

    The Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research, PHASR, is designed as a versatile, general purpose habitat system that addresses the problem of functional space and environmental soundness in a partially fabric-covered shelter. PHASR is used for remote field site applications that can be quickly deployed. PHASR will also provide four scientists with a comfortable and efficient use of interior space. PHASR is a NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program project conducted at the University of Houston College of Architecture, Sasadawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA). This report is prepared for NASA/USRA.

  13. Scientific research activities using balloons in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, Elisete Rinke; Abrahao, Carlos Alberto

    Stratospheric Balloon activities in Brazil date back to 1969. At that time, the National Space Research Institute (INPE) created the Balloon Launching Center with supervision of the astrophysical group. Since 1987, the Balloon Launching Division (SLB) has been directly coordinated by the Scientific Space and Atmospheric Director of INPE. The southern latitudes, combined with the large continental area of Brazil in the east-west direction permit extended observations of important astrophysical sources (e.g. the Galactic Center region) and is also suitable for geophysical studies.

  14. The future of yogurt: scientific and regulatory needs1234

    PubMed Central

    German, J Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lactation biology, microbial selection, and human diversity are central themes that could guide investment in scientific research, industrial innovation, and regulatory policy oversight to propel yogurt into the central role for health-promoting food products. The ability of yogurt to provide the nourishing properties of milk together with the live microorganisms from fermentation provides a unique combination of food assets. Academic research must now define the various targets on which these biological assets act to improve health and develop the metrics that can quantitatively document their benefits. The food industry must reconcile that yogurt and its microorganisms cannot be expected to provide measurable benefits for all consumers, at all doses, and at all times. A supportive regulatory oversight must demand safety and yet encourage innovations that support a value proposition for yogurt in health. Health valuation in the marketplace will be driven by parallel innovations, including accurate assessment technologies, validated microbial ingredients, and health-aware consumers. PMID:24695899

  15. Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

    2014-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era (1.0 to 0.541 Ga) and earliest Cambrian (541 to ca. 520 Ma) records geologic changes unlike any other in Earth history: supercontinental tectonics of Rodinia followed by its breakup and dispersal into fragments that form the core of today's continents; a rise in oxygen that, perhaps for the first time in Earth history, resulted in the deep oceans becoming oxic; snowball Earth, which envisages a blanketing of global ice cover for millions of years; and, at the zenith of these combined biogeochemical changes, the evolutionary leap from eukaryotes to animals. Such a concentration of hallmark events in the evolution of our planet is unparalleled and many questions regarding Earth System evolution during times of profound climatic and geological changes remain to be answered. Neoproterozoic successions also offer insight into the genesis of a number of natural resources. These include banded-iron formation, organic-rich shale intervals (with demonstrated hydrocarbon source rocks already economically viable in some countries), base and precious metal ore deposits and REE occurrences, as well as industrial minerals and dimension stone. Developing our understanding of the Neoproterozoic Earth-system, combined with regional geology has the potential to impact the viability of these resources. Our understanding of the Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian, though, is overwhelmingly dependent on outcrop-based studies, which suffer from lack of continuity of outcrop and, in many instances, deep weathering profiles. A limited number of research projects study Precambrian strata have demonstrated the potential impact of scientific drilling to augment and complement ongoing outcrop based studies and advancing research. An ICDP and ECORD sponsored workshop, to be held in March 2014, has been convened to discuss the utility of scientific drilling for accelerating research of the Neoproterozoic through early Cambrian (ca. 0.9 to 0.52 Ga) rock record. The aim is to discuss the potential for establishing a collaborative, integrated, worldwide drilling programme to obtain the pristine samples and continuous sections needed to refine Neoproterozoic Earth history, inform assessment of resource potential, and address the major questions noted above. Such an initiative would be a platform to define complementary research and discovery between cutting-edge interdisciplinary scientific studies and synergistic collaborations with national agencies (Geological Surveys) and industry partners. A number of potential sites have been identified and discussed, along with identifying the mechanisms by which the Neoproterozoic research community can development data archives, open access data, sample archiving, and the approaches to multi-national funding. We will, amongst other things, present a summary of the workshop discussions. For more information visit: https://sites.google.com/site/drillingtheneoproterozoic/

  16. 78 FR 63454 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...Environmental Research and Development Program Scientific Advisory...

  17. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...constitute scientific research but rather fishing, the Regional...

  18. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...constitute scientific research but rather fishing, the Regional...

  19. 77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY: National Oceanic and... generally affect scientific research activities conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct such research are encouraged to submit a scientific research plan to ensure that...

  20. Research Training--Present & Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

  1. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific...

  2. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific...

  3. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific...

  4. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific...

  5. 50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific...

  6. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  7. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Gary S; Gunsalus, Kearney T W; MacKellar, Drew C; Mazzilli, Sarah A; Pai, Vaibhav P; Goodwin, Patricia R; Walsh, Erica M; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D; Krukenberg, Kristin A; Polka, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 (nd) and 3 (rd), 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers' synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  8. Drug Discovery Research in India: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Indian civilization developed a strong system of traditional medicine and was one of the first nations to develop a synthetic drug. In the postindependence era, Indian pharmaceutical industry developed a strong base for production of generic drugs. Challenges for the future are to give its traditional medicine a strong scientific base and develop research and clinical capability to consistently produce new drugs based on advances in modern biological sciences. PMID:25050153

  9. Genome research in Austria--a program of the future.

    PubMed

    Pasterk, Markus G

    2002-11-01

    Genome research is a central area both for progress in scientific findings in life sciences and for the innovative capacity in medical science, and the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The research findings obtained by interdisciplinary cooperation are of paramount epistemological importance. They will establish a new understanding of biology. In this context, there will be revolutionary opportunities for new medical therapies, for instance, or for keeping plants and animals healthy. Austria will participate in this science and innovation field and will use the resulting opportunities for scientific and economic development as well as for overall social prosperity. For this purpose, [corrected] Austria has developed the 'Austrian Genome Research Programme', a 'programme of the future' for Austria. This program will be based on the good foundations that genome research has already established in Austria. PMID:12437484

  10. FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS IN ARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following technical abstract refers to the (4th of 6) invited oral presentations given by Dr. Skoda at the APHIS-ARS-Mexico US Commission for the Eradication of Screwworm Meeting, March 2000. Research for the next three to five years at the Midwest Livestock Insects Research Unit was outlined. ...

  11. Comparing FutureGrid, Amazon EC2, and Open Science Grid for Scientific Workflows

    E-print Network

    Deelman, Ewa

    1 Comparing FutureGrid, Amazon EC2, and Open Science Grid for Scientific Workflows Gideon Juve1 cloud testbed, the Amazon EC2 commercial cloud, and the Open Science Grid. We compare and contrast Computing, Cloud Computing, Scientific Workflows, Amazon EC2, Open Science Grid, FutureGrid, Astronomy 1

  12. Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy. “By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action.” Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

  13. Institute for Scientific Computing Research Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E

    2005-02-07

    Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy (DOE). The maturation of computational simulation as a tool of scientific and engineering research is underscored in the November 2004 statement of the Secretary of Energy that, ''high performance computing is the backbone of the nation's science and technology enterprise''. LLNL operates several of the world's most powerful computers--including today's single most powerful--and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Ultrascale simulation has been identified as one of the highest priorities in DOE's facilities planning for the next two decades. However, computers at architectural extremes are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Furthermore, each successful terascale simulation only points out the need for much better ways of interacting with the resulting avalanche of data. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to LLNL's core missions than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, LLNL must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) served as one of LLNL's main bridges to the academic community with a program of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, workshops, and an active seminar series. The ISCR identifies researchers from the academic community for computer science and computational science collaborations with LLNL and hosts them for short- and long-term visits with the aim of encouraging long-term academic research agendas that address LLNL's research priorities. Through such collaborations, ideas and software flow in both directions, and LLNL cultivates its future workforce. The Institute strives to be LLNL's ''eyes and ears'' in the computer and information sciences, keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be the ''feet and hands'' that carry those advances into the Laboratory and incorporates them into practice. ISCR research participants are integrated into LLNL's Computing and Applied Research (CAR) Department, especially into its Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). In turn, these organizations address computational challenges arising throughout the rest of the Laboratory. Administratively, the ISCR flourishes under LLNL's University Relations Program (URP). Together with the other five institutes of the URP, it navigates a course that allows LLNL to benefit from academic exchanges while preserving national security. While it is difficult to operate an academic-like research enterprise within the context of a national security laboratory, the results declare the challenges well met and worth the continued effort.

  14. Scientific Research Training for Gifted High School Students in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csermely, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The first six years of a new program to organize high-level scientific research training for gifted high school students in Hungary are described. Besides giving top-level research opportunities for talented students in their most receptive age, the program has already helped the establishment of almost two hundred scientific research clubs.…

  15. English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

    2014-12-01

    To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

  16. English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

    2014-09-01

    To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

  17. Conceptualizations of Nature and Scientific Literacy, Part I: Research Methodology

    E-print Network

    Cobern, William W.

    ideal of broadening the Scientific Revolution to include the study of human beings not only as physicalPage 0 Conceptualizations of Nature and Scientific Literacy, Part I: Research Methodology William W organisms but psychological ones as well. The scientific study of the human being flourished and eventually

  18. Workshop Reports Scientific Drilling and Related Research in the Samail

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    Workshop Reports Scientific Drilling and Related Research in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate.2204/iodp.sd.15.10.2013 64 Scientific Drilling, No. 15, March 2013 Workshop Reports Summary This workshop report describes plans for scientific drill- ing in the Samail ophiolite in Oman in the context of past

  19. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  20. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  1. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing Past, Present and Future Changes in Arctic Terrestrial and Marine Systems" (Kananaskis, Alberta/Canada, February 2012). During these workshops, key areas and key scientific themes as well as drilling and site-survey strategies were discussed. Major scientific themes for future Arctic drilling will include: - The Arctic Ocean during the transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions and millennial scale climate changes; - Physical and chemical changes of the evolving Polar Ocean and Arctic gateways; - Impact of Pleistocene/Holocene warming and sea-level rise on upper continental slope and shelf gas hydrates and on shelf permafrost; - Land-ocean interactions; - Tectonic evolution and birth of the Arctic Ocean basin: Arctic ridges, sea floor spreading and global lithosphere processes. When thinking about future Arctic drilling, it should be clearly emphasized that for the precise planning of future Arctic Ocean drilling campaigns, including site selection, evaluation of proposed drill sites for safety and environmental protection, etc., comprehensive site survey data are needed first. This means that the development of a detailed site survey strategy is a major challenge for the coming years. Here, an overview of perspectives and plans for future Arctic Ocean drilling will be presented.

  2. On the formalization and reuse of scientific research.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Liakata, Maria; Lu, Chuan; Oliver, Stephen G; Soldatova, Larisa N

    2011-10-01

    The reuse of scientific knowledge obtained from one investigation in another investigation is basic to the advance of science. Scientific investigations should therefore be recorded in ways that promote the reuse of the knowledge they generate. The use of logical formalisms to describe scientific knowledge has potential advantages in facilitating such reuse. Here, we propose a formal framework for using logical formalisms to promote reuse. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by using it in a worked example from biology: demonstrating cycles of investigation formalization [F] and reuse [R] to generate new knowledge. We first used logic to formally describe a Robot scientist investigation into yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) functional genomics [f(1)]. With Robot scientists, unlike human scientists, the production of comprehensive metadata about their investigations is a natural by-product of the way they work. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the research in investigating yeast phenotypes [r(1) = R(f(1))]. This investigation found that the removal of non-essential enzymes generally resulted in enhanced growth. The phenotype investigation was then formally described using the same logical formalism as the functional genomics investigation [f(2) = F(r(1))]. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the phenotype investigation to investigate yeast systems-biology modelling [r(2) = R(f(2))]. This investigation found that yeast flux-balance analysis models fail to predict the observed changes in growth. Finally, the systems biology investigation was formalized for reuse in future investigations [f(3) = F(r(2))]. These cycles of reuse are a model for the general reuse of scientific knowledge. PMID:21490004

  3. Editorial Research Reports on the Scientific Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

    Nine reports published in this volume reflect upon the scientific revolution of the 20th century. Technological and scientific achievements are reviewed in the light of changes they have caused in human life. The challenge put forth is whether man can use wisely the new world of options that science opens for him. In this perspective the reports…

  4. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  5. Recommendations for future research in hypersonic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocheltree, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop is presented. It describes the process followed to obtain a group consensus on the main technical recommendations for each of the five technical sessions of the Workshop and presents the general conclusions and recommendations for future research agreed upon by the workshop participants.

  6. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  7. eResearch: The Rise of Scientific Virtual Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D. ); H. Collier

    1999-01-01

    Collaboratories and virtual facilities are a new way of organizing and performing scientific work that holds tremendous promise. Researchers accessing these facilities remotely can securely control instruments, run analysis and visualization tools, store notes in a shared electronic notebook, and converse with colleagues using videoconferencing, whiteboards and shared applications, as easily as if they were onsite. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is a new national user facility that is adopting the Collaboratory as a primary means of supporting users and interacting with collaborators and partners. The EMSL Virtual NMR Facility, already being discussed as a national model for future NMR facilities, provides a good example of the state-of-the-art, and of the specific benefits that can be obtained.

  8. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  9. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

  10. Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

  11. Creating the Future: Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

  12. Social Sleepwalkers. Scientific and Technological Research in California Agriculture. Research Monograph No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    Making a case for initiation of a systematic methodology that would predict and evaluate the potential social ramifications of scientific research, this monograph presents: (1) a review of the general lack of social concern among scientific researchers and rationale for utilization of scientific agricultural research as initiator of social…

  13. Town Hall Meeting: Future Directions in Dynamic High Pressure Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.; Dlott, D.

    2007-12-01

    Shock-compression research began in the 1940s for reasons of national defense. While military-related research will continue to be a major motivator of shock research, war between nations is not as probable today as it was in the last century. Today other issues are gaining national and international importance. This situation raises the possibility of redistribution of federal funding into fields other than those related directly to military research. It is timely to consider possible future directions that would put us in a position to obtain support to address emerging needs of society, while maintaining traditional expertise. Possibilities for future research at national and military laboratories and at universities are suggested in the context of ideas and questions posed in a recent report of the National Research Council of the National Academies. Dynamic-compression research is positioned to play a prominent role in general scientific research and such results are needed to enhance probabilities of achieving present and emerging technological goals of national importance.

  14. The Myth of "Scientific Method" in Contemporary Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbottom, Darrell Patrick; Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2006-01-01

    Whether educational research should employ the "scientific method" has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: "positivist" or "interpretivist". In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research

  15. Encouraging Balanced Scientific Research through Formal Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurgelun, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The new Connecticut science standards include a "Science, Technology, and Society" (STS) standard for each grade level. This standard encourages students to explore how scientific knowledge affects the quality of their lives. By relating science concepts to real-world decision making, STS investigations give students a framework through which they…

  16. Ethics and Etiquette in Scientific Research

    E-print Network

    Touretzky, David S.

    . 5. Learn from others' mistakes. #12;5 Ethics Education Scientific integrity training is now required in many areas of the sciences. NIH and NSF training grants require it. Ethics training several ethics courses Many ethics education programs use case studies to foster discussion. Lots

  17. Near-Future RFID Microsoft Research

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    Artifacts Near-Future RFID ANAB JAIN Microsoft Research NICOLAI MARQUARDT University of Calgary around RFID, drawing attention to the possibilities of using the technology to connect people in curious, even celebratory ways. In our visions, RFID tagging and sensing has been extended so that tags

  18. Future instrumentation in cosmic ray research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, I. I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is based on a rapporteur talk given at the 24th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (Kiel, Germany, September 1 - 5, 2014). The object of the talk and paper is a summary based on oral talks and posters presented in the frame of the session “Future instrumentation in cosmic ray research (INS)”.

  19. Counseling Gifted Students: Past Research, Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bafghi, Seyed Hossein Sajjadi

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of research and current issues dealing with counseling of gifted students. It also addresses the contributions of early and recent pioneers of the field including Terman, Hollingworth, and Gowan. Special problems of gifted students along with future directions in counseling the ablest are introduced. (Contains…

  20. Science Teaching as Educational Interrogation of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginev, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…

  1. National Collaboratories: Applying Information Technology for Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.

    The Committee on a National Collaboratory: Establishing the User-Developer Partnership was charged to study and report on the need for and potential of information technology to support collaboration in the conduct of scientific research. To do this, the committee focused on three discrete areas of scientific investigation: (1) oceanography, in…

  2. USDA Forest Service Research & Development Code of Scientific Ethics

    E-print Network

    and extensive research on science ethics. The code is based on the Code of Scientific Ethics of the USDA of scientific ethics would occur. A corollary was to help educate collaborators and clients about ethics help encourage ethical conduct in science as a fundamental theme in FS R&D activities. The intent

  3. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  4. National Research Council Report:National Research Council Report: "Virtual Reality: Scientific and"Virtual Reality: Scientific and

    E-print Network

    McDowell, Perry

    National Research Council Report:National Research Council Report: "Virtual Reality: Scientific and"Virtual Committee The NRC Committee on Virtual Reality Research & Development · The purpose of the committee was to "recommend a national research and development agenda in the area of virtual reality". · Committee consisted

  5. Dietary therapies for epilepsy: future research.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sudha K; Neal, Elizabeth G; Camfield, Carol S; Kossoff, Eric H

    2011-09-01

    Since 1921, dietary therapies have remained valuable options in the treatment of intractable childhood epilepsy. The traditional ketogenic diet has been well demonstrated, including in a recent randomized, controlled trial, as being highly effective. More recent alternative diets such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, modified Atkins diet, and low-glycemic-index treatment have expanded the use of this modality to more children as well as adults. In this review, we discuss our top 10 most pressing research topics related to the ketogenic diet that warrant future study. As well, two promising ketogenic diet clinical researchers discuss their past and current research to help answer some of these questions. PMID:21441072

  6. Fraud and the Structure of the Scientific Research

    E-print Network

    Botti, Silvana

    Fraud and the Structure of the Scientific Research: the Jan Hendrik Schön Case Stefano Ossicini is the biggest fraud in the history of modern physics" D. Ralph (Cornell Un.) Top Journals "Nature, Science, PRL

  7. Cancer Research in the Media: International Workshop for Scientific Journalism

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Research in the Media (CRiM) is a two-day seminar designed for international journalists to increase their understanding of complex scientific findings, improving their ability to communicate accurate cancer-related information to the public.

  8. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul

    2008-10-23

    This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.

  9. On RoboCup@Home Past, Present and Future of a Scientific Competition for Service Robots

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    1 , Javier Ruiz del Solar2 , Komei Sugiura3 , and Sven Wachsmuth4 1 Autonomous Intelligent Systems as the system used to drive changes and possible future developments. 2 History of the RoboCup@Home league ThOn RoboCup@Home ­ Past, Present and Future of a Scientific Competition for Service Robots Dirk Holz

  10. NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

    1987-01-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

  11. Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

    2012-01-01

    A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

  12. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  13. Scientific Research for Undergraduate Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; McKinney, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    Engaging students in authentic scientific research has become an important component of undergraduate science education at many institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore authentic research experiences as contexts for learning. The authors review empirical studies of undergraduate research experiences in order to critically evaluate the…

  14. 77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

  15. 30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 280.11 Section 280.11 Mineral... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard...

  16. 75 FR 5288 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...92-463). The Scientific Advisory Board...review new start research requesting...Environmental Research and Development...with the Scientific Advisory...

  17. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

  18. 78 FR 18680 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical...

  19. 30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 280.11 Section 280.11 Mineral... What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard...

  20. 78 FR 50144 - Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review...Health Services Research and Development...HSR&D) Scientific Merit Review...and nursing research. Applications...reviewed for scientific and...

  1. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...Evaluation and Research (HFM-17...scientific and medical literature...

  2. Exploring the Use of Virtual Worlds as a Scientific Research Platform: The Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA)

    E-print Network

    Djorgovski, S G; McMillan, S; Vesperini, E; Knop, R; Farr, W; Graham, M J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA), the first professional scientific organization based exclusively in virtual worlds (VWs). The goals of MICA are to explore the utility of the emerging VR and VWs technologies for scientific and scholarly work in general, and to facilitate and accelerate their adoption by the scientific research community. MICA itself is an experiment in academic and scientific practices enabled by the immersive VR technologies. We describe the current and planned activities and research directions of MICA, and offer some thoughts as to what the future developments in this arena may be.

  3. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Christina L.; Martelli, Daniella Reis B.; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmão L.; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Silva, Ana Cristina S. e; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality. PMID:24142308

  4. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  5. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular place where IPY related research is being archived in a non-traditional manner. Researchers are sharing not only their papers, but insights on data collection and how other researchers could improve on what they have done during the IPY. The IPY has created many new research projects and stimulated new questions and created cutting-edge techniques to address these problems. APECS is helping to carry on these discussions beyond the typical conference settings directly to a researcher’s office or at home on their couch. These communication tools will help to stimulate discussion carrying forward the research questions addressed and created during the IPY.

  6. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  7. [Scientific research in the biosciences in São Paulo: beyond institutions].

    PubMed

    Santos, Gildo Magalhães dos

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, the creation of scientific institutes was a landmark in the history of the State of São Paulo, given their innovative role and their relation to the region's industrial and economic development. These institutions encompassed a number of basic and applied areas and fostered pioneering lines of research. The transformations that occurred in the political arena during the latter half of the century, exacerbated by the lack of continuity in policies regarding scientific and technological management, brought the progressive deterioration and virtual stagnation of research in most São Paulo institutes. Under my guidance, undergraduate students of biology who were enrolled in a course in the history of science conducted interviews with researchers who had lived through these changes. This oral history approach documents the perceptions of this community of scientific researchers regarding their own achievements and the paths their institutes have followed in the last decades. PMID:16116709

  8. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    PubMed

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities. PMID:25845205

  9. Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

  10. Scientifically Based Research in Education: Epistemology and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St.Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author begins to trace the concept "scientifically based research" in federal legislation, in the Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences, and in the reports of several National Research Council committees. She also discusses how this concept has produced a certain "scientism" that has been deployed to…

  11. The Logic and the Basic Principles of Scientific Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuer, Michael; Towne, Lisa

    A study was sponsored by the U.S. National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) amid the enthusiasm for bringing the power of rigorous, objective, scientific understanding to bear on improving decisions about educational programming and thus student achievement. There is…

  12. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  13. Wound ballistics: contemporary and future research.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J M; Cooper, G J; Maynard, R L

    1988-10-01

    Wound ballistics research has contributed much to the understanding of the pathophysiology of missile injury that now exists. From this store of knowledge treatment regimes have evolved which have greatly improved the lot of the soldier wounded in war. However, research must keep pace with changes that are taking place in weapons research and development so that the particular needs of the Army Medical Services on a future battlefield can be met. The differing needs of civilian and military medical services are highlighted. The marked differences that exist between the missile wound seen and treated in a late twentieth century hospital and the wounds likely to be encountered on the modern battlefield are enumerated and discussed. PMID:3057188

  14. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    ScienceCinema

    Finkelstein, Noah [University of Colorado, Colorado, USA

    2009-09-01

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  15. Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  16. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  17. Collaboratory for support of scientific research

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.

    1998-06-25

    Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ``collaboratory`` refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries [1],[2]. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ``as good as being there`` is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote [3] Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative research Many research disciplines find themselves in a similar position, trying to better utilize facilities and increase productivity for both local and remote researchers A recently published issue of Interactions [4] includes a special section dedicated to collaboratories A description of collaborative observations at the Keck Observatory [2] indicates distinct and real advantages gamed by astronomers who can now remotely access this facility, even as the collaboratory is developing. Advantages range from simply making the facility available to more researchers without the cost of travel to the physiological advantage of not experiencing oxygen deprivation sickness due to high altitude observing The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory [2] which focuses on studies of the earth`s ionosphere and interactions with the solar wind now combines information from several observing sites, many in difficult to reach high latitude locations above the arctic circle Travel to these remote locations, fomrerly provided by military flights which are no longer needed, is now more expensive for researchers With a now obvious need for remote sensing and collaborations, the UARC has combined access to these experimental facilities and joined in global modeling efforts to better use the capabilities of researchers on an international scale. The final collaboratory featured [2] is that of our testbed development for the DIII-D tokamak experiment 141 to make it even more accessible in its role as a US national facility

  18. Funding shapes the anatomy of scientific research

    E-print Network

    Ma, Athen; Latora, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Research projects are primarily collaborative in nature through internal and external partnerships, but what role does funding play in their formation? Here, we examined over 43,000 funded projects in the past three decades, enabling us to characterise changes in the funding landscape and their impacts on the underlying collaboration patterns. We observed rising inequality in the distribution of funding and its effect was most noticeable at the institutional level in which the leading universities diversified their collaborations and increasingly became the knowledge brokers. Furthermore, these universities formed a cohesive core through their close ties, and such reliance appeared to be a key for their research success, with the elites in the core over-attracting resources but in turn rewarding in both research breadth and depth. Our results reveal how collaboration networks undergo previously unknown adaptive organisation in response to external driving forces, which can have far-reaching implications for f...

  19. A scientific research program for joint research in geoinformation science between ITC and CTIT at

    E-print Network

    efforts to communicate sound scientific developments to interested and affected stakeholders who departure point for research in this program intends to make several choices where the collaboration between

  20. [Adult stem cells: their scientific interest and therapeutic future].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, L

    2007-09-01

    Fascinating and provocative findings have shaken the stem cell field during these past years, which may be exploited in the future in cell replacement therapies. Continuous renewal of blood, skin, and gut cells, has long be attributed to stem cells, but it was more unexpected to identify cells that fulfil the requirements for stem-progenitor cells in many tissues with a slow turnover such as heart, kidney, muscle and brain. However, despite their lack of risk and immunological barrier, adult stem cells are yet of poor therapeutic value in many diseases, because they are available in scarce number, are poorly amplified, and loose potential with ageing, among many obstacles. Thus, the identification in adult, and more recently fetal tissues, of cells with a high proliferative capacity and multi-lineage differentiation potential has been wellcome, although their existence is still a matter of controversy. An alternative would be to activate stem cells in situ, by acting on components of the niche as recently exemplified in the hematopoetic system. Finally, as fiction meets reality, it may become possible to reprogram human adult cells in pluripotent ES cells-like, as recently demonstrated in mice. PMID:17766162

  1. Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

    This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

  2. Raising money for scientific research through crowdfunding.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Rachel E; Wang, Yiwei; Byrnes, Jarrett E; Ranganathan, Jai

    2013-02-01

    In this article we discuss the utility of crowdfunding from the perspective of individual scientists or laboratory groups looking to fund research. We address some of the main factors determining the success of crowdfunding campaigns, and compare this approach with the use of traditional funding sources. PMID:23219380

  3. Tips on Preparing a Scientific Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crago, Tracey I.

    This guide presents tips to help students organize their research papers from beginning to end. Suggestions for understanding an assignment and plotting a course of action focus on: identifying topics of interest; deciding what to say about the topic; outlining the project; finding sources of information, including multi-media and Internet…

  4. Individual characteristics and student’s engagement in scientific research: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In light of the increasing recognition of the importance of physician scientists, and given the association between undergraduate research experiences with future scientific activity, it is important to identify and understand variables related to undergraduate students’ decision to engage in scientific research activities. The present study assessed the influence of individual characteristics, including personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics, on voluntary engagement in scientific research of undergraduate medical students. Methods For this study, all undergraduate students and alumni of the School of Health Sciences in Minho, Portugal were invited to participate in a survey about voluntary engagement in scientific research activities. Data were available on socio-demographic, personality and university admission variables, as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. A regression model was used to compare (1) engaged with (2) not engaged students. A classification and regression tree model was used to compare students engaged in (3) elective curricular research (4) and extra-curricular research. Results A total of 466 students (88%) answered the survey. A complete set of data was available for 435 students (83%). Higher scores in admission grade point average and the personality dimensions of “openness to experience” and “conscientiousness” increased chances of engagement. Higher “extraversion” scores had the opposite effect. Male undergraduate students were two times more likely than females to engage in curricular elective scientific research and were also more likely to engage in extra-curricular research activities. Conclusions This study demonstrated that student’ grade point average and individual characteristics, like gender, openness and consciousness have a unique and statistically significant contribution to students’ involvement in undergraduate scientific research activities. PMID:23066758

  5. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

  6. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

  7. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

  8. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

  9. 77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...purpose of collecting scientific data on catch may submit...submit reports of their scientific research activity after its completion. II. Method of Collection Information...Estimated Time per Response: Scientific research plans, 37...

  10. 76 FR 1602 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits, Letters of Acknowledgment... necessary for the collection of Highly Migratory Species (HMS) for public display and scientific...

  11. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400.21 Section...Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation...

  12. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400.21 Section...Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation...

  13. Scientific Research and the Public Trust

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion the public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. Well-focused arguments that use public trust to support rules or policies for the conduct of research should specify a) which public is being referred to (e.g. the general public or a specific public, such as a particular community or group); b) what this public expects from scientists; c) how the rule or policy will ensure that these expectations are met; and d) why is it important to meet these expectations. PMID:20803259

  14. Child protective services: research for the future.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J

    1994-01-01

    The legal context of child protective services provides the framework for all inquiries and knowledge-building in the field. From this foundation, it is possible to analyze the definition of a child protective services case, describe who is served by the system, evaluate current system functioning, and identify outcome measures. Future research should address formative questions such as the development of consistent definitions of maltreatment and evaluation of service delivery. Evaluation should include measuring treatment outcomes as well as examining the functioning and management of the system. PMID:7924562

  15. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  16. S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

    This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

  17. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  18. The Promissory Future(s) of Education: Rethinking Scientific Literacy in the Era of Biocapitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the biopolitical dimensions that have grown out of the union between biocapitalism and current science education reform in the US. Drawing on science and technology study theorists, I utilize the analytics of promissory valuation and salvationary discourses to understand how scientific literacy in the neo-Sputnik era has…

  19. Scientific Future of IRSOL Report by the IRSOL Scientific Committee, July 2005

    E-print Network

    /WRC, Davos) S.K. Solanki (Director, Max-Planck-Institut for Solar System Research, Germany) J. Trujillo research programs in astrophysical spectro-polarimetry and solar physics, is guaranteed through at least extended with added-on powerful new observing systems that have made it an internationally recognized

  20. Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Gregory A.

    2012-05-01

    In Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George Ludwig takes the reader behind the scenes of space exploration in the 1950s. The well-known episodes in this history—such as the stories of Sputnik, Laika the cosmodog, and the founding of NASA—are here placed in the rich context of the scientific and technical goals that motivated Ludwig and his fellow researchers. Ludwig relates the personal experiences of the many engineers, physicists, and university students who made possible humanity’s first ventures into space.

  1. Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

  2. Integrating visualization and interaction research to improve scientific workflows.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Scientific-visualization research is, nearly by necessity, interdisciplinary. In addition to their collaborators in application domains (for example, cell biology), researchers regularly build on close ties with disciplines related to visualization, such as graphics, human-computer interaction, and cognitive science. One of these ties is the connection between visualization and interaction research. This isn't a new direction for scientific visualization (see the "Early Connections" sidebar). However, momentum recently seems to be increasing toward integrating visualization research (for example, effective visual presentation of data) with interaction research (for example, innovative interactive techniques that facilitate manipulating and exploring data). We see evidence of this trend in several places, including the visualization literature and conferences. PMID:20650706

  3. The SCAR Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica Scientific Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, John W. V.; Abe, Lyu; Andersen, Michael; Anderson, Philip; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Ichikawa, Takashi; Karle, Albrecht; Lloyd, James; Masi, Silvia; Steinbring, Eric; Travouillon, Tony; Tuthill, Peter; Zhou, HongYang

    2013-01-01

    SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.

  4. Application of logic models in a large scientific research program.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Christine M; Head, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts mission-driven scientific research focussed on delivering results with relevance and impact for Australia, where impact is defined and measured in economic, environmental and social terms at the national level. The Australian Government has recently signalled an increasing emphasis on performance assessment and evaluation, which in the CSIRO context implies an increasing emphasis on ensuring and demonstrating the impact of its research programs. CSIRO continues to develop and improve its approaches to impact planning and evaluation, including conducting a trial of a program logic approach in the CSIRO Preventative Health National Research Flagship. During the trial, improvements were observed in clarity of the research goals and path to impact, as well as in alignment of science and support function activities with national challenge goals. Further benefits were observed in terms of communication of the goals and expected impact of CSIRO's research programs both within CSIRO and externally. The key lesson learned was that significant value was achieved through the process itself, as well as the outcome. Recommendations based on the CSIRO trial may be of interest to managers of scientific research considering developing similar logic models for their research projects. The CSIRO experience has shown that there are significant benefits to be gained, especially if the project participants have a major role in the process of developing the logic model. PMID:21555041

  5. Future Direction of National Fusion Research Tentative translation to English

    E-print Network

    Future Direction of National Fusion Research (Report) Tentative translation to English Office of Fusion Energy, Research and Development Bureau, MEXT January 8, 2003 Working Group on Fusion Research Design of Fusion Research ---------------------------------2 (1) Necessity of Centralization

  6. Avoiding Plagiarism & Self-Plagiarism Scientific Integrity in the Research

    E-print Network

    Avoiding Plagiarism & Self-Plagiarism Scientific Integrity in the Research Community Presentation. of allegations No. of allegations #12;Plagiarism Trends The Office of the Inspector General audited all proposals submitted to NSF in 2011 and found evidence of plagiarism in 1.5% of them. The NSF is currently

  7. A "Sense of Place" in Public Participation in Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) within the natural sciences has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to expand cognitive knowledge and understanding of ecology, with implications regarding individual perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors about the environment and feelings about the personal relevance of science. Yet the…

  8. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

  9. ACNP and NILDE: Essential Tools for Access to Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, F.; Bonora, O.; Filippucci, G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes ACNP and NILDE, the two main Italian cooperative systems for access to scientific information. Used by the Italian Astronomical Libraries (IAL), they are two essential channels to access information resources that are otherwise unreachable. At the same time, they allow IAL (Italian Astronomical Libraries) to share their very rich and unique holdings with other research and university libraries.

  10. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram

    E-print Network

    for Department of Homeland Security activities in FY 2003. Science/Advanced Scientific Computing Research FY 2005 a cornerstone of the Department's strategy to ensure the security of the nation and succeed in its science, energy, environmental quality, and national security missions. According to a number of authorities

  11. ASAS centennial paper: future needs of research and extension in forage utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs i...

  12. A Framework for a Future Swedish Policy for Research and Development in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstrom, Mats; And Others

    Prepared to stimulate discussion on how to design a Swedish policy in information science and technology, this report presents the state-of-the-art of this field as it pertains to the dissemination of scientific information and outlines a program for future research and development. The review portion examines systems for current information…

  13. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article. PMID:18651820

  14. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  15. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of a... with the scientific knowledge and technical skills to conduct the proposed research work....

  16. The future of scientific communication in the earth sciences: The impact of the internet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Buchanan, R.C.; Adkins-Heljeson, D.; Mettille, T.D.; Sorensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Publication on paper of research results following peer-review and editing has been the accepted means of scientific communication for several centuries. Today, the continued growth in the volume of scientific literature, the increased unit costs of archiving paper publications, and the rapidly increasing power and availability of electronic technology are creating tremendous pressures on traditional scientific communication. The earth sciences are not immune from these pressures, and the role of the traditional publication as the primary means of communication is rapidly changing. Electronic publications and network technology are radically altering the relationship between interpretative result and the underlying data. Earth science research institutions, including the Kansas Geological Survey, are experimenting with new forms of on-line publication that assure broad access to research and data and improve application of research results to societal problems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

  18. 77 FR 49439 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...review new start research and development projects...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...statements with the Scientific Advisory Board...

  19. 76 FR 49753 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Scientific Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Scientific Advisory Board Meeting...review new start research and development projects...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...statements with the Scientific Advisory Board...

  20. 75 FR 55778 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board AGENCY...review new start research and development projects...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...statements with the Scientific Advisory Board...

  1. 76 FR 45542 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board...review new start research and development...Strategic Environmental Research and Development...statements with the Scientific Advisory...

  2. 77 FR 26521 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...review new start research and development projects...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...statements with the Scientific Advisory Board...

  3. 76 FR 20335 - Meeting of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board AGENCY...review continuing research and development projects...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...statements with the Scientific Advisory Board...

  4. 77 FR 51785 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board...review new start research and development projects...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...statements with the Scientific Advisory Board...

  5. 76 FR 81918 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Scientific Advisory Board...review new start research and development...Strategic Environmental Research and Development...statements with the Scientific Advisory...

  6. 3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me...Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic...

  7. Internships in Scientific Research or Medicine Prepared by: Noah Espinoza (nespinoz@fhcrc.org).

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    Internships in Scientific Research or Medicine Prepared by: Noah Espinoza (nespinoz Internships in Scientific Research or Medicine The following compilation features research internships according to the name of the sponsoring institution. For more information about a specific internship

  8. Curating Scientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method in Context

    E-print Network

    Conway, Esther; Dunckley, Matthew; Giaretta, David

    2009-01-01

    Method The challenge of digital preserving scientific dataand methods into an overall process capable of producing an actionable preservation plan for scientificScientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method

  9. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  10. On the Cultivation of Automation Majors' Research Innovation Ability Based on Scientific Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lipeng; Li, Mingqiu

    2012-01-01

    Currently, it has become a fundamental goal for the engineering major to cultivate high-quality engineering technicians with innovation ability in scientific research which is an important academic ability necessary for them. This paper mainly explores the development of comprehensive and designing experiments in automation based on scientific

  11. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, J.

    1996-11-01

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

  12. Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ADEAR Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations Introduction Participating in a clinical trial or ... prevent Alzheimer's and other diseases, and could help future generations lead healthier lives. "When I was diagnosed ...

  13. Toolkit for evaluating impacts of public participation in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonney, R.; Phillips, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Toolkit for Evaluating Impacts of Public Participation in Scientific Research is being developed to meet a major need in the field of visitor studies: To provide project developers and other professionals, especially those with limited knowledge or understanding of evaluation techniques, with a systematic method for assessing project impact that facilitates longitudinal and cross-project comparisons. The need for the toolkit was first identified at the Citizen Science workshop held at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in 2007 (McEver et al. 2007) and reaffirmed by a CAISE inquiry group that produced the recent report: "Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing its Potential for Informal Science Education" (Bonney et al. 2009). This presentation will introduce the Toolkit, show how it is intended to be used, and describe ways that project directors can use their programmatic goals and use toolkit materials to outline a plan for evaluating the impacts of their project.

  14. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  15. Opening space research: Dreams, technology, and scientific discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-10-01

    On 4 October 1957 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched Sputnik, the world's first man-made satellite. It may have been the dawn of humanity's toehold in space, but it was not the beginning of the story. In the AGU monograph Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George H. Ludwig describes the people, politics, and experiments that led from weather balloons and leftover German V-2 rockets to a highly successful U.S. space research program. In this interview, Ludwig shares some insights with Eos.

  16. Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1994-12-01

    As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7).

  17. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  18. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-31

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  19. Evaluating Research in Career and Technical Education Using Scientifically-Based Research Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemici, Sinan; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2007-01-01

    The recent emphasis on scientifically-based research (SBR) as the government's favored research paradigm has direct implications for career and technical education (CTE). From a practical standpoint, federal funds will now be appropriated exclusively on scholars' readiness and ability to engage the "right" research questions. While the government…

  20. Results from LBA and a vision for future Amazonian research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistella, M.; Artaxo, P.; Nobre, C.; Bustamante, M.; Luizão, F.

    This chapter summarizes selected results from the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) and briefly describes a vision for future Amazonian research. The need for research on people and environment interactions is emphasized in the context of regional and global change. LBA developed institutional and scientific capacity in Amazonia, but its performance to promote sustainable development was restricted because the program has predominantly emphasized the advancement of basic knowledge, with less emphasis on integrative studies explicitly designed to influence public policies with consequences on land use and land cover. The challenge of transforming the natural goods of Amazonia into human and economic benefits in an environmentally sustainable manner requires a new level of consciousness and collaborative work through the ability to move from simple diagnosis in the direction of actions at local, regional, and national levels. From the results of LBA, we may evolve to new experiences in which society will add value to the interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  1. A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

  2. PARC - Scientific Exchange Program (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Blankenship, Robert E. (Director, Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center); PARC Staff

    2011-11-03

    'PARC - Scientific Exchange Program' was submitted by the Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center (PARC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. PARC, an EFRC directed by Robert E. Blankenship at Washington University in St. Louis, is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

  3. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  4. Public Domain, Public Interest, Public Funding: Focussing on the ‘Three P’s’ in Scientific Research 

    E-print Network

    Waelde, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the ‘three Ps’ of scientific research: Public Domain; Public Interest; Public Funding by examining difficulties faced by scientists engaged in scientific research. It discusses the problems faced when ...

  5. 78 FR 29121 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting...meeting of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board (SAB). This...

  6. 76 FR 72678 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and...announces its intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research...represents a small portion of the overall fishing mortality for HMS, and this...

  7. Future Arctic Research: Integrative Approaches to Scientific and Methodological Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, Julia; Lisowska, Maja; Smieszek, Malgorzata

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has significant consequences for both the natural environment and the socioeconomics in the Arctic. The complex interplay between the changing atmosphere, cryosphere, and ocean is responsible for a multitude of feedbacks and cascading effects leading to changes in the marine and terrestrial ecosystems, the sea ice cycle, and atmospheric circulation patterns. The warming Arctic has also become a region of economic interest as shipping, natural resource exploitation, and tourism are becoming achievable and lucrative with declining sea ice. Such climatic and anthropogenic developments are leading to profound changes in the Arctic, its people, and their cultural heritage.

  8. Web Services Provide Access to SCEC Scientific Research Application Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Okaya, D.; Kamb, L.; Maechling, P.

    2003-12-01

    Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote computer located elsewhere on the Internet. The value of a web service is that it can (1) run a scientific code without the user needing to install and learn the intricacies of running the code; (2) provide the technical framework which allows a user's computer to talk to the remote computer which performs the service; (3) provide the computational resources to run the code; and (4) bundle several analysis steps and provide the end results in digital or (post-processed) graphical form. Within an NSF-sponsored ITR project coordinated by SCEC, we are constructing web services using architectural protocols and programming languages (e.g., Java). However, because the SCEC community has a rich pool of scientific research software (written in traditional languages such as C and FORTRAN), we also emphasize making existing scientific codes available by constructing web service frameworks which wrap around and directly run these codes. In doing so we attempt to broaden community usage of these codes. Web service wrapping of a scientific code can be done using a "web servlet" construction or by using a SOAP/WSDL-based framework. This latter approach is widely adopted in IT circles although it is subject to rapid evolution. Our wrapping framework attempts to "honor" the original codes with as little modification as is possible. For versatility we identify three methods of user access: (A) a web-based GUI (written in HTML and/or Java applets); (B) a Linux/OSX/UNIX command line "initiator" utility (shell-scriptable); and (C) direct access from within any Java application (and with the correct API interface from within C++ and/or C/Fortran). This poster presentation will provide descriptions of the following selected web services and their origin as scientific application codes: 3D community velocity models for Southern California, geocoordinate conversions (latitude/longitude to UTM), execution of GMT graphical scripts, data format conversions (Gocad to Matlab format), and implementation of Seismic Hazard Analysis application programs that calculate hazard curve and hazard map data sets.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report: National Institute for Climatic Change Research Coastal Center

    SciTech Connect

    Tornqvist, Torbjorn; Chambers, Jeffrey

    2014-01-07

    It is widely recognized that coastal environments are under particular threat due to changes associated with climate change. Accelerated sea-level rise, in some regions augmented by land subsidence, plus the possibility of a changing storm climate, renders low-lying coastal landscapes and their ecosystems vulnerable to future change. This is a pressing problem, because these ecosystems commonly rank as some of the most valuable on the planet. The objective of the NICCR Coastal Center was to support basic research that aims at reducing uncertainty about ecosystem changes during the next century, carried out along the U.S. coastlines. The NICCR Coastal Center has funded 20 projects nationwide (carried out at 27 institutions) that addressed numerous aspects of the problems outlined above. The research has led to a variety of new insights, a significant number of which published in elite scientific journals. It is anticipated that the dissemination of this work in the scientific literature will continue for several more years, given that a number of projects have only recently reached their end date. In addition, NICCR funds have been used to support research at Tulane University. The lion’s share of these funds has been invested in the development of unique facilities for experimental research in coastal ecosystems. This aspect of the work could have a lasting impact in the future.

  10. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years. Historical changes in focus areas clearly reflect the shifts in societal needs, going from industrialization to the information society and globalization. Present research needs will be illustrated in the on-going practical work to support water managers and decision makers with hydrological forecasts, climate change impact assessments, improved water status for biodiversity and statistics for dimensioning safe infrastructure. Different approaches to applied research and ways to implement new knowledge in society will be discussed. Future research is suggested to embrace the complexity of the water systems by linking scales, monitoring systems, processes, disciplines and various users. Some ingredients to achieve a coordinated effort in the scientific community will be suggested, based on new technology, multi-data, transparency and the principles of sharing. To handle the problems of the Antropocene, improved knowledge accumulation to advance science and interactions with other disciplines is absolutely necessary. These should be the basic elements of Panta Rhei.

  11. 30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 280.11 Section 280.11 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION,...

  12. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the wild for the purpose of scientific research, the taking authorized...may be taken for purposes of scientific research only after issuance...Authorization: Photo-identification studies, behavioral observations...for purposes of bona fide scientific research under the...

  13. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the wild for the purpose of scientific research, the taking authorized...may be taken for purposes of scientific research only after issuance...Authorization: Photo-identification studies, behavioral observations...for purposes of bona fide scientific research under the...

  14. Future translational applications from the contemporary genomics era: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Hall, Jennifer L; Arnett, Donna K; Ashley, Euan A; Delles, Christian; Engler, Mary B; Freeman, Mason W; Johnson, Julie A; Lanfear, David E; Liggett, Stephen B; Lusis, Aldons J; Loscalzo, Joseph; MacRae, Calum A; Musunuru, Kiran; Newby, L Kristin; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Rich, Stephen S; Terzic, Andre

    2015-05-12

    The field of genetics and genomics has advanced considerably with the achievement of recent milestones encompassing the identification of many loci for cardiovascular disease and variable drug responses. Despite this achievement, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement to meaningful translation that directly affects disease prevention and clinical care. The purpose of this scientific statement is to address the gap between genetic discoveries and their practical application to cardiovascular clinical care. In brief, this scientific statement assesses the current timeline for effective translation of basic discoveries to clinical advances, highlighting past successes. Current discoveries in the area of genetics and genomics are covered next, followed by future expectations, tools, and competencies for achieving the goal of improving clinical care. PMID:25882488

  15. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  16. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075

  17. Development of nature of science ideas through authentic scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Stephen Randall

    Understanding the ways in which scientific knowledge develops, or the epistemology of science, is believed to be a crucial component of scientific literacy. This construct is more formally known as Nature of Science (NOS) within the science education community. The merits of three different approaches to NOS teaching and learning in the context of authentic scientific research on high school student participants' NOS ideas were explored in this study. These approaches were an explicit/reflective approach, a reflective approach and an implicit approach. The effectiveness of explicit approaches over implicit approaches has been demonstrated in school contexts, but little is known regarding the merits of these approaches when the practices that learners engage in are highly authentic in the ways in which they model the work of professional scientists. If an implicit approach yields positive impacts in authentic contexts, then which specific factors within those contexts are influential in doing so? The Authentic Experiences in Science Program (AESP), a summer program designed for high school students offered at a major research university, offered a wonderful context for an investigation of these issues. In this program, high school students worked for an extended period of time in a research scientist's laboratory on an authentic research project. Additionally, seminars offered through the program provided a venue for the implementation of the three aforementioned NOS teaching and learning approaches. An open-ended questionnaire designed to assess respondent NOS ideas was administered to 30 participants of the AESP both at the beginning and again at the end of the program. From those thirty, six case study participants were selected, and through a series of observations and interviews, influential factors impacting their NOS ideas within their specific laboratory placements were identified. Results of categorical data analysis of the questionnaires revealed that the changes in NOS ideas exhibited by the participants who experienced the explicit/reflective approach were significantly different from the changes in NOS ideas exhibited by the participants who experienced either of the other two approaches. Specifically, changes related to participants' understandings of the distinctions between theories and laws in science and the myth of the scientific method were significantly and positively impacted for the participants who experienced the explicit/reflective approach. Additionally, case study participants who experienced either of the other two approaches demonstrated changes in their understandings of many NOS aspects (e.g. subjectivity, creativity, empirical NOS). Authentic action on the part of these participants was linked to these positive NOS changes. That authentic action was more influential when the participants were treated in authentic ways and developed feelings of authenticity. The findings prompted a discussion of implications and recommendations for NOS teaching and learning in both school contexts and authentic contexts.

  18. CPTAC Scientific Symposium - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  19. 30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? 280.21 Section 280...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a...

  20. 30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? 280.21 Section 280...conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a...

  1. Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangera, Gita; Brownell, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches to improving diversity in scientific research focus on graduating more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, but graduation with a STEM undergraduate degree alone is not sufficient for entry into graduate school. Undergraduate independent research experiences are becoming more or less a prerequisite…

  2. An Important Difference between Scientific Research and Empiricist Research in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John H.

    Empiricists work with general concepts defined by their observed sets of objects. Their explanations involve their general concepts derived by trial and error from their untheoretical observations and experience. This paper distinguishes empirical educational research from scientific research to avoid confusion between the two. A reason for the…

  3. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  4. Acupuncture and Depth: Future Direction for Acupuncture Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The research on acupuncture has increased steadily over the years and regular review and revision of the direction of future acupuncture research are necessary. This paper aims to review and explore the significance of acupuncture depth in modern acupuncture research. Searches conducted in Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases reflected a lack of focus on depth of acupuncture. We propose that the research trends of acupuncture should progress to the depth of insertion. It is suggested that future acupuncture research, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs), should take into consideration the depth of insertion. Comparison between databases using different language of medium suggests the need for international collaboration of researchers from the same field. It is also crucial to inherit and innovate traditional medicine (TM) through modern technology. The use of bibliometric method is also suitable for development of TM research trends. Acupuncture and depth should be considered as one of the future directions of acupuncture research. PMID:25114707

  5. Research Universities and the Future of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  6. Investigating the Impact on Skill Development of an Undergraduate Scientific Research Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoman, Kay H.; Zamorski, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and subsequent impact of a scientific research skills course. Student understanding of the university research environment, their confidence in finding and using scientific literature and in scientific writing and presentation pre- and post-course was investigated. The findings suggested that understanding of the…

  7. S2I2 Exploratory Workshop: Open Source Software as a Foundation for Scientific Research

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    of computers in mathematical research. Millman is active in the scientific Python community. He servesS2I2 Exploratory Workshop: Open Source Software as a Foundation for Scientific Research 1 Objectives The goal of this workshop is to discuss the viability and potential impact of a Scientific

  8. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

  9. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

  10. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

  11. 30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do before I may conduct scientific... Apply for a Permit or File a Notice § 280.11 What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard minerals on the OCS only after...

  12. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of a proposed project for technical quality and...

  13. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  14. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee... Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  15. School Consultation Research: Methodological Critique and Future Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Kendell, Ginger K.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of school consultation research and critiques the research methodologies used in consultation research. Major theoretical models in which consultation research has been conducted are briefly described. Consultation research is reviewed in three primary areas of investigation: (1) outcome research; (2)…

  16. A more comprehensive index in the evaluation of scientific research: the single researcher impact factor proposal.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Limonta, Daniel; Sarmiento, Luis; Molinari, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Good alternatives to the Impact Factor (IF) algorithm are needed. The Thomson IF represents a limited measure of the importance of an individual article because 80% of a journal's IF is determined by only the 20% of the papers published. In the past few years, several new indexes has been created to provide alternatives to the IF algorithm. These include the removal of self citations from the calculation of the IF using the Adjusted IF, Index Copernicus initiative and other modifications such as the Cited Half-Life IF, Median IF, Disciplinary IF, and Prestige Factor. There is also the Euro-Factor, born in Europe to avoid the strong US centrality, and the English language basis of the Thomson database. One possible strategy to avoid "IF supremacy" is to create a new index, the Single Researcher Impact Factor (SRIF), that would move the evaluation from the power of scientific journals to the quality of single researchers. This measure can take into account the number and quality of the traditional publications and other activities usually associated with being a researcher, such as reviewing manuscripts, writing books, and attending scientific meetings. Also, in funding policy, it might be more useful to consider the merits, contributions, and real impact of all the scientific activities of a single researcher instead of adding only the journals' IF numbers. The major aim of this paper is to propose and describe the SRIF index that could represent a novel option to evaluate scientific research and researchers. PMID:21339895

  17. Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7). The STPL could acquire more technical assignments if examples of the areas where they posses expertise would be circulated around the center. The fact that the STPL owns high speed video capability could be 'advertised' among its customer base if there truly was an interest in building up a customer base in this area. The STPL could participate in events like TOPS as an exhibitor, as well as

  18. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  19. Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olear, Bernard T.

    1991-01-01

    A summary and viewgraphs of a discussion presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dealing the the 'data problem' are discussed. A brief history and a development of some basic mass storage system (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. Future MSS needs for future computing environments is discussed.

  20. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  1. Organizational Errors: Directions for Future Research

    E-print Network

    Carroll, John Stephen

    The goal of this chapter is to promote research about organizational errors—i.e., the actions of multiple organizational participants that deviate from organizationally specified rules and can potentially result in adverse ...

  2. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Samios,N.P.

    2008-11-17

    The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  3. The future of naval ocean science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

  4. The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, M. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Summerhayes, C.

    2005-05-01

    The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) initiates, develops, and coordinates international scientific research in the Antarctic region. SCAR is assuming a leadership position in the IPY primarily through its five major Scientific Research Programs; ACE, SALE, EBA, AGCS, and ICESTAR; which will be briefly described.Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) promotes the exchange of data and ideas between research groups focusing on the evolution of Antarctica's climate system and ice sheet. The program will: (1) quantitatively assess the climate and glacial history of Antarctica; (2) identify the processes which govern Antarctic change and feed back around the globe; (3) improve our ability to model past changes in Antarctica; and (4)document past change to predict future change in Antarctica. Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) promotes, facilitates, and champions cooperation and collaboration in the exploration and study of subglacial environments in Antarctica. SALE intends to understand the complex interplay of biological, geological, chemical, glaciological, and physical processes within subglacial lake environments through coordinated international research teams. Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic (EBA) will use a suite of modern techniques and interdisciplinary approaches, to explore the evolutionary history of selected modern Antarctic biota, examine how modern biological diversity in the Antarctic influences the way present-day ecosystems function, and thereby predict how the biota may respond to future environmental change. Antarctica and the Global Climate System (AGCS) will investigate the nature of the atmospheric and oceanic linkages between the climate of the Antarctic and the rest of the Earth system, and the mechanisms involved therein. A combination of modern instrumented records of atmospheric and oceanic conditions, and the climate signals held within ice cores will be used to understand past and future climate variability and change in the Antarctic as a result of natural and anthropogenic forcings over the last 100,000 years. Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research (ICESTAR) will study the interactions between and collective behavior of the many component parts of the Earth system, including the interaction between the natural environment and human society. Objectives include specification and prediction of the state of the system and assimilation and integration of data from disparate sources to understand the complex geospace environment.

  5. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

  6. Directions for Future Research in Vocational Special Needs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Meers, Gary D.

    A two-phase empirical investigation identified, categorized, and prioritized research needs in vocational special education for the next 10 years. Phase 1 involved 18 university personnel in a three-round Delphi technique that generated 91 future research objectives. Research statements collected from Round 1 questionnaires were used to construct…

  7. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  8. Future directions in human-environment research.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science. PMID:26422805

  9. Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Using High-Resolution Future Climate

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles W.

    and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1RESEARCH ARTICLE Using High-Resolution Future Climate Scenarios to Forecast Bromus tectorum, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated

  11. Gray Power: Agenda for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelaja, Shanker A.

    1989-01-01

    Constructing the agenda for research on grey power requires recognizing the diversity of older people and the context through which concepts of old age are developed. Studies of political power should be longitudinal and cross-sectional. Studies of age advocacy should be linked with those of other advocacy groups. (SK)

  12. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  14. Supporting Educational Researchers of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sue; Broda, Juliana

    1996-01-01

    A collaborative group of postgraduate students in education and their supervisors identified issues related to the long completion times and high attrition rates of education postgraduates. Students felt ill prepared for research and experienced isolation, lack of resources and structure, and changed power relationships. (SK)

  15. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  16. New linked data on research investments: scientific workforce, productivity, and public value

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement. PMID:26335785

  17. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 and 2 scientific research objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Schneider, Howard J.

    1987-01-01

    The pressurized Spacelab module was designed and built to allow investigators to conduct research in space in an environment approximating that of a ground-based laboratory. It is configured to allow multiple investigations employing both human and nonhuman subjects. This flexability is exemplified by the SLS-1, SLS-2, and SLS-3 experiment complement. A total of 21 experiments are scheduled for these missions; the areas to be investigated are renal/endocrine function, cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary function, hematology, immunology, metabolic activity of muscle, Ca metabolism, the vestibular system, and general biology. A plan for integration of measurements will allow each investigator to use data from other experiments. The experiments make up a scientifically balanced payload that addresses fundamental biomedical problems associated with space flight and provides the first opportunity to study the acute effects of weightlessness in a comprehensive, interrelated fashion.

  18. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    E-print Network

    Longo, Giuseppe

    Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research Massimo Bresciaa , Giuseppe the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of ICT technologies. Keywords: astroinformatics, Data Mining, virtual organizations 1. Introduction

  19. Open Science: Open source licenses in scientific research 

    E-print Network

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the validity of OSS (open source software) licenses for scientific, as opposed to creative works. It draws on examples of OSS licenses to consider their suitability for the scientific community and ...

  20. There is no scientific rationale for race-based research.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, the colonial governments used a combination of race and ethnic characteristics to subjugate and control people of color, and scientists of the day provided evidence of the "natural order of things" to support national policies of domination, segregation and control. There have been many examples of events in the past 70 years to suggest that achievements by ethnic peoples are not genetically determined and that race and ethnicity are merely terms to describe external features, language, culture, social mores and folklore. BiDil was the first drug in this country approved by the FDA for use in a single "race" after a clinical trial that enrolled only members of that race. Thus arose the question of the efficacy of doing race-based research in humans. In order for this kind of research to have any scientific basis, each individually defined or self-declared race would have to have a 100% pure gene pool, and the data show that the gene pool among whites, blacks and Hispanics in America is very heterogeneous. This makes for far greater similarities among U.S. citizens than any perceived differences, and genomic science has failed to support the concept of racial categories in medicine. Scientists involved with the first mapping of the human genome have noted that there is no basis in the genetic code for race. That being the case, there appears to be no justification for race-based research among human beings. PMID:17595942

  1. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  2. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Can a Successful Program of Research Exist without Scientific-Based Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    This study represents an attempt at determining if a construct, rather than an instructional method, is supported by scientifically-based research. The purpose of this study was to examine the credibility of evidence-based claims underlying the literature related to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (Shulman, 1986). Using a hybrid…

  3. Research on Web-based Scientific Computing Legacy Application Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Bin-Ge

    With the development of Internet technology, A legion of scientific computing legacy programs with rich domain knowledge and expertise were distributed across various disciplines. As the program implementations or interfaces and so on, scientific computing legacy programs can not be shared through the Internet. This paper proposes a method of packaging scientific computing legacy programs into DLL(Dynamic Link Library), and packaging them into Web services through the C# reflection, making the scientific computing legacy programs successfully share on the Internet.

  4. The way forward for clinical research in Cameroon: first scientific and research day in Douala, 2014.

    PubMed

    Dzudie, Anastase; Aminde, Leopold; Ngowe Ngowe, Marcelin; Takah, Noah; Luma, Henry Namme; Doualla, Marie Solange; Mapoure, Yacouba; Mbatchou, Hugo; Njamen, Theophile Nana; Priso, Eugene Belley; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Sliwa-Hahnle, Karen; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Sone, Albert Mouelle

    2014-01-01

    There is a huge need for health research to support contextually relevant health service and policy solutions to better the health of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. This need contrasts with the very timid engagement of healthcare practitioners in research in the region.It is against this background that the Douala General Hospital (a tertiary-care hospital in Cameroon), under the stewardship of its chief executive officer, organised the first annual scientific and research day in October 2014. This maiden event saw the participation of local research leaders and the eminent director of the South African Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa, who co-chaired the event. The aim was to educate students, clinicians and junior researchers on the importance of clinical research and evidence-based medicine around the leading theme of the event: action for clinical research and good medical practice.Several abstracts were presented, covering various aspects of medicine, including cardiology, rheumatology, paediatrics, pulmonology, HIV medicine, and obstetrics and gynaecology, together with key lectures on cardiac disease and pregnancy, and plenary sessions on research methodology, scientific writing and publishing. It is hoped that this event will enhance clinical research and the dissemination of research findings to improve evidence-based clinical practice in the country. PMID:25629543

  5. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  6. What Do Researchers Say about Scientific Literacy in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Kearton, Ginny

    2010-01-01

    This article is the second in a thread of three pieces about scientific literacy. The first, written by Edgar Jenkins, provided an introduction to scientific literacy within the context of citizenship and the ways that scientific literacy might be interpreted by those with a concern about public understanding of science or the public engagement…

  7. Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.

    2007-12-01

    BACKGROUND International Polar Year, which was launched in March 2007, is an international program of coordinated, interdisciplinary scientific research on Earth's polar regions. The northern regions of the eight Arctic States (Canada, Alaska (USA), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland. Iceland and Greenland (Denmark) have significant indigenous populations. The circumpolar Arctic is one of the least technologically connected regions in the world, although Canada and others have been pioneers in developing and suing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in remote areas. The people living in this vast geographic area have been moving toward taking their rightful place in the global information society, but are dependent on the outreach and cooperation of larger mainstream societies. The dominant medium of communication is radio, which is flexible in accommodating multiple cultures, languages, and factors of time and distance. The addition of newer technologies such as streaming on the Internet can increase access and content for all communities of interest, north and south. The Arctic Circle of Indigenous Communicators (ACIC) is an independent association of professional Northern indigenous media workers in the print, radio, television, film and Internet industries. ACIC advocates the development of all forms of communication in circumpolar North areas. It is international in scope. Members are literate in English, French, Russian and many indigenous languages. ACIC has proposed the establishment of a headquarters for monitoring IPY projects are in each area, and the use of community radio broadcasters to collect and disseminate information about IPY. The cooperation of Team IPY at the University of Colorado, Arctic Net at Laval University, and others, is being developed. ACIC is committed to making scientific knowledge gained in IPY accessible to those most affected - residents of the Arctic. ABSTRACT The meeting of the American Geophysical Union will be held in San Francisco on December 10 to 14, 2007. One component of this conference is entitled « Education, Outreach and Communications During IPY and Beyond ». ACIC proposes to present a discussion paper, « Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers », describing the status of IPY outreach and communications in the Arctic at this time. The paper will be complemented by photographs which illustrate the context of communication activity in these regions. ACIC has an existing international network of indigenous northern communicators. The IPY Northern Coordination Offices in Canada, and key informants in Alaska, RAIPON in the Russian Federation, and the Association of Sami Journalists, will be interviewed to determine involvement in IPY activities planned and/or undertaken. The level of community and professional awareness will be surveyed through interviews with community radio personnel. Aspirations and expectations for further cooperation with IPY reseearchers will be determined. Barriers and shortfalls will be identified. The usability and potential of current communications will be assessed. Endorsed IPY projects will be contacted to determine their Arctic communication plans and activities, barriers and opportunities. Information gained from the Joint Committee Assessment in October will be considered in the context of northern informant input. Conclusions and recommendations will reported, with the goal of optimizing opportunities to connect indigenous Arctic residents and IPY scientific research centres.

  8. Eliminating Tobacco-Related Health Disparities: Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; King, Gary; Lawrence, Deirdre; Petrucci, Sallie Anne; Robinson, Robert G.; Banks, David; Marable, Sharon; Grana, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Certain groups in the United States remain at high risk and suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illness and death despite progress made in reducing tobacco use. To address gaps in research on tobacco-related disparities and develop a comprehensive agenda aimed at reducing such disparities, representatives from funding agencies, community-based organizations, and academic institutions convened at the National Conference on Tobacco and Health Disparities in 2002. Conference participants reviewed the current research, identified existing gaps, and prioritized scientific recommendations. Panel discussions were organized to address research areas affecting underserved and understudied populations. We report major research recommendations made by the conference participants in several scientific domains. These recommendations will ultimately help guide the field in reducing and eliminating tobacco-related disparities in the United States. PMID:14759929

  9. The Role of Student-Advisor Interactions in Apprenticing Undergraduate Researchers into a Scientific Community of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2011-12-01

    Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are themselves apprentices to faculty members. As such, research mentors of undergraduate students should be aware of the dual scientific and educational aspects of their advising role and its significance in shaping students' identities and career trajectories.

  10. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

  11. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  12. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and...designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research, and/or public display must be...

  13. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and...designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research, and/or public display must be...

  14. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and...designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research, and/or public display must be...

  15. 77 FR 9896 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species Act... research/enhancement purposes. The corresponding regulations established procedures for persons to apply... research/enhancement permits, and (2) reporting requirements for permits issued. The required...

  16. 75 FR 28686 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee... Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science...

  17. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee... Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  18. 76 FR 19189 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee... Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  19. 76 FR 73781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee... Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  20. 77 FR 31072 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee... Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  1. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  2. 30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... scientific research? 280.21 Section 280.21 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a... you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities. (b) Consult and coordinate your...

  3. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

  4. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  5. Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

    2012-12-01

    To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

  6. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, Massimo; Longo, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies.

  7. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... copy of the research proposal relating to such program or project and the names and addresses of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application...

  8. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... copy of the research proposal relating to such program or project and the names and addresses of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application...

  9. 3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential... Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution.... Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem cells has the potential to...

  10. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-05-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code. We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higher-quality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

  11. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

  12. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  13. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental Operations § 19.34 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college...

  14. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental Operations § 19.34 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college...

  15. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental Operations § 19.34 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college...

  16. Individual and Institutional Liability of Researchers in the Case of Scientific Fraud: Values and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Eric; Dupraz, Laure

    2007-01-01

    How have university institutions generally tackled the fight against scientific fraud? We intend to throw light on the very process of public disclosure of scientific fraud, as it has transformed in the last 30 years within the framework of scientific research institutions. By focusing our analysis on the "denunciation process", we intend to refer…

  17. Scientific Uncertainty in News Coverage of Cancer Research: Effects of Hedging on Scientists' and Journalists' Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.

    2008-01-01

    News reports of scientific research are rarely hedged; in other words, the reports do not contain caveats, limitations, or other indicators of scientific uncertainty. Some have suggested that hedging may influence news consumers' perceptions of scientists' and journalists' credibility (perceptions that may be related to support for scientific

  18. Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…

  19. 27 CFR 19.71 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.71 Section 19.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college of learning, or institution...

  20. 75 FR 51439 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  2. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  3. Presidential Address: Culture and the Future of Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halse, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in higher education have confronted education research with a conundrum: how our traditionally multidisciplinary field can refine itself as a unified discipline. In this address I sketch out what this conundrum may mean for education research, both substantively and methodologically, in the future. I propose that one starting point…

  4. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  5. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  6. Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various scientific disciplines represented in investigations on ISS? Are there lessons specific to human research, technology development, life sciences, and physical sciences that can be used to increase future research accomplishments? Research has been conducted and completed on ISS under a set of challenging constraints during the past 7 years. The history of research accomplished on ISS during this time serves as an indicator of the value and potential of ISS when full utilization begins. By learning from our early experience in completing research on ISS, NASA and our partners can be positioned to optimize research returns as a full crew complement comes onboard, assembly is completed, and research begins in full.

  7. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions, and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations, and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

  8. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

  9. Melding Research on the Navajo Volcanic Field into Undergraduate Curriculum to Promote Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation highlights the curricular design and preliminary outcomes of undergraduate research in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College (FLC), supported by an NSF-RUI project on the Navajo volcanic field (NVF). A prime impact of this project was to support the education and career development of undergraduate students by further developing basic knowledge and skills in the context of authentic inquiry on petrologic-based research topics. Integrating research into the curriculum promoted scientific habits of mind by engaging students as "active agents" in discovery, and the creative development and testing of ideas. It also gave students a sense of ownership in the scientific process and knowledge construction. The initial phase of this project was conducted in Igneous Petrology at FLC in 2010. Eleven students were enrolled in this course which allowed them to work as a team in collaboration with the PI, and engage in all aspects of research to further develop and hone their skills in scientific inquiry. This course involved a small component of traditional lecture in which selected topics were discussed to provide students with a foundation to understand magmatic processes. This was complemented by a comprehensive review of the literature in which students read and discussed a spectrum of articles on Tertiary magmatism in the western United States and the NVF. Invited lectures by leading-scientists in geology provided opportunities for discussions and interaction with professional geologists. All of the students in the class engaged in the active collection of petrologic data in the field and laboratory sessions, and were introduced to the use of state-of-the art analytical tools as part of their experiences. Four students were recruited from the course to design, develop, and conduct long-term research projects on selected petrologic topics in the NVF. This research allowed these students to engage in the "messy" process of testing existing hypotheses on NVF magmatism, and developing new ideas and interpretations. The combined outcomes of these research projects provided a collection of original data which have made important contributions to our understanding of the history of the NVF. All student projects served to fulfill a mandatory senior-thesis research project and the students were required to attend professional meetings to present their results. Dissemination of the outcomes of student research into the broader geologic community allowed the students to interact as peers in their field of study. The insight and values that these future geoscientists gained from research experiences early in their education and careers is critical to their professional development. This process infused the students with a greater understanding of science methods and activities. The integration of classroom studies with applied research has a positive impact on the scientific awareness of budding geoscientists which stand to impact the future decisions of society and communities. Data collected on student perspectives document the successful outcomes of this combined research-education project.

  10. The Zooniverse: Cutting Edge Scientific Research in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, K. A.; Whyte, L. F.; Smith, A.; Tarnoff, A.; Schmitt, H.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly scientists and researchers from a multitude of disciplines are finding themselves inundated with more data than they could possibly interpret in a lifetime. Computers can be used entirely or partially for some data analysis; but there are some tasks that are currently best suited to human eyes, ears and brains. Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org) invites members of the public to help researchers analyze and interpret data. To date, hundreds of thousands of volunteers have been involved in classifying images, interpreting sounds and transcribing texts. Zooniverse citizen scientists are providing valuable analyses across a variety of fields, from the hunt for exoplanets in Planet Hunters (planethunters.org) to the transcription of Greek papyri in Ancient Lives (ancientlives.org). Multiple academic publications have resulted from the combined efforts of the Zooniverse community and science teams demonstrating that citizen science is more than ever becoming a well-established method of doing research. Unlike most research projects the data, analysis and interactions with the science teams have an established and visible online presence through the project website and related discussion sites and blogs. These in themselves provide a valuable classroom resource, an opportunity for free and easy access to cutting edge scientific research. Anecdotal evidence exists that teacher can and already do use Zooniverse projects. By providing a rich and varied scaffolding to accompany the Zooniverse projects the opportunity exists for bringing citizen scientists to a wider classroom audience. An audience that may include non-specialist teachers, who require additional support to deliver challenging content, or time strapped educators who haven't the time to develop their own accompanying resources to weave Zooniverse projects into their lessons. During the session we will discuss the recent Zooniverse projects specifically designed to support and promote classroom adoption locally, within the Chicago Public School (CPS) system and nationally within the United States. Introducing ZooTeach, a website where educators may share and search for lesson plans, activities, and resources. Beyond a simple lesson plan repository, ZooTeach is a community where educators are encouraged to modify, comment on, and otherwise actively participate in the educational efforts of Zooniverse. Teacher workshops run at Adler have and will continue to have the dual effect of promoting the Zooniverse and it's educational effort while increasing the pool of resources available nationally via ZooTeach. In house developed teacher guides and interactive tools allowing for the collection and manipulation of data will further enhance the classroom education experience and further lower the bar for entry into the world of citizen science.

  11. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and warming water temperatures. Citizen science projects fulfill the requirements of government granting institutions for outreach and scientific communication. This presentation will highlight marine research projects, which have not only engaged citizens in the scientific process but also discuss the impacts of associated outreach, capacity building and community environmental stewardship.

  12. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  13. PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

  14. The Chandra Bibliography Cataloging System: A Scientific Research Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelman, Sherry; Rots, Arnold; McCollough, Michael; Becker, Glenn; Watry, Aaron; Hagler, Joan

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Data Archive (CDA) has been tracking publications based on Chandra observations in journals and on-line conference proceedings since early in the mission. Our goals are two-fold: 1) provide a means for Chandra users to search literature on Chandra-related papers to further their scientific research; and 2) provide a means for measuring the science produced from Chandra data. In this presentation we focus on our first goal and detail our classification system and procedures, bibliography search pages, as well as our interactions with the Astronomic Data Systems (ADS) to provide direct links to Chandra data from an ADS bibcode page. Our classification system is multi-tiered. Whenever possible we directly link Chandra observations to papers published about that data. We classify Chandra-related papers into 5 general categories and also have 20 flags which indicate something about the content of the paper. Some of those flags are: whether the principle investigator of the data was an author of the paper; which instruments are cited in the paper; and whether the paper contains follow-up analysis, theory, or contains a multi-observatory analysis with Chandra data and some other dataset. We are in the process of expanding our list of flags to include more than 60 other observatories and more than 70 catalogs and surveys. We hope that by gathering more information contained within papers that we can provide a more powerful research tool for our users whether they use our search pages or ADS. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060.

  15. Development of Nature of Science Ideas through Authentic Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Stephen Randall

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which scientific knowledge develops, or the epistemology of science, is believed to be a crucial component of scientific literacy. This construct is more formally known as Nature of Science (NOS) within the science education community. The merits of three different approaches to NOS teaching and learning in the context of…

  16. Research Article Evaluating Scientific Inferences about the Florida Panther

    E-print Network

    Beier, Paul

    of the reliability of the scientific literature used to support conservation of Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi restoration, habitat use, Puma concolor coryi, reliability, scientific inference. In 1967, the Florida panther America (where it is called puma, cougar, or mountain lion), in 1967 many experts believed the Florida

  17. Future Directions in Malignant Hyperthermia Research and Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Hirshey Dirksen, Sharon J.; Larach, Marilyn Green; Rosenberg, Henry; Brandom, Barbara W.; Parness, Jerome; Lang, Robert Scott; Gangadharan, Meera; Pezalski, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care. PMID:21709147

  18. Ethics and Scientific Integrity in Public Health, Epidemiological and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we argue for a broader account of scientific integrity, one consistent with that defended by the United States Institute of Medicine, involving a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for one’s actions as a researcher and to practices consistent with the responsible conduct of research and protection of the research participants. Maintaining high standards of ethical and scientific integrity helps to maintain public trust in the research enterprise. An increasing number of authors have pointed to the importance of mentoring and education in relation to the responsible conduct of science in preventing transgressions of scientific integrity. Just like in clinical research and biomedicine, epidemiologists and other public health researchers have the responsibility to exhibit and foster the very highest standards of scientific integrity. PMID:24532867

  19. 76 FR 47596 - Notice of Scientific Summit; The Science of Compassion-Future Directions in End-of-Life and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... individuals with life-limiting illnesses, as well as their caregivers. The summit will begin with a Town Hall... Directions in End-of-Life and Palliative Care SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the National Institute of..., will convene a scientific summit titled ``The Science of Compassion--Future Directions in...

  20. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, John C. H.; Wehner, Michael F.

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the course of the 20th century prior to the 1980s. This is based on our detection and attribution analysis of 20th century simulations done by international modeling groups as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). We repeated the same analysis with the current CMIP5 multimodel simulations, with essentially similar results. 3.Future projections of the global interhemispheric thermal gradient suggest a pronounced trend that well exceeds the 20th century range of behavior. The major cause of this trend is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, acting in such a way as to warm the North more than the South. This result is based on our analysis of the CMIP3 and 5 simulations of future scenarios. The underlying suggestion is that tropical rainfall may concentrate more northwards in the future climate, though further research is required to more firmly establish that result.Taken together, our results shows the important role of the interhemispheric thermal gradient in determining tropical rainfall changes in the 20th century and future. Our analysis specifically highlights high-latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, as important drivers of the interhemispheric gradient over the 20th century; and anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the 21st. The PI has written a review paper in order to promote the awareness of the interhemispheric gradient amongst the climate science community.Our project was instrumental in developing the career of a postdoctoral scholar, as well as contributing to the research training of three Ph.D. candidates.

  1. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Experimental Operations § 19.34 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of... learning, or institution of scientific research to produce, receive, blend, treat, test, and store spirits... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Experimental or...

  2. Breaking News Column: Texas a global leader in scientific innovation, research

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Breaking News Column: Texas a global leader in scientific innovation, research (http://weatherforddemocrat.com/opinion/x1533272439/Column-Texas-a- global-leader-in-scientific-innovation-research) Kay Bailey Hutchison CNHI (http institutions' commitment to work collaboratively. These strengths have enabled Texas to establish an Innovation

  3. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research...

  4. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors’ and investigators’ experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. Research design A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Setting and participants Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Analysis Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. Results The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. Conclusions The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects human rights and produces reliable data. PMID:24534257

  5. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable influenced the observed changes, an ordinal regression was performed. In addition, to deduce the attractiveness of each visual tool independently, the visitors' paths were tracked using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technique, from which their time spent around certain visuals could be assessed. While the process of creating an exhibition as a real communication effort and a testing activity will be discussed, the results of the experiment will be presented. In particular, we will show for which natural hazard the most awareness changes were measured and with which factors they are assessed. Moreover, the attractiveness of each visual tools will be presented.

  6. Portable housing : an exploration into lightweight housing for remote scientific research

    E-print Network

    McCluskey, Keith V. (Keith Vincent), 1971-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis proposes the design of portable housing for use in scientific research applications in remote locations. Currently, remote research is conducted from tents or other portable shelters. Larger, more hospitable ...

  7. A shifting mosaic of scholarly publishing, scientific delivery, and future impact changing the face of learned societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nonprofit scientific societies hope that their activities advance their particular mission and impact their profession and, in the broadest sense, humanity in positive ways. The digital age has provided unprecedented mechanisms to enhance the delivery of science to the world. The marketplace of scientific publishing is a rapidly shifting mosaic of challenges and opportunities, and the responses of nonprofit and commercial publishers vary widely, but their outcomes are still uncertain. The response of the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) provides an example of how a relatively small society has altered its scientific delivery to enhance member benefits while attempting to sustain its economic viability. Since 2000, ASM has moved from a self-publishing, break-even, print-only model to a copublishing agreement with a commercial publisher (Alliance Communications Group, a division of Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas), which now offers members various print and electronic options and generates a shared royalty. Although it is too early to gauge the economic impact of these changes, the ASM leadership clearly attempted to signal its desire for members to view their society as a package of opportunities for edification and involvement rather than just a provider of serial subscriptions. Future challenges facing nonprofit scientific societies include open access, fiscal realities, archiving of publications, and scientific and societal impact; future opportunities include a strengthening of member responsibilities and professionalism, development of data registries to enhance scientific progress, and bundling of like societies. The manner in which nonprofit scientific societies respond to these challenges and opportunities will no doubt affect their sustainability and future impact. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen on- and offshore science support infrastructure, recommended operational and scientific support structures and the relevance of AURORA BOREALIS for other present and future Antarctic science programmes and initiatives.

  9. Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing.

    SciTech Connect

    McInnes, L. C.; Dahlgren, T.; Nieplocha, J.; Bernholdt, D.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Chavarria, D.; Elwasif, W.; Gorton, I.; Krishan, M.; Malony, A.; Norris, B.; Ray, J.; Shende, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; LLNL; PNNL; ORNL; SNL; Univ. of Oregon

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance.

  10. Professor Clive Brasier, Forest Research UK Scientific and operational flaws

    E-print Network

    . The permissions of scientific colleagues to use their data or photographs in this talk are gratefully acknowledged to movement of invertebrates, viruses, bacteria - and to pathogens of horticultural and agricultural cash

  11. AXAF: Current Developments and Future Plans for the Scientific Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruscione, Antonella

    1998-01-01

    AXAF, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, is one of NASA's great observatories scheduled for launch in January of 1999 by a Space Shuttle. This facility will be available to scientists in the United States and to the international astronomical community over an anticipated mission lifetime of at least 5 years. The objective of AXAF is to make astrophysical observations in the 0.09 to 10.0 keV energy range with two imaging detectors, and two sets of transmission gratings giving high spatial (0.5 arcsec) and spectral (E/(Delta)E=100-2000) resolution. The AXAF Science Center (ASC) in Cambridge, MA, USA is responsible for obtaining and reviewing observation proposals submitted by users, providing long range science planning and performing all science data calibration, data analysis, science instrument trend analysis, and science data archiving. The ASC will distribute science data products to the users. We will review here the current developments and future plans for the AXAF scientific data analysis system, its infrastructure and new key features, including the global modelling and fitting environment, integrated data analysis GUIs and new analysis tools.

  12. Research Priorities for Economic Analyses of Prevention: Current Issues & Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, D. Max; Hill, Laura Griner; Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing interest in economic analyses of prevention efforts, a diverse group of prevention researchers, economists, and policy analysts convened a scientific panel, on “Research Priorities in Economic Analysis of Prevention” at the 19th annual conference of the Society for Prevention Research. The panel articulated four priorities that, if followed in future research, would make economic analyses of prevention efforts easier to compare and more relevant to policymakers, and community stakeholders. These priorities are: (1) increased standardization of evaluation methods, (2) improved economic valuation of common prevention outcomes, (3) expanded efforts to maximize evaluation generalizability and impact, as well as (4) enhanced transparency and communicability of economic evaluations. In this paper we define three types of economic analyses in prevention, provide context and rationale for these four priorities as well as related sub-priorities, and discuss the challenges inherent in meeting them. PMID:23963624

  13. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Prologue to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA STI Program offers researchers an infrastructure of people and systems that facilitates access to STI; worldwide. The Program is also NASA's institutional mechanism for disseminating the results of its research and developing activities. Through discussions in 1991, the STI Program formulated its Strategic Plan. The plan gives the Program a renewed sense of direction by focusing on future opportunities, customer requirements and Program goals, along with the changes needed to achieve those goals. The Program provides users access to a massive flow of STI which, in fact, represents the largest collection of aeronautical and space science information in the world. The STI Program products and services are outlined, along with the NASA centers, international operations, and the fact that total quality management drives NASA wide program developments. As is detailed, the NASA STI Program is using its resources as effectively as possible to meet the missing needs of NASA.

  14. Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, William J.

    Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel Robert G. Svitek University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs are medical devices designed to take over or supplement the respiratory function of the lung: oxygenating the blood

  15. The Future Directions of Lupus Research Presented by

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    Cutaneous lupus 43 Antiphospholipid syndrome 43 Issues related to obtaining good prevalence figures 43The Future Directions of Lupus Research Presented by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services of Lupus Systemic Autoimmunity 7 Genetics of Human Lupus 8 Environmental Factors 10 Medications 10

  16. Chapter 9: Visions for future research in wildlife epidemiology1

    E-print Network

    Chapter 9: Visions for future research in wildlife epidemiology1 B.T. Grenfell, W. Amos, P epidemiological models to data, and in understanding the stochastic persistence of pathogen metapopulations investment, since many important epidemiological questions can only be addressed with data over several

  17. Rice Genomes: A Grainy View of Future Evolutionary Research

    E-print Network

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Rice Genomes: A Grainy View of Future Evolutionary Research Dispatch Kevin Livingstone and Loren H. Rieseberg The draft genome sequences from two subspecies of rice are powerful new tools for gene discovery information needed to combat inherited maladies, the recent com- pletion of two sequences of the rice genome

  18. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  19. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  20. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  1. Assessing the effects of fire disturbances on ecosystems: A scientific agenda for research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Keane, R.E.; Lenihan, J.M.; McKenzie, D.; Weise, D.R.; Sandberg, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial questions and responses focusing on (1) links among fire effects, fuels, and climate; (2) fire as a large-scale disturbance; (3) fire-effects modeling structures; and (4) managerial concerns, applications, and decision support. At the present time, understanding of fire effects and the ability to extrapolate fire-effects knowledge to large spatial scales are limited, because most data have been collected at small spatial scales for specific applications. Although we clearly need more large-scale fire-effects data, it will be more expedient to concentrate efforts on improving and linking existing models that simulate fire effects in a georeferenced format while integrating empirical data as they become available. A significant component of this effort should be improved communication between modelers and managers to develop modeling tools to use in a planning context. Another component of this modeling effort should improve our ability to predict the interactions of fire and potential climatic change at very large spatial scales. The priority issues and approaches described here provide a template for fire science and fire management programs in the next decade and beyond.

  2. Control Capabilities of Myoelectric Robotic Prostheses by Hand Amputees: A Scientific Research and Market Overview

    PubMed Central

    Atzori, Manfredo; Müller, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Hand amputation can dramatically affect the capabilities of a person. Cortical reorganization occurs in the brain, but the motor and somatosensorial cortex can interact with the remnant muscles of the missing hand even many years after the amputation, leading to the possibility to restore the capabilities of hand amputees through myoelectric prostheses. Myoelectric hand prostheses with many degrees of freedom are commercially available and recent advances in rehabilitation robotics suggest that their natural control can be performed in real life. The first commercial products exploiting pattern recognition to recognize the movements have recently been released, however the most common control systems are still usually unnatural and must be learned through long training. Dexterous and naturally controlled robotic prostheses can become reality in the everyday life of amputees but the path still requires many steps. This mini-review aims to improve the situation by giving an overview of the advancements in the commercial and scientific domains in order to outline the current and future chances in this field and to foster the integration between market and scientific research. PMID:26648850

  3. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  4. Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

  5. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  6. Report on the Inaugural Meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research: A Clinical and Research Update and 16 Consensus-Set Goals for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Aleman, André; Fernyhough, Charles; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a report on the first meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, which took place on September 13–14, 2011 at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The first day of the meeting served to reflect on the current state of knowledge regarding auditory hallucinations in different diagnostic groups, based on the presentations from the phenomenology, cognition, emotion, electrophysiology, neurochemical, neuroimaging, genetics, treatment, and computational modeling working groups. The second day comprised a discussion forum where the most important and urgent questions for future research were identified. The meeting recognized that a lot has been achieved in auditory hallucination research but that much still remains to be done. Here, we outline the top 16 goals for research on auditory hallucinations, which cover topics of conceptual importance, academic and treatment issues, scientific rigor, and cross-disciplinary collaboration. Concerted and coordinated actions will be required to make substantial research progress. PMID:22223735

  7. Report on the inaugural meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research: a clinical and research update and 16 consensus-set goals for future research.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Aleman, André; Fernyhough, Charles; Allen, Paul

    2012-03-01

    This article presents a report on the first meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, which took place on September 13-14, 2011 at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The first day of the meeting served to reflect on the current state of knowledge regarding auditory hallucinations in different diagnostic groups, based on the presentations from the phenomenology, cognition, emotion, electrophysiology, neurochemical, neuroimaging, genetics, treatment, and computational modeling working groups. The second day comprised a discussion forum where the most important and urgent questions for future research were identified. The meeting recognized that a lot has been achieved in auditory hallucination research but that much still remains to be done. Here, we outline the top 16 goals for research on auditory hallucinations, which cover topics of conceptual importance, academic and treatment issues, scientific rigor, and cross-disciplinary collaboration. Concerted and coordinated actions will be required to make substantial research progress. PMID:22223735

  8. Future directions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis research. An NHLBI workshop report.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Timothy S; Tager, Andrew M; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B; Schwartz, David A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K; Chapman, Harold A; Collard, Harold R; Cosgrove, Gregory P; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S; Henke, Craig A; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; King, Talmadge E; Loyd, James E; Lawson, William E; Marsh, Clay B; Noble, Paul W; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A; O'Riordan, Thomas G; Oury, Tim D; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J; Sisson, Thomas H; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M; Weaver, Timothy E; Wells, Rebecca G; White, Eric S; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J; Wynn, Thomas A; Thannickal, Victor J; Eu, Jerry P

    2014-01-15

    The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

  9. Future Directions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Research. An NHLBI Workshop Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Timothy S.; Tager, Andrew M.; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B.; Schwartz, David A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R.; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K.; Chapman, Harold A.; Collard, Harold R.; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S.; Henke, Craig A.; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; King, Talmadge E.; Loyd, James E.; Lawson, William E.; Marsh, Clay B.; Noble, Paul W.; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A.; O’Riordan, Thomas G.; Oury, Tim D.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Wells, Rebecca G.; White, Eric S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

  10. 78 FR 41198 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  11. 78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research...

  12. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  13. How Might Research Inform Scientific Literacy in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literacy is now seen as an essential component of informed citizenship and a key curriculum goal in many parts of the world. The relevant literature is vast and replete with a variety of definitions, descriptions, prescriptions, slogans and theoretical perspectives. It addresses not only formal education but also fields as diverse as…

  14. Science and the Scientific Method Research Concepts in Natural Resources

    E-print Network

    DeStefano, Stephen

    however, -- modeling exercises alone do not help us to infer the underlying cause or causes #12;Approaches, collection of facts, or advanced technology - It Is . . . a process, beyond the "scientific method the philosophy, process, & practice of Science is much more - it is a TOOL for . . . forming and framing

  15. Problems of Scientific Research Activity in Institutions of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solodnikov, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    Under current conditions, the role played by scientific knowledge in all spheres of public life is rising substantially, and more and more attention is being paid to problems of the development and modernization of the Academy of Sciences. Not long ago, for example, there was wide response to the findings of a special study by S. Belanovskii on…

  16. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Rock Varnish

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    ofmanganese ox? ide that determines the color of the varnish. Often, the varnish concen? tratesmanganese oxide Scientist, Vol. 79, No. 6 (November-December 1991), pp. 542-553 Published by: Sigma Xi, The Scientific to digitize, preserve and extend access to American Scientist. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded

  17. CPTAC Scientific Symposium Highlights - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The first CPTAC Public Scientific Symposium was recently held on November 13, 2013 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. The symposium brought together a record number of registrants, 450 scientists, who shared and discussed novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data.

  18. ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Priya

    University August, 1998 Page 3 of 28 Ethics Education Scientific integrity training now required in the biological sciences, per NIH policy. Source: Susan Henry. Ethics training is part of many medical school and business school curricula. But not computer science? CMU's Center for the Advancement of Applied Ethics has

  19. Obstacles to Scientific Research in Light of a Number of Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algadheeb, Nourah A.; Almeqren, Monira A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the scientific research obstacles facing faculty members in the College of Education at Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University (PNU) and to determine the differences in the obstacles according to age, academic rank, scientific specialty, marital status, number of completed studies, and time since the last…

  20. Games as a Platform for Student Participation in Authentic Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnussen, Rikke; Hansen, Sidse Damgaard; Planke, Tilo; Sherson, Jacob Friis

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if…

  1. Pedagogical Conditions of Ensuring Students' Readiness for Scientific Researches--Example of Technical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slessarev, Yuri Vassilyevich; Moisseyev, Vassily Borisovich; Vostroknutov, Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    This article describes pedagogical conditions of ensuring students readiness for scientific researches on the basis of scientific literature and experience of Penza State Technological University students. Introduction of suggested conditions favors the process of training of highly skilled expert who is ready for generation of new ideas in fields…

  2. The Experimental Social Scientific Model in Speech Communication Research: Influences and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…

  3. The Educational Science and Scientifically Based Instruction We Need: Lessons from Reading Research and Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Duke, Nell K.; Boling, Erica C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Michael Pressley, Nell Duke, and Erica Boling call for a second generation of scientifically based reading instruction that goes beyond the evidence currently informing public policy. The authors argue that the federal government's position on what constitutes "scientific research" embraces only a narrow range of potentially…

  4. Space and radiation protection: scientific requirements for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.

  5. Pursuing Scientific Excellence Globally: Internationalising Research as a Policy Target

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Sigurdson, Kristjan; Sá, Creso M.

    2013-01-01

    International collaboration is a rapidly growing aspect of university research and a priority of research funding agencies. This article investigates the rationales that underlie Canadian federal research councils' support of international research collaborations. Such support has deep roots in Canadian science and technology policy but has…

  6. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  7. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  8. 30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... scientific research? 280.21 Section 280.21 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a permit or notice, you must: (a) Immediately report to...

  9. 78 FR 37242 - Draft Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Scientific Working Group on Medicolegal Death Investigation AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ... Working Group for Medicolegal Death Investigation will make available to the general public a document entitled, ``Research in Forensic Pathology/Medicolegal Death Investigation''. The opportunity to...

  10. 75 FR 51439 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species...

  11. 75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a teleconference meeting of the Spinal Cord Injury & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held...

  12. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  13. PREVALENCE OF SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT AMONG A GROUP OF RESEARCHERS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    OKONTA, PATRICK; ROSSOUW, THERESA

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the prevalence of scientific misconduct from Nigeria. Objectives This study aimed at determining the prevalence of scientific misconduct in a group of researchers in Nigeria. Factors associated with the prevalence were ascertained. Method A descriptive study of researchers who attended a scientific conference in 2010 was conducted using the adapted Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire- Revised (SMQ-R). Results Ninety-one researchers (68.9%) admitted having committed at least one of the eight listed forms of scientific misconduct. Disagreement about authorship was the most common form of misconduct committed (36.4%) while plagiarism was the least (9.2%). About 42% of researchers had committed falsification of data or plagiarism. Analysis of specific acts of misconduct showed that committing plagiarism was inversely associated with years in research (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02); falsifying data was related to perceived low effectiveness of the institution’s rules and procedures for reducing scientific misconduct (X2 = 6.44, p-value = 0.01); and succumbing to pressure from study sponsor to engage in unethical practice was related to sex of researcher (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02). Conclusions The emergent data from this study is a cause for serious concern and calls for prompt intervention. The best response to reducing scientific misconduct will proceed from measures that contain both elements of prevention and enforcement. Training on research ethics has to be integrated into the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate students while provision should be made for in-service training of researchers. Penalties against acts of scientific misconduct should be enforced at institutional and national levels. PMID:22994914

  14. Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Siu Ling; Kwan, Jenny; Hodson, Derek; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2009-01-01

    Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research

  15. Scientific Research in Jordanian Higher Education Institutions: An Evaluation of the Status and Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Tareef, Atif

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…

  16. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  17. 77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  18. 78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and...

  19. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research

  20. 78 FR 68825 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing this notice to announce an open meeting of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board (SAB). The purpose of the meeting is to review new start research and development projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program funds in excess of $1 million over the proposed length of the......

  1. Scientific Applications of Optical Instruments to Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity is a unique environment for materials and biotechnology processing. Microgravity minimizes or eliminates some of the effects that occur in one g. This can lead to the production of new materials or crystal structures. It is important to understand the processes that create these new materials. Thus, experiments are designed so that optical data collection can take place during the formation of the material. This presentation will discuss scientific application of optical instruments at MSFC. These instruments include a near-field scanning optical microscope, a miniaturized holographic system, and a phase-shifting interferometer.

  2. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

  3. Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

  4. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  5. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  6. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A.; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants’ individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a “statistically significant” finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications. PMID:26553988

  7. Games as a Platform for Student Participation in Authentic Scientific Research

    E-print Network

    Magnussen, Rikke; Planke, Tilo; Sherson, Jacob Friis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if and how this type of game concept can strengthen authentic experimental practice and the creation of new knowledge in science education. Researchers and game developers tested the game in three separate high school classes. The tests were documented using video observations of students playing the game, qualitative interviews, and qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. The focus of the tests has been to study players motivation and their experience of learning through participation in authentic scientific inquiry. In questionnaires conducted in the two first test classes students found that the aspects of doing real scientific research and solving physics problem...

  8. The Past and Future of Research on Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Willenbring, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the treatment of alcoholism has gained significant ground over the past 40 years. Studies such as the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s Project MATCH, which examined the prospect of tailoring treatments for particular people to better suit their needs, and Project COMBINE, which examined in-depth, cognitive–behavioral therapy and medical management, helped pave the way for a new way of approaching alcoholism treatment. New findings garnered through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions further defined the problem. At the heart of this research has been the development of procedures to characterize, measure, and monitor the fidelity to a particular conceptual psychotherapeutic approach so that clear comparisons can be made between conceptually and technically distinct approaches. Advances in scientific methodology and statistics have provided tools to analyze complex datasets. The resulting findings mark an improvement over the first models of treatment developed decades ago, which tended to focus on anecdotal findings and assumptions. This hard-earned progress has enabled scientists today to move ahead and address the next set of challenges. Future research, coupled with a restructured treatment system capable of making new scientific findings rapidly available to the community, hold the key to significantly improving treatment outcomes and reducing suffering from alcohol-related disorders. PMID:23579936

  9. The past and future of research on treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Willenbring, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Research on the treatment of alcoholism has gained significant ground over the past 40 years. Studies such as the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Project MATCH, which examined the prospect of tailoring treatments for particular people to better suit their needs, and Project COMBINE, which examined in-depth, cognitive-behavioral therapy and medical management, helped pave the way for a new way of approaching alcoholism treatment. New findings garnered through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions further defined the problem. At the heart of this research has been the development of procedures to characterize, measure, and monitor the fidelity to a particular conceptual psychotherapeutic approach so that clear comparisons can be made between conceptually and technically distinct approaches. Advances in scientific methodology and statistics have provided tools to analyze complex datasets. The resulting findings mark an improvement over the first models of treatment developed decades ago, which tended to focus on anecdotal findings and assumptions. This hard-earned progress has enabled scientists today to move ahead and address the next set of challenges. Future research, coupled with a restructured treatment system capable of making new scientific findings rapidly available to the community, hold the key to significantly improving treatment outcomes and reducing suffering from alcohol-related disorders. PMID:23579936

  10. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  11. Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George

    1999-01-11

    A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

  12. Future challenges for intervention research in health and lifestyle research—A systematic meta-literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kristén, Lars; Ivarsson, Andreas; Parker, James; Ziegert, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this systematic meta-literature review was to (1) summarize the findings of review studies focusing on health determinants, (2) give an overview of intervention studies that have been used to facilitate health and lifestyle, and (3) provide recommendations for future studies in health promotion. A literature review, using a meta-method, was conducted to identify health and lifestyle research based on research articles related to health changes. The search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those, 11 studies focused on health determinants, whereas 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. Results from this meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) To increase the likelihood of capturing different biopsychosocial aspects of health, researchers from different scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation, and evaluation of the study. (2) It is recommended to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants in longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design. (3) Studies should involve behavioral interventions. (4) Design face-to-face intervention studies where the participant can interact with other persons. PMID:26282869

  13. C-IMAGE Teachers at Sea Maiden Voyages: Promoting Authentic Scientific Research in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, A. C.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Modeling & Analysis of Gulf Ecosystems (C-IMAGE) is one of eight consortia participating in the BP/Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. C-IMAGE is a comprehensive research consortium of 13 national and international universities tasked with evaluating the environmental impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) on coastal ecosystems, the water column and the sea floor. The associated C-IMAGE research cruises provide a unique opportunity for Florida's K12 science educators to participate in the data collection and collaboration process alongside marine scientists as a member of the scientific crew. The mission of the C-IMAGE cruises is to help to answer several fundamental questions about the DWH event and subsequent impacts on the plankton population, reef and fish communities and the microbial communities. Deep sea sediment samples, plankton and fishes collected during these expeditions are the data sources. Sampling activities include the use of the SIPPER plankton sampler, multi-core sediment system and long line surveys to assess fish health. While at sea teachers participate in the at sea research and serve as the ship to shore communicator via social media (FB, Twitter, daily blogs) and LIVE video conferencing with formal and informal classrooms. Marine scientists, post-docs and graduate students participating in the C-IMAGE cruises collaborate with the teacher on board to communicate the science, technology and life at sea experiences to educational and general audiences. Upon return to shore, teachers will translate their At Sea learning experience to understandable inquiry-based lessons about the science and technology encompassing the northern Gulf of Mexico ecology, the DWH event and subsequent impacts. Lessons developed from the cruises will inform a future series of C-IMAGE Teacher Professional Developments during Phase 2 of Outreach activities. The results from three Gulf of Mexico expeditions (Aug-Nov) will be presented: related to teachers' working knowledge of research and sampling procedures as well as metrics for the potential value-added of social media as a mechanism for communicating research with formal and informal audiences. C-IMAGE teachers will engage in research with experts in biological and chemical modeling, marine resource assessment, sedimentary geochemistry and toxicology. This research is made possible by a grant from BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. Contract #SA 12-10/GoMRI-007;

  14. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  15. Pineapple Nematode Research in Hawaii: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, E. P.; Apt, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The first written record of pineapple in Hawaii is from 1813. In 1901 commercial pineapple production started, and in 1924 the Experiment Station for pineapple research was established. Nematode-related problems were recognized in the early 1900s by N. A. Cobb. From 1920 to approximately 1945 nematode management in Hawaiian pineapple was based on fallowing and crop rotation. During the 1920s and 1930s G. H. Godfrey conducted research on pineapple nematode management. In the 1930s and 1940s M. B. Linford researched biological control and described several new species of nematodes including Rotylenchulus reniformis. In 1941 nematology and nematode management were advanced by Walter Carter's discovery of the first economical soil fumigant for nematodes, D-D mixture. Subsequently, DBCP was discovered and developed at the Pineapple Research Institute (PRI). Since 1945 soil fumigation has been the main nematode management strategy in Hawaiian pineapple production. Recent research has focused on the development of the nonvolatile nematicides, their potential as systemic nematicides, and their application via drip irrigation. Current and future research addresses biological and cultural alternatives to nematicide-based nematode management. PMID:19287592

  16. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Iranian ResearchersScientific Production in Dentistry Subfields

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchersscientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. Methods: This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. Results: 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P < 0. 0001). There was a significant difference between the mean number of published articles in the first ten- year (1993-2003) and that of the second one (2004-2013), in favor of the latter (P = 0. 001). Conclusions: The distribution frequencies of scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields. PMID:26635439

  18. Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  19. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  20. Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Universities and Colleges: 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; And Others

    This report, the third in a biennial series, provides a picture of the current situation and recent trends concerning the availability, cost, and condition of research space, capital spending, and sources of support for research facilities at universities and colleges. The survey data are based on both quantitative and qualitative assessments…

  1. Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Universities and Colleges: 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Academic research makes a key contribution to the viability and competitiveness of U.S. technology in the new global markets, as well as to the quality of life of citizens. This report provides a broad quantitative picture of the cost, availability, and the condition of existing research facilities. Data on current spending, sources of support,…

  2. Integrated research on mountain glaciers: Current status, priorities and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Thackray, Glenn; Anderson, Robert S.; Briner, Jason; Kaufman, Darrell; Roe, Gerard; Pfeffer, William; Yi, Chaolu

    2009-01-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive probes of the local climate, and, thus, they present an opportunity and a challenge to interpret climates of the past and to predict future changes. Furthermore, glaciers can constitute hazards, including: glacier outburst floods; changes in the magnitude and timing of runoff in the mountains and adjacent regions; and, through worldwide loss of glacier ice, a global rise in sea level. To understand and ultimately to predict the dynamics and nature of climate and associated glacial and hydrological changes requires an integrated approach with communication and collaboration among glaciologists, glacial geologists, atmospheric scientists, geomorphologists, geochronologists, and tectonists. Current strategies of research are evolving towards integrating research on mountain glaciers to address key scientific, socio-economic and political issues. Given the rapid birth and growth of new technologies and tools with which to study glaciers and glacial landscapes, this community stands poised to address many of these challenges in the near future. The key challenges that must be met soon include: 1) determining the spatial-temporal pattern of fluctuations of mountain glaciers from the last glacial cycle through the present; 2) relating historical and past fluctuations in glaciers to variability in the primary features of ocean-atmospheric circulation; 3) identifying important but poorly understood processes controlling the motion and erosion of glaciers; 4) developing and expanding the application of numerical models of glaciers; 5) modeling the evolution of mountain landscapes in the face of repeated glaciation; 6) examining the climate and the balance of energy and mass at the surface of glaciers; 7) characterizing the role of intrinsic climate variability on glacier variations; and 8) predicting the distribution, sizes, and nature of glaciers in the future. While these ambitious goals are achievable and the research tools exist, success will require significant bridging between the existing research communities involved and ambitious integration of research on mountain glaciers.

  3. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests. PMID:25901872

  4. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  5. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration. PMID:21799912

  6. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. PMID:24607673

  7. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

  8. Machine-Assisted Indexing of Scientific Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hunt, Bernard L.

    1975-01-01

    At the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, a computer system indexes word combinations in research summaries, according to a Classifying Dictionary, prior to review by the professional staff. (Author/PF)

  9. High Impact Atmospheric Research to Advance Scientific Understanding of

    E-print Network

    Delene, David J.

    Deck from Citation Research Aircraft August 30, 2012 #12;Societal Significance Approximately 77 percent) of data sets requires a great deal of time. Automatic Post-processing of Aircraft Flight Data Quick Review

  10. ASAS Centennial Paper: Future needs of research and extension in forage utilization.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, F M; Redmon, L A; Aiken, G E; Hill, G M; Sollenberger, L E; Andrae, J

    2009-01-01

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs in forage utilization, financial support for the discipline, and changing status and number of scientists. A survey questionnaire returned from 25 land-grant universities in the eastern half of the United States rated the top 4 research needs as 1) pasture systems and efficiency of production; 2) interfacing with energy concerns; 3) forage cultivar evaluations and persistence; and 4) environment impacts. Plant-animal future research needs at 11 USDA-ARS regional locations are targeted at sustainable management and improved livestock performance, ecophysiology and ecology of grasslands, environment impacts, and improved technologies for nutritive value assessments. Extension scientists from 17 southern and northeastern states listed the top 3 needs as forage persistence, soil fertility and nutrient management, and pasture systems and efficiency of production. Grant funds currently provide more than 40% of land-grant university research and extension efforts in forage utilization, and scientists estimate that this support base will increase to 55 to 60% of the funding total by 2013. Reduced allocation of state and federal funding has contributed to a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) scientists engaged in forage utilization research and extension activities. The current 25 state FTE conducting research number about 2.8 per state. This includes 10 states with >3, 11 states with <2, and 3 states with <1 FTE. Increased interest in cellulosic energy, climate change, and environmental impact may offer new opportunities for these FTE to participate in integrated cross-discipline research Extension programming, and technology transfer methods will change to accommodate reduced funding but with increasing numbers of novice, recreation-oriented landowners. PMID:18820155

  11. A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

    2014-02-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  12. Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

  13. A Classroom-Based Distributed Workflow Initiative for the Early Involvement of Undergraduate Students in Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish several scientific objectives. Students take part in a classroom-based, distributed workflow project that aims to produce high-quality data on the physical dimensions of chondrules, mm-sized spherules contained in primitive meteorites called chondrites. Such data are needed to test astrophysical models for processes acting in the early solar system. Student investigators process X-ray microtomography data with resources contained on portable USB flash drives distributed to them. Students are exposed to data collection, data quality evaluation, interpretation, and presentation of their results. Herein, an introduction to the scientific objectives is given along with an evolutionary history of the project. A description of the current implementation of the course is presented, and future directions are discussed. Anonymous student evaluations of the course are used to demonstrate the educational and engaging nature of the project. Finally, we reflect on the possible benefits of such a project for first- and second-year students within STEM disciplines.

  14. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, H? emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  15. Evaluating the Potential of NASA's Earth Science Research Results for Improving Future Operational Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, M. E.; Cox, E. L.; Friedl, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Theme is charged with implementing NASA Strategic Goal 3A to "study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." In the course of meeting this objective, NASA produces research results, such as scientific observatories, research models, advanced sensor and space system technology, data active archives and interoperability technology, high performance computing systems, and knowledge products. These research results have the potential to serve society beyond their intended purpose of answering pressing Earth system science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences Program systematically evaluates the potential of the portfolio of research results to serve society by conducting projects in partnership with regional/national scale operational partners with the statutory responsibility to inform decision makers. These projects address NASA's National Applications and the societal benefit areas under the IEOS and GEOSS. Prototyping methods are used in two ways in NASA's Applied Sciences Program. The first is part of the National Applications program element, referred to as Integrated Systems Solutions (ISS) projects. The approach for these projects is to use high fidelity prototypes to benchmark the assimilation of NASA research results into our partners' decision support systems. The outcome from ISS projects is a prototype system that has been rigorously tested with the partner to understand the scientific uncertainty and improved value of their modified system. In many cases, these completed prototypes are adopted or adapted for use by the operational partners. The second falls under the Crosscutting Solutions program element, referred to as Rapid Prototyping (RP) experiments. The approach for RP experiments is to use low fidelity prototypes that are low cost and quickly produced to evaluate the potential of the breadth of NASA research results to serve society. The outcome from the set of RP experiments is an evaluation of many and varied NASA research results for their potential to be candidates for further development as an ISS project. The intention is to seed the community with many creative ideas for projects that use "un-applied" NASA research results to serve society, such as simulations of future missions.

  16. Reconciling Scientific Curiosity and Policy Needs in Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    Young people generally choose a career in atmospheric chemistry because they care about the environment and want to make a difference. However, in the course of graduate training this initial motivation often becomes replaced by the more standard motivation of academic scientists: to understand the world (and get credit for it). We are taught during our Ph.D. that the more fundamental the research the better to earn the respect of our peers. And yet, in environmental research where funding is dominated by societal and policy demands, most of us have no choice but to follow this funding trail. This is not simple venality. Fortunately, most atmospheric chemists want to be societally relevant, we thrive on the spotlight thrown by society on atmospheric chemistry issues, and we are thankful that societal concerns are allowing our science to grow at a fast pace. It appears that the atmospheric chemistry community resolves its conflict between policy-driven vs. fundamental research by posting policy relevance as the canon for successful research, as the endpoint of useful work. The greatest glory then comes from picking up some fundamental knowledge along the way that provides bridges to other problems, and from uncovering new environmental problems that will require attention from policymakers. Sometimes we are frustrated, as when policymakers decide that research on our favorite problem is not needed anymore because there is now policy to address it. But of course we have to remember what got our research funded in the first place, lobby as we can, and move on. I will present, rather pretentiously, a few examples from my own research.

  17. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.

  18. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  19. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  20. The Influence of Scientific Research and Evaluation on Publishing Educational Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Marcy

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, scientific research to support development of curriculum materials or to demonstrate curricular efficacy was not required. NCLB transformed the development and publishing process for K-12 educational materials by prompting publishers to increase funding for experimentally based research on educational…

  1. 75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... teleconference meeting of the Spinal Cord Injury & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation... Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The Department... proposals and critiques. The purpose of the Board is to review rehabilitation research and...

  2. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to... collection designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research,...

  3. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to... collection designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research,...

  4. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to... collection designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research,...

  5. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to... collection designed to capture and land quantities of fish for product development, market research,...

  6. Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2009-01-01

    Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

  7. "Scientifically-Based Research": The Art of Politics and the Distortion of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The US Federal Government is forcefully prescribing a narrow definition of "scientifically-based" educational research. US policy, emerging from contemporary neoliberal and technocratic viewpoints and funded and propagated on a large scale, has the potential to influence international thinking on educational research. In this article we continue a…

  8. Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark C

    2008-12-01

    In this study, Barber's [(1961). Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134, 596-602] analysis of scientists' resistance to discoveries is examined in relation to an 18-year controversy between the dominant cognitive-behavioral paradigm or zeitgeist and its chief rival - eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in treating trauma-related disorders. Reasons for persistent opposition to training, utilization and research into an identified 'evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder' (EBT-PTSD) within US military and veterans' agencies closely parallels Barber's description of resistance based upon socio-cultural factors and scientific bias versus genuine scientific skepticism. The implications of sustained resistance to EMDR for combat veterans and other trauma sufferers are discussed. A unified or super-ordinate goal is offered to reverse negative trends impacting current and future mental healthcare of military personnel, veterans and other trauma survivors, and to bridge the scientific impasse. PMID:18950925

  9. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  10. Stem cell research: cloning, therapy and scientific fraud.

    PubMed

    Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E

    2006-10-01

    Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed. PMID:16965321

  11. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  12. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological

    E-print Network

    and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics DNSSEC Implementa not support SHA256 · FIPS 140-2 Level3 #12;Systemic Problems · .net is not signed · .org is signed ­Registrar) ­Well supported by most DNSSEC capable servers #12;Testing and debugging · Limited tools available

  13. [Scientific cooperation: limiting freedom of research by criminal law?].

    PubMed

    Dölling, D

    2000-09-01

    Even after the strengthening by the law of 1997, the German criminal law regarding corruption is no obstacle for cooperation between medical research and industry. The injustice of corruption is an irregular exchange between performing one's duty and benefits. According to this, an enterprise may give funds to a scientist for research purposes if no counter performance exceeding the research is associated with this. However, it makes a difference if the scientist has to show his appreciation by influencing economic decisions of the clinic in favor of the enterprise. In case of such an injustice, it is, under the new law, no longer important if the benefit is destined for the scientist himself or for another person or organization. Thus, it is in the interest of both research and industry to avoid the suspicion of corruption in the first place. A prerequisite for this is the strict observance of the legal and administrative regulations concerning projects financed by third-party funds. PMID:11077691

  14. Scientific and technical research activities report in industrial fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Activities in heavy construction and industrial research were reviewed. Foundry works, metal industry, and construction are discussed. Fabrication of mechanical and electrical devices as well as industrial automation and data processing are described. The use of plastics is also dealt with.

  15. The precautionary principle and scientific research are not antithetical.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, B D

    1999-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is intended to protect human health and the environment. To serve these goals effectively, precautionary action must be coupled with concurrent research to decide whether the action taken is in fact protective. Images pA594-a PMID:10585905

  16. Scientific Questions PMEL's Arctic Chemistry and Climate research

    E-print Network

    at almost twice the global average rate over the past 100 years (IPCC, 2007). Arctic warming is primarily a manifestation of global warming, such that reducing global-average warming will reduce Arctic warming of these pollutants in the accelerated warming of the Arctic? Linkages to NOAA's Strategic and Research Plans NOAA

  17. Online Mentoring to Induct Junior Researchers into Scientific Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Gurmit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design/methodology/approach: An…

  18. Workshops without Walls: Sharing Scientific Research through Educator Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K.; Asplund, S. E.; Cobb, W. H.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific discoveries, large and small, are constantly being made. Whether it is the discovery of a new species or a new comet, it is a challenge to keep up. The media provide some assistance in getting the word out about the discoveries, but not the details or the challenges of the discovery. Professional development is essential for science educators to keep them abreast of the fascinating discoveries that are occurring. The problem is that not every educator has the opportunity to attend a workshop on the most recent findings. NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Education and Public Outreach program has offered a series of multi-site professional development workshops that have taken place at four physical locations sites: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Arizona, as well as over the internet. All sites were linked via the Digital Learning Network, on which scientists and educator specialists shared information about their missions and activities. Participants interacted with speakers across the country to learn about Discovery and New Frontiers class missions. The third such annual workshop without walls, 'Challenge of Discovery,' was held on 9 April 2013. Educators from across the country delved into the stories behind some amazing NASA missions, from conception to science results. They learned how scientists, engineers, and mission operators collaborate to meet the challenges of complex missions to assure that science goals are met. As an example of science and engineering coming together, an Instrument Scientist and a Payload Operations Manager from the MESSENGER mission discussed the steps needed to observe Mercury's north polar region, gather data, and finally come to the conclusion that water ice is present in permanently shadowed areas inside polar impact craters. The participating educators were able to work with actual data and experience how the conclusion was reached. This example and others highlight the potential of such workshops to inform and engage educators.

  19. The Teachers' Research Self-Efficacy and Attitudes towards Scientific Research Based on Different Parameters: A Case Study of Agri Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop competencies of teachers, the coordination of the education, learning activities; in having access to innovations, developments and scientific studies in the literature. In addition, the purpose is to determine how teachers' scientific research self-efficacy and attitude towards the scientific research

  20. Preface: Joint Discussion JD7: Space-time reference systems for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Kaplan, G.; Klioner, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Discussion on Space-time reference systems for future research (JD7) was held at the XXVIIIth General Assembly of the IAU in Beijing, on 27-29 August 2012. It was organized by IAU Division I (Fundamental Astronomy), with the support of Division III (Planetary Systems Sciences), Division IX (Optical & Infrared Techniques), Division XI (Space & High Energy Astrophysics), and Division XII (Union-Wide Activities). The scientific organizing committee was composed of Nicole Capitaine (France; co-Chair), George H. Kaplan (USA), Sergei Klioner (Germany; co-Chair), Zoran Knezevic (Republic of Serbia), Dafydd Wyn Evans (UK), Dennis McCarthy (USA; co-Chair), Harald Schuh (Austria), Richard N. Manchester (Australia) and Gérard Petit (France).

  1. Science Research 4: Results of Implementation of Student-Facilitated Teacher Training and Student Mentorship Programs Promoting Original Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.; Aker, K.

    2014-12-01

    A high school curriculum allowing students previously involved in a 3-year Science Research Program to continue into a 4th year was developed in 2013 and implemented in 2014. The goals of this curriculum were to allow 3-year students to utilize their expertise in research methods and data acquisition technology to mentor both incoming research students and their teachers in the development and implementation of original scientific research. Student responsibilities involved the mentorship of both 8th Grade Honors Geoscience students and 9th grade Science Research students during the development and implementation of original research. Science Research 4 students also conducted teacher training sessions facilitating the use of electronic sensors and data acquisition devices in the classroom for general education and scientific research applications. The development, testing and presentation via teacher workshops, of the utilization of the Daily Inquiry method of promoting original scientific research in the middle school and high school classroom were also undertaken. Mentored students successfully completed and presented original research projects and teachers involved in training sessions reported increased and effective utilization of data acquisition technology and Daily Inquiry methods in the classroom.

  2. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research

  3. Social Scientific Research and Societal Practice: Action Research and Cultural-Historical Research in Methodological Light from Kurt Lewin and Lev S. Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2011-01-01

    The main interest is the relationship between social scientific research and societal practice, with specific attention on action research and cultural-historical research. To provide a productive way to engage with these research traditions, a historically-grounded, superordinate perspective is formulated that places practice in the centre. This…

  4. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  5. Finding paradigms for the future of alcoholism research: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E

    2001-09-01

    This is a review article and critique of current research strategies in the alcohol field. Although the alcohol field is proud of its multidisciplinary tradition and scientific findings within specific disciplines, there are very few models of cross-disciplinary research and communication. Currently, the favored model of risk is genetic; the favored model of pathophysiology is molecular neuroscience; and the favored model of clinical investigation is narrowly categorical. If there is a hierarchy within science that is based on explanatory power, then models of alcoholism emerging from neuroscience, molecular biology, and genetics should be able to accommodate (if not account for) the findings on clinical aspects of alcohol dependence, as well as data on differential risk, course, and recovery that come from the behavioral and social sciences. The first section of this article reviews the most popular models of alcohol dependence over the past 40 years. I argue that the currently fashionable categorical approach to diagnosis in DSM-IV (and ICD-10) has failed to serve as a framework for interdisciplinary research and has failed to meet the needs of human geneticists, population-based researchers, psychosocial researchers, basic scientists working in animal models, and patient-oriented researchers. I argue for a return to the dimensional approach to diagnosis in the alcohol dependence syndrome construct. In the second section of the article, I lay out an agenda for revitalized patient-oriented research in the alcohol field, as a bridge between basic biological research and innovations in clinical practice, as well as the key to a valid diagnostic system that can inform research strategies in genetics and population-based research. In the third section of the article, I highlight the interface between genetic and psychosocial models of risk and propose a possible structure for future collaboration. I conclude with a plea to funding agencies and investigators to translate discipline-based scientific findings into a science relevant to alcoholism by addressing the challenges and opportunities of an interdisciplinary research agenda on the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and the multidimensional sources of risk. PMID:11584161

  6. The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated. Finally, the size of the “media violence effect” is compared with some other well known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

  7. The impact of electronic media violence: scientific theory and research.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell

    2007-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer's part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the "media violence effect" is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

  8. The future is yours--Get ready! Career options in scientific and technical fields. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This 50 page brochure was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory to encourage high school students to begin considering careers in the scientific and technical fields. The topics of the brochure include career selection, career options, a review of training required for each occupation, a collection of profiles of BNL employees describing how they chose and prepared for their careers, a description of BNL educational programs for high school students, and profiles of some of the students participating in these programs.

  9. A web-based tool to engage stakeholders in informing research planning for future decisions on emerging materials.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina M; Grieger, Khara D; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Meacham, Connie A; Gurevich, Gerald; Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Money, Eric S; Lloyd, Jennifer M; Beaulieu, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Prioritizing and assessing risks associated with chemicals, industrial materials, or emerging technologies is a complex problem that benefits from the involvement of multiple stakeholder groups. For example, in the case of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), scientific uncertainties exist that hamper environmental, health, and safety (EHS) assessments. Therefore, alternative approaches to standard EHS assessment methods have gained increased attention. The objective of this paper is to describe the application of a web-based, interactive decision support tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in a pilot study on ENMs. The piloted tool implements U.S. EPA's comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach to prioritize research gaps. When pursued, such research priorities can result in data that subsequently improve the scientific robustness of risk assessments and inform future risk management decisions. Pilot results suggest that the tool was useful in facilitating multi-stakeholder prioritization of research gaps. Results also provide potential improvements for subsequent applications. The outcomes of future CEAWeb applications with larger stakeholder groups may inform the development of funding opportunities for emerging materials across the scientific community (e.g., National Science Foundation Science to Achieve Results [STAR] grants, National Institutes of Health Requests for Proposals). PMID:24176714

  10. Developing human capital for successful implementation of international marine scientific research projects.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R J; Zhang, J; Urban, E R; Hall, J; Ittekkot, V; Avril, B; Hu, L; Hong, G H; Kidwai, S; Lange, C B; Lobanov, V; Machiwa, J; San Diego-McGlone, M L; Oguz, T; Plumley, F G; Yeemin, T; Zhu, W; Zuo, F

    2013-12-15

    The oceans play a crucial role in the global environment and the sustainability of human populations, because of their involvement in climate regulation and provision of living and non-living resources to humans. Maintenance of healthy oceans in an era of increasing human pressure requires a high-level understanding of the processes occurring in the marine environment and the impacts of anthropogenic activities. Effective protection and sustainable resource management must be based, in part, on knowledge derived from successful research. Current marine research activities are being limited by a need for high-quality researchers capable of addressing critical issues in broad multidisciplinary research activities. This is particularly true for developing countries which will require the building of capacity for marine scientific research. This paper reviews the current activities aimed at increasing marine research capacity in developing and emerging countries and analyses the challenges faced, including: appropriate alignment of the research goals and societal and policy-relevant needs; training in multidisciplinary research; increasing capacity for overall synthesis of scientific data; building the capacity of technical staff; keeping highly qualified personnel in marine scientific research roles; cross-cultural issues in training; minimising duplication in training activities; improving linkages among human capital, project resources and infrastructure. Potential solutions to these challenges are provided, along with some priorities for action aimed at improving the overall research effort. PMID:24055460

  11. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  12. Scientific Research Database of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 5 years after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake stroke 70km away along the same fault system. Given the tremendous life loss and property damages as well as the short time and distance intervals between the two large magnitude events, the scientific probing into their causing factors and future seismic activities in the nearby region will continue to be in the center of earthquake research in China and even the world for years to come. In the past five years, scientists have made significant efforts to study the Wenchuan earthquake from various aspects using different datasets and methods. Their studies cover a variety of topics including seismogenic environment, earthquake precursors, rupture process, co-seismic phenomenon, hazard relief, reservoir induced seismicity and more. These studies have been published in numerous journals in Chinese, English and many other languages. In addition, 54 books regarding to this earthquake have been published. The extremely diversified nature of all publications makes it very difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible, to sort out information needed by individual researcher in an efficient way. An information platform that collects relevant scientific information and makes them accessible in various ways can be very handy. With this mission in mind, the Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology has developed a website www.wceq.org to attack this target: (1) articles published by major journals and books are recorded into a database. Researchers will be able to find articles by topics, journals, publication dates, authors and keywords e.t.c by a few clicks; (2) to fast track the latest developments, researchers can also follow upon updates in the current month, last 90days, 180 days and 365 days by clicking on corresponding links; (3) the modern communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter and their Chinese counterparts are accommodated in this site to share favorite research information with friends; (4) This site also serves as a bridge between readers and authors by providing messaging boards in many forms; (5) we also track relevant meeting presentations, ongoing researches as well as earthquake-related news; (6) furthermore, we also collect publications of earthquakes in the eastern Tibetan plateau and selected ones from other regions for comparison purpose. After nearly one year of operation, the database has been growing steadily with time and the major functionalities have been well developed and stabilized. Up to August 6 2013, totally 847 papers have been collected in our database. Among them 673, 21 and 153 papers are of Wenchuan, Lushan and Tohoko earthquake in interest, respectively. For the Wenchuan earthquake articles, nearly 10%, 20%, 25%,15%, 15% are of studies in seismogenic environment, precursors, rupture process, hazard relief and aftershocks & coseismic events, respectively. Built upon the ever growing database, the next move would be to do more analysis. One ongoing project would be to collect figures from articles that are of special interest to people in the field. A parallel project will also start to extend the database to include Tibetan Plateau studies.

  13. Internet Research: Implications for The Future of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenal growth in Internet usage, largely due to the success of the World Wide Web, has stressed the international networking infrastructure in ways that were never contemplated when the early ARPAnet emerged from research laboratories in the 1970s. Some of the challenges are logistical and legal, and have to do with management of domain names, intellectual-property agreements, and international business activities. Others are technical, resulting both because we are envisioning applications that the current Internet cannot support, and because the existing infrastructure cannot scale to a world in which a huge portion of the world's population is online and individual homes and businesses may have IP addresses for tens of electronic devices, such as appliances, heating systems, or security alarms. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the US research and testbed activities that are currently underway in an effort to respond to the technical challenges. These include the Internet-2 testbed created by a consortium of academic institutions, and the federal government's Next Generation Internet research initiative. I will explain the difference between these two programs and identify some of the technical requirements other than a simple increase in bandwidth that have been identified for the evolving Internet. This will lead to a discussion of the limitations of the current Internet that have constrained its use in health care and that accordingly help to define the networking research agenda that is of greatest importance to the biomedical community. Policy and regulatory issues that arise because of health care's use of the Internet will also be discussed, as will those technical requirements that may be unique to biomedical applications. One goal of the discussion will be to motivate an international discussion of the ways in which the medical informatics community should be engaged in both basic and applied research in the area of networking and the future of the Internet."

  14. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  15. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  16. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K. K.; Birch, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight among children has doubled within the past two decades. Increases in the rate of childhood overweight are of particular concern due to the negative health and psychological effects noted among overweight children. As shown by previous research, the development of childhood overweight involves a complex set of factors from multiple contexts that interact with each other to place a child at risk of overweight. This multifaceted system can be conceptualized using Ecological Systems Theory (EST). EST highlights the importance of considering the context(s), or ecological niche, in which a person is located in order to understand the emergence of a particular characteristic. In the case of a child, the ecological niche includes the family and the school, which are in turn embedded in larger social contexts including the community and society at large. In this review, EST is used as a framework with which to summarize research assessing predictors of childhood overweight. Specifically, child characteristics that place children at risk of the development of overweight (including dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour) will be reviewed while taking into consideration the influence of the familial environment, the school environment, and the community and larger social environments. It is concluded that future research needs to adopt a broader contextual approach in order to understand and intervene against the processes leading to the development of overweight among children and that the use of theories or paradigms such as EST will facilitate developing and testing models of causal processes. PMID:12120101

  17. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  18. Research in culture and psychology: past lessons and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Igor; Na, Jinkyung

    2014-01-01

    Since the dawn of psychology as a science, conceptual and methodological questions have accompanied research at the intersection of culture and psychology. We review some of these questions using two dominant concepts-independent versus interdependent social orientation and analytic versus holistic cognitive style. Studying the relationship between culture and psychology can be difficult due to sampling restrictions and response biases. Since these challenges have been mastered, a wealth of research has accumulated on how culture influences cognition, emotion, and the self. Building on this work, we outline a set of new challenges for culture and psychology. Such challenges include questions about conceptual clarity, within-cultural and subcultural variations (e.g., variations due to social class), differentiation and integration of processes at the group versus individual level of analysis, modeling of how cultural processes unfold over time, and integration of insights from etic and emic methodological approaches. We review emerging work addressing these challenges, proposing that future research on culture and psychology is more exciting than ever. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:1-14. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1267 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304293

  19. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  20. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  1. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  2. National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    The “h index” proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569–16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities. PMID:17991781

  3. A bright future for bioluminescent imaging in viral research

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Stewart M; McGregor, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as a powerful tool in the study of animal models of viral disease. BLI enables real-time in vivo study of viral infection, host immune response and the efficacy of intervention strategies. Substrate dependent light emitting luciferase enzyme when incorporated into a virus as a reporter gene enables detection of bioluminescence from infected cells using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera systems. Advantages of BLI include low background, real-time tracking of infection in the same animal and reduction in the requirement for larger animal numbers. Transgenic luciferase-tagged mice enable the use of pre-existing nontagged viruses in BLI studies. Continued development in luciferase reporter genes, substrates, transgenic animals and imaging systems will greatly enhance future BLI strategies in viral research. PMID:26413138

  4. Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Huete, Alfredo; Keller, Stephen; Levetin, Estelle; Luvall, Jeffrey; Meyers, Orrin; Stylinski, Cathlyn D.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Vukovic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

  5. Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, A. J.; Huete, A.; Keller, S.; Levetin, E.; Luvall, J.; Meyers, O.; Stylinski, C. D.; VandeWater, P.K.; Vukovic, A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Results/Conclusions Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

  6. International scientific optical network for space debris research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, I.; Agapov, V.; Titenko, V.; Khutorovsky, Z.; Burtsev, Yu.; Guseva, I.; Rumyantsev, V.; Ibrahimov, M.; Kornienko, G.; Erofeeva, A.; Biryukov, V.; Vlasjuk, V.; Kiladze, R.; Zalles, R.; Sukhov, P.; Inasaridze, R.; Abdullaeva, G.; Rychalsky, V.; Kouprianov, V.; Rusakov, O.; Litvinenko, E.; Filippov, E.

    A joint team of researchers under the auspices of the Center for Space Debris Information Collection, Processing and Analysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences collaborates with 15 observatories around the world to perform observations of space debris. For this purpose, 14 telescopes were equipped with charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, CCD frame processing and ephemeris computation software, with the support of the European and Russian grants. Many of the observation campaigns were carried out in collaboration with the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) team operating at the Zimmerwald observatory and conducting research for the European Space Agency (ESA), using the Tenerife/Teide telescope for searching and tracking of unknown objects in the geostationary region (GEO). More than 130,000 measurements of space objects along a GEO arc of 340.9°, collected and processed at Space Debris Data Base in the Ballistic Center of the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM) in 2005 2006, allowed us to find 288 GEO objects that are absent in the public orbital databases and to determine their orbital elements. Methods of discovering and tracking small space debris fragments at high orbits were developed and tested. About 40 of 150 detected unknown objects of magnitudes 15 20.5 were tracked during many months. A series of dedicated 22-cm telescopes with large field of view for GEO survey tasks is in process of construction. 7 60-cm telescopes will be modernized in 2007.

  7. Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica: a new SCAR Scientific Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. W. V.

    2010-11-01

    In July 2008 the IAU became a union member of the ICSU body SCAR—the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. At the same time, SCAR initiated a Planning Group to establish a Scientific Research Program in Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines.

  8. 2011 Report on Research Progress and Future Directions 1 The NIH Medical Research

    E-print Network

    Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institute of Child Health 2011 Report on Research Progress and Future Directions U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases #12;4 The NIH Medical

  9. Statement of Principles for Scientific Merit Review* Research funding agencies worldwide identify and support scientific research that creates new knowledge

    E-print Network

    Anné, Colette

    that government funding is appropriately expended on the most worthy projects to advance the progress of science and address societal challenges. The rapid growth of research and education capacity worldwide is enabling by reviewers and organizations involved in the review process. Integrity and Ethical Considerations Ethics

  10. A scientific role for Space Station Freedom: Research at the cellular level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Terry C.; Brady, John N.

    1993-01-01

    The scientific importance of Space Station Freedom is discussed in light of the valuable information that can be gained in cellular and developmental biology with regard to the microgravity environment on the cellular cytoskeleton, cellular responses to extracellular signal molecules, morphology, events associated with cell division, and cellular physiology. Examples of studies in basic cell biology, as well as their potential importance to concerns for future enabling strategies, are presented.

  11. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions. PMID:24944543

  12. An analysis of scientific self-efficacy as a benefit of summer research participation for underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Frances D.

    2011-12-01

    Low participation and performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields by U.S. citizens are widely recognized as major problems with substantial economic, political, and social ramifications. Studies of collegiate interventions designed to broaden participation in STEM fields suggest that participation in undergraduate research is a key program component that enhances such student outcomes as undergraduate GPA, graduation, persistence in a STEM major, and graduate school enrollment. However, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for these positive effects. The current study hypothesizes that undergraduate research participation increases scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. This hypothesis was tested using data obtained from a survey of minority students from several STEM intervention programs that offer undergraduate research opportunities. Students were surveyed both prior to and following the summer of 2010. Factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of participants' responses on scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency scales. Difference-in-difference analysis was then applied to the resulting factor score differences to estimate the relationship of summer research participation with scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. Factor analytic results replicate and further validate previous findings of a general scientific self-efficacy construct (Schultz, 2008). While the factor analytic results for the exploratory scientific research proficiency scale suggest that it was also a measureable construct, the factor structure was not generalizable over time. Potential reasons for the lack of generalizability validity for the scientific research proficiency scale are explored and recommendations for emerging scales are provided. Recent restructuring attempts within federal science agencies threaten the future of STEM intervention programs. Causal estimates of the effect of undergraduate research participation on specific and measurable benefits can play an important role in ensuring the sustainability of STEM intervention programs. Obtaining such estimates requires additional studies that, inter alia, incorporate adequate sample sizes, valid measurement scales, and the ability to account for unobserved variables. Political strategies, such as compromise, can also play an important role in ensuring the sustainability of STEM intervention programs.

  13. eCAT: Online electronic lab notebook for scientific research

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background eCAT is an electronic lab notebook (ELN) developed by Axiope Limited. It is the first online ELN, the first ELN to be developed in close collaboration with lab scientists, and the first ELN to be targeted at researchers in non-commercial institutions. eCAT was developed in response to feedback from users of a predecessor product. By late 2006 the basic concept had been clarified: a highly scalable web-based collaboration tool that possessed the basic capabilities of commercial ELNs, i.e. a permissions system, controlled sharing, an audit trail, electronic signature and search, and a front end that looked like the electronic counterpart to a paper notebook. Results During the development of the beta version feedback was incorporated from many groups including the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital Boston, Alex Swarbrick's lab at the Garvan Institute in Sydney and Martin Spitaler at Imperial College. More than 100 individuals and groups worldwide then participated in the beta testing between September 2008 and June 2009. The generally positive response is reflected in the following quote about how one lab is making use of eCAT: "Everyone uses it as an electronic notebook, so they can compile the diverse collections of data that we generate as biologists, such as images and spreadsheets. We use to it to take minutes of meetings. We also use it to manage our common stocks of antibodies, plasmids and so on. Finally, perhaps the most important feature for us is the ability to link records, reagents and experiments." Conclusion By developing eCAT in close collaboration with lab scientists, Axiope has come up with a practical and easy-to-use product that meets the need of scientists to manage, store and share data online. eCAT is already being perceived as a product that labs can continue to use as their data management and sharing grows in scale and complexity. PMID:20334629

  14. A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Gharghabi, Fardad; Coleman, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Health game research has flourished over the last decade. The number of peer-reviewed scientific publications has surged as the clinical application of health games has diversified. In response to this growth, several past literature reviews have assessed the effectiveness of health games in specific clinical subdomains. The past literature reviews, however, have not provided a general scope of health games independent of clinical context. The present systematic review identified 149 publications. All sources were published before 2011 in a peer-reviewed venue. To be included in this review, publications were required (1) to be an original research, (2) to focus on health, (3) to utilize a sound research design, (4) to report quantitative health outcomes, and (5) to target healthcare receivers. Initial findings showed certain trends in health game publications: Focus on younger male demographics, relatively low number of study participants, increased number of controlled trials, short duration of intervention periods, short duration and frequency of user–game interaction, dominance of exercise and rehab games, lack of underlying theoretical frameworks, and concentration on clinical contexts such as physical activity and nutrition. The review concludes that future research should (1) widen the demographics to include females and elderly, (2) increase the number of participants in controlled trials, (3) lengthen both the intervention period and user–game interaction duration, and (4) expand the application of health games in new clinical contexts. PMID:24416638

  15. Scientific and practical tools for dealing with water resource estimations for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Future flow regimes will be different to today and imperfect knowledge of present and future climate variations, rainfall-runoff processes and anthropogenic impacts make them highly uncertain. Future water resources decisions will rely on practical and appropriate simulation tools that are sensitive to changes, can assimilate different types of change information and flexible enough to accommodate improvements in understanding of change. They need to include representations of uncertainty and generate information appropriate for uncertain decision-making. This paper presents some examples of the tools that have been developed to address these issues in the southern Africa region. The examples include uncertainty in present day simulations due to lack of understanding and data, using climate change projection data from multiple climate models and future catchment responses due to both climate and development effects. The conclusions are that the tools and models are largely available and what we need is more reliable forcing and model evlaution information as well as methods of making decisions with such inevitably uncertain information.

  16. Scientific and Ethical Reflections on Academic Corruption in Universities: On the Science Research Evaluation System in China's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaochun, Wu; Dan, Jia

    2007-01-01

    A study of the science research activities in China's institutions of higher learning in recent years indicates that there is a major connection between the current instances of corruption in scientific research at colleges and universities and the evaluations system for scientific research implemented at many of the colleges and universities.…

  17. Special issue on mercury in Canada's North: summary and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Chételat, John; Braune, Birgit; Stow, Jason; Tomlinson, Scott

    2015-03-15

    Important scientific advances have been made over the last decade in identifying the environmental fate of mercury and the processes that control its cycling in the Canadian Arctic. This special issue includes a series of six detailed reviews that summarize the main findings of a scientific assessment undertaken by the Government of Canada's Northern Contaminants Program. It was the first assessment to focus exclusively on mercury pollution in the Canadian Arctic. Key findings, as detailed in the reviews, relate to sources and long-range transport of mercury to the Canadian Arctic, its cycling within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments, and its bioaccumulation in, and effects on, the biota that live there. While these accomplishments are significant, the complex nature of the mercury cycle continues to provide challenges in characterizing and quantifying the relationships of mercury sources and transport processes with mercury levels in biota and biological effects of mercury exposure. Of particular concern are large uncertainties in our understanding of the processes that are contributing to increasing mercury concentrations in some Arctic fish and wildlife. Specific recommendations are provided for future research and monitoring of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic mercury emissions, influences of climate change, and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies for mercury in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:25669603

  18. Principles of scientific research team formation and evolution

    E-print Network

    Milojevi?, Staša

    2014-01-01

    Research teams are the fundamental social unit of science, and yet there is currently no model that describes their basic property: size. In most fields teams have grown significantly in recent decades. We show that this is partly due to the change in the character of team-size distribution. We explain these changes with a comprehensive yet straightforward model of how teams of different sizes emerge and grow. This model accurately reproduces the evolution of empirical team-size distribution over the period of 50 years. The modeling reveals that there are two modes of knowledge production. The first and more fundamental mode employs relatively small, core teams. Core teams form by a Poisson process and produce a Poisson distribution of team sizes in which larger teams are exceedingly rare. The second mode employs extended teams, which started as core teams, but subsequently accumulated new members proportional to the past productivity of their members. Given time, this mode gives rise to a power-law tail of l...

  19. Abortion politics, scientific research and access to services.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Republican-dominated 104th Congress will likely revisit some of the issues of the abortion debates of the 1980s. The Hyde Amendment, which restricts federal funding of abortions, will likely be tightened, and other recently repealed abortion funding restrictions may be reinstated, such as the ban on abortion coverage for employees and dependents in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan. Abortion politics may be used to reinstitute a ban on fetal tissue transplantation research and to interfere with US Food and Drug Administration approval of RU-486. The recently-passed Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act may be weakened by reducing the penalties for action against abortion clinics. Anti-abortion activists will also be able to influence abortion policy through appropriations bills. It is unclear how far the social conservatives will be allowed to go in this direction by the Republican party leadership and the President. It is doubtful, however, that the public will allow changes in FACE, and family planning still enjoys widespread public support. Any serious debate about helping women avoid out-of-wedlock and unwanted births while receiving welfare must grapple with the issue of access to family planning and abortion services. PMID:12288096

  20. Scientific Needs for Future X-Ray Sources in the U.S.: A White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone , Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Robert Hettel, Zahid Hussain; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Fernando Sannibale, John Seeman; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Robert; Zholents, Alexander; /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-10-22

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects (Figure 1.1). The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons, and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.