These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

CERN openlab Whitepaper on Future IT Challenges in Scientific Research  

E-print Network

This whitepaper describes the major IT challenges in scientific research at CERN and several other European and international research laboratories and projects. Each challenge is exemplified through a set of concrete use cases drawn from the requirements of large-scale scientific programs. The paper is based on contributions from many researchers and IT experts of the participating laboratories and also input from the existing CERN openlab industrial sponsors. The views expressed in this document are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates.

Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew

2014-01-01

2

Beyond 2013 - The Future of European Scientific Drilling Research - An introduction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them with the expected framework (available drilling platforms and anticipated funding levels). The key items that should be addressed during the EGU Session and the workshop will especially include : (1) The future of ECORD (science, technology, management). (2) New research initiatives and emerging fields in scientific drilling (3) Relationships between IODP and other programs (e.g. ICDP, IMAGES etc). (4) Collaboration between academia and industry. (5) New technologies and the Mission Specific Platform approach.

Camoin, G.; Stein, R.

2009-04-01

3

Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

Strawn, George O.

2012-01-01

4

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

5

Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.  

PubMed

Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

2013-08-01

6

Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

2013-01-01

7

Students' Research-Informed Socio-Scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on "socio-scientific issues"; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with…

Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

2012-01-01

8

Future Influence Ranking of Scientific Literature  

E-print Network

Researchers or students entering a emerging research area are particularly interested in what newly published papers will be most cited and which young researchers will become influential in the future, so that they can catch the most recent advances and find valuable research directions. However, predicting the future importance of scientific articles and authors is challenging due to the dynamic nature of literature networks and evolving research topics. Different from most previous studies aiming to rank the current importance of literatures and authors, we focus on \\emph{ranking the future popularity of new publications and young researchers} by proposing a unified ranking model to combine various available information. Specifically, we first propose to extract two kinds of text features, words and words co-occurrence to characterize innovative papers and authors. Then, instead of using static and un-weighted graphs, we construct time-aware weighted graphs to distinguish the various importance of links es...

Wang, Senzhang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Zhoujun; Yu, Philip S; Shu, Xinyu

2014-01-01

9

Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.  

PubMed

New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

2014-06-01

10

Is psychiatric research scientific?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that asking whether psychiatric research can be scientific is a reasonable question to ask and that the answer matters. In this chapter I contest both these claims. I start by arguing that the search for a 'demarcation criterion' that would distinguish science from non-science has failed. I then defend the claim that 'science' is best considered

Rachel Cooper

2009-01-01

11

Scientifically Based Research. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest describes the nature and implications of scientifically based research (SBR). SBR grew out of the No Child Left Behind act of 2001, which stipulates that federally funded programs and practices must be grounded in scientifically based research. Scientifically based research is defined here as "persuasive research that empirically…

Beghetto, Ron

12

Advancing Scientific Research in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The title of this report reveals its purpose precisely: to spur actions that will advance scientific research in education. The recommendations for accomplishing this goal, detailed in this report, build on the National Research Council (NRC) report "Scientific Research in Education" (National Research Council, 2002). That report offers an…

Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

2005-01-01

13

[The future of scientific libraries].  

PubMed

"Making predictions is always very difficult, especially about the future". Niels Bohr's quote is very appropriate when looking into the future of libraries. If the Web is now the richest library in the world, it is also the most friendly and therefore the most convenient. The evolution of libraries in the coming years - both traditional and online - will probably depend on their ability to meet the information needs of users: improved ease of use and better reliability of the information. These are objectives that require money and - given the general reduction in budgets - it is not obvious that the results will be achieved. However, there are many promising experiences at the international level that show that the world of libraries is populated by projects and creativity. Traditional or digital, libraries will increasingly present themselves more as a sharing tool than as a repository of information: it is the sharing that translates data into knowledge. In the healthcare field, the integration of online libraries with the epidemiological information systems could favor the fulfillment of unconscious information needs of health personnel; libraries will therefore be a key tool for an integrated answer to the challenge of continuing education in medicine. The Internet is no longer a library but an information ecosystem where the data are transformed into knowledge by sharing and discussion. PMID:24326701

De Fiore, Luca

2013-10-01

14

Kroeze et al.: Future Trends in N Transport by Rivers TheScientificWorld (2001) 1 Research Article  

E-print Network

of expected future trends indicate that riverine DIN export and aquatic N2O emissions may increase Article Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Production and Environmental Protection nitrogen (DIN) export by world rivers and associated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). Our scenarios either

Seitzinger, Sybil

2001-01-01

15

Aesthetic Concepts and Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Architecture uses both aesthetic and scientific research concepts in developing of modern advances. The program at the University of Sydney is discussed in terms of its uses of physical models, environmental studies, energy studies, and mathematical models and is presented as a model for relating the aesthetic and scientific. (JMF)

Cowan, Henry

1979-01-01

16

International scientific cooperation: past and future.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article addresses some non-scientific, yet no less significant, aspects of international cooperation in science, focuses on the social responsibility of the scientists engaged in cooperative research, and relates this to Marcel Nicolet's role in and contributions to international programs.

Roederer, J. G.

1987-09-01

17

Government Funding of Scientific Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a working paper from the National Science Board at the National Science Foundation. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section defines the terms "research" and "development." The second section goes on to provide justification for scientific research and the third and fourth sections provide recommendations for coordinating federally financed research and for setting priorities for federal science projects.

1997-01-01

18

Research Center for Future Strategy  

E-print Network

#12;04 05 06 08 26 CONTENTS #12;38 40 72 78 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;8 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 9 #12;10 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 11 #12;12 KAIST Research

Hong, Soon Hyung

19

Future of acidification research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidification is not a simple process operating separately from other geochemical, biochemical and biological processes. It is a part of an extremely complex ecological development of our nature influenced by energy-hungry ever growing human population. Acidification as a general biogeochemical process will be implicitly studied in most of the future ecological research projects dealing with global climate changes and land

T. Paces

1995-01-01

20

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is charged with â??initiating, developing and coordinating high quality international scientific research in the Antarctic regionâ?ť. Given their mission, first-time users will not be surprised to find a number of high-quality resources in their publications area, including complete runs of their bulletins, reports, and topical articles, which address such areas as sea-level changes and climate transformation. For those interested in the governance of the region, there is a separate section dedicated to providing information about the Antarctic Treaty. For more general information, visitors would do well to look at the Antarctic Information section, which provides maps of the region, along with some basic statistics and details about the summer and winter research stations operated by various scientific institutes.

21

Tunisian women in scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of Tunisian women conducting scientific research is comparable to that of countries where educating girls has been going on much longer. Although women play an increasingly important role in the field of research, they rarely hold positions of responsibility. Enormous similarities exist between the degree of integration of Tunisian women in science and technology and that of developed countries. Since independence and the removal of discrimination between girls and boys, Tunisian women have been catching up very quickly.

Jaziri, Sihem

2013-03-01

22

Developing Intuition: The Key to Creative Futures Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Futures research involves speculation about alternative developments based upon existing data and potential choices. Effective futures research requires creativity in scientific practice rather than an overemphasis on reason. In discussing the important role of intuition in futures research, characteristics of creative scientists are reviewed and…

Southern, Stephen; Domzalski, Suzanne

23

Clinical Research: Assessing the Future in a Changing Environment; Summary Report of Conference Sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996 1 1 Summary report of conference sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about funding of clinical research underlie all other problems identified at the Council on Scientific Affairs conference. Future National Institutes of Health (NIH) budgets are likely to be constant at best, and the general public expects cost containment to be an ongoing goal; this is exacerbated by the impending Medicare Trust Fund crisis. Meanwhile, traditional financial support of clinical

Marsha Meyer; Myron Genel; Roy D. Altman; Michael A. Williams; James R. Allen

1998-01-01

24

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

2011-10-01

25

[On freedom of scientific research].  

PubMed

Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods. PMID:23923630

Folkers, G

2013-07-01

26

Research Into Educational Futures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles examines the subject of educational futures, including discussions of the relevance of the topic to the training of teachers and librarians. Three games for future forecasting (SCIFI, AFAR and FAR) and a mini-delphi technique are included. A scheme for viewing alternative futures in Educational Technology through the use of…

Spitzer, Dean R.

27

CIRS: International Center for Scientific Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Center for Scientific Research created this website to provide the public across the globe with access to scientific information. Users can learn about the latest news in physics, astronomy, geology, and other scientific fields. The site features links to researchers and scientific organizations in 222 countries. Visitors can search for links by topic and name. The site features information on the latest awards given to top scientists. Users can also find out about the countless science journals and books.

28

Current Scientific Progress and Future Scientific Prospects Enabled by Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First, we examine current scientific progress and understanding that have been possible through use of spaceborne precipitation radar measurements being provided by the TRMM and CloudSat satellites. Second, we look across a future 20-year time frame to assess how and why anticipated improvements in space radar systems will further advance scientific progress into topic areas once considered beyond the realm of space-based remote sensing. JAXA's 13.8 GHz Ku-band cross-track scanning Precipitation Radar (PR) developed for flight on NASA's non-sun-synchronous, diurnally-precessing TRMM satellite, was the first Earth radar flown in space that was designed specifically for precipitation measurement. Its proven accuracy in measuring global rainfall in the tropics and sub-tropics and its unanticipated longevity in continuing these measurements beyond a full decade have established the standards against which all follow-up and future space radars will be evaluated. In regards to the current PR measurement time series, we will discuss a selection of major scientific discoveries and impacts which have set the stage for future radar measuring systems. In fact, the 2nd contemporary space radar applicable for terrestrial precipitation measurement, i.e., JPL-CSA's 94 GHz nadir-staring Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) flown on NASA's sun-synchronous CloudSat satellite, although designed primarily for measurement of non-precipitating cloud hydrometeors and aerosols, has also unquestionably advanced precipitation measurement because CPR's higher frequency and greatly increased sensitivity (approximately 30 dBZ) has enabled global observations of light rain rate spectrum processes (i.e., rain rates below 0.05 mm per hourand of precipitation processes in the high troposphere (particularly ice phase processes). These processes are beyond reach of the TRMM radar because the PR sensitivity limit is approximately 17 dBZ which means its lower rain rate cutoff is around 0.3 mm per hour and its vertical profiling acuity is greatly limited above the melting layer. Thus, the newer CPR measurements have become important for a variety of scientific reasons that will be highlighted and assessed. In considering scientific progress likely to stem from future precipitation radar systems, we will specifically examine possible scientific impacts from three anticipated missions for which NASA and various of its space agency partners are expected to lead the way. These three missions are: (1) the nearterm Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission; (2) the decadal timeline Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (ACE) Mission; and the post-decadal timeline NEXRAD in Space (NIS) Mission. The observational capabilities of the planned radar systems for each of these three satellite missions are distinct from each other and each provides progressive improvements in precipitation measuring and scientific research capabilities relative to where we are now -- insofar as TRMM PR and the CloudSat CPR capabilities. The potential innovations in scientific research will be discussed in a framework of likely synergisms between next-generation radar capabilities and accessible dynamical and microphysical properties that have heretofore evaded detection.

Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Yang, Song

2008-01-01

29

Mathematical Sciences Scientific Computing Research Environments (SCREMS)  

E-print Network

Mathematical Sciences Scientific Computing Research Environments (SCREMS) Project Summary Description 1. Overview, and Abstracts of Individual Research Projects Continuing advances in computer in research in computational mathematics, notably geometry (GANG1 ) and applied mathematics. In recent years

Sottile, Frank

30

Scientific Computation Survey of Research Interests  

E-print Network

Scientific Computation Survey of Research Interests TO THE APPLICANT: Complete this form and return to the Scientific Computation Program at the address listed below. Full Name _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number and Street City State Zip Country Applying for admission to the Scientific Computation Program

Thomas, David D.

31

Suppression of scientific research: bahramdipity and nulltiple scientific discoveries.  

PubMed

The fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip can be taken to be allegorical of not only chance discovery (serendipity) but of other aspects of scientific discovery as well. Just as Horace Walpole coined serendipity, so can the term bahramdipity be derived from the tale and defined as the cruel suppression of a serendipitous discovery. Suppressed, unpublished discoveries are designated nulltiples. Several examples are presented to make the case that bahramdipity is an existent aspect of scientific discovery. Other examples of non-ideal scientific research and discovery are provided in order to contrast and clarify the meaning and use of bahramdipity. Additional allegories of scientific discovery are taken from the tale and a hope for the strengthening of scientific integrity is expressed. PMID:11214387

Sommer, T J

2001-01-01

32

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

Vermeir, Koen

2013-01-01

33

How Scientific Illiteracy Threatens Our Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of Americans do not see the ways in which science holds relevance in their lives, and too many scientists are unable to explain why our work matters. Meanwhile, partisan politics, a new media environment, and religious ideologies have magnified the growing rift between science and mainstream American culture. Science should be a value shared by all, but it will take far more than political will to bridge what C.P. Snow once described as a ``vast gulf of mutual incomprehension'' between scientists and everyone else. The scientific community must find new ways of reaching out or we will fail to influence the public, inform the decision-making process, and rise to meet the greatest challenges of the 21st century.

Kirshenbaum, Sheril

2010-03-01

34

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fishing during the scientific research cruise and in accordance with the applicable...research are requested to submit a copy of any cruise report or other publication created as a result of the cruise, including the amount,...

2012-10-01

35

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...fishing during the scientific research cruise and in accordance with the applicable...research are requested to submit a copy of any cruise report or other publication created as a result of the cruise, including the amount,...

2014-10-01

36

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fishing during the scientific research cruise and in accordance with the applicable...research are requested to submit a copy of any cruise report or other publication created as a result of the cruise, including the amount,...

2011-10-01

37

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fishing during the scientific research cruise and in accordance with the applicable...research are requested to submit a copy of any cruise report or other publication created as a result of the cruise, including the amount,...

2013-10-01

38

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fishing during the scientific research cruise and in accordance with the applicable...research are requested to submit a copy of any cruise report or other publication created as a result of the cruise, including the amount,...

2010-10-01

39

Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1886, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society is a non-profit membership society of nearly 65,000 scientists and engineers who were elected to the Society because of their research achievements or potential.

40

The Future of Research Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that research universities are a vital component of higher education in the United States because they provide cultural and intellectual leadership, research potential, and the professional and technical human resources to translate research into social, industrial, and economic action. The future of these institutions in view of…

Brooks, Norward J.

41

The research programme Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

that focus the sustainable use of natural resources with emphasis on agricultural production and land useThe research programme Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use Welcome to a lunch.slu.se/futureagriculture For questions, please contact KatarinaVrede (katarina.vrede@slu.se) About Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops

42

Bladder pacemaker: scientific basis and clinical future.  

PubMed

Complete intermittent emptying of the denervated bladder is essential to maintain the integrity of the urinary tract. Intraspinal extradural segments of the sacral roots in the canine can be stimulated electrically to induce bladder emptying effectively, especially in conjunction with selective neurotomy to make the stimulus pure autonomic effect on the bladder wall itself. With varying parameters of stimulation, one also can induce sustained voluntary sphincter activity to maintain continence--which obviates the problem of skeletal muscle fatigue. Combination of the two--detrusor stimulation for emptying and sphincteric stimulation to achieve control--are the first steps toward utilization of an electronic bladder pacemaker in the presence of an intact reflex arc. Its use in humans will be possible in the near future. PMID:7179629

Tanagho, E A; Schmidt, R A

1982-12-01

43

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2006 Accomplishment High Performance collections of scientific data. In recent years, much of the work in computer and computational science has problem. It is generally accepted that as sciences move into the tera- and peta-scale regimes that one

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

44

Scientific Research in Education: A Socratic Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socrates and Admetus discuss the value of scientific research in education. They conclude that although RCTs have their place, they are not a panacea for education, and that the push for them by NCLB is not warranted.

Boody, Robert M.

2011-01-01

45

FCHERBERGREIFENDES QUALIFIKATIONSPROGRAMM SCIENTIFIC WRITING AND PUBLISHING RESEARCH  

E-print Network

FĂ?CHERĂ?BERGREIFENDES QUALIFIKATIONSPROGRAMM SCIENTIFIC WRITING AND PUBLISHING RESEARCH WORKSHOP. Mai 2008, Talstr. 33, Konferenzraum, 04103 Leipzig statt. ZIELE/ AIMS: The ,,writing up" stage, when nowadays the publication in English journals is unavoidable and unquestionably essential

SchĂĽler, Axel

46

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...300.104 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures issued pursuant to the...

2013-10-01

47

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center  

E-print Network

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) Visualization Tools and Techniques for interactive 2D and 3D visualization · 3D ­ CEI Ensight, IDL, AVS, AVS/Express. · 2D ­ Gnuplot, IDL, grace

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

48

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center  

E-print Network

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) Science Driven Analytics Wes Bethel research. ­ Compare simulation with experiment. ­ Need analysis in regions defined by data at 100s TB per year; needs to be stored and analyzed; workflow serves a community of over 80 researchers

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

49

DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research  

E-print Network

, multicore-computing future and data-intensive science. Provide technological innovations for U-performance networking · Large Scientific Data · Applied math, computer science, SciDAC ­ Tools, libraries, software with NNSA · "All-in" approach: hardware, software, applications, large data, underpinning applied math

50

Research Needs and Future Directions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

51

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSIRO, an Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, is one of the world's largest and most diverse scientific research institutions. Spanning science and technology, CSIRO research projects cover an immense area, from Atmospheric Chemistry and Agriculture through Zoology. CSIRO's metasite organizes research activities by subject area and, within each area, by a host of subcategories (Information Sheets, What We Do, Recent Achievements, Media Releases, Scientific Contacts, and more). To find subject-specific materials, follow links from the broadest category (try several) to the most narrow; a helpful feature is that links to related sites are often provided in addition to links to CSIRO-specific sites. Educators and researchers will be rewarded with useful and current information here, although finding it may require some navigational patience and creativity.

52

Future Directions for Federal Research Funding  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................86 Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Kansas Medical Center The Status of Researchi Future Directions for Federal Research Funding Merrill Series on The Research Cells: Current Challenges and Future Promise First panel of research administrators Prem Paul

53

Taking steps to increase the trustworthiness of scientific research.  

PubMed

To enjoy the public's trust, the research community must first be clear about what it is expected to do and then avoid the incidents that prevent it from meeting those expectations. Among other things, there are expectations that published scientific results will be reliable, that research has the potential to contribute to the common good, and that research will be conducted ethically. Consequently, the scientific community needs to avoid lapses that prevent it from meeting these three expectations. This requires a strong commitment to trustworthy research practices, as well as mechanisms that diminish lapses that inevitably occur in complex endeavors such as scientific research. The author presents a model to assess the strength of commitment to trustworthy research and explores proven quality assurance mechanisms that can diminish lapses in research injurious to the public's trust. Some mechanisms identify in advance ways that things can go wrong so that steps can be taken to prevent them from going wrong in the first place. Other mechanisms investigate past errors or near misses to discover their causes so that they can be addressed to avoid similar future instances. The author explains why such methods are useful to efforts to promote research worthy of the public's trust.-Yarborough, M. Taking steps to increase the trustworthiness of scientific research. PMID:24928193

Yarborough, Mark

2014-06-13

54

Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).  

PubMed

These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

2014-09-01

55

Scientific Culture and Educational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires federal grantees to use their funds on evidence-based strategies. The law includes definitions of research quality, which are also featured prominently in the administration’s strategic plan and in draft language for the re-authorization of the U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. These initiatives pose a rare opportunity and formidable challenge

Michael J. Feuer; Lisa Towne; Richard J. Shavelson

2002-01-01

56

The culture of scientific research  

PubMed Central

In 2014, the UK-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics carried out a series of engagement activities, including an online survey to which 970 people responded, and 15 discussion events at universities around the UK to explore the culture of research in the UK and its effect on ethical conduct in science and the quality of research. The findings of the project were published in December 2014 and the main points are summarised here. We found that scientists are motivated in their work to find out more about the world and to benefit society, and that they believe collaboration, multidisciplinarity, openness and creativity are important for the production of high quality science. However, in some cases, our findings suggest, the culture of research in higher education institutions does not support or encourage these goals or activities. For example, high levels of competition and perceptions about how scientists are assessed for jobs and funding are reportedly contributing to a loss of creativity in science, less collaboration and poor research practices. The project led to suggestions for action for funding bodies, research institutions, publishers and editors, professional bodies and individual researchers.

Joynson, Catherine; Leyser, Ottoline

2015-01-01

57

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2006 Accomplishment HDF5-FastQuery: An API for Simplifying Access to Data Storage, Retrieval, Indexing and Querying E. Wes Bethel* , Luke focuses on research and development activities that bridge a gap between fundamental data management

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

58

Ethical Virtues in Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane’s defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity. PMID:23074991

Resnik, David B.

2012-01-01

59

Cost Engineering for manufacturing: Current and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this article include Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk and Uncertainty management and Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the Academic Forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review

Y. Xu; F. Elgh; J. A. Erkoyuncu; O. Bankole; Y. Goh; W. M. Cheung; P. Baguley; Q. Wang; P. Arundachawat; E. Shehab; L. Newnes; R. Roy

2012-01-01

60

Cost Engineering for manufacturing: Current and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this article include Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk and Uncertainty management and Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the Academic Forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review

Y. Xu; F. Elgh; J. A. Erkoyuncu; O. Bankole; Y. Goh; W. M. Cheung; P. Baguley; Q. Wang; P. Arundachawat; E. Shehab; L. Newnes; R. Roy

2011-01-01

61

Crime and punishment in scientific research  

E-print Network

Arguments against scientific misconduct one finds in the literature generally fail to support current policies on research fraud: they may not prove wrong what is typically considered research misconduct and they tend to make wrong things that are not usually seen as scientific fraud, in particular honest errors. I argue that society cannot set a rule enjoining scientists to be honest, so any such rule can only be internal to science. Therefore society cannot legitimately enforce it. Moreover, until an argument is provided to prove that lack of honesty is far worse than lack of technical competence, intentional deceit should not be punished much more harshly than technical errors. Keywords: cheating; ethics; fabrication; falsification; integrity; plagiarism; research fraud; scientific misconduct.

Bouville, Mathieu

2008-01-01

62

Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ? 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which could fly for over 20 hours over the ice pack or over the Antarctic continent could measure the horizontal and vertical extent of the ice sheet over unprecedented areas. Technical challenges, such as ensuring safe take-off and landing, appear not to be insurmountable. A second example is the study of the UTLS using a HALE platform such as the Global Hawk. Such a platform is well-suited for circumpolar flights, in which the same air masses could be encountered in a single flight, providing a quasi-lagrangian view of stratospheric ozone chemistry during the polar winter. Transects from the mid latitudes to the subtropics could also be designed, to study exchange processes across the tropopause and the age of air in the stratosphere. We will illustrate other possible scientific missions using other types of UAS platforms.

Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

2010-05-01

63

Advancing scientific knowledge through participatory action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to demonstrate the value of participatory action research (PAR) for advancing scientific knowledge as well as for solving practical problems. The article supports the argument through brief summaries of three PAR cases in industry: Norwegian shipping, Xerox Corporation, and the FAGOR group of the Mondragón cooperatives. While noting the practical gains achieved through PAR, the author concentrates

William F. Whyte

1989-01-01

64

Applications of artificial intelligence to scientific research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing field which is just beginning to make an impact on disciplines other than computer science. While a number of military and commercial applications were undertaken in recent years, few attempts were made to apply AI techniques to basic scientific research. There is no inherent reason for the discrepancy. The characteristics of the problem, rather than its domain, determines whether or not it is suitable for an AI approach. Expert system, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning programs are examples of theoretical topics which can be applied to certain areas of scientific research. Further research and experimentation should eventurally make it possible for computers to act as intelligent assistants to scientists.

Prince, Mary Ellen

1986-01-01

65

Research Councils UK Statement of Expectations for Research Fellowships and Future Research Leaders  

E-print Network

Research Councils UK Statement of Expectations for Research Fellowships and Future Research Leaders Research Councils' fund fellowships and future research leaders to: attract excellent researchers into excellent UK research environments develop research leaders for the future UK national capability drive

Crowther, Paul

66

The United States of America and Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: “What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?”; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: “How will the US continue to foster its strengths?” PMID:20808949

Hather, Gregory J.; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B. Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V.; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

2010-01-01

67

Future scientifically worthwhile missions to the Saturn system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the International Cassini/Huygens (CH) mission suggests multiple avenues for future scientific exploration of the Saturn system. Currently scientists and engineers think viable options for future missions include examining in more detail Saturn itself, Titan, Enceladus (and possibly other small icy satellites), and the ring system, in the near- to mid-term time frames and beyond. But the very successes of the CH mission that revealed these exciting options also make it more difficult for future missions to provide science that extends significantly beyond CH. That very capable instrument complement, coupled with a tour that sampled well the diversity of the system, leaves only more difficult observations yet to be done. A recent study commissioned by NASA and led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory concluded that only flagship-class missions can improve sufficiently on CH's observations of Titan and Enceladus to make them scientifically worth their mission costs [1]. That study's science advisory teams found that there are three avenues by which future missions can conduct scientifically worthwhile investigations at those destinations: make measurements not previously feasible (i.e., carry instruments different from or significantly improved over those on CH); extend coverage in space or time to unexplored areas; or make observations of previously unknown phenomena. Such improvements are not easily accomplished. Although the study identified some missions to the Saturn system that could be flown for 1B US (2006 dollars) or less, none of those were deemed of sufficient science value to be worth the cost. What kinds of flagship-class missions have science returns that justify their costs? Fortunately the range of possibilities covers all the major system components mentioned above. This paper will discuss the kinds of mission concepts that could address the major science questions at each one, and will describe what aspects of those missions make them unlikely to fit within smaller resource caps. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency. [1] K. Reh et al., Titan and Enceladus 1B Mission Feasibility Study Report, JPL D-37401, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 30 Jan. 2007.

Spilker, T.

2007-08-01

68

Scientific Needs for Future X-ray Sources in the U.S. -- A White Paper  

E-print Network

and future sources, including storage rings, energy-recoveryEnergies 12 THREE Examples of Scientific Drivers for Future X-Ray Sources Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) ERLs are a potential source for future

Falcone, Roger

2008-01-01

69

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

2013-03-08

70

The Gray Area for Incorruptible Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper I try to contribute to the discussion about incorruptible professional behavior in scientific research. For\\u000a this purpose I take Merton’s famous norms as a point of departure, not in order to note that scientists do not always conform\\u000a to them, but to conceive them as ‘default-norms’ by raising the question which deviations may be defensible and which

Theo A. F. Kuipers

71

The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

Krantz, Murray

2003-01-01

72

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me  

PubMed Central

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

Narlikar, Jayant V.

2008-01-01

73

The Scientific Research Potential of Virtual Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online virtual worlds, electronic environments where people can work and interact in a somewhat realistic manner, have great potential as sites for research in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences, as well as in human-centered computer science. This article uses Second Life and World of Warcraft as two very different examples of current virtual worlds that foreshadow future developments, introducing

William Sims Bainbridge

2007-01-01

74

ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky  

E-print Network

ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky Carnegie Mellon University August, 1998 Page 1 of 28 Ethics and Etiquette in Scientific Research Rules of Conduct for Persons in Authority://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Ethics/ethics.ps #12;ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky Carnegie Mellon University August

Narasimhan, Priya

75

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram (dollars in thousands) FY 2003 FY 2005 Request Advanced Scientific Computing Research Mathematical, Information, and Computational,000 0 3,000 0 Subtotal, Advanced Scientific Computing Research..................... 163,185 203,490 -1

76

Belgian Scientific Research Programme on the Antarctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1959 Antarctic Treaty set out to achieve "demilitarization, the ban on nuclear tests and on the disposal of radioactive waste material - the respect of which is guaranteed by a system of mutual inspection - and the promotion of international scientific cooperation. The approval in 1991 of the 'Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty' (Madrid Protocol), turned the area into a natural reserve dedicated to peace and science. The Protocol prohibits any non-scientific activity relating to mineral resources and otherwise, makes provision for the realization of environmental evaluations to be based upon scientific evidences." At this site, visitors can learn about the goals of the programme and also learn more about some of the many phases of its research projects. Also of interest are is the metadata section, including links to data from projects such as "The Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Cap." Overall, a very interesting site for those interested in the fruits of the Madrid Protocol and the science that has occurred in its wake.

77

Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research (PHASR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research, PHASR, is designed as a versatile, general purpose habitat system that addresses the problem of functional space and environmental soundness in a partially fabric-covered shelter. PHASR is used for remote field site applications that can be quickly deployed. PHASR will also provide four scientists with a comfortable and efficient use of interior space. PHASR is a NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program project conducted at the University of Houston College of Architecture, Sasadawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA). This report is prepared for NASA/USRA.

Griswold, Samantha S.

1992-01-01

78

50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...constitute scientific research but rather fishing, the Regional...

2014-10-01

79

50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity...constitute scientific research but rather fishing, the Regional...

2013-10-01

80

Scientific method and retailing research: A retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the 164 articles published in the Journal of Retailing over the 2002–2007 time-span, the period reviewed by Grewal and Levy in their recent article entitled “Retailing Research: Past, Present and Future” [Grewal, Dhruv and Michael Levy (2007), “Passing the Baton, Journal of Retailing 2001 to 2007,”Journal of Retailing, 83 (4) (in this issue)] for their

James R. Brown; Rajiv P. Dant

2008-01-01

81

Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic Era (1.0 to 0.541 Ga) and earliest Cambrian (541 to ca. 520 Ma) records geologic changes unlike any other in Earth history: supercontinental tectonics of Rodinia followed by its breakup and dispersal into fragments that form the core of today's continents; a rise in oxygen that, perhaps for the first time in Earth history, resulted in the deep oceans becoming oxic; snowball Earth, which envisages a blanketing of global ice cover for millions of years; and, at the zenith of these combined biogeochemical changes, the evolutionary leap from eukaryotes to animals. Such a concentration of hallmark events in the evolution of our planet is unparalleled and many questions regarding Earth System evolution during times of profound climatic and geological changes remain to be answered. Neoproterozoic successions also offer insight into the genesis of a number of natural resources. These include banded-iron formation, organic-rich shale intervals (with demonstrated hydrocarbon source rocks already economically viable in some countries), base and precious metal ore deposits and REE occurrences, as well as industrial minerals and dimension stone. Developing our understanding of the Neoproterozoic Earth-system, combined with regional geology has the potential to impact the viability of these resources. Our understanding of the Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian, though, is overwhelmingly dependent on outcrop-based studies, which suffer from lack of continuity of outcrop and, in many instances, deep weathering profiles. A limited number of research projects study Precambrian strata have demonstrated the potential impact of scientific drilling to augment and complement ongoing outcrop based studies and advancing research. An ICDP and ECORD sponsored workshop, to be held in March 2014, has been convened to discuss the utility of scientific drilling for accelerating research of the Neoproterozoic through early Cambrian (ca. 0.9 to 0.52 Ga) rock record. The aim is to discuss the potential for establishing a collaborative, integrated, worldwide drilling programme to obtain the pristine samples and continuous sections needed to refine Neoproterozoic Earth history, inform assessment of resource potential, and address the major questions noted above. Such an initiative would be a platform to define complementary research and discovery between cutting-edge interdisciplinary scientific studies and synergistic collaborations with national agencies (Geological Surveys) and industry partners. A number of potential sites have been identified and discussed, along with identifying the mechanisms by which the Neoproterozoic research community can development data archives, open access data, sample archiving, and the approaches to multi-national funding. We will, amongst other things, present a summary of the workshop discussions. For more information visit: https://sites.google.com/site/drillingtheneoproterozoic/

Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

2014-05-01

82

Research misconduct policies of scientific journals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to gather information on the misconduct policies of scientific journals. We contacted editors from a random sample of 399 journals drawn from the ISI Web of Knowledge database. We received 197 responses (49.4% response rate): 54.8% had a policy, and 47.7% had a formal (written) policy; 28.9% had a policy that only outlined procedures for handling misconduct, 15.7% had a policy that only defined misconduct, 10.2% had a policy that included both a definition and procedures; 26.9% of journals had a policy that was generated by the publisher, 13.2% had a policy that was generated by the journal, and 14.7% had a policy that was generated by another source, such as a professional association. We analyzed the relationship between having a policy and impact factor, field of science, publishing house, and nationality. Impact factor was the only variable with a statistically significant association with having a policy. Impact factor was slightly positively associated with whether or not the publisher had a policy, with an odds ratio of 1.49 (P < .0004) per 10 units increase in the impact factor, with a 95% confidence interval (1.20, 1.88). Our research indicates that more than half of scientific journals have developed misconduct policies, but that most of these policies do not define research misconduct and most of these policies were not generated by the journal. PMID:19757231

Resnik, David B; Peddada, Shyamal; Brunson, Winnon

2009-01-01

83

RESEARCH MISCONDUCT POLICIES OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to gather information on the misconduct policies of scientific journals. We contacted editors from a random sample of 399 journals drawn from the ISI Web of Knowledge database. We received 197 responses (49.4% response rate): 54.8% had a policy, and 47.7% had a formal (written) policy; 28.9% had a policy that only outlined procedures for handling misconduct, 15.7% had a policy that only defined misconduct, 10.2% had a policy that included both a definition and procedures; 26.9% of journals had a policy that was generated by the publisher, 13.2% had a policy that was generated by the journal, and 14.7% had a policy that was generated by another source, such as a professional association. We analyzed the relationship between having a policy and impact factor, field of science, publishing house, and nationality. Impact factor was the only variable with a statistically significant association with having a policy. Impact factor was slightly positively associated with whether or not the publisher had a policy, with an odds ratio of 1.49 (P < .0004) per 10 units increase in the impact factor, with a 95% confidence interval (1.20, 1.88). Our research indicates that more than half of scientific journals have developed misconduct policies, but that most of these policies do not define research misconduct and most of these policies were not generated by the journal. PMID:19757231

RESNIK, DAVID B.; PEDDADA, SHYAMAL; BRUNSON, WINNON

2014-01-01

84

Guide to Scientific Publication Management for Researchers at the  

E-print Network

Guide to Scientific Publication Management for Researchers at the KTH Guide to Scientific Publication Management 2 Abstract The aim of this guide that is as consistent and unique as possible or register a unique author ID with the database

Haviland, David

85

Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists.  

PubMed

The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 (nd) and 3 (rd), 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers' synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

McDowell, Gary S; Gunsalus, Kearney T W; MacKellar, Drew C; Mazzilli, Sarah A; Pai, Vaibhav P; Goodwin, Patricia R; Walsh, Erica M; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D; Krukenberg, Kristin A; Polka, Jessica K

2014-01-01

86

Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists  

PubMed Central

The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

2015-01-01

87

Research Training--Present & Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

88

Drug discovery research in India: current state and future prospects.  

PubMed

Indian civilization developed a strong system of traditional medicine and was one of the first nations to develop a synthetic drug. In the postindependence era, Indian pharmaceutical industry developed a strong base for production of generic drugs. Challenges for the future are to give its traditional medicine a strong scientific base and develop research and clinical capability to consistently produce new drugs based on advances in modern biological sciences. PMID:25050153

Balganesh, Tanjore; Kundu, Tapas K; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Roy, Siddhartha

2014-07-10

89

Ten Years of GLAPHI Method Developing Scientific Research Abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past ten years we had applied our method, GLAPHI, to teach how to do scientific research. The method has been applied from freshman students up to PhD professionals. The method is based in the search and analysis of scientific literature, the scientific question or problem, the approach of hypothesis and objetive, the estimation of the project cost and the timetable. It also includes statistics for research, author rights, ethics in research, publication of scientific papers, writting scientific reports and meeting presentations. In this work success and fails of GLAPHI methods will be discussed. Work partially supported by CONACyT (Mexico) under contract: SEP-2004-C01-46893

Vega-Carrillo, Hector R.

2006-12-01

90

Mythical Thinking, Scientific Discourses and Research Dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak’s article “Mismatches between ‘scientific’\\u000a and ‘non-scientific’ ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science” (IPBS 2011) as a point of\\u000a departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed\\u000a with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be

Sven Hroar Klempe

2011-01-01

91

English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

2014-12-01

92

English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

2014-09-01

93

FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS IN ARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The following technical abstract refers to the (4th of 6) invited oral presentations given by Dr. Skoda at the APHIS-ARS-Mexico US Commission for the Eradication of Screwworm Meeting, March 2000. Research for the next three to five years at the Midwest Livestock Insects Research Unit was outlined. ...

94

Institute for Scientific Computing Research Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy (DOE). The maturation of computational simulation as a tool of scientific and engineering research is underscored in the November 2004 statement of the Secretary of Energy that, ''high performance computing is the backbone of the nation's science and technology enterprise''. LLNL operates several of the world's most powerful computers--including today's single most powerful--and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Ultrascale simulation has been identified as one of the highest priorities in DOE's facilities planning for the next two decades. However, computers at architectural extremes are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Furthermore, each successful terascale simulation only points out the need for much better ways of interacting with the resulting avalanche of data. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to LLNL's core missions than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, LLNL must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) served as one of LLNL's main bridges to the academic community with a program of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, workshops, and an active seminar series. The ISCR identifies researchers from the academic community for computer science and computational science collaborations with LLNL and hosts them for short- and long-term visits with the aim of encouraging long-term academic research agendas that address LLNL's research priorities. Through such collaborations, ideas and software flow in both directions, and LLNL cultivates its future workforce. The Institute strives to be LLNL's ''eyes and ears'' in the computer and information sciences, keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be the ''feet and hands'' that carry those advances into the Laboratory and incorporates them into practice. ISCR research participants are integrated into LLNL's Computing and Applied Research (CAR) Department, especially into its Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). In turn, these organizations address computational challenges arising throughout the rest of the Laboratory. Administratively, the ISCR flourishes under LLNL's University Relations Program (URP). Together with the other five institutes of the URP, it navigates a course that allows LLNL to benefit from academic exchanges while preserving national security. While it is difficult to operate an academic-like research enterprise within the context of a national security laboratory, the results declare the challenges well met and worth the continued effort.

Keyes, D E

2005-02-07

95

Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract  

PubMed Central

Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy. “By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action.” Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

Resnik, David B.

2009-01-01

96

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research  

SciTech Connect

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

Sikora, F.J. (ed.)

1992-03-01

97

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

Nigg, Joel T.

2012-01-01

98

Lasers - Present and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser research is reviewed in regards to applications and with particular attention to work in French laboratories. Inertial confinement fusion requires high energy deposition in 0.1-10 ns times, and efforts to devise suitable laser systems are outlined. Exciplex lasers are presented, including halogen and rare-gas halide lasers, rare gas and alkaline dimers, and trimer lasers. Optical and chemical pumping of

P. Philippe

1981-01-01

99

Misconceptions about Scientific Research in Music Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Musicians hold diverse opinions about the value of scientific inquiry in their field. Although some see music-making as a human behavior that can be studied from, say, a psychological perspective, others maintain that music's subjective and almost magical qualities defy scientific explanation. Even within the field of music education there seems…

Woody, Robert

2004-01-01

100

Editorial Research Reports on the Scientific Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine reports published in this volume reflect upon the scientific revolution of the 20th century. Technological and scientific achievements are reviewed in the light of changes they have caused in human life. The challenge put forth is whether man can use wisely the new world of options that science opens for him. In this perspective the reports…

Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

101

Mythical thinking, scientific discourses and research dissemination.  

PubMed

This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak's article "Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science" (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The author demonstrates how the most widespread demarcation criterion, the criterion of verification, is self-contradictory, not only when it comes to logic, but also in the achievement of isolating natural sciences from other forms of knowledge. According to Aristotle induction is a rhetorical device and as far as scientific statements are based on inductive inferences, they are relying on humanities, which rhetoric is a part of. Yet induction also has an empirical component by being based on sense-impressions, which is not a part of the rhetoric, but the psychology. Also the myths are understood in a rhetorical (Lévi-Strauss) and a psychological (Cassirer) perspective. Thus it is argued that both scientific and non-scientific discourses can be mythical. PMID:21461605

Hroar Klempe, Sven

2011-06-01

102

Patterns of contact and communication in scientific research collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the influence of physical proximity on the development of collaborative relationships between scientific researchers and on the execution of their work. Our evidence is drawn from our own studies of scientific collaborators, as well as from observations of research and development activities collected by other investigators. These descriptions provide the foundation for a discussion of

Robert E. Kraut; Carmen Egido; Jolene Galegher

1988-01-01

103

Reviewing Global Change Research and Recommending Future Priorities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change is one of the most serious threats to human society and, as such, is a core research agenda around the world. Building on a long history of fundamental ecological research, a new cohort of early-career scientists—armed with novel methodologies and cutting-edge technology—is poised to confront the critical questions on the future of global change. Addressing these questions poses a grand challenge for scientists in ecology: the stakes are high, yet confidence in the level of knowledge in some areas remains critically low. Thus, the direction and future success of global change research depends to a significant degree on promoting and fostering the work of next generation ecologists undertaking some of the most important scientific work of our time.

Goswami, Santonu; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hayes, Daniel J.

2013-11-01

104

Researching Islamic marketing: past and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons underlying the recent interest on Islamic marketing, discusses past research on the topic and offers a future research perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a critical review of the existing literature. It offers ethnoconsumerism as a way to develop a situated understanding of Muslim consumers and

Özlem Sand?kc?

2011-01-01

105

Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-08-01

106

Strategic reading, ontologies, and the future of scientific publishing.  

PubMed

The revolution in scientific publishing that has been promised since the 1980s is about to take place. Scientists have always read strategically, working with many articles simultaneously to search, filter, scan, link, annotate, and analyze fragments of content. An observed recent increase in strategic reading in the online environment will soon be further intensified by two current trends: (i) the widespread use of digital indexing, retrieval, and navigation resources and (ii) the emergence within many scientific disciplines of interoperable ontologies. Accelerated and enhanced by reading tools that take advantage of ontologies, reading practices will become even more rapid and indirect, transforming the ways in which scientists engage the literature and shaping the evolution of scientific publishing. PMID:19679805

Renear, Allen H; Palmer, Carole L

2009-08-14

107

SCIENTIFIC AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN HUNGARY: I. NUCLEAR SCIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific and research institutions in Hungary engaged in research in ; the field of nuclear science are discussed. Brief descriptions are included of ; the Central Research Institute of Physics, the Institute of Nuclear Research the ; Joliot-Curie Central Research Institute of Radiobiology, and the Physics ; Laboratory of the Otvos Lorand Radium and X-Ray Institute. The recently ; completed

Bacha

1959-01-01

108

Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

109

Social Sleepwalkers. Scientific and Technological Research in California Agriculture. Research Monograph No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making a case for initiation of a systematic methodology that would predict and evaluate the potential social ramifications of scientific research, this monograph presents: (1) a review of the general lack of social concern among scientific researchers and rationale for utilization of scientific agricultural research as initiator of social…

Friedland, William H.

110

Research on performance appraisal of scientific research management in universities basing upon AHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of scientific research management does a lot of helps to the efficiency of scientific research, and it is an effective way of performance appraisal (PA) to improve scientific research management level in universities. This paper discusses how AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) can be used in performance appraisal, builds up appraisal indicator system, and shows the course of PA

Li De-wu; Hu Qing-jiang

2009-01-01

111

European Research on Knowledge and Information Management: Current Status and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and Information Management has existed as a separate field of scientific research and development for almost a decade. It is therefore surprising that only few studies to date have been concerned with the identification of the current status of the field in terms of research progress, as well as an analysis of its future perspectives and research roadmaps. This

George M. Giaglis

112

Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned. Scientific uncertainties, sources, and consequences have been most widely discussed in the review papers. Research papers and mass media tend to emphasize more the certainty of their scientific results or the benefits of the nanotechnology applications. Neither the broad spectrum nor any specifications of uncertainties have been communicated. This indicates that there has been no effective dialogue over scientific uncertainty with the public so far.

Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

2014-05-01

113

Creating the Future: Research and Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

1998-01-01

114

78 FR 29121 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory...is to review new start research and development projects requesting...

2013-05-17

115

78 FR 29122 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory...is to review continuing research and development projects requesting...

2013-05-17

116

The Myth of "Scientific Method" in Contemporary Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether educational research should employ the "scientific method" has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: "positivist" or "interpretivist". In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research

Rowbottom, Darrell Patrick; Aiston, Sarah Jane

2006-01-01

117

Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

2014-05-01

118

The Frontiers of Resource-Related Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's and tomorrow's challenges with respect to energy rise beyond assessing the volume, type, distribution, and viability of various energy resources. Access to clean, reliable, and affordable energy supplies requires a much more comprehensive understanding of the full costs, benefits, and inherent risks encompassing the entire life cycle of both the energy commodity/capability itself, as well as those supplementary resources needed for energy production and use, such as water and minerals. Research and assessment science conducted by the US Geological Survey (USGS) spans this range from traditional energy resources such as oil, gas, and coal; to currently under utilized resources such as geothermal, wind, and uranium; as well as more long-term future resources such as gas hydrates. With mission space that includes energy and minerals, water, natural hazards, environmental health, ecosystems, and climate and land use change, increasingly USGS is taking advantage of its integrated science approach and its tradition of working with partners to conduct collaborative research developing methodologies that build on traditional energy-related research. The USGS is incorporating scientific information about geologic, geophysical, biologic, hydrologic, and in some cases socio-economic, trade-offs to be considered by decision makers regarding energy resource development and use. This basic resource information informs the Nation's decisions of how to manage a dynamically evolving energy mix in both an economically and environmentally sustainable manner.

McNutt, M. K.

2012-12-01

119

Science Teaching as Educational Interrogation of Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…

Ginev, Dimitri

2013-01-01

120

Trends in research and development for future detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of novel detector concepts has always played a major role in supporting and enabling scientific research. In the forthcoming phase of high energy physics (HEP), the design and development of new detectors and detector concepts will be even more important than it was in the past owing to the harsh environmental conditions and the challenging requests imposed by the physicists' needs for: improved spatial and time resolution, innovative functions, acquisition speed, radiation tolerance, minimal power consumption, robustness and reliability, minimal material and more. This overview addresses the challenges that upgrades and future projects in HEP will impose in terms of novel technologies and stresses the detectors' potential and limitations in attempting to achieve the scientific goals. In addition the increasingly strong dependence on large-scale industrial production and industrial development, especially in the area of integrated electronics, sensors and large complex systems will be addressed.

Cattai, Ariella

2013-12-01

121

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report the details of the research plan to the Assistant...starting date for the research. A copy of the format... (2) The format requires: (i) The name of...3) A summary of the results of any research fishing subject...

2010-10-01

122

Near-Future RFID Microsoft Research  

E-print Network

Artifacts Near-Future RFID ANAB JAIN Microsoft Research NICOLAI MARQUARDT University of Calgary around RFID, drawing attention to the possibilities of using the technology to connect people in curious, even celebratory ways. In our visions, RFID tagging and sensing has been extended so that tags

Greenberg, Saul

123

Fusion -Aclean future Research at Culham Centre  

E-print Network

alternative ways of producing energy. Nuclear fusion can be an important long-term energy sourceFusion -Aclean future Research at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy #12;Increasing energy demands, cleaner ways of powering itself. Nuclear fusion ­ the process that provides the sun's energy ­ can play

124

Corporate entrepreneurship: Current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest future research on the processes and knowledge-based resources in corporate entrepreneurship (CE), argue for the need to appreciate the heterogeneity of CE in relation to new contexts, and suggest appropriate strategies for such contexts. First, we highlight the key contributions of the papers in this special issue, with a particular focus on how they provide

Phillip H. Phan; Mike Wright; Deniz Ucbasaran; Wee-Liang Tan

2009-01-01

125

Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

Stewart, Helen (editor)

1992-01-01

126

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

127

50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a)...

2011-10-01

128

50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a)...

2010-10-01

129

50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a)...

2012-10-01

130

50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a)...

2013-10-01

131

50 CFR 15.22 - Permits for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.22 Permits for scientific research. (a)...

2014-10-01

132

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center 2007 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.

Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul

2008-10-23

133

The Gauss Center Research in Multiscale Scientific Computation  

E-print Network

The Gauss Center Research in Multiscale Scientific Computation Achi Brandt Weizmann Institute directions at the Gauss Center . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Statistical Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 10. Molecular Mechanics

134

Research Misconduct Policies of Scientific Journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to gather information on the misconduct policies of scientific journals. We contacted editors from a random sample of 399 journals drawn from the ISI Web of Knowledge database. We received 197 responses (49.4% response rate): 54.8% had a policy, and 47.7% had a formal (written) policy; 28.9% had a policy that only outlined procedures

DAVID B. RESNIK J. D; SHYAMAL PEDDADA; WINNON BRUNSON Jr

2009-01-01

135

Game engines in scientific research - Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: DERIVED FROMCOMPUTER-BASED GAMES.Michael Lewis and Jeffrey Jacobson#GAMEENGINESIN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHenvironments using artistry andtexture maps.The cost of developing evermore realistic simulations hasgrown so huge that even gamedevelopers can no longer rely onrecouping their entire investmentfrom a single game. This has ledto the emergence of gameengines---modular simulationcode---written for a specific gamebut general enough to be used fora family of similar games. ...

Michael Lewis; Jeffrey Jacobson

2002-01-01

136

Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

2012-01-01

137

50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Office Director under the scientific research permit; and ...interfere with the permitted scientific research; and (C) Are...incidental to the authorized scientific research activity must not...educational and commercial photography). (2) Any...

2010-10-01

138

50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Office Director under the scientific research permit; and ...interfere with the permitted scientific research; and (C) Are...incidental to the authorized scientific research activity must not...educational and commercial photography). (2) Any...

2011-10-01

139

NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

1987-01-01

140

Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade, and provides recommendations for future research, organized into three broad categories: life span issues (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and elderly, all including some education-related issues), delivery of mental health services, and prevention and…

Padilla, Amado M.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

1984-01-01

141

Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future  

PubMed Central

Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

2014-01-01

142

Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: Săo Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality. PMID:24142308

Oliveira, Maria Christina L.; Martelli, Daniella Reis B.; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmăo L.; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Silva, Ana Cristina S. e; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

2013-01-01

143

Research Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Research Outcome Expectations: Implications for Developing Scientifically Minded Psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how and whether the empirical evidence pertaining to research self-efficacy beliefs and research outcome expectations can inform the training and development of scientifically minded psychologists. The competencies associated with a scientifically minded psychologist are described, and a summary and critique of the literature focused on research self-efficacy beliefs and research outcome expectations are presented. An assessment of

Kathleen J. Bieschke

2006-01-01

144

Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to <= 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental

Leopoldo Stefanutti; A. Robert MacKenzie; Guido di Donfrancesco; Stefania Amici

2010-01-01

145

Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

2008-11-01

146

National Research Council Report:National Research Council Report: "Virtual Reality: Scientific and"Virtual Reality: Scientific and  

E-print Network

National Research Council Report:National Research Council Report: "Virtual Reality: Scientific and for the Generation of Virtual Environments. · Telerobotics · Networking & Communications Part II: Research for the GenerationComputer Hardware & Software for the Generation of Virtual Environments.of Virtual Environments

McDowell, Perry

147

Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

Brown, C. M.

2013-12-01

148

Collaboratory for support of scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time,

T. A. Casper; W. H. Meyer; J. M. Moller

1998-01-01

149

[Criteria of scientific validity in research].  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to present the evaluative criteria of qualitative and quantitative research. Philosophical foundations of positivism, postpositivism and constructivism are explored. Triangulation and crystallization expose the controversies about them. Finally, Lincoln and Guba criteria are retained for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative research. PMID:12001625

Pelletier, Céline; Pagé, Ginette

2002-03-01

150

The Swedish Research Council's definition of 'scientific misconduct': a critique.  

PubMed

There is no consensus over the proper definition of 'scientific misconduct.' There are differences in opinion not only between countries but also between research institutions in the same country. This is unfortunate. Without a widely accepted definition it is difficult for scientists to adjust to new research milieux. This might hamper scientific innovation and make cooperation difficult. Furthermore, due to the potentially damaging consequences it is important to combat misconduct. But how frequent is it and what measures are efficient? Without an appropriate definition there are no interesting answers to these questions. In order to achieve a high degree of consensus and to foster research integrity, the international dialogue over the proper definition of 'scientific misconduct' must be on going. Yet, the scientific community should not end up with the definition suggested by the Swedish Research Council. The definition the council advocates does not satisfy the ordinary language condition. That is, the definition is not consistent with how 'scientific misconduct' is used by scientists. I will show that this is due to the fact that it refers to false results. I generalise this and argue that no adequate definition of 'scientific misconduct' makes such a reference. PMID:24488724

Salwén, Hĺkan

2015-02-01

151

Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular place where IPY related research is being archived in a non-traditional manner. Researchers are sharing not only their papers, but insights on data collection and how other researchers could improve on what they have done during the IPY. The IPY has created many new research projects and stimulated new questions and created cutting-edge techniques to address these problems. APECS is helping to carry on these discussions beyond the typical conference settings directly to a researcher’s office or at home on their couch. These communication tools will help to stimulate discussion carrying forward the research questions addressed and created during the IPY.

Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

2009-12-01

152

Nanopesticide research: current trends and future priorities.  

PubMed

The rapid developments in nanopesticide research over the last two years have motivated a number of international organizations to consider potential issues relating to the use of nanotechnology for crop protection. This analysis of the latest research trends provides a useful basis for identifying research gaps and future priorities. Polymer-based formulations have received the greatest attention over the last two years, followed by formulations containing inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., silica, titanium dioxide) and nanoemulsions. Investigations have addressed the lack of information on the efficacy of nanopesticides and a number of products have been demonstrated to have greater efficacy than their commercial counterparts. However, the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown and further research is required before any generalizations can be made. There is now increased motivation to develop nanopesticides that are less harmful to the environment than conventional formulations, and future investigations will need to assess whether any promising products developed are able to compete with existing formulations, in terms of both cost and performance. Investigations into the environmental fate of nanopesticides remain scarce, and the current state of knowledge does not appear to be sufficient for a reliable assessment to be made of their associated benefits and risks. A great deal of research will therefore be required over the coming years, and will need to include (i) the development of experimental protocols to generate reliable fate properties, (ii) investigations into the bioavailability and durability of nanopesticides, and (iii) evaluation of current environmental risk assessment approaches, and their refinement where appropriate. PMID:24333990

Kah, Melanie; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-02-01

153

The Use of Microblogging for Field-Based Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documenting the context in which data are collected is an integral part of the scientific research lifecycle. In field-based research, contextual information provides a detailed description of scientific practices and thus enables data interpretation and reuse. For field data, losing contextual information often means losing the data altogether. Yet, documenting the context of distributed, collaborative, field-based research can be a significant challenge due to the unpredictable nature of real-world settings and to the high degree of variability in data collection methods and scientific practices of different researchers. In this article, we propose the use of microblogging as a mechanism to support collection, ingestion, and publication of contextual information about the variegated digital artifacts that are produced in field research. We perform interviews with scholars involved in field-based environmental and urban sensing research, to determine the extent of adoption of Twitter and similar microblogging platforms and their potential use for field-specific research applications. Based on the results of these interviews as well as participant observation of field activities, we present the design, development, and pilot evaluation of a microblogging application integrated with an existing data collection platform on a handheld device. We investigate whether microblogging accommodates the variable and unpredictable nature of highly mobile research and whether it represents a suitable mechanism to document the context of field research data early in the scientific information lifecycle.

Pepe, Alberto; Mayernik, M. S.

154

Cognitive Research in GIScience: Recent Achievements and Future Prospects  

E-print Network

Cognitive Research in GIScience: Recent Achievements and Future Prospects Daniel R. Montello achievements of cognitive research in geographic information science (GIScience) are reviewed and prospects for future directions discussed. Cognitive research in GIScience concerns human knowledge and knowing

Montello, Daniel R.

155

Action Research: Its History and Relationship to Scientific Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Methodology (SM) has long suited those who favour analytical and quantitative research in management. Thus the\\u000a dilemma between the rigour and relevance of contemporary management research methods is fuelled by action researchers who\\u000a keep wanting to contrast Action Research (AR) with SM. This paper presents a Western philosophical view on the development\\u000a of belief systems and theory-based methods over

John Stephens; John Barton; Tim Haslett

2009-01-01

156

Tips for Preparing a Scientific Research Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tips prepared by the Woods Hole Sea Grant Program, with help from researchers, librarians, and teachers. Designed to help middle school or high school students organize their research papers from beginning to end, takes it step-by-step and week-by-week. Covers: how to start, identifying a topic; outlining the project, compiling resources, finding help; organizing resources, recognizing when you have enough; expanding the outline, writing clearly and logically; and reviewing the paper.

157

[Adult stem cells: their scientific interest and therapeutic future].  

PubMed

Fascinating and provocative findings have shaken the stem cell field during these past years, which may be exploited in the future in cell replacement therapies. Continuous renewal of blood, skin, and gut cells, has long be attributed to stem cells, but it was more unexpected to identify cells that fulfil the requirements for stem-progenitor cells in many tissues with a slow turnover such as heart, kidney, muscle and brain. However, despite their lack of risk and immunological barrier, adult stem cells are yet of poor therapeutic value in many diseases, because they are available in scarce number, are poorly amplified, and loose potential with ageing, among many obstacles. Thus, the identification in adult, and more recently fetal tissues, of cells with a high proliferative capacity and multi-lineage differentiation potential has been wellcome, although their existence is still a matter of controversy. An alternative would be to activate stem cells in situ, by acting on components of the niche as recently exemplified in the hematopoetic system. Finally, as fiction meets reality, it may become possible to reprogram human adult cells in pluripotent ES cells-like, as recently demonstrated in mice. PMID:17766162

Coulombel, L

2007-09-01

158

Core\\/periphery scientific collaboration networks among very similar researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies such as Goyal et al. (J Polit Econ 114(2):403–412, 2006) or Newman (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(Suppl. 1):5200–5205, 2004) show that scientific collaboration networks present a highly unequal and hierarchical distribution of links. This implies\\u000a that some researchers can be much more active and productive than others and, consequently, they can enjoy a much better scientific\\u000a reputation. One

Antoni Rubí-Barceló

2012-01-01

159

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report  

E-print Network

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report 1999-2000 #12;Contents Seismology 162 National and international policy related activities 174 Model support 177 #12;Appendices of knmi's Climate Research and Seismology Department in the years 1999 and 2000. In 1999 an international

Haak, Hein

160

The Logic and the Basic Principles of Scientific Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was sponsored by the U.S. National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) amid the enthusiasm for bringing the power of rigorous, objective, scientific understanding to bear on improving decisions about educational programming and thus student achievement. There is…

Feuer, Michael; Towne, Lisa

161

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

162

Scientific autonomy and planned research: the case of space science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research that requires space flight has always been subject to comparatively strong external control. Its agenda has often had to be adapted to vacillating political target specifications. Can space scientists appeal to one or the other form of the widely acknowledged principle of freedom of research in order to claim more autonomy? In this paper, the difficult question of

Torsten Wilholt

2006-01-01

163

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Universities and Colleges: 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive national database on key quantitative and qualitative aspects of scientific and engineering research facilities at universities and colleges is presented. This study was conducted in response to a Congressional request for systematic information on the status of academic research facilities. The National Science Foundation (NSF)…

Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

164

Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

2005-01-01

165

Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research  

SciTech Connect

It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

Finkelstein, Noah (University of Colorado) [University of Colorado

2007-05-16

166

Collaboratory for support of scientific research  

SciTech Connect

Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ``collaboratory`` refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries [1],[2]. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ``as good as being there`` is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote [3] Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative research Many research disciplines find themselves in a similar position, trying to better utilize facilities and increase productivity for both local and remote researchers A recently published issue of Interactions [4] includes a special section dedicated to collaboratories A description of collaborative observations at the Keck Observatory [2] indicates distinct and real advantages gamed by astronomers who can now remotely access this facility, even as the collaboratory is developing. Advantages range from simply making the facility available to more researchers without the cost of travel to the physiological advantage of not experiencing oxygen deprivation sickness due to high altitude observing The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory [2] which focuses on studies of the earth`s ionosphere and interactions with the solar wind now combines information from several observing sites, many in difficult to reach high latitude locations above the arctic circle Travel to these remote locations, fomrerly provided by military flights which are no longer needed, is now more expensive for researchers With a now obvious need for remote sensing and collaborations, the UARC has combined access to these experimental facilities and joined in global modeling efforts to better use the capabilities of researchers on an international scale. The final collaboratory featured [2] is that of our testbed development for the DIII-D tokamak experiment 141 to make it even more accessible in its role as a US national facility

Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.

1998-06-25

167

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2007-08-01

168

78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The Department...Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on February 13-14...are reviewed for scientific and technical merit. Recommendations regarding funding...

2013-01-31

169

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2012-04-01

170

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2011-04-01

171

77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...purpose of collecting scientific data on catch may submit...submit reports of their scientific research activity after its completion. II. Method of Collection Information...Estimated Time per Response: Scientific research plans, 37...

2012-02-09

172

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2013-04-01

173

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2014-04-01

174

Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

175

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center  

E-print Network

Research (BER) 14% Basic Energy Science (BES) 29% Fusion (FES) 29% High Energy Physics (HEP) 15% Nuclear% Geosciences 2% High Energy Physics 0% Latice Gauge Theory 7% Life Sciences 6% Materials Sciences 13% Nuclear ­ Cannot tell the difference between a file format and a data schema (so they end up being one

176

The Promissory Future(s) of Education: Rethinking Scientific Literacy in the Era of Biocapitalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the biopolitical dimensions that have grown out of the union between biocapitalism and current science education reform in the US. Drawing on science and technology study theorists, I utilize the analytics of promissory valuation and salvationary discourses to understand how scientific literacy in the neo-Sputnik era has…

Pierce, Clayton

2012-01-01

177

Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling  

SciTech Connect

The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

Not Available

1984-01-01

178

[Bad behaviors regarding research and scientific and medical publication].  

PubMed

Since a few years, the number of cases of fraud reported in the scientific and medical literature and retraction of articles has increased exponentially. Such fraud is due to fabrication, falsification, theft, embellishment or retention of data, plagiarism, incorrect list of authors or undisclosed conflicts of interest. This tendency has been explained by the need to publish for career advancement or the future of the department, the search for notoriety, the desire to grow rich and the lack of motivation to seek the truth. This crisis can be controlled by measures at different levels: society, universities, scientific institutions, study promoters, scientific and medical journals. A legal framework at EU level would allow to combat such fraud more efficiently. PMID:24505870

Sculier, J P

2013-01-01

179

S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

180

Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George Ludwig takes the reader behind the scenes of space exploration in the 1950s. The well-known episodes in this history—such as the stories of Sputnik, Laika the cosmodog, and the founding of NASA—are here placed in the rich context of the scientific and technical goals that motivated Ludwig and his fellow researchers. Ludwig relates the personal experiences of the many engineers, physicists, and university students who made possible humanity’s first ventures into space.

Good, Gregory A.

2012-05-01

181

Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

182

Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

Rogers, Peter A. W.; D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

2013-01-01

183

Regulating scientific research: should scientists be left alone?  

PubMed

In our current political climate, decisions about whether to fund research on new stem cell lines or do chimera experiments seem to arbitrarily depend on the religious and economic interests of the administration. Not unreasonably, many scientists believe that science should be left to its own devices in determining research priorities and conducting research. When nonscientific considerations constrain research, it is claimed that values are inappropriately dictating scientific decisions. This assumes, however, that all ethical and social values are irrelevant to such decisions. Using the case of embryonic stem cell research to illustrate the debate, we argue here that this position is untenable for several reasons. First, the aims of science, particularly in the case of the biomedical sciences, cannot be completely extricated from ethical and social aims. Hence, value judgments will be necessary to assess research priorities and methodologies. Second, maintaining this position is inconsistent with actual scientific practices. Scientists already recognize that there are some ethical values that appropriately constrain research, such as in human subject experimentation. Therefore, the problem cannot be that ethical values are brought to bear on science per se but that those values are highly questionable or are imposed by those who often lack the scientific expertise necessary to understand how ethical concerns may relate to the research. Finally, we argue that to the extent value judgments must be made, consensus about such values should be reached by a diverse group of stakeholders, including scientists, community members, policymakers, and ethicists. PMID:17928363

Intemann, Kristen K; de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

2008-03-01

184

Scientific Inquiry on Anomalous Atmospheric Light Phenomena: Past Research Gaps and New Methodological Goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the experience of this author, a decade of scientific research on earthlights is amply discussed and pondered from the point of view of instrumental measurements. After an introduction that shows a brief synthesis of what has been done so far, all the different measurement techniques and tactical/strategic procedures that have been used so far or that are planned for the near future are discussed in detail. Constructive criticism on the gaps that emerged from this research is punctually pointed out. New procedural ideas are widely proposed and scientifically motivated in order to improve this research and to stimulate researchers on this field in order to search for an optimum common protocol.

Teodorani, M.

2009-12-01

185

Application of logic models in a large scientific research program.  

PubMed

It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts mission-driven scientific research focussed on delivering results with relevance and impact for Australia, where impact is defined and measured in economic, environmental and social terms at the national level. The Australian Government has recently signalled an increasing emphasis on performance assessment and evaluation, which in the CSIRO context implies an increasing emphasis on ensuring and demonstrating the impact of its research programs. CSIRO continues to develop and improve its approaches to impact planning and evaluation, including conducting a trial of a program logic approach in the CSIRO Preventative Health National Research Flagship. During the trial, improvements were observed in clarity of the research goals and path to impact, as well as in alignment of science and support function activities with national challenge goals. Further benefits were observed in terms of communication of the goals and expected impact of CSIRO's research programs both within CSIRO and externally. The key lesson learned was that significant value was achieved through the process itself, as well as the outcome. Recommendations based on the CSIRO trial may be of interest to managers of scientific research considering developing similar logic models for their research projects. The CSIRO experience has shown that there are significant benefits to be gained, especially if the project participants have a major role in the process of developing the logic model. PMID:21555041

O'Keefe, Christine M; Head, Richard J

2011-08-01

186

Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

2013-04-01

187

Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force\\/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and\\/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of

Julian M. Tishkoff; Philip Drummond C; Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

188

A SCIENTIFIC VISION Brain Research through Advancing Innovative  

E-print Network

BRAIN 2025 A SCIENTIFIC VISION Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN, PhD Joshua Sanes, PhD California Institute of Technology Harvard University Emery Brown, MD, PhD Mark Schnitzer, PhD Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stanford University and Massachusetts General Hospital

Baker, Chris I.

189

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1984-01-01

190

Conceptualizations of Nature and Scientific Literacy, Part I: Research Methodology  

E-print Network

Page 0 Conceptualizations of Nature and Scientific Literacy, Part I: Research Methodology William W nature: An interpretive study of 16 ninth graders' conceptualizations of nature. Dordrecht, Netherlands is to present an new interpretive methodology for exploring worldview presuppositions about the natural world

Cobern, William W.

191

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report  

E-print Network

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report 2001­2002 #12;2 #12;3 Contents Preface Foreword Recent highlights On the role of cirrus clouds in climate 11 Pathways in the ocean 19 Monitoring of tropical processes relevant to climate change 29 Current projects Climate

Stoffelen, Ad

192

Formal scientific research of traffic collision data utilizing GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the tenuous link between speeding behavior and accident causation, one that has not been well established in the international literature to date. Taking advantage of established engineering conventions and formulae, we were able to set up an a priori hypothesis suitable for testing. Utilizing this formal scientific method (which GIS researchers have been criticised for not using)

Robert M. Arthur; Nigel M. Waters

1998-01-01

193

A Flagship System Scientific research is integral to the  

E-print Network

teaching hospitals and clinical facilities across the state have a formal affiliation with UTHSC, Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy -- reflect a broad spectrum of scientific investigation. Pur- suing basic the research process requires that we create an academic home, the Clinical and Translational Sci- ence

Cui, Yan

194

A "Sense of Place" in Public Participation in Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) within the natural sciences has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to expand cognitive knowledge and understanding of ecology, with implications regarding individual perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors about the environment and feelings about the personal relevance of science. Yet the…

Haywood, Benjamin K.

2014-01-01

195

Action Research and Scientific Method: Presumed Discrepancies and Actual Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent comparisons between action research (AR) and scientific method (SM) have typically focused on their differences and generally concluded that they are two distinct and incompatible methods for cumulating knowledge. The present article attempts to bridge the two approaches by reviewing their common roots and by analyzing the assumptions underlying three frequently noted discrepancies between these two forms of inquiry:

Herman Aguinis

1993-01-01

196

Introduction Funding for scientific research has flowed freely in  

E-print Network

as governments decide what level of funding should be directed to scientific research. The most revealing cases and observational, with no inside `leaks' or wiretaps to corroborate or challenge my interpretations. Whether my CSIRO and both federal and many state governments have failed to provide adequate funding. I explore

Krebs, Charles J.

197

The future of scientific communication in the earth sciences: The impact of the internet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Publication on paper of research results following peer-review and editing has been the accepted means of scientific communication for several centuries. Today, the continued growth in the volume of scientific literature, the increased unit costs of archiving paper publications, and the rapidly increasing power and availability of electronic technology are creating tremendous pressures on traditional scientific communication. The earth sciences are not immune from these pressures, and the role of the traditional publication as the primary means of communication is rapidly changing. Electronic publications and network technology are radically altering the relationship between interpretative result and the underlying data. Earth science research institutions, including the Kansas Geological Survey, are experimenting with new forms of on-line publication that assure broad access to research and data and improve application of research results to societal problems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Carr, T.R.; Buchanan, R.C.; Adkins-Heljeson, D.; Mettille, T.D.; Sorensen, J.

1997-01-01

198

ASAS centennial paper: future needs of research and extension in forage utilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs i...

199

Scientific Quality of Original Research Articles on Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific quality of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke; to determine whether poor article quality is associated with publication in non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings or with other article characteristics. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke published in peer reviewed journals and non-peer-reviewed

Deborah Barnes

1997-01-01

200

Environmental Inquiry: Authentic Scientific Research for High School Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These curriculum series, developed at Cornell University, are intended to help students conduct environmental science research and participate in communities of fellow student scientists. The series includes two levels of inquiry, modeled after professional scientific research. First, students learn specific research protocols. Using these protocols, they conduct interactive research projects. Downloadable forms help students design feasible experiments and then analyze, interpret, and present the results. Discussion boards and an online peer review forum provide opportunities for interaction with fellow students. The four focus areas are watersheds, toxic risk, invasive species, and biological decay/renewal.

201

Future Directions of Delirium Research and Management  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring advancements in the clinical and research realms to improve patient outcomes. Increased clinical recognition and utilization of delirium assessment tools, along with clarification of specific risk factors and presentations in varying patient populations, will be necessary in the future. To improve predictive models for outcomes, the continued development and implementation of delirium assessment tools and severity scoring systems will be required. The interplay between the pathophysiological pathways implicated in delirium and resulting clinical presentations and outcomes will need to guide the development of appropriate prevention and treatment protocols. Multicenter randomized controlled trials of interventional therapies will then need to be performed to test their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting. PMID:23040289

Hughes, Christopher G.; Brummel, Nathan E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

2013-01-01

202

Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.  

SciTech Connect

Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

Choi, S. U.-S.

1998-10-20

203

The globalization of health research: harnessing the scientific diaspora.  

PubMed

The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames. PMID:19318794

Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I

2009-04-01

204

7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is...

2010-01-01

205

3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential Documents...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President...Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem...

2010-01-01

206

Curating Scientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method in Context  

E-print Network

Method The challenge of digital preserving scientific dataand methods into an overall process capable of producing an actionable preservation plan for scientificScientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method

Conway, Esther; Dunckley, Matthew; Giaretta, David

2009-01-01

207

Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

2014-01-01

208

Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

2014-01-01

209

Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.  

PubMed

Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

2013-07-30

210

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology  

SciTech Connect

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

Hules, J. [ed.

1996-11-01

211

Validation in Internet Survey Research: Reviews and Future Suggestions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Internet surveys have been widely used by researchers and companies as a means of data collection. However, few IS studies have discussed the validation of Internet survey research. From the perspective of the positivist and quantitative research, studies that fail to organize a scientific and rigorous research design will harm their finding's validity, reliability and generalizability. In

Hui-chih Wang; Her-sen Doong

2007-01-01

212

Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the

Ritterbusch

2000-01-01

213

Investigating the Impact on Skill Development of an Undergraduate Scientific Research Skills Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and subsequent impact of a scientific research skills course. Student understanding of the university research environment, their confidence in finding and using scientific literature and in scientific writing and presentation pre- and post-course was investigated. The findings suggested that understanding of the research environment and research process which was poor pre-course, improved after its completion.

Kay H Yeoman; Barbara Zamorski

2008-01-01

214

Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research: Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of scientific knowledge on intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence, with a particular focus on the measurement of gender patterns. A multimethod analysis of estimates for the incidence and prevalence of intimate and sexual aggression reveals consistencies across some methodologies and inconsistencies across others. In particular, self-report using behavioral checklists such as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales yields results that are very discrepant from other research findings. Contrary to some assertions, self-report studies using simple checklists do not represent "most data" on intimate violence; there are large criminological and public health databases that warrant attention. When these sources are considered and placed in the context of other data on violence and aggression, a clear pattern of gender asymmetry emerges, with males perpetrating more physical and sexual violence than females for virtually every form of violence ever studied. Violence research has been hampered by the conservative forces that affect most social science research, including peer review, grant review, and tenure review processes that discourage methodological innovation and reward incremental research studies. We need to focus resources on scientific and technological innovation to better understand violent phenomena and better serve all those involved in violence. Two examples of self-report methods that do not produce gender symmetry are described. PMID:24464246

Hamby, Sherry

2014-01-24

215

Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

2012-04-01

216

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing  

E-print Network

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing GREGORY D. ABOWD and ELIZABETH, applica- tion-driven research in ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes for future research in ubiquitous computing, we review the accomplishments of these efforts and point

Abowd, Gregory D.

217

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Young Researchers' Forum invites to free  

E-print Network

on a conference and a workshop on sustainable production systems Future Agriculture initiativeYoung ResearchersFramtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Young Researchers' Forum invites to free participitation' Forum invites nine young researchers to participate in a conference and work- shop on sustainable

218

PARC - Scientific Exchange Program (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

ScienceCinema

'PARC - Scientific Exchange Program' was submitted by the Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center (PARC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. PARC, an EFRC directed by Robert E. Blankenship at Washington University in St. Louis, is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

Blankenship, Robert E. (Director, Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center); PARC Staff

2011-11-03

219

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-01-01

220

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-12-31

221

Writing a Scientific Research Paper Parts of a research report/what each should contain  

E-print Network

Writing a Scientific Research Paper Parts of a research report/what each should contain Some principles of good writing General advice about creating a text Research Report Sections Introduction up the fluid. Understanding this so called drag force is essential in order to predict the motion

deYoung, Brad

222

Evaluating Research in Career and Technical Education Using Scientifically-Based Research Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent emphasis on scientifically-based research (SBR) as the government's favored research paradigm has direct implications for career and technical education (CTE). From a practical standpoint, federal funds will now be appropriated exclusively on scholars' readiness and ability to engage the "right" research questions. While the government…

Gemici, Sinan; Rojewski, Jay W.

2007-01-01

223

Research on the Scientific and Technological Innovation of Research University and Its Strategic Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates the important role that the scientific and technological innovation plays in the research university. Technological innovation is one of the main functions that the research university serves and contributes for the development of economy and society, which is the essential measure for Research University to promote…

Cheng, Yongbo; Ge, Shaowei

2005-01-01

224

African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

Kebede, Abebe

2002-03-01

225

76 FR 72678 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and...announces its intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research...represents a small portion of the overall fishing mortality for HMS, and this...

2011-11-25

226

77 FR 69593 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and...announces its intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research...is exempt from regulations (e.g., fishing seasons, prohibited species,...

2012-11-20

227

78 FR 69823 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and...announces its intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research...migratory species (HMS) in 2014. Exempted fishing permits and related permits would...

2013-11-21

228

75 FR 75458 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and...announces its intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research...represents a small portion of the overall fishing mortality for HMS, and this...

2010-12-03

229

Predicting the future: towards symbiotic computational and experimental angiogenesis research.  

PubMed

Understanding the fundamental organisational principles underlying the complex and multilayered process of angiogenesis is the mutual aim of both the experimental and theoretical angiogenesis communities. Surprisingly, these two fields have in the past developed in near total segregation, with neither fully benefiting from the other. However, times are changing and here we report on the new direction that angiogenesis research is taking, where from well-integrated collaborations spring new surprises, experimental predictions and research avenues. We show that several successful ongoing collaborations exist in the angiogenesis field and analyse what aspects of their approaches led them to achieve novel and impactful biological insight. We conclude that there are common elements we can learn from for the future, and provide a list of guidelines to building a successful collaborative venture. Specifically, we find that a near symbiosis of computation with experimentation reaps the most impactful results by close cyclical feedback and communication between the two disciplines resulting in continual refinement of models, experimental directions and our understanding. We discuss high impact examples of predictive modelling from the wider, more established integrated scientific domains and conclude that the angiogenesis community can do nothing but benefit from joining this brave new, integrated world. PMID:23415766

Bentley, Katie; Jones, Martin; Cruys, Bert

2013-05-15

230

A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

Lintz, Elizabeth M.

2008-01-01

231

Past, present and future of laser fusion research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong confidence to reach the ignition and burn in near future. The international collaboration is now highly expected.

Yamanaka, C.

1996-05-01

232

Damage Assessment of Structures an Air Force Office of Scientific Research  

E-print Network

Damage Assessment of Structures an Air Force Office of Scientific Research Structural Mechanics Mechanics program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research on the damage assessment of structures Perspective Victor Giurgiutiu, PhD Air Force Office of Scientific Research Structural Mechanics Program 875

Giurgiutiu, Victor

233

ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as “fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research”.Purpose The purpose of this study

Sandra M Reynolds

2004-01-01

234

Quantifying the Impact and Relevance of Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Qualitative and quantitative methods are being developed to measure the impacts of research on society, but they suffer from serious drawbacks associated with linking a piece of research to its subsequent impacts. We have developed a method to derive impact scores for individual research publications according to their contribution to answering questions of quantified importance to end users of research. To demonstrate the approach, here we evaluate the impacts of research into means of conserving wild bee populations in the UK. For published papers, there is a weak positive correlation between our impact score and the impact factor of the journal. The process identifies publications that provide high quality evidence relating to issues of strong concern. It can also be used to set future research agendas. PMID:22110667

Sutherland, William J.; Goulson, David; Potts, Simon G.; Dicks, Lynn V.

2011-01-01

235

Paradigm change and uncertainty about funding of public health research: social and scientific implications.  

PubMed

Since the 1970s two fundamental shifts have occurred in health research funding: a reduction in the buying power of research dollars, and an increase in the competition for resources. Most fields have also seen a decrease in the dollars available for research. Pressures for justifying the relevance of research activities have become increasingly pragmatic. The thesis of this paper is that scientific creativity and innovation are compromised by the highly uncertain and competitive funding environment of contemporary health research. This is largely because criteria of scientific excellence predicated on an investigation's presumed future impact support the status quo of methods and subject matter in funded research. Extraordinary rationality among scientists seeking and allocating resources promotes the survival of the existing system over time, yet inhibits progressive development through the transformation of conceptual models. Therefore, despite a growing unrest about the way research on population health is conducted, new conceptions of the relationship between theory and methods have been slow to emerge. Amelioration of a disjunction between the institutionalized rules governing science and the culturally sanctioned goals of science requires commitment to a dialectic between orthodoxy and dissent. PMID:10181034

Daniel, M; Green, L W; Sheps, S B

1998-01-01

236

Water research to support society: past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years. Historical changes in focus areas clearly reflect the shifts in societal needs, going from industrialization to the information society and globalization. Present research needs will be illustrated in the on-going practical work to support water managers and decision makers with hydrological forecasts, climate change impact assessments, improved water status for biodiversity and statistics for dimensioning safe infrastructure. Different approaches to applied research and ways to implement new knowledge in society will be discussed. Future research is suggested to embrace the complexity of the water systems by linking scales, monitoring systems, processes, disciplines and various users. Some ingredients to achieve a coordinated effort in the scientific community will be suggested, based on new technology, multi-data, transparency and the principles of sharing. To handle the problems of the Antropocene, improved knowledge accumulation to advance science and interactions with other disciplines is absolutely necessary. These should be the basic elements of Panta Rhei.

Arheimer, Berit

2014-05-01

237

Quality of Gastroenterology Research Published in Saudi Arabian Scientific Journals  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Evidence-based medicine has established itself in the field of gastroenterology. In this study we aim to assess the types of study designs of gastroenterology-related articles published in Saudi scientific journals. Patients and Methods: An online review using PubMed was carried out to review gastroenterology-related articles published in six Saudi medical journals in the time interval from 2003 to 2012. To classify the level of evidence in these articles we employed the Oxford's levels of evidence. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the levels of evidence between published articles. Results: A total of 721 gastroenterology-related articles were reviewed, of which 591 articles met our inclusion criteria; 80.7% were level IV. The three most common types of studies we encountered were cross-sectional (33.9%), case reports (27.9%), and case series (18.8%). Forty-three percent of the published research was in the field of hepatobiliary and spleen. The total number of articles increased from 260 articles in the 1st 5-year period (2003–2007) to 330 in the 2nd period (2008–2012). However, no statistically significant difference in the level of evidence was noted. In Annals of Saudi Medicine Journal, articles with level II increased from 0 to 10% with a P value 0.02. Conclusion: In our review of gastroenterology-related published articles in Saudi scientific journals, we observed an increase in the quantity of articles with the quality and level of evidence remaining unchanged. Further research is recommended to explore different reasons affecting the volume and quality of gastroenterology-related research in Saudi scientific journals. PMID:25843195

Almaghrabi, Majed M.; Alamoudi, Abdullah S.; Radi, Suhaib A.; Merdad, Anas A.; Makhdoum, Ahmad M.; Batwa, Faisal A.

2015-01-01

238

Evolution of scientific ballooning and its impact on astrophysics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we celebrate the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays on a manned balloon, it seems appropriate to reflect on the evolution of ballooning and its scientific impact. Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Ballooning was revolutionized in 1950 with the introduction of the so-called natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for more than a half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey report supports super-pressure balloon development and the giant step forward it offers with ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights at constant altitudes for about 100 days.

Jones, William Vernon

2014-05-01

239

Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research  

PubMed Central

Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075

Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2008-01-01

240

Development of nature of science ideas through authentic scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the ways in which scientific knowledge develops, or the epistemology of science, is believed to be a crucial component of scientific literacy. This construct is more formally known as Nature of Science (NOS) within the science education community. The merits of three different approaches to NOS teaching and learning in the context of authentic scientific research on high school student participants' NOS ideas were explored in this study. These approaches were an explicit/reflective approach, a reflective approach and an implicit approach. The effectiveness of explicit approaches over implicit approaches has been demonstrated in school contexts, but little is known regarding the merits of these approaches when the practices that learners engage in are highly authentic in the ways in which they model the work of professional scientists. If an implicit approach yields positive impacts in authentic contexts, then which specific factors within those contexts are influential in doing so? The Authentic Experiences in Science Program (AESP), a summer program designed for high school students offered at a major research university, offered a wonderful context for an investigation of these issues. In this program, high school students worked for an extended period of time in a research scientist's laboratory on an authentic research project. Additionally, seminars offered through the program provided a venue for the implementation of the three aforementioned NOS teaching and learning approaches. An open-ended questionnaire designed to assess respondent NOS ideas was administered to 30 participants of the AESP both at the beginning and again at the end of the program. From those thirty, six case study participants were selected, and through a series of observations and interviews, influential factors impacting their NOS ideas within their specific laboratory placements were identified. Results of categorical data analysis of the questionnaires revealed that the changes in NOS ideas exhibited by the participants who experienced the explicit/reflective approach were significantly different from the changes in NOS ideas exhibited by the participants who experienced either of the other two approaches. Specifically, changes related to participants' understandings of the distinctions between theories and laws in science and the myth of the scientific method were significantly and positively impacted for the participants who experienced the explicit/reflective approach. Additionally, case study participants who experienced either of the other two approaches demonstrated changes in their understandings of many NOS aspects (e.g. subjectivity, creativity, empirical NOS). Authentic action on the part of these participants was linked to these positive NOS changes. That authentic action was more influential when the participants were treated in authentic ways and developed feelings of authenticity. The findings prompted a discussion of implications and recommendations for NOS teaching and learning in both school contexts and authentic contexts.

Burgin, Stephen Randall

241

US computer research networks: Current and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

1989-01-01

242

Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches to improving diversity in scientific research focus on graduating more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, but graduation with a STEM undergraduate degree alone is not sufficient for entry into graduate school. Undergraduate independent research experiences are becoming more or less a prerequisite…

Bangera, Gita; Brownell, Sara E.

2014-01-01

243

Does Action Research Count as Scientifically-Based Research? A Vygotskian Mediational Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the purpose, function, and legitimacy of action research as a methodology that encompasses a complex, authentic view of scientific inquiry. A historical account of action research is presented with a focus in how it merged theory with practice. Cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) is used as a theoretical rationale for…

Dixon-Krauss, Lisbeth A.

244

Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

2007-06-01

245

OCLC Research: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

From its modest beginnings in the mid 1970s as a small research and development unit of Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC), OCLC Research has evolved to become a significant research organization, a preeminent laboratory for the exploration of innovative uses of library data and information system technology, and a key agent of change, advancing the state of the art

Nancy E. Elkington

2009-01-01

246

Women in Physics and Scientific Research in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines "for women." If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.

Girata, Doris

2009-04-01

247

Remarks Of The Chairman: Scientists, Scientific Societies, And Military Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples like the holographic vibration analysis to study the influence of gun and cannon shots on the function of tympanic membranes, or the optimization with in-line holography of spray nozzles that were used in defoliation actions in Vietnam show that today even in such highly specialized fields like biomedical applications of holography, where you normally would not expect military applications, you are confronted with the question of the interlacing of science with military. This demonstrates, that there is no way to avoid taking a stand on this question - which seems anyway to be very obvious especially when you are involved in laser research and optics. But it seems that many colleagues knowingly or unconsciously put this problem out of their minds and many - if not most - of the scientific societies support this attitude by giving increasing public recognition to such type of research without any critical discussion of its consequences.

von Bally, Gert

1983-12-01

248

Research Based Science Education: Bringing Authentic Scientific Research into the Secondary Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers and students at Northview High School in Brazil, Indiana have the opportunity to engage in authentic scientific research through our participation in two national projects, TLRBSE and PEPP. Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is a teacher professional development and retention program coupled with authentic scientific research projects in astronomy. Teacher-Leaders are trained in research-based pedagogy and serve as mentors to less experienced colleagues and work with students to develop science research methods and research projects for the classroom. Astronomical data collected at Kitt Peak by astronomers and teachers is made available on CD for classroom use. Northview is in its second year as a TLRBSE school. The Princeton Earth Physics Project (PEPP) trains mentor teachers in fundamentals of research in seismology. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the high school. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. The Northview Seismic Station has been in operation since 1998. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discus how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes and barriers to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

Sayers, J.

2003-12-01

249

75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The Department...Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on March 1-2...applications for scientific and technical merit and to make recommendations to the...

2010-01-21

250

75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting The Department...Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 16-18...applications for scientific and technical merit and to make recommendations to the...

2010-07-13

251

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2013-10-01

252

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2011-10-01

253

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2012-10-01

254

Summary of Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific research on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi is the largest and strongest body of research in the world on any program to develop human potential. The more than 500 scientific studies conduct- ed at 200 independent universities and institutions in 33 countries and published in over 100 leading scientific journals have documented that

David Orme-Johnson

1995-01-01

255

On Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research and How to Remove Them A Public Comment on NIH Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research has captured a lot of attentions from scientific communities and general public. Thus, it is not a surprise that US President would choose this research field to begin his action of removing barriers to responsible scientific research. However, without first removing some common barriers in scientific communication and restoring true democracy in scientific research, any responsible scientific

Shi V. Liu

256

The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

Danch, J. M.

2010-12-01

257

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

258

Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

1980-01-01

259

Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7). The STPL could acquire more technical assignments if examples of the areas where they posses expertise would be circulated around the center. The fact that the STPL owns high speed video capability could be 'advertised' among its customer base if there truly was an interest in building up a customer base in this area. The STPL could participate in events like TOPS as an exhibitor, as well as

Davidhazy, Andrew

1994-01-01

260

Research Universities and the Future of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

Duderstadt, James J.

2012-01-01

261

Research in Army Training: Present and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper shows the method of application of proven research procedures to Army training and illustrates the usefulness of research techniques in making training more effective and efficient. Objective measurements of soldier proficiency in common military skills and knowledge are described. (Author/se)

Crawford, Meredith P.

262

78 FR 37242 - Draft Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Scientific Working Group on Medicolegal Death Investigation AGENCY: National Institute...Scientific Working Group for Medicolegal Death Investigation will make available to the...Research in Forensic Pathology/Medicolegal Death Investigation''. The opportunity...

2013-06-20

263

Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

Samios,N.P.

2008-11-17

264

Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary and viewgraphs of a discussion presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dealing the the 'data problem' are discussed. A brief history and a development of some basic mass storage system (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. Future MSS needs for future computing environments is discussed.

Olear, Bernard T.

1991-01-01

265

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in the IPY 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) initiates, develops, and coordinates international scientific research in the Antarctic region. SCAR is assuming a leadership position in the IPY primarily through its five major Scientific Research Programs; ACE, SALE, EBA, AGCS, and ICESTAR; which will be briefly described.Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) promotes the exchange of data and ideas between research groups focusing on the evolution of Antarctica's climate system and ice sheet. The program will: (1) quantitatively assess the climate and glacial history of Antarctica; (2) identify the processes which govern Antarctic change and feed back around the globe; (3) improve our ability to model past changes in Antarctica; and (4)document past change to predict future change in Antarctica. Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) promotes, facilitates, and champions cooperation and collaboration in the exploration and study of subglacial environments in Antarctica. SALE intends to understand the complex interplay of biological, geological, chemical, glaciological, and physical processes within subglacial lake environments through coordinated international research teams. Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic (EBA) will use a suite of modern techniques and interdisciplinary approaches, to explore the evolutionary history of selected modern Antarctic biota, examine how modern biological diversity in the Antarctic influences the way present-day ecosystems function, and thereby predict how the biota may respond to future environmental change. Antarctica and the Global Climate System (AGCS) will investigate the nature of the atmospheric and oceanic linkages between the climate of the Antarctic and the rest of the Earth system, and the mechanisms involved therein. A combination of modern instrumented records of atmospheric and oceanic conditions, and the climate signals held within ice cores will be used to understand past and future climate variability and change in the Antarctic as a result of natural and anthropogenic forcings over the last 100,000 years. Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research (ICESTAR) will study the interactions between and collective behavior of the many component parts of the Earth system, including the interaction between the natural environment and human society. Objectives include specification and prediction of the state of the system and assimilation and integration of data from disparate sources to understand the complex geospace environment.

Kennicutt, M. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Summerhayes, C.

2005-05-01

266

Transportation Research Circular: Future Aviation Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 12th International Workshop on Future Aviation Activities was held in September 2002, and this collection of presentation transcripts was released the following January. Many references to the September 11 terrorist attacks are made, especially concerning airport security measures and changes in the public's views of flying. Speakers also addressed long-term trends in air transportation, such as airspace capacity and general aviation growth. Nearly every kind of aviation was discussed; ranging from domestic to international activities and airports to manufacturers, the event had implications for the industry as a whole.

2003-01-01

267

Component research for future propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

1981-01-01

268

Future of Venus Research and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal is known about Venus from the Venera, Pioneer-Venus, Magellan, and Venus Express missions. However, many significant questions remain regarding the origin, evolution and current geologic and atmospheric processes. Much can be learned from theoretical modeling of the planetary interior and atmospheric circulation, as well as from laboratory spectroscopic studies. However, to answer many of the outstanding questions, new space flight missions are needed. Multiple international space agencies are considering Venus as a possible destination for future exploration. Collaborative international participation provides a viable path to further understanding of Earth's sister planet and her role in the formation of our solar system.

Glaze, L.; Limaye, S.; Nakamura, M.; Wilson, C.; Zasova, L.

2014-04-01

269

Organizational Errors: Directions for Future Research  

E-print Network

The goal of this chapter is to promote research about organizational errors—i.e., the actions of multiple organizational participants that deviate from organizationally specified rules and can potentially result in adverse ...

Carroll, John Stephen

270

Future Research in Adipose Stem Cell Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adipose stem cells have a bright prospect in regenerative medicine for tissue\\/organ engineering. However, some hurdles may\\u000a hinder the progress of adipose stem cell engineering. Therefore this chapter highlights the advances in adipose stem cell\\u000a researches, and focuses on prospective researches that are needed to overcome the hurdles in adipose stem cell engineering,\\u000a i.e., to identify the various stem cells

Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

271

Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System  

PubMed Central

Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

2010-01-01

272

Spacelab Life Sciences 1 and 2 scientific research objectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pressurized Spacelab module was designed and built to allow investigators to conduct research in space in an environment approximating that of a ground-based laboratory. It is configured to allow multiple investigations employing both human and nonhuman subjects. This flexability is exemplified by the SLS-1, SLS-2, and SLS-3 experiment complement. A total of 21 experiments are scheduled for these missions; the areas to be investigated are renal/endocrine function, cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary function, hematology, immunology, metabolic activity of muscle, Ca metabolism, the vestibular system, and general biology. A plan for integration of measurements will allow each investigator to use data from other experiments. The experiments make up a scientifically balanced payload that addresses fundamental biomedical problems associated with space flight and provides the first opportunity to study the acute effects of weightlessness in a comprehensive, interrelated fashion.

Leach, Carolyn S.; Schneider, Howard J.

1987-01-01

273

The future of poultry science research: things I think I think.  

PubMed

Much poultry research progress has occurred over the first century of the Poultry Science Association. During that time, specific problems have been solved and much basic biological knowledge has been gained. Scientific discovery has exceeded its integration into foundation concepts. Researchers need to be involved in the public's development of critical thinking skills to enable discernment of fact versus fiction. Academic, government, and private institutions need to hire the best people. Issues of insufficient research funding will be remedied by a combination of strategies rather than by a single cure. Scientific advocacy for poultry-related issues is critical to success. Two other keys to the future are funding for higher-risk projects, whose outcome is truly unknown, and specific allocations for new investigators. Diligent, ongoing efforts by poultry scientists will enable progress beyond the challenges. PMID:19439648

Taylor, R L

2009-06-01

274

The future of naval ocean science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

275

Future human bone research in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab crewmembers demonstrated negative calcium (Ca) balance reaching about -300 mg/day by flight day 84. Limited bone density (BMD) measurements documented that bone was not lost equally from all parts of the skeleton. Subsequent BMD studies during long duration Russian flights documented the regional extent of bone loss. These studies demonstrated mean losses in the spine, femur neck, trochanter, and pelvis of about 1%-1.6% with large differences between individuals as well as between bone sites in a given individual. Limited available data indicate postflight bone recovery occurred in some individuals, but may require several years for complete restoration. Long duration bedrest studies showed a similar pattern of bone loss and calcium balance (-180 mg/day) as spaceflight. During long duration bedrest, resorption markers were elevated, formation markers were unchanged, 1,25 vitamin D (VitD) and calcium absorption were decreased, and serum ionized Ca was increased. Although this information is a good beginning, additional spaceflight research is needed to assess architectural and subregional bone changes, elucidate mechanisms, and develop efficient as well as effective countermeasures. Space research poses a number of unique problems not encountered in ground-based laboratory research. Therefore, researchers contemplating human spaceflight research need to consider a number of unique problems related to spaceflight in their experimental design.

LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.; Schneider, V.

1998-01-01

276

Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

Mathes, J. C.

277

Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on

James O. Prochaska

2008-01-01

278

RESEARCH FOR OUR ENERGY FUTURE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

into fuel Cells and Batteries 28 fuTuRe ReseaRCH imPaCTs future vehicle fleet and office Building 20 solaR e 3BRooKHaveN NaTioNal laBoRaToRy THE our nation faces a grand challenge: finding alternatives

Ohta, Shigemi

279

Energy Frontier Research Centers Science for our Nation's Energy Future  

E-print Network

Energy Frontier Research Centers Science for our Nation's Energy Future US Department of Energy Office of Science www.energyfrontier.us43 ABOVE: CFSES addresses safe, secure and economical underground

280

Research on Web-based Scientific Computing Legacy Application Sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of Internet technology, A legion of scientific computing legacy programs with rich domain knowledge and expertise were distributed across various disciplines. As the program implementations or interfaces and so on, scientific computing legacy programs can not be shared through the Internet. This paper proposes a method of packaging scientific computing legacy programs into DLL(Dynamic Link Library), and packaging them into Web services through the C# reflection, making the scientific computing legacy programs successfully share on the Internet.

Zhang, Yong; Cui, Bin-Ge

281

The Role of Student-Advisor Interactions in Apprenticing Undergraduate Researchers into a Scientific Community of Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are themselves apprentices to faculty members. As such, research mentors of undergraduate students should be aware of the dual scientific and educational aspects of their advising role and its significance in shaping students' identities and career trajectories.

Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.

2011-12-01

282

The Future of Research in Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

Duke, Charles

2006-03-01

283

Trust and the Future of Research  

E-print Network

or unimaginative to fabricate data or Ethics Center for Engineering and Science, experiments, disclosure in vestigators must continue to rely on submitting their pro posals and publishing in journals. However, because if research is to thrive. As Baier has argued, morally de der Professor in Ethics at Case Western Reserve

Bandettini, Peter A.

284

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

285

Gray Power: Agenda for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructing the agenda for research on grey power requires recognizing the diversity of older people and the context through which concepts of old age are developed. Studies of political power should be longitudinal and cross-sectional. Studies of age advocacy should be linked with those of other advocacy groups. (SK)

Yelaja, Shanker A.

1989-01-01

286

Future Directions Recent Research and Presentations  

E-print Network

). The development of disciplinary communication competence among teaching assistants: A research agenda. In Gorsuch, Spain, June 2010. Dimitrov, N. (2009). Western Guide to Mentoring Graduate Students Across Cultures adaptation of students and faculty Role Associate Director, Teaching Support Centre Experience and Expertise

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

287

Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Can a Successful Program of Research Exist without Scientific-Based Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents an attempt at determining if a construct, rather than an instructional method, is supported by scientifically-based research. The purpose of this study was to examine the credibility of evidence-based claims underlying the literature related to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (Shulman, 1986). Using a hybrid…

Holder, K. C.

2004-01-01

288

Variation in the interpretation of scientific integrity in community-based participatory health research.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

2013-11-01

289

What Do Researchers Say about Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a thread of three pieces about scientific literacy. The first, written by Edgar Jenkins, provided an introduction to scientific literacy within the context of citizenship and the ways that scientific literacy might be interpreted by those with a concern about public understanding of science or the public engagement…

McGregor, Debbie; Kearton, Ginny

2010-01-01

290

The way forward for clinical research in Cameroon: first scientific and research day in Douala, 2014.  

PubMed

There is a huge need for health research to support contextually relevant health service and policy solutions to better the health of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. This need contrasts with the very timid engagement of healthcare practitioners in research in the region.It is against this background that the Douala General Hospital (a tertiary-care hospital in Cameroon), under the stewardship of its chief executive officer, organised the first annual scientific and research day in October 2014. This maiden event saw the participation of local research leaders and the eminent director of the South African Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa, who co-chaired the event. The aim was to educate students, clinicians and junior researchers on the importance of clinical research and evidence-based medicine around the leading theme of the event: action for clinical research and good medical practice.Several abstracts were presented, covering various aspects of medicine, including cardiology, rheumatology, paediatrics, pulmonology, HIV medicine, and obstetrics and gynaecology, together with key lectures on cardiac disease and pregnancy, and plenary sessions on research methodology, scientific writing and publishing. It is hoped that this event will enhance clinical research and the dissemination of research findings to improve evidence-based clinical practice in the country. PMID:25629543

Dzudie, Anastase; Aminde, Leopold; Ngowe Ngowe, Marcelin; Takah, Noah; Luma, Henry Namme; Doualla, Marie Solange; Mapoure, Yacouba; Mbatchou, Hugo; Njamen, Theophile Nana; Priso, Eugene Belley; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Sliwa-Hahnle, Karen; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Sone, Albert Mouelle

2014-01-01

291

Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BACKGROUND International Polar Year, which was launched in March 2007, is an international program of coordinated, interdisciplinary scientific research on Earth's polar regions. The northern regions of the eight Arctic States (Canada, Alaska (USA), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland. Iceland and Greenland (Denmark) have significant indigenous populations. The circumpolar Arctic is one of the least technologically connected regions in the world, although Canada and others have been pioneers in developing and suing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in remote areas. The people living in this vast geographic area have been moving toward taking their rightful place in the global information society, but are dependent on the outreach and cooperation of larger mainstream societies. The dominant medium of communication is radio, which is flexible in accommodating multiple cultures, languages, and factors of time and distance. The addition of newer technologies such as streaming on the Internet can increase access and content for all communities of interest, north and south. The Arctic Circle of Indigenous Communicators (ACIC) is an independent association of professional Northern indigenous media workers in the print, radio, television, film and Internet industries. ACIC advocates the development of all forms of communication in circumpolar North areas. It is international in scope. Members are literate in English, French, Russian and many indigenous languages. ACIC has proposed the establishment of a headquarters for monitoring IPY projects are in each area, and the use of community radio broadcasters to collect and disseminate information about IPY. The cooperation of Team IPY at the University of Colorado, Arctic Net at Laval University, and others, is being developed. ACIC is committed to making scientific knowledge gained in IPY accessible to those most affected - residents of the Arctic. ABSTRACT The meeting of the American Geophysical Union will be held in San Francisco on December 10 to 14, 2007. One component of this conference is entitled « Education, Outreach and Communications During IPY and Beyond ». ACIC proposes to present a discussion paper, « Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers », describing the status of IPY outreach and communications in the Arctic at this time. The paper will be complemented by photographs which illustrate the context of communication activity in these regions. ACIC has an existing international network of indigenous northern communicators. The IPY Northern Coordination Offices in Canada, and key informants in Alaska, RAIPON in the Russian Federation, and the Association of Sami Journalists, will be interviewed to determine involvement in IPY activities planned and/or undertaken. The level of community and professional awareness will be surveyed through interviews with community radio personnel. Aspirations and expectations for further cooperation with IPY reseearchers will be determined. Barriers and shortfalls will be identified. The usability and potential of current communications will be assessed. Endorsed IPY projects will be contacted to determine their Arctic communication plans and activities, barriers and opportunities. Information gained from the Joint Committee Assessment in October will be considered in the context of northern informant input. Conclusions and recommendations will reported, with the goal of optimizing opportunities to connect indigenous Arctic residents and IPY scientific research centres.

Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.

2007-12-01

292

Introduced species policy, management, and future research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species represent an accelerated global change, and current efforts to manage them, though effective in particular situations, are not controlling the general problem. In the US, this failure is the result of insufficient policy, inadequate research and management funding, and gaps in scientific knowledge. Comparative policy analysis is urgently needed; the main US shortcoming is the absence of a

Daniel Simberloff; Ingrid M. Parker; Phyllis N. Windle

2005-01-01

293

78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that the Clinical Science Research and Development...Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation Committee will hold...Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development...review, discussion, and evaluation of research and development...Manager, Regulation Policy and Management,...

2013-11-22

294

The future of cometary plasma research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in the acquisition and analysis of cometary data are reviewed with attention given to current research and projects under development. The need for supplementing the present cometary data is underscored by discussing observational missions from the ground and earth orbit such as the Giotto Extended Mission and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby. The interpretation of Comet Halley data is characterized as advanced with respect to both complete observational data and sophisticated modeling.

Neugebauer, Marcia

1991-01-01

295

Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

Puri, Anu

2013-01-01

296

An exploration of future trends in environmental education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE researchers; and convenings with EE researchers and practitioners. We discuss four core

Nicole M. Ardoin; Charlotte Clark; Elin Kelsey

2012-01-01

297

Contestation and Change in National Policy on “Scientifically Based” Education Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the definitions of “scientifically based research” in education that have appeared in recent national legislation and policy. These definitions, now written into law in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002, and the focus of the National Research Council’s 2002 publication, Scientific Research in Education, are

Margaret Eisenhart; Lisa Towne

2003-01-01

298

Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

1997-01-01

299

International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions, and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations, and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2013-01-01

300

International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2014-10-01

301

Symposium melds past and future polar research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international symposium, Perspectives of Modern Polar Research, was convened in Bad Durkeim, Germany to celebrate the 175th anniversary of the birth of Georg von Neumayer, the noted polar explorer and facilitator of German and international polar science. Neumayer, who lived from 1826 to 1909, began his career as a seaman in the merchant marine. Through his skill in geophysics and meteorology, he rose to become the founder and director of the Flagstaff Observatory in Melbourne, Australia, hydrographer to the German Navy, and director of the Hamburg Oceanic Observatory. He was instrumental in organizing the first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1882-1883.

Johnson, Leonard

302

Scientific Uncertainty in News Coverage of Cancer Research: Effects of Hedging on Scientists' and Journalists' Credibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News reports of scientific research are rarely hedged; in other words, the reports do not contain caveats, limitations, or other indicators of scientific uncertainty. Some have suggested that hedging may influence news consumers' perceptions of scientists' and journalists' credibility (perceptions that may be related to support for scientific

Jensen, Jakob D.

2008-01-01

303

Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…

Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2012-01-01

304

Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code. We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higher-quality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

2014-05-01

305

Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

2014-01-01

306

The Future of Collateral Artery Research  

PubMed Central

In the event of obstructive coronary artery disease, collateral arteries have been deemed an alternative blood source to preserve myocardial tissue perfusion and function. Monocytes play an important role in modulating this process, by local secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes. Extensive efforts have focused on developing compounds for augmenting the growth of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis). Nonetheless, clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of these compounds resulted in disappointing outcomes. Previous studies focused on developing compounds that stimulated collateral vessel growth by enhancing monocyte survival and activity. The limited success of these compounds in clinical studies, led to a paradigm shift in arteriogenesis research. Recent studies have shown genetic heterogeneity between CAD patients with sufficient and insufficient collateral vessels. The genetic predispositions in patients with poorly developed collateral vessels include overexpression of arteriogenesis inhibiting signaling pathways. New directions of arteriogenesis research focus on attempting to block such inhibitory pathways to ultimately promote arteriogenesis. Methods to detect collateral vessel growth are also critical in realizing the therapeutic potential of newly developed compounds. Traditional invasive measurements of intracoronary derived collateral flow index remain the gold standard in quantifying functional capacity of collateral vessels. However, advancements made in hybrid diagnostic imaging modalities will also prove to be advantageous in detecting the effects of pro-arteriogenic compounds. PMID:23638829

Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Verberne, Hein J.; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J.

2014-01-01

307

Future technologies for our future world Research in the School of Electronics and Computer Science  

E-print Network

Science, the first robot to be controlled by living cells, and the development of the world's first in nanotechnology. 3 Research in ECS Contents Introduction 4 The PhD programme 6 Doctoral Training Centres 8 - Web in the UK, it has a worldwide reputation for its education, research and enterprise. Future technologies

Southampton, University of

308

Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

Universities UK, 2011

2011-01-01

309

Neurosciences research in space - Future directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

1991-01-01

310

Wildland fire ash: future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdŕ, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdŕ and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdŕ, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdŕ, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdŕ, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-05-01

311

Melding Research on the Navajo Volcanic Field into Undergraduate Curriculum to Promote Scientific Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation highlights the curricular design and preliminary outcomes of undergraduate research in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College (FLC), supported by an NSF-RUI project on the Navajo volcanic field (NVF). A prime impact of this project was to support the education and career development of undergraduate students by further developing basic knowledge and skills in the context of authentic inquiry on petrologic-based research topics. Integrating research into the curriculum promoted scientific habits of mind by engaging students as "active agents" in discovery, and the creative development and testing of ideas. It also gave students a sense of ownership in the scientific process and knowledge construction. The initial phase of this project was conducted in Igneous Petrology at FLC in 2010. Eleven students were enrolled in this course which allowed them to work as a team in collaboration with the PI, and engage in all aspects of research to further develop and hone their skills in scientific inquiry. This course involved a small component of traditional lecture in which selected topics were discussed to provide students with a foundation to understand magmatic processes. This was complemented by a comprehensive review of the literature in which students read and discussed a spectrum of articles on Tertiary magmatism in the western United States and the NVF. Invited lectures by leading-scientists in geology provided opportunities for discussions and interaction with professional geologists. All of the students in the class engaged in the active collection of petrologic data in the field and laboratory sessions, and were introduced to the use of state-of-the art analytical tools as part of their experiences. Four students were recruited from the course to design, develop, and conduct long-term research projects on selected petrologic topics in the NVF. This research allowed these students to engage in the "messy" process of testing existing hypotheses on NVF magmatism, and developing new ideas and interpretations. The combined outcomes of these research projects provided a collection of original data which have made important contributions to our understanding of the history of the NVF. All student projects served to fulfill a mandatory senior-thesis research project and the students were required to attend professional meetings to present their results. Dissemination of the outcomes of student research into the broader geologic community allowed the students to interact as peers in their field of study. The insight and values that these future geoscientists gained from research experiences early in their education and careers is critical to their professional development. This process infused the students with a greater understanding of science methods and activities. The integration of classroom studies with applied research has a positive impact on the scientific awareness of budding geoscientists which stand to impact the future decisions of society and communities. Data collected on student perspectives document the successful outcomes of this combined research-education project.

Gonzales, D. A.

2011-12-01

312

The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of ufology demonstrates that cultural packaging—a sort of once-removed indication of scientific authority—can be key in creating knowledge accepted as scientific. This adds a new dimension to the argument that scientific legitimacy is constructed, not just from scientific methodologies and institutional location, but also of language, culture, rhetoric, and symbols. Fringe researchers can make their cases for legitimacy

Anne Cross

2004-01-01

313

Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various scientific disciplines represented in investigations on ISS? Are there lessons specific to human research, technology development, life sciences, and physical sciences that can be used to increase future research accomplishments? Research has been conducted and completed on ISS under a set of challenging constraints during the past 7 years. The history of research accomplished on ISS during this time serves as an indicator of the value and potential of ISS when full utilization begins. By learning from our early experience in completing research on ISS, NASA and our partners can be positioned to optimize research returns as a full crew complement comes onboard, assembly is completed, and research begins in full.

Robinson, Julie A.

2007-01-01

314

The future of risk in social science theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue involves a change in the usual format of Health, Risk & Society with the inclusion of two articles that debate the continuing utility of risk for sociological research. In this editorial I reflect on this debate on the future of sociological research on risk. The two protagonists, Judith Green and Jens Zinn, agree that risk has been a

Andy Alaszewski

2009-01-01

315

The Future of Applied Child Development Research and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of applied child development research. Suggests that future studies address questions that society needs to answer as well as questions that might contribute to theory, and that research methods be adjusted accordingly. Urges academics to broaden their audience to focus on practitioners, policymakers, and the public. Concludes…

McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.

2000-01-01

316

Current status and future research in motion planning  

SciTech Connect

There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

Hwang, Y.K.

1995-07-01

317

Measuring supply chain performance: current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to go some way towards addressing the dearth of research into performance measurement systems and metrics of supply chains by critically reviewing the contemporary literature and suggesting possible avenues for future research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article provides a taxonomy of performance measures followed by a critical evaluation of measurement systems designed to evaluate the performance

Craig Shepherd; Hannes Günter

2006-01-01

318

PERSPECTIVES Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVES Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics: where to from here? Niko Holderegger Ă? Helene H. Wagner Ă? Participants of the Landscape Genetics Research Agenda Workshop 2007 Received+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Landscape genetics is an emerging inter- disciplinary field that combines

319

An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

2013-01-01

320

OCLC's Office of Research: Past, Present and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the Online Computer Library Center's (OCLC) Office of Research; describing its historical development within its institutional context, examining its present status, especially current projects; and predicting its future path. Provides a chronology of people, projects, and libraries involved in the OCLC Office of Research

Richardson, John V., Jr.

1998-01-01

321

Results from the DIII-D scientific research program  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high {beta}), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. The authors have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with {beta}{sub N} H{sub 98y} {approximately} 6 for 5 {tau}{sub E} ({approximately}1 s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. They have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment.

Taylor, T.S.; Burrell, K.H.; Baker, D.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

1998-11-01

322

Performing Nondiagnostic Research Biopsies in Irradiated Tissue: A Review of Scientific, Clinical, and Ethical Considerations  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recent development of drugs that target specific pathways in tumors has increased scientific interest in studying drug effects on tumor tissue. As a result, biopsies have become an important part of many early-phase clinical trials. Performing nondiagnostic tumor biopsies raises technical and ethical concerns mostly related to the use of a potentially harmful procedure with no potential benefit to the patient. This issue is complicated by uncertainty about whether performing biopsies in irradiated fields adds significant risk. This article reviews the clinical, scientific, and ethical considerations involved in performing nondiagnostic tumor biopsies in competent adults for research purposes, with a focus on biopsies performed in the setting of therapeutic irradiation. Methods Clinical trials that performed biopsies during or within 4 months of the completion of radiotherapy were identified with a literature review. Results Twenty-nine studies with 2,160 patients were identified. Sixteen of 29 studies reported adverse events (AEs) but did not report active evaluation for biopsy complications. Ten studies did not mention AEs within the study report. At least three studies actively evaluated patients for biopsy complications. Taking this into consideration, 17 (>1%) of 2,160 patients were reported to have biopsy complications, although reporting of AEs was suboptimal in most studies. Conclusion Limited data suggest that biopsies can be performed in irradiated tissues without clinically significant excess risk. Ongoing and future trials including nondiagnostic research biopsies should record and report AEs related to this procedure to provide additional data on safety and toxicity. PMID:18711189

Brown, Aaron P.; Wendler, David S.; Camphausen, Kevin A.; Miller, Franklin G.; Citrin, Deborah

2008-01-01

323

The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and warming water temperatures. Citizen science projects fulfill the requirements of government granting institutions for outreach and scientific communication. This presentation will highlight marine research projects, which have not only engaged citizens in the scientific process but also discuss the impacts of associated outreach, capacity building and community environmental stewardship.

Burgess, S. N.

2010-12-01

324

Research Article Evaluating Scientific Inferences about the Florida Panther  

E-print Network

of the reliability of the scientific literature used to support conservation of Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi restoration, habitat use, Puma concolor coryi, reliability, scientific inference. In 1967, the Florida panther Species Act. Although P. concolor is widespread in South America, Central America, and western North

Beier, Paul

325

Institute for Scientific Computing Research Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of

Keyes

2005-01-01

326

Finding our Future: A Research Agenda for the Research Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The NSF Digital Government research program helps to develop new research themes by sponsoring preliminary explorations and workshops to outline emerging areas of inquiry One area which was recently explored in this way is the grants making and grants management process by which the federal government distributes more than $100 billion each year The project included focus groups and

Theresa A. Pardo; Sharon S. Dawes; Anthony M. Cresswell; Fiona Thompson; Giri Kumar Tayi

2003-01-01

327

A shifting mosaic of scholarly publishing, scientific delivery, and future impact changing the face of learned societies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonprofit scientific societies hope that their activities advance their particular mission and impact their profession and, in the broadest sense, humanity in positive ways. The digital age has provided unprecedented mechanisms to enhance the delivery of science to the world. The marketplace of scientific publishing is a rapidly shifting mosaic of challenges and opportunities, and the responses of nonprofit and commercial publishers vary widely, but their outcomes are still uncertain. The response of the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) provides an example of how a relatively small society has altered its scientific delivery to enhance member benefits while attempting to sustain its economic viability. Since 2000, ASM has moved from a self-publishing, break-even, print-only model to a copublishing agreement with a commercial publisher (Alliance Communications Group, a division of Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas), which now offers members various print and electronic options and generates a shared royalty. Although it is too early to gauge the economic impact of these changes, the ASM leadership clearly attempted to signal its desire for members to view their society as a package of opportunities for edification and involvement rather than just a provider of serial subscriptions. Future challenges facing nonprofit scientific societies include open access, fiscal realities, archiving of publications, and scientific and societal impact; future opportunities include a strengthening of member responsibilities and professionalism, development of data registries to enhance scientific progress, and bundling of like societies. The manner in which nonprofit scientific societies respond to these challenges and opportunities will no doubt affect their sustainability and future impact. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2007-01-01

328

Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.  

PubMed

This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years. PMID:23134766

Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

2012-12-15

329

A Call for Evidence: Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spring 2003 issue of the "Learning Point," the North Central Regional Educational Lab's (NCREL) magazine, focuses on the theme "A Call for Evidence Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research." Articles and materials in the issue are: "Wake-Up Call: Facing the Challenge to Use Scientifically Based Research in Schools"…

NCREL's Learning Point, 2003

2003-01-01

330

Future Directions in Malignant Hyperthermia Research and Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care. PMID:21709147

Hirshey Dirksen, Sharon J.; Larach, Marilyn Green; Rosenberg, Henry; Brandom, Barbara W.; Parness, Jerome; Lang, Robert Scott; Gangadharan, Meera; Pezalski, Tyler

2011-01-01

331

Global Network for Women's & Children's Health Research BUILDING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY & NETWORKS IN RESOURCE-POOR SETTINGS  

E-print Network

· National Institute of Child Health and Human Development OUR SUPPORT Primary support for this unique public and international organizations, interested communities, researchers, and health care providers is crucialGlobal Network for Women's & Children's Health Research BUILDING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY & NETWORKS

Rau, Don C.

332

77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on April...evaluate Rehabilitation Research and Development Center...The purpose of the Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications...protection of human and animal subjects. A...

2012-04-10

333

AAAS - National Academies Compilation of Resources on Scientific Misconduct and Research Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of resources on the ethics involved in a variety of issues realted to scientific conduct and research integrity including authorship, peer review, collaboration, research animals, and conduct.

2011-05-12

334

AXAF: Current Developments and Future Plans for the Scientific Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AXAF, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, is one of NASA's great observatories scheduled for launch in January of 1999 by a Space Shuttle. This facility will be available to scientists in the United States and to the international astronomical community over an anticipated mission lifetime of at least 5 years. The objective of AXAF is to make astrophysical observations in the 0.09 to 10.0 keV energy range with two imaging detectors, and two sets of transmission gratings giving high spatial (0.5 arcsec) and spectral (E/(Delta)E=100-2000) resolution. The AXAF Science Center (ASC) in Cambridge, MA, USA is responsible for obtaining and reviewing observation proposals submitted by users, providing long range science planning and performing all science data calibration, data analysis, science instrument trend analysis, and science data archiving. The ASC will distribute science data products to the users. We will review here the current developments and future plans for the AXAF scientific data analysis system, its infrastructure and new key features, including the global modelling and fitting environment, integrated data analysis GUIs and new analysis tools.

Fruscione, Antonella

1998-01-01

335

International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors’ and investigators’ experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. Research design A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Setting and participants Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Analysis Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. Results The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. Conclusions The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects human rights and produces reliable data. PMID:24534257

Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

2014-01-01

336

The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Prologue to the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA STI Program offers researchers an infrastructure of people and systems that facilitates access to STI; worldwide. The Program is also NASA's institutional mechanism for disseminating the results of its research and developing activities. Through discussions in 1991, the STI Program formulated its Strategic Plan. The plan gives the Program a renewed sense of direction by focusing on future opportunities, customer requirements and Program goals, along with the changes needed to achieve those goals. The Program provides users access to a massive flow of STI which, in fact, represents the largest collection of aeronautical and space science information in the world. The STI Program products and services are outlined, along with the NASA centers, international operations, and the fact that total quality management drives NASA wide program developments. As is detailed, the NASA STI Program is using its resources as effectively as possible to meet the missing needs of NASA.

1991-01-01

337

The history, purpose, and future of instruction in the responsible conduct of research.  

PubMed

This article discusses the key decisions and steps that have partially formalized instruction in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in U.S. research institutions, the different purposes for offering and/or requiring such instruction, and suggestions for what needs to be done to enhance the professional development of researchers in the future. RCR education has developed during three distinct eras: the 1980s, when policy makers were most concerned with defining and investigating research misconduct; the 1990s, when there was significant but highly decentralized growth in RCR instruction; and the years since 2000, when there have been a series of reforms and educational developments. There is still a need for scientists, universities, and professional societies to develop consensus on best ethical practices in many areas of scientific research. More also needs to be learned about assessing the quality of RCR instruction and the effects of training on researchers' behavior. To help set the course for RCR instruction in the future, more effort and funding need to be directed to studying actual research behavior and the factors that influence it; RCR educators and administrators must develop a common vocabulary and framework for developing and evaluating the impact of RCR instruction; and research institutions and funding agencies alike need to take a more active role in promoting and supporting RCR instruction. PMID:17726385

Steneck, Nicholas H; Bulger, Ruth Ellen

2007-09-01

338

Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing.  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance.

McInnes, L. C.; Dahlgren, T.; Nieplocha, J.; Bernholdt, D.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Chavarria, D.; Elwasif, W.; Gorton, I.; Krishan, M.; Malony, A.; Norris, B.; Ray, J.; Shende, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; LLNL; PNNL; ORNL; SNL; Univ. of Oregon

2007-01-01

339

Promoting scientific integrity in nursing research, part II: Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part II of this two-part series reporting on a survey of doctorate-granting schools of nursing on scientific integrity, the authors deal with publication and authorship practices, promotion\\/tenure policies, and suggested strategies to promote scientific integrity at institutional and broader levels, and the role of various agents in this regard. The findings suggest the importance of the role of senior

Shaké Ketefian; Elizabeth R. Lenz

1995-01-01

340

Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

Stoynoff, Stephen

2012-01-01

341

Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

2013-01-01

342

Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen on- and offshore science support infrastructure, recommended operational and scientific support structures and the relevance of AURORA BOREALIS for other present and future Antarctic science programmes and initiatives.

Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

2011-12-01

343

Measuring Supply Chain Performance: Current Research and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to go some way towards addressing the dearth of research into performance measurement systems and metrics\\u000a of supply chains by critically reviewing the contemporary literature and suggesting possible avenues for future research.\\u000a The article provides a taxonomy of performance measures followed by a critical evaluation of measurement systems designed\\u000a to evaluate the performance of supply chains. The

Craig Shepherd; Hannes Günter

344

Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

Witt, A.C.

2011-01-01

345

5 ways McGill researchers are BUILDING YOUR FUTURE  

E-print Network

's research. 12 Shining a Light on Food Poisoning How infrared light can find bad food, before bad food finds will be filled with familiar objects doing extraordinary things: 16 Future Food The healing power more food on less land FIRST PERSON 32 Big Lessons (Few Words) McGill's newest inductees into the Royal

Fabry, Frederic

346

Future Directions in Research Applying Attitude Change Theories to Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights three sources that may have important implications for the future of social influence research in counseling. The first source presented is a major new literature review by P. Paul Heppner et al. that reviews the literature on social influence on counseling and updates earlier reviews. The discussion focuses on three main…

Heesacker, Martin

347

Beyond the Launch: The Future of Research on Leadership Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors believe that the "Journal of Research on Leadership Education" can lead the effort to reduce the communication barriers among academics in a variety of fields, professions, and countries. Its common ground is a commitment to prepare outstanding future leaders for educational settings. The authors urge readers to pay attention to the…

Rusch, Edith; Crawford, James; Wolverton, Mimi

2006-01-01

348

Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

Harding, Luke

2014-01-01

349

BIOSOLIDS RESEARCH AT US EPA: PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE PRESENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation was given at the Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference 2006: Bridging to the Future, March 12-15, 2006. Sally Gutierrez was a panel member of the Opening General Session 5B on March 13, 2006. This presentation talks about the EPA's biosolids research pr...

350

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Research, mechanisms and future outlook  

E-print Network

trend of NAO Index towards higher positive values, which would have severe effects on European weather surface temperatures (IPCC, 2007). There were also significant effects on ocean heat content, sea iceThe North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Research, mechanisms and future outlook Contents Abstract 1 1

Fischlin, Andreas

351

Recent Action-Research and future course in Water Sector.  

E-print Network

Block 380 Thakar people. 200 animals. 40 households. And an acute shortage of water for 5 monthsRecent Action-Research and future course in Water Sector. Milind Sohoni, CTARA, IIT-soil, water, energy end-user defined or demand-driven-drinking water. Towards change-deliver technology

Sohoni, Milind

352

The past, present and future of observational research in marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To introduce the contents of the special issue, and provide an integrative overview of the development of observational methodologies in marketing research, as well as some directions for the future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A historical review of the development of observational methods, beginning with philosophical foundations, is provided. Key philosophical debates are summarized, and trends in observational methods are

Nick Lee; Amanda J. Broderick

2007-01-01

353

Rice Genomes: A Grainy View of Future Evolutionary Research  

E-print Network

Rice Genomes: A Grainy View of Future Evolutionary Research Dispatch Kevin Livingstone and Loren H. Rieseberg The draft genome sequences from two subspecies of rice are powerful new tools for gene discovery information needed to combat inherited maladies, the recent com- pletion of two sequences of the rice genome

Rieseberg, Loren

354

The Future Directions of Lupus Research Presented by  

E-print Network

The Future Directions of Lupus Research Presented by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services of Lupus Systemic Autoimmunity 7 Genetics of Human Lupus 8 Environmental Factors 10 Medications 10 Damage 22 Kidney 22 Central Nervous System 25 Skin 28 Cardiovascular System 29 Atherosclerosis 29

Bandettini, Peter A.

355

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures  

E-print Network

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures Trieu Mai Electricity of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity

Van Veen, Barry D.

356

Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel  

E-print Network

Lung, Artificial: Current Research and Future Directions William J. Federspiel Robert G. Svitek University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs are medical devices designed to take over or supplement the respiratory function of the lung: oxygenating the blood

Federspiel, William J.

357

Scientific Drilling in the Snake River Plain: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River-Yellowstone volcanic province has long been linked to the concept of lithospheric drift over a fixed mantle thermal anomaly or hotspot. This concept is reinforced by seismic tomography that images this anomaly to depths around 500 km, but alternative proposals still present a serious challenge. Basaltic volcanism spans a significant age range and basaltic volcanism in the western SRP lies well off the hotspot track and cannot be related directly to the hotspot in any simple way. The plume-track age progression is documented by rhyolite volcanic centers, but even these represent extended time periods that overlap in age with adjacent centers. Scientific drilling projects carried out over the last two decades have made significant contributions to our understanding of both basaltic and rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Snake River-Yellowstone hotspot system. Because these drill holes also intercept sedimentary interbeds or, in the case of the western SRP, thick sections of Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments, they have also contributed to our understanding of basin formation by thermal collapse in the wake of the hotspot passage or by rifting, paleoclimate of the interior west, and groundwater systems in volcanic rocks. Many of these drill holes are associated with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the eastern plain; others were drilled for geothermal or petroleum exploration. The latter include older holes that were not instrumented or logged in detail, but which still provide valuable stratigraphic controls. We focus here on the result of basalt drilling, which have been high-lighted in recent publications. Basaltic volcanism in the Snake River plain is dominated by olivine tholeiites that have major and trace element characteristics of ocean island basalt: the range in MgO is similar to MORB, but Ti, Fe, P, K, Sr, Zr and LREE/HREE ratios are all higher. Recent studies of basalts from the drill holes show that they evolved by fractionation in a mid-crustal sill complex that has been imaged seismically. Further, the chemical and isotopic systematics of these basalts require assimilation of consanguineous mafic material inferred to represent previously intruded sills. Major and trace element modeling suggest formation of the primary melts by melting of a source similar to E- MORB source. Trace element systematics document mixing between a plume-like source and a more depleted source that is not DMM. A similar more depleted source is inferred for Hawaii, suggesting that it is not continental lithosphere. Future scientific drilling in the SRP is the focus of Project HOTSPOT, a multi-disciplinary initiative that seeks to document time-space variations in the SRP-Yellowstone volcanic system. A workshop sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program was held in May 2006 to develop a targeted program of scientific drilling that examines the entire plume-lithosphere system across a major lithospheric boundary, with holes targeting basalt, rhyolite, and sediments. These drill holes will complement geophysical studies of continental dynamics (e.g., Earthscope), as well as current studies centered on Yellowstone. Additional components of a targeted drilling program include studies of lacustrine sediments that document paleoclimate change in North America during the Pliocene—Pleistocene and fluid flow at deeper crustal levels.

Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Geist, D.; Vetter, S. K.

2006-12-01

358

The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

Sowell, J.

1999-12-01

359

Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.  

PubMed

In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

2012-02-01

360

Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory  

PubMed Central

In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

Burlamaque-Neto, A.C.; Santos, G.R.; Lisbôa, L.M.; Goldim, J.R.; Machado, C.L.B.; Matte, U.; Giugliani, R.

2012-01-01

361

The future of research in female pelvic medicine.  

PubMed

Female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery (FPMRS) was recently recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). FPMRS treats female pelvic disorders (FPD) including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower urinary tract infections (UTI), pelvic pain, and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). These conditions affect large numbers of individuals, resulting in significant patient, societal, medical, and financial burdens. Given that treatments utilize both medical and surgical approaches, areas of research in FPD necessarily cover a gamut of topics, ranging from mechanistically driven basic science research to randomized controlled trials. While basic science research is slow to impact clinical care, transformational changes in a field occur through basic investigations. On the other hand, clinical research yields incremental changes to clinical care. Basic research intends to change understanding whereas clinical research intends to change practice. However, the best approach is to incorporate both basic and clinical research into a translational program which makes new discoveries and effects positive changes to clinical practice. This review examines current research in FPD, with focus on translational potential, and ponders the future of FPD research. With a goal of improving the care and outcomes in patients with FPD, a strategic collaboration of stakeholders (patients, advocacy groups, physicians, researchers, professional medical associations, legislators, governmental biomedical research agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and medical device companies) is an absolute requirement in order to generate funding needed for FPD translational research. PMID:25604652

Chao, Jamie; Chai, Toby C

2015-02-01

362

Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

1992-01-01

363

PAPER PROPERTIES AND DEGRADATION (Modified from the article "Recent Scientific Research in Paper Conservation" by  

E-print Network

PAPER PROPERTIES AND DEGRADATION (Modified from the article "Recent Scientific Research in Paper to evaluate paper conservation research, it is necessary to first outline research regarding paper properties) An understanding of the rationale behind research design is enhanced by a knowledge of paper properties

Mathis, Wayne N.

364

Research in Special Education: Scientific Methods And Evidence-based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

r: This article sets the context for the developrhent of research quality indicators and guidelines for evidence of effective practices provided by different methodologies. The current con- ceptualization of scientific research in education and the complexity of conducting research in spe- cial education settings underlie the development of quality indicators. Programs of research in special education may be viewed as

Samuel L. Odom; ELLEN BRANTLINGER; RUSSELL GERSTEN; ROBERT H. HORNER; BRUCE THOMPSON; Texas A; KAREN R. HARRIS

365

Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

2013-01-01

366

Future Directions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Research. An NHLBI Workshop Report  

PubMed Central

The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

Blackwell, Timothy S.; Tager, Andrew M.; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B.; Schwartz, David A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R.; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K.; Chapman, Harold A.; Collard, Harold R.; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S.; Henke, Craig A.; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; King, Talmadge E.; Loyd, James E.; Lawson, William E.; Marsh, Clay B.; Noble, Paul W.; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A.; O’Riordan, Thomas G.; Oury, Tim D.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Wells, Rebecca G.; White, Eric S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Thannickal, Victor J.

2014-01-01

367

Edinburgh Research Explorer Minimal information for reusable scientific software  

E-print Network

requirements) and quality of conformance (the degree to which the software as implemented meets the non-functional these publications that users recognise and abide by the legal requirements associated with these rights. Take down of scientific software, which minimises the information and effort required such that it is easier

Millar, Andrew J.

368

Postdoctoral researchers are an essential part of the scientific  

E-print Network

in the aca- demic community often fails to reflect their significant role in advancing the nation survey by Sigma Xi, the national scientific honor society, the number of postdoctoral students has grown Academy of Sciences in September 2006 on women in academic science and engineering draws additional at

369

Problems of Scientific Research Activity in Institutions of Higher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under current conditions, the role played by scientific knowledge in all spheres of public life is rising substantially, and more and more attention is being paid to problems of the development and modernization of the Academy of Sciences. Not long ago, for example, there was wide response to the findings of a special study by S. Belanovskii on…

Solodnikov, V. V.

2008-01-01

370

Obstacles to Scientific Research in Light of a Number of Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to identify the scientific research obstacles facing faculty members in the College of Education at Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University (PNU) and to determine the differences in the obstacles according to age, academic rank, scientific specialty, marital status, number of completed studies, and time since the last…

Algadheeb, Nourah A.; Almeqren, Monira A.

2014-01-01

371

Fundamental scientific research on interfaces in the US Department of Energy's Materials Sciences and Engineering program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two facets of the Materials Sciences and Engineering program under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the US Department of Energy: (1) its organizational structure, mission, guiding principles, identification of national scientific user facilities, principal core research activities, identification of some unique portfolio activities, key focus areas, scientific challenges, and the linkage of these challenges to

R. J. Gottschall

2003-01-01

372

The Educational Science and Scientifically Based Instruction We Need: Lessons from Reading Research and Policymaking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Michael Pressley, Nell Duke, and Erica Boling call for a second generation of scientifically based reading instruction that goes beyond the evidence currently informing public policy. The authors argue that the federal government's position on what constitutes "scientific research" embraces only a narrow range of potentially…

Pressley, Michael; Duke, Nell K.; Boling, Erica C.

2004-01-01

373

A survey of poverty research in Russia: Does it follow the scientific method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first critical review of the literature on poverty published in Russia between 1992 and 2006. Using a dataset of about 250 publications in Russian scientific journals we assess whether the poverty research in Russia satisfies the general criteria of a scientific publication and if such studies could provide reliable guidance to the Russian government as it

Michael Lokshin

2009-01-01

374

Research on Personalized Recommendation System of Scientific and Technological Periodical Based on Automatic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the theoretical methods and technology of automatic summarization system and personalized recommend system, ire study how to access to thesis document index, theme words, summary, readers' evaluations and other important recommended information from the vast amount of scientific and technological periodical documents quickly and effectively. The aim is to improve the scientific workers' research efficiency remarkably. On the basis

Qifeng Yang; Sihang Zhang; Bin Feng

2007-01-01

375

BOOK REVIEW OF "SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY, THIRD ED.: TEXT AND CASES IN RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent, well-publicized cases of scientific misconduct have prompted universities to require graduate training in ethics. This book is geared for science educators and graduate students, but the topics are pertinent to all in scientific research. Several chapters cover general areas relevant for all...

376

Creating A Culture Of Scientific Inquiry Through Research Experiences For Teachers And Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating A Culture Of Scientific Inquiry (CACOSI) is a National Science Foundation funded pilot project designed to help middle and high school teachers and students achieve a scientific understanding of their world through authentic short and long-term classroom and field research experiences. Throughout the past year CACOSI had reached out to several Northern New Mexico minority-serving schools to implement inquiry-

N. Kanjorski; M. Hall

2006-01-01

377

The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Omitted Research in the Context of GMO Use and Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessmentshave become apparent. The objective of this article is to discuss the policy and practical implementation of the Precautionary Principle. A major conclusion is that the void in scientific

Anne Ingeborg Myhr; Terje Traavik

2002-01-01

378

Games as a Platform for Student Participation in Authentic Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if…

Magnussen, Rikke; Hansen, Sidse Damgaard; Planke, Tilo; Sherson, Jacob Friis

2014-01-01

379

The Investigation Analysis on Knowledge-Sharing Barriers and Incentives of University Scientific Research and Innovation Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes knowledge-sharing barriers and incentives of university scientific research and innovation teams through a questionnaire survey. We find that knowledge-sharing barriers of university scientific research and innovation teams include psychological barriers, managing barriers and communicating barriers. Knowledge-sharing incentives of university scientific research and innovation teams include receiving respects, recognition and personal career development opportunities.

Lili Wang; Hailiang Wang; Keyi Wang

2010-01-01

380

Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

2002-01-01

381

75 FR 51439 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species...associated with the longline fishery. II. Method of Collection Paper logbooks and electronic reports are required from...

2010-08-20

382

77 FR 9896 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species...collection. II. Method of Collection Submissions may be in paper or electronic format. III. Data OMB Control Number:...

2012-02-21

383

75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gives notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a teleconference meeting of the Spinal Cord Injury & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...

2010-10-22

384

Space and radiation protection: scientific requirements for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.

Schimmerling, W.

1995-01-01

385

Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. In 1984, Dr Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren reported the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers in The Lancet—a discovery that earned them the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005—but what progress have we made since then? Here, we have invited three international experts to give their insights into the advances in H. pylori research over the past 30 years and where research should be focused in the future. PMID:23752823

Fock, Kwong Ming; Graham, David Y.; Malfertheiner, Peter

2014-01-01

386

Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

Breslavets, A. V.

1974-01-01

387

Defining future directions in spinal cord tumor research  

PubMed Central

The relative rarity of spinal cord tumors has hampered the study of these uncommon nervous system malignancies. Consequently, the understanding of the fundamental biology and optimal treatment of spinal cord tumors is limited, and these cancers continue to inflict considerable morbidity and mortality in children and adults. As a first step to improving the outcome of patients affected with spinal cord tumors, the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases Research in cooperation with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke convened a workshop to discuss the current status of research and clinical management of these tumors. The overall goal of this meeting was to initiate a process that would eventually translate fundamental basic science research into improved clinical care for this group of patients. Investigational priorities for each of these areas were established, and the opportunities for future multidisciplinary research collaborations were identified. PMID:20121344

Claus, Elizabeth B.; Abdel-Wahab, May; Burger, Peter C.; Engelhard, Herbert H.; Ellison, David W.; Gaiano, Nicholas; Gutmann, David H.; Heck, Daniel A.; Holland, Eric C.; Jallo, George I.; Kruchko, Carol; Kun, Larry E.; Maria, Bernard L.; Rumboldt, Zoran; Seminara, Daniela; Spinella, Giovanna M.; Stophel, Linda; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Wrensch, Margaret; Gilbertson, Richard J.

2011-01-01

388

Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement  

PubMed Central

Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

McMenamin, Peter

1981-01-01

389

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2011-01-01

390

Individual responsibility and social constraint: The construction of adolescent motherhood in social scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has an important role in the production of knowledge and in shaping dominant social attitudes towards adolescent motherhood. Although adolescent motherhood has been framed as a social problem in social scientific research, recent researchers have attempted to go beyond the focus on disadvantage to suggest that outcomes for adolescent mothers depend upon individual differences and contextual factors related to

Mary Breheny; Christine Stephens

2007-01-01

391

Scientific Research in Jordanian Higher Education Institutions: An Evaluation of the Status and Obstacles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…

bin Tareef, Atif

2009-01-01

392

(865) 574-6185, mccoydd@ornl.gov Advanced Scientific Computing Research  

E-print Network

The Research Alliance in Math and Science (RAMS) program is carried out through the Computing and Computational's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research. The RAMS program continues to provide unique, hands on integrating new software for the science applications which researchers run on high performance computing

Pennycook, Steve

393

Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

Bouter, Lex M.

2010-01-01

394

The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research

Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

2011-01-01

395

Social science research related to wildfire management: an overview of recent findings and future research needs  

E-print Network

dimensions of wildland fire covering diverse topics including: attitudes towards pre-fire mitigation, social fire-mitigation efforts before a fire. Over time, social science research has continued to examine of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific

396

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

SciTech Connect

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

1987-01-01

397

MCP Based UV Detectors, Their Evolution Through Many Astrophysics Missions and Their Future Scientific Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microchannel plate (MCP) electron imaging amplifiers were introduced in the early 1960s as an outgrowth of work on single channel continuous dynode multipliers, and have since become a mainstay of many classes of imaging system. Initially used as an element in image intensifiers, the MCPs direct sensitivity to electrons, ions, and x-rays have resulted in an enormous range of applications, from UV astronomy to electron spectroscopy. Over the past 28 years the Experimental Astrophysics Group (EAG) at the Space Sciences Laboratory have pioneered the development and use of photon counting detection devices based on MCP technology. Their use on a variety of successful space missions (e.g., SOHO, ALEXIS, ACE, ROSAT, HST-STIS, HST-COS, EUVE, CHANDRA, SAMPEX, IMAGE, FUSE, TIMED, ROSETTA, NEW HORIZONS, CHIPS and GALEX) operating from the visible to X-ray regimes for both imagery and spectroscopy has demonstrated their high reliability, low power, low weight, operation at ambient temperature, immunity to the radiation environment of space, solar blindness and high temporal and spatial resolution. Improvements in quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and large format size are ongoing and are constructive in support on a number of upcoming Explorer proposal efforts and current studies for future missions. Though our research is currently aimed at developing a new type of MCPs for space astronomy missions, this technology will also be highly useful for imaging devices for biological, particle, atmospheric and homeland security/reconnaissance systems where MCPs are currently being utilized.

Siegmund, Oswald H. W.

2011-01-01

398

The development and evolution of family therapy research: its impact on practice, current status, and future directions.  

PubMed

Science has always been a central part of family therapy. Research by early pioneers focused on studying the efficacy of both couple and family interventions from a systemic perspective. Today we know more now than ever before about the processes of diverse families and the therapeutic outcomes of family therapy practices. Despite the acknowledged importance of family therapy research, there are still questions about its impact on "real life" practice. Despite all the flaws of each, research and practice are critical interacting elements of a dialectic relationship: High-quality practice combines reliable scientific knowledge with individual clinical judgment made by family therapists in the context of their dynamic transactions with a family or couple. Future research can help uncover the mechanisms we have yet to know and test the ones we have identified while the dynamic interaction of research and practice that can lead to further innovations and developments central to the future of family therapy. PMID:24946675

Sexton, Thomas L; Datchi, Corinne

2014-09-01

399

Information practices and cognitive artifacts in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cognitive ethnography study investigates information practices in experimental life sciences research. Activity analysis of collaborative research projects and cognitive artifacts revealed a series of seven cognitive information tasks performed in the lifecycle of the research project. Life scientists exhibited habituated patterns of search behavior in the institutional information ecology. Scientists have widely adopted the transparent search interfaces of PubMed

Peter H. Jones

2005-01-01

400

Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

Chin, George

1999-01-11

401

Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

2011-12-01

402

Some ideas on the emerging future of developmental research.  

PubMed

We are somewhat critical of the concept of emerging adulthood as a new developmental stage in modern industrial societies, and prefer the idea of systemic mechanisms and processes as the forces and factors that influence the transitions and transformations of human change across the life course. For this reason, we are pleased to see this volume is entirely dedicated to the life-phase of emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries, suggesting that researchers are not convinced that the characteristics of emerging adulthood would be the same for young people from different cultures. While we are very positive towards this series of articles showing that emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries has similarities, and, yet differences to other cultures, and appreciate the diverse findings of these research projects, we would want to suggest some new and more radical strategies for future developmental research. Concretely, a move away from age-bound, stage models towards a more dynamic and systemic approach to lifespan research, simply because we cannot ignore both the past and the future, whilst contemplating the present. PMID:25266579

Kloep, Marion; Hendry, Leo B

2014-12-01

403

Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

2005-01-01

404

Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2013-08-01

405

Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs  

SciTech Connect

The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-02-01

406

"Omics" in pharmaceutical research: overview, applications, challenges, and future perspectives.  

PubMed

In the post-genomic era, biological studies are characterized by the rapid development and wide application of a series of "omics" technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, lipidomics, cytomics, metallomics, ionomics, interactomics, and phenomics. These "omics" are often based on global analyses of biological samples using high through-put analytical approaches and bioinformatics and may provide new insights into biological phenomena. In this paper, the development and advances in these omics made in the past decades are reviewed, especially genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics; the applications of omics technologies in pharmaceutical research are then summarized in the fields of drug target discovery, toxicity evaluation, personalized medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine; and finally, the limitations of omics are discussed, along with the future challenges associated with the multi-omics data processing, dynamics omics analysis, and analytical approaches, as well as amenable solutions and future prospects. PMID:25660284

Yan, Shi-Kai; Liu, Run-Hui; Jin, Hui-Zi; Liu, Xin-Ru; Ye, Ji; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong

2015-01-01

407

Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

1994-01-01

408

Scientific objectives of the second programme of Cooperation for Academic and Scientific Research  

E-print Network

a sustainable form of development, reducing poverty and food insecurity and fighting certain diseases in partnership between academic and research establishments of countries of Africa and the Indian Ocean1 Promotion Universitaire et Scientifique, Cooperation with Africa and Madagascar for the Promotion

409

GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER COMPETITION Addressing the Future of Texas Transportation  

E-print Network

GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER COMPETITION Addressing the Future of Texas Transportation The Texas-student research paper competition. Our goal: Encourage developing researchers to think about the future of Texas or sustain the Texas transportation system in the near- and long-term future. Research topics are not limited

410

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

2007-01-01

411

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for

D. G. Perry; J. S. Dahmann

1987-01-01

412

Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

2007-01-01

413

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research

L. Rowell Huesmann

2007-01-01

414

Enhancing Eighth Grade Student Presentations of Scientific Research with Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum was designed to improve the research and communication skills of eighth-grade students with the integration of technology, mathematics, and science when doing real-experience problem solving. Four units were developed that related the use of technology to skills that are also used in gathering, organizing, and manipulating research

Shreiner, Berdella H.

415

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics Joe Burrescia ESnet collaborators: Research and Education institutions in the US, Europe, Asia Pacific, and elsewhere ­Full access collaborative science ­ Federated trust services with science oriented policy ­ Audio, video, and data

416

Virtual urban — A scientific tool and platform for urban research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality is one of the earliest dreams human owns; nowadays, people are still making further research and attempts in this field and accumulating a lot. Virtual urban is one formation of virtual reality, researches were making experiments of urban on the platform of virtual urban through construction of all kinds of urban models. These experiments not only offered incredible

Jing Deng; Xinqi Zheng; Lina Lv

2010-01-01

417

ADVT. NO.212012 COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH  

E-print Network

& coatings, Engineering ceramics, nanostructured materials, solid oxide fuel cell, sensor and actuator & Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), Kolkata is a premier research organization established-oxide ceramics, bio-ceramics, refractories and glass ceramic coatings and related materials. CSIR-CGCRI has

Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

418

Regulating scientific research: should scientists be left alone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our current political climate, deci- sions about whether to fund research on new stem cell lines or do chimera experiments seem to arbitrarily depend on the religious and economic interests of the administration. Not unreasonably, many scientists be- lieve that science should be left to its own devices in determining research priorities and conducting re- search. When nonscientific considerations

Kristen K. Intemann; Inmaculada de Melo-Martin

2007-01-01

419

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Universities and Colleges: 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic research makes a key contribution to the viability and competitiveness of U.S. technology in the new global markets, as well as to the quality of life of citizens. This report provides a broad quantitative picture of the cost, availability, and the condition of existing research facilities. Data on current spending, sources of support,…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

420

Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 29. Current and Future Utilization of Scientific and Technical Personnel in Energy-Related Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This National Science Foundation (NSF) bulletin summarizes the NSF program of energy manpower studies that assessed the impact of past energy developments and future options for scientific and technical manpower. This document summarizes the utilization of scientific personnel in energy-related activities in private industry in 1975 and shortages…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

421

Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians Report of the AAMC-HHMI Committee  

E-print Network

educators from small colleges, large universities, and medical schools around the United States to determine to matriculating into medical school as well as the scientific competencies required of medical school graduates of medical school applicants and the proficiency of medical school graduates. · Recommend the specific

Karsai, Istvan

422

Blood Pressure Regulation XI: Overview and Future Research Directions  

PubMed Central

While the importance of regulating arterial blood pressure within a ‘normal’ range is widely appreciated, the definition of ‘normal’ and the means by which humans and other species regulate blood pressure under various conditions remain hotly debated. The effects of diverse physiological, pathological and environmental challenges on blood pressure and the mechanisms that attempt to maintain it at an optimal level are reviewed and critically analyzed in a series of articles published in this themed issue of the European Journal of Applied Physiology. We summarize here the major points made in these reviews, with emphasis on unifying concepts of regulatory mechanisms and future directions for research. PMID:24463603

Raven, Peter B.; Chapleau, Mark W.

2014-01-01

423

Prospects of Variable Star Research by Future Space Missions  

E-print Network

ESA and NASA are studying projects having a tremendous return on variable star research. Other national space agencies are also studying or developing projects of smaller costs but with impressive returns. The projects range from global Galactic surveys like the ESA mission GAIA which will give photometric time series for about 1 billion stars, to detailed pulsation modes studies like the CNES mission COROT which could reach a photometric precision lower than 1 ppm. The presentation will emphasize the future astrometric, asteroseismologic and planet detection missions.

Laurent Eyer

2000-02-25

424

Melodic Intonation Therapy: Back to Basics for Future Research  

PubMed Central

We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca’s aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT’s efficacy do not match MIT’s therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

2014-01-01

425

Scientifically Based Research and Peer-Reviewed Research under the IDEA: The Legal Definitions, Applications, and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic analysis of the references to "scientifically based research" (SBR) and closely related terms, such as "peer-reviewed research" (PRR), in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) legislation, regulations, commentary, and case law reveal that SBR and its primary variants apply largely to state support obligations, such as…

Zirkel, Perry A.; Rose, Tessie

2009-01-01

426

The meteor year of the Meteor Research Group of the European Space Agency's Research and Scientific Support Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of activities took place in 2007 at the Meteor Research Group (MRG) of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Research and Scientific Support Department (RSSD). Both special observing campaigns as well as continuous observations were performed, mainly with intensified video cameras, but also with still CCD cameras. Over 1400 meteors were observed; about 150 meteors were observed from more

D. V. Koschny; J. McAuliffe; G. Barentsen; F. C. M. Bettonvil; J. P. Hatton; F. Lowiessen; J. J. Zender

2008-01-01

427

Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

Horta, Hugo

2013-01-01

428

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics DNSSEC Implementa) look-alike that understands DNSSEC better #12;Progress and Problems · Signer appliances installed end

429

Scientific models and ethical issues in hybrid bionic systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on hybrid bionic systems (HBSs) is still in its infancy but promising results have already been achieved in laboratories.\\u000a Experiments on humans and animals show that artificial devices can be controlled by neural signals. These results suggest\\u000a that HBS technologies can be employed to restore sensorimotor functionalities in disabled and elderly people. At the same\\u000a time, HBS research raises

Pericle Salvini; Edoardo Datteri; Cecilia Laschi; Paolo Dario

2008-01-01

430

A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

2014-02-01

431

Alzheimer's Disease Research: Scientific Productivity and Impact of the Top 100 Investigators in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online availability of scientific-literature databases and natural-language-processing (NLP) algorithms has enabled large-scale bibliometric studies within the field of scientometrics. Using NLP techniques and Thomson ISI reports, an initial analysis of the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the neurosciences as well as a summary of the various research foci within the AD scientific community are presented. Citation analyses and

Aaron A. Sorensen

2009-01-01

432

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.

1981-01-01

433

1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

NONE

1993-12-31

434

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

435

The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

2009-01-01

436

Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

Pepe, Alberto

2010-01-01

437

Scientifically Based Research and Evidence-Based Education: A Federal Policy Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a look at the federal policy context for the scientifically based research (SBR) and evidence-based education (EBE) initiatives by sharing U.S. Department of Education presentations and related publications about SBR and EBE. It discusses the impact of these policy initiatives on special education research activities.…

Smith, Anne

2003-01-01

438

Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

2010-01-01

439

"Scientifically-Based Research": The Art of Politics and the Distortion of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The US Federal Government is forcefully prescribing a narrow definition of "scientifically-based" educational research. US policy, emerging from contemporary neoliberal and technocratic viewpoints and funded and propagated on a large scale, has the potential to influence international thinking on educational research. In this article we continue a…

Shaker, Paul; Ruitenberg, Claudia

2007-01-01

440

Enhancing Scientifically-Based Research for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief overview of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) requirement that schools use instructional strategies based on scientifically-based research (SBR) to improve the academic performance of students. Controversies resulting from the definition of SBR, complexities encountered in conducting research in schools, and the…

Ortiz, Alba A.; Yates, James R.

2008-01-01

441

Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

2009-01-01

442

Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders.  

PubMed

In this study, Barber's [(1961). Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134, 596-602] analysis of scientists' resistance to discoveries is examined in relation to an 18-year controversy between the dominant cognitive-behavioral paradigm or zeitgeist and its chief rival - eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in treating trauma-related disorders. Reasons for persistent opposition to training, utilization and research into an identified 'evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder' (EBT-PTSD) within US military and veterans' agencies closely parallels Barber's description of resistance based upon socio-cultural factors and scientific bias versus genuine scientific skepticism. The implications of sustained resistance to EMDR for combat veterans and other trauma sufferers are discussed. A unified or super-ordinate goal is offered to reverse negative trends impacting current and future mental healthcare of military personnel, veterans and other trauma survivors, and to bridge the scientific impasse. PMID:18950925

Russell, Mark C

2008-12-01

443

Evaluating the Potential of NASA's Earth Science Research Results for Improving Future Operational Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Science Theme is charged with implementing NASA Strategic Goal 3A to "study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." In the course of meeting this objective, NASA produces research results, such as scientific observatories, research models, advanced sensor and space system technology, data active archives and interoperability technology, high performance computing systems, and knowledge products. These research results have the potential to serve society beyond their intended purpose of answering pressing Earth system science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences Program systematically evaluates the potential of the portfolio of research results to serve society by conducting projects in partnership with regional/national scale operational partners with the statutory responsibility to inform decision makers. These projects address NASA's National Applications and the societal benefit areas under the IEOS and GEOSS. Prototyping methods are used in two ways in NASA's Applied Sciences Program. The first is part of the National Applications program element, referred to as Integrated Systems Solutions (ISS) projects. The approach for these projects is to use high fidelity prototypes to benchmark the assimilation of NASA research results into our partners' decision support systems. The outcome from ISS projects is a prototype system that has been rigorously tested with the partner to understand the scientific uncertainty and improved value of their modified system. In many cases, these completed prototypes are adopted or adapted for use by the operational partners. The second falls under the Crosscutting Solutions program element, referred to as Rapid Prototyping (RP) experiments. The approach for RP experiments is to use low fidelity prototypes that are low cost and quickly produced to evaluate the potential of the breadth of NASA research results to serve society. The outcome from the set of RP experiments is an evaluation of many and varied NASA research results for their potential to be candidates for further development as an ISS project. The intention is to seed the community with many creative ideas for projects that use "un-applied" NASA research results to serve society, such as simulations of future missions.

Frederick, M. E.; Cox, E. L.; Friedl, L. A.

2006-12-01

444

What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

2007-02-01

445

Migraine genetics: current findings and future lines of research.  

PubMed

In the last two decades, migraine research has greatly advanced our current knowledge of the genetic contributions and the pathophysiology of this common and debilitating disorder. Nonetheless, this knowledge still needs to grow further and to translate into more effective treatments. To date, several genes involved in syndromic and monogenic forms of migraine have been identified, allowing the generation of animal models which have significantly contributed to current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these rare forms of migraine. Common forms of migraine are instead posing a greater challenge, as they may most often stem from complex interactions between multiple common genetic variants, with environmental triggers. This paper reviews our current understanding of migraine genetics, moving from syndromic and monogenic forms to oligogenic/polygenic migraines most recently addressed with some success through genome-wide association studies. Methodological issues in study design and future perspectives opened by biomarker research will also be briefly addressed. PMID:25501253

Persico, A M; Verdecchia, M; Pinzone, V; Guidetti, V

2015-04-01

446

Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.  

PubMed

Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information. PMID:21538033

Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

2011-08-01

447

Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.  

PubMed

Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. PMID:24607673

Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

2014-04-01

448

Scientific societies and promotion of the responsible conduct of research: codes, policies, and education.  

PubMed

Scientific societies have a significant opportunity to contribute to the promotion of responsible conduct of research (RCR) and to RCR education. The degree to which societies engage such opportunity spans a broad range. There are three principal ways RCR may be promoted by scientific societies. The first is through codes of conduct encouraging their membership to practice ethical research according to the tenets of these codes. The second is through specialized policies (e.g., publication practices) developed by scientific societies that help define normative behavior. Finally, societies have a role to play in creating materials and resources aimed at educating scientists and trainees in matters pertaining to proper research conduct. This article illustrates examples of each of these activities embraced by different scientific societies. The American Society for Microbiology is used as a specific example of a society that has been proactive in each of these three areas. Scientific societies need to recognize the impact they can have on promoting RCR and to expand their efforts in these three and other relevant areas. The examples provided demonstrate the components of a model for all scientific societies to follow in promoting RCR. PMID:17726393

Macrina, Francis L

2007-09-01

449

Introduction The Sustainable Supply Chain Taxes Permits Integration Future Research Sustainable Supply Chains  

E-print Network

Introduction The Sustainable Supply Chain Taxes Permits Integration Future Research Sustainable Supply Chains: Multicriteria Decision-Making and Policy Analysis for the Environment Trisha D. Woolley;Introduction The Sustainable Supply Chain Taxes Permits Integration Future Research 1 Introduction 2

Nagurney, Anna

450

Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International Ocean Discovery Programme in October 2013. Key successes encompass technological development, operational procedures in sensitive areas and research into palaeoclimate and shoreline responses to sea level change amongst others. Increased operational flexibility in the new programme only serves to make the future an exciting one for ocean drilling in Europe.

Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

2013-04-01

451

Online Mentoring to Induct Junior Researchers into Scientific Literacy Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design/methodology/approach: An…

Singh, Gurmit

2010-01-01

452

demokritos national center for scientific research institute of  

E-print Network

LABORATORY N. Tsois Thermal Solar Collectors & Systems V. Belesiotis Thermal Storage V. Belesiotis Solar.2 Achievements in 2004 and Perspective 2.3 Education 2.4 Performance Indicators 2.5 Staff Average Ages 2 RESEARCH REACTOR CENTER N. Catsaros Dynamic reliability of Complex System & decision Analysis I. Papazoglou

453

Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

2011-01-01

454

Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

van Raan, Anthony F. J.

2005-01-01

455

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics IPv6 SNMP Network 1994 #12;2/2/10 IPv6 Information Example Router IPv6 address table IPv6 model/polling address #12: creation by IPv6 address #12;2/2/10 Monitoring OSCARS MPLS LSPs OSCARS LSP Auto-discovery Hop by Hop LSP

456

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics The ARRA ANI Network Testbed ­ANI 100G network connecting Magellan resources #12;Relation to the Magellan Project · High Goals · Enable network, middleware and application end-to-end R&D at 100G · Configurable · Breakable

457

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics PerformanceMetzger NetworkEngineeratESnet/LBNL #12;High Performance Networking · The · Soft failures are where basic connectivity functions, but high performance is not possible. · TCP

458

Online mentoring to induct junior researchers into scientific literacy practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An evaluation study was conducted on the impact of this programme over two conferences. Survey

Gurmit Singh

2010-01-01

459

Towards Automatic Recognition of Scientifically Rigorous Clinical Research Evidence  

PubMed Central

The growing numbers of topically relevant biomedical publications readily available due to advances in document retrieval methods pose a challenge to clinicians practicing evidence-based medicine. It is increasingly time consuming to acquire and critically appraise the available evidence. This problem could be addressed in part if methods were available to automatically recognize rigorous studies immediately applicable in a specific clinical situation. We approach the problem of recognizing studies containing useable clinical advice from retrieved topically relevant articles as a binary classification problem. The gold standard used in the development of PubMed clinical query filters forms the basis of our approach. We identify scientifically rigorous studies using supervised machine learning techniques (Naďve Bayes, support vector machine (SVM), and boosting) trained on high-level semantic features. We combine these methods using an ensemble learning method (stacking). The performance of learning methods is evaluated using precision, recall and F1 score, in addition to area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Using a training set of 10,000 manually annotated MEDLINE citations, and a test set of an additional 2,000 citations, we achieve 73.7% precision and 61.5% recall in identifying rigorous, clinically relevant studies, with stacking over five feature-classifier combinations and 82.5% precision and 84.3% recall in recognizing rigorous studies with treatment focus using stacking over word + metadata feature vector. Our results demonstrate that a high quality gold standard and advanced classification methods can help clinicians acquire best evidence from the medical literature. PMID:18952929

Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian

2009-01-01

460

Workshops without Walls: Sharing Scientific Research through Educator Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discoveries, large and small, are constantly being made. Whether it is the discovery of a new species or a new comet, it is a challenge to keep up. The media provide some assistance in getting the word out about the discoveries, but not the details or the challenges of the discovery. Professional development is essential for science educators to keep them abreast of the fascinating discoveries that are occurring. The problem is that not every educator has the opportunity to attend a workshop on the most recent findings. NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Education and Public Outreach program has offered a series of multi-site professional development workshops that have taken place at four physical locations sites: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Arizona, as well as over the internet. All sites were linked via the Digital Learning Network, on which scientists and educator specialists shared information about their missions and activities. Participants interacted with speakers across the country to learn about Discovery and New Frontiers class missions. The third such annual workshop without walls, 'Challenge of Discovery,' was held on 9 April 2013. Educators from across the country delved into the stories behind some amazing NASA missions, from conception to science results. They learned how scientists, engineers, and mission operators collaborate to meet the challenges of complex missions to assure that science goals are met. As an example of science and engineering coming together, an Instrument Scientist and a Payload Operations Manager from the MESSENGER mission discussed the steps needed to observe Mercury's north polar region, gather data, and finally come to the conclusion that water ice is present in permanently shadowed areas inside polar impact craters. The participating educators were able to work with actual data and experience how the conclusion was reached. This example and others highlight the potential of such workshops to inform and engage educators.

Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K.; Asplund, S. E.; Cobb, W. H.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

2013-12-01

461

Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments.  

PubMed

Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive-behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V

2014-02-01

462

Preventing HIV among Young People: research priorities for the future  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them. PMID:23764629

Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances

2013-01-01

463

Social Scientific Research and Societal Practice: Action Research and Cultural-Historical Research in Methodological Light from Kurt Lewin and Lev S. Vygotsky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main interest is the relationship between social scientific research and societal practice, with specific attention on action research and cultural-historical research. To provide a productive way to engage with these research traditions, a historically-grounded, superordinate perspective is formulated that places practice in the centre. This…

Chaiklin, Seth

2011-01-01

464

Preface: Joint Discussion JD7: Space-time reference systems for future research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Discussion on Space-time reference systems for future research (JD7) was held at the XXVIIIth General Assembly of the IAU in Beijing, on 27-29 August 2012. It was organized by IAU Division I (Fundamental Astronomy), with the support of Division III (Planetary Systems Sciences), Division IX (Optical & Infrared Techniques), Division XI (Space & High Energy Astrophysics), and Division XII (Union-Wide Activities). The scientific organizing committee was composed of Nicole Capitaine (France; co-Chair), George H. Kaplan (USA), Sergei Klioner (Germany; co-Chair), Zoran Knezevic (Republic of Serbia), Dafydd Wyn Evans (UK), Dennis McCarthy (USA; co-Chair), Harald Schuh (Austria), Richard N. Manchester (Australia) and Gérard Petit (France).

Montmerle, Thierry

2015-03-01

465

The impact of electronic media violence: scientific theory and research.  

PubMed

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer's part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the "media violence effect" is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

Huesmann, L Rowell

2007-12-01

466

Scientific Research Database of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 5 years after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake stroke 70km away along the same fault system. Given the tremendous life loss and property damages as well as the short time and distance intervals between the two large magnitude events, the scientific probing into their causing factors and future seismic activities in the nearby region will continue to be in the center of earthquake research in China and even the world for years to come. In the past five years, scientists have made significant efforts to study the Wenchuan earthquake from various aspects using different datasets and methods. Their studies cover a variety of topics including seismogenic environment, earthquake precursors, rupture process, co-seismic phenomenon, hazard relief, reservoir induced seismicity and more. These studies have been published in numerous journals in Chinese, English and many other languages. In addition, 54 books regarding to this earthquake have been published. The extremely diversified nature of all publications makes it very difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible, to sort out information needed by individual researcher in an efficient way. An information platform that collects relevant scientific information and makes them accessible in various ways can be very handy. With this mission in mind, the Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology has developed a website www.wceq.org to attack this target: (1) articles published by major journals and books are recorded into a database. Researchers will be able to find articles by topics, journals, publication dates, authors and keywords e.t.c by a few clicks; (2) to fast track the latest developments, researchers can also follow upon updates in the current month, last 90days, 180 days and 365 days by clicking on corresponding links; (3) the modern communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter and their Chinese counterparts are accommodated in this site to share favorite research information with friends; (4) This site also serves as a bridge between readers and authors by providing messaging boards in many forms; (5) we also track relevant meeting presentations, ongoing researches as well as earthquake-related news; (6) furthermore, we also collect publications of earthquakes in the eastern Tibetan plateau and selected ones from other regions for comparison purpose. After nearly one year of operation, the database has been growing steadily with time and the major functionalities have been well developed and stabilized. Up to August 6 2013, totally 847 papers have been collected in our database. Among them 673, 21 and 153 papers are of Wenchuan, Lushan and Tohoko earthquake in interest, respectively. For the Wenchuan earthquake articles, nearly 10%, 20%, 25%,15%, 15% are of studies in seismogenic environment, precursors, rupture process, hazard relief and aftershocks & coseismic events, respectively. Built upon the ever growing database, the next move would be to do more analysis. One ongoing project would be to collect figures from articles that are of special interest to people in the field. A parallel project will also start to extend the database to include Tibetan Plateau studies.

Liang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.

2013-12-01

467

Development of an Expert Resource Network for Students and Advisors Engaging in Authentic Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to increase the the number of secondary students engaging in authentic scientific research and to improve the quality of that research, an online network of scientists and educators is being established. The Network will be assessable to students and advisors participating in the 2012 Monmouth Junior Science Symposium (MJSS), a scientific forum for New Jersey students, but is intended to serve as a model for use by participants in the additional 47 regional science symposia of which the MJSS is part. Hosted on the MJSS website, the Network will consist of contact information and profiles of scientists, educators and other research professionals willing to assist secondary students and their teacher/advisors perform authentic scientific research. Profiles will include area(s) of expertise and level of participation to which the individual is capable. The set of participating experts will have the potential to expand continually as additional professionals with a variety of backgrounds are recruited over time. The Network will also be made available to members of the New Jersey Science Supervisors Association to encourage school districts not currently participating in the MJSS to involve secondary students in conducting authentic scientific research. The Network's effectiveness will be evaluated by surveys completed by MJSS participants and their teacher/advisors included with their research paper submissions.

Danch, J. M.; Aker-bolin, K.

2011-12-01

468

History and future of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article by Cook et al offers an interesting new methodological approach to the debate about (supposedly lacking) scientific consensus on global warming, showing that contrarian claims that there was no such consensus are clearly misleading. But once the attribution issue can be regarded as settled, new questions and controversies arise. They ultimately result from the different technological and organizational pathways towards a new global society model that takes its adverse climate change effects into account and seeks for new, but also risky solutions.

Reusswig, Fritz

2013-09-01