Note: This page contains sample records for the topic future scientific research from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Replicative Nature of Indian Research, Essence of Scientific Temper, and Future of Scientific Progress*  

PubMed Central

A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.

Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

2004-01-01

2

Beyond 2013 - The Future of European Scientific Drilling Research - An introduction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them with the expected framework (available drilling platforms and anticipated funding levels). The key items that should be addressed during the EGU Session and the workshop will especially include : (1) The future of ECORD (science, technology, management). (2) New research initiatives and emerging fields in scientific drilling (3) Relationships between IODP and other programs (e.g. ICDP, IMAGES etc). (4) Collaboration between academia and industry. (5) New technologies and the Mission Specific Platform approach.

Camoin, G.; Stein, R.

2009-04-01

3

Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.  

PubMed

A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. PMID:23816226

McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

2013-05-18

4

The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the

David M. Gilbert

5

Students' Research-Informed Socio-scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.

Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

2012-01-01

6

The future scientific CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

1984-01-01

7

Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions.  

PubMed

Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

2013-08-01

8

Students' Research-Informed Socio-Scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on "socio-scientific issues"; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with…

Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

2012-01-01

9

Scientifically Based Research. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This digest describes the nature and implications of scientifically based research (SBR). SBR grew out of the No Child Left Behind act of 2001, which stipulates that federally funded programs and practices must be grounded in scientifically based research. Scientifically based research is defined here as "persuasive research that empirically…

Beghetto, Ron

10

The Future of Scientific Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computing technologies are undergoing a dramatic transition. Multicore chips with up to eight cores are now available from many vendors. This trend will continue, with the number of cores on a chip continuing to increase. In fact, many-core chips, e.g., NVIDIA GPUs, are now being seriously explored in many areas of scientific computing. This technology shift presents a challenge for computational science and engineering--the only significant performance increases in the future will be through the increased exploitation of parallelism. At the same time, petascale computers based on these technologies are being deployed at sites across the world. The opportunities arising from petascale computing are enormous--predicting the behavior of complex biological systems, understanding the production of heavy elements in supernovae, designing catalysts at the atomic level, predicting changes in the earth's climate and ecosystems, and designing complex engineered systems. But, petascale computers are very complex systems, built from multi-core and many-core chips with 100,000s to millions of cores, 100s of terabytes to petabytes of memory, and 10,000s of disk drives. The architecture of petascale computers has significant implications for the design of the next generation of science and engineering applications. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the directions in computing technologies as well as describe the petascale computing systems being deployed in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Dunning, Thom

2012-02-01

11

The future of scientific ballooning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief overview of the historical development of scientific balloons and their capabilities. Furthermore, a recent programme by NASA is introduced that aims to develop balloons capable of carrying payloads of several tonnes to above 99% of the Earth's atmosphere for up to 100 days. It is shown that the currently investigated balloons suffer from instabilities that

Markus Pagitz

2007-01-01

12

Future Scientific Research: The Elites New Latin or a New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking Framtidsforskning: Elitens Nya Latin Eller Ett Nytt Namn Foer Nagra Gamla Saett Att Taenka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some critical points of view and ideas are put forward to illustrate the role of future scientific research as an element in the solution of the problem of responsibility in the process of decision making. (Author)

S. Schwarz

1973-01-01

13

The future of scientific ballooning.  

PubMed

This paper gives a brief overview of the historical development of scientific balloons and their capabilities. Furthermore, a recent programme by NASA is introduced that aims to develop balloons capable of carrying payloads of several tonnes to above 99% of the Earth's atmosphere for up to 100 days. It is shown that the currently investigated balloons suffer from instabilities that can be minimized using a different design paradigm for the cutting patterns. Finally, a novel balloon design, similar to the topology of radiolarians, is introduced that is potentially superior to existing designs. PMID:17855226

Pagitz, Markus

2007-12-15

14

Sr and O Geochemistry of ANDRILL AND-2A Biogenic Carbonates. Scientific Outcomes; Current and Future Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr isotope studies carried out on macrofossils recovered at several depths from the ANDRILL (ANtarctic DRILLing Program) core AND-2A, in Southern McMurdo Sound, have thus far contributed to the core’s age model, paleoenvironmental interpretation and diagenetic history. Although a complete Sr isotope stratigraphic analysis was prevented by the paucity of suitable material, the remarkable preservation of several calcite macrofossil specimens was exploited to help refine the age model for the core. Furthermore, the ?18O compositions of these well-preserved shells confirmed a climate transition between the late Early Miocene and the early Late Miocene. Ages obtained from Sr-isotopic compositions of aragonite specimens were spurious and prompted further research to resolve this discrepancy. Sr-isotopic compositions of highly modified pore water from the AND-2A core were found to be in disequilibrium with the analyzed carbonates at all stratigraphic levels. In spite of the apparently pristine mineralogy of the fossil fragments and the uncertainties associated with the probable alteration mechanism, Sr and O isotope results suggest that differential diagenesis affected the core’s shell material at many stratigraphic intervals. Interstitial fluids Sr-isotopic values for the upper core turned out to be uncharacteristically high relative to seawater. This is intriguing given the large proportion of volcanic material present in AND-2A, which is highly reactive and has low Sr-isotopic compositions. High Sr-isotopic values are also uncharacteristic of pore water in general. Sr-isotopic compositions for the whole-rock and carbonate components in the sections of core in contact with this high 87Sr/86Sr fluids have been measured and are now being assessed. These results will contribute to understand pore water origin and behavior, which is in turn relevant to the recent glacial history of Southern McMurdo Sound. The variety and significance of the results, and just as important, the questions generated by AND-2A Sr and O geochemistry suggest that detailed research of the kind have much to contribute in studies of other Antarctic cores from which sedimentary material is already available, and also in future drilling campaigns.

Marcano, M. C.; Mukasa, S. B.; Lohmann, K. C.

2010-12-01

15

Clinical research: assessing the future in a changing environment; summary report of conference sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996.  

PubMed

Concerns about funding of clinical research underlie all other problems identified at the Council on Scientific Affairs conference. Future National Institutes of Health (NIH) budgets are likely to be constant at best, and the general public expects cost containment to be an ongoing goal; this is exacerbated by the impending Medicare Trust Fund crisis. Meanwhile, traditional financial support of clinical research in academic medical centers (AMCs) through cross-subsidization is imperiled by competitive pressures largely caused by managed care. Although managed care organizations (MCOs) are potentially rich sources of funding and other resources, and some not-for-profit companies are conducting some research, for-profit MCOs have not demonstrated an understanding of the importance of clinical research. Young physicians are being discouraged from careers as clinical researchers and established investigators are "dropping out" because of demands for clinical productivity and competition for research grants, loss of patients/research subjects to managed care, perceived lack of status and compensation, and overall uncertainty about continued financial support. Efforts to assist current and potential clinical investigators are discussed in this report. Loss of patients, denial of reimbursement, and competition with MCOs and contract research organizations (CROs) have placed AMCs under unprecedented pressure. However, research centers located in AMCs have allowed investigators to conduct clinical research by providing a "protected environment." Furthermore, many AMCs are determined to continue conducting clinical research and are addressing related problems. Although the NIH will continue to be a major source of funding for clinical research, partnerships between various private and public entities provide important opportunities to maximize the productivity of all individuals and institutions involved. Potential partnerships include MCOs, AMCs, CROs, pharmaceutical companies and other industry, the Department of Defense, the Veterans Health Administration, practice-based physicians, and private foundations and patient support groups. "Partnerships in advocacy" for clinical research will be essential. Efforts to recruit for-profit MCOs to the clinical research endeavor identified in this report include (1) emphasizing issues of interest to them (eg, outcomes research); (2) stressing the significance of some research to the marketplace; (3) developing criteria to distinguish individual MCOs on the basis of their contribution to the public interest; (4) equating money spent on research with "R&D dollars" spent in nonmedical business enterprises; and (5) educating purchasers of health care (eg, corporate health plan directors) about clinical research. Conducting clinical research in all managed care settings requires leadership, the understanding and cooperation of physicians and support staff, wise use of limited resources (ie, funding only the best research projects), sound methodology, and above all, the perception that the research will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:9552090

Meyer, M; Genel, M; Altman, R D; Williams, M A; Allen, J R

1998-03-01

16

Exploring XP for Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we successfully apply XP (Extreme Programming) in a scientific research context? A pilot project at the NASA Langley Research Center tested XPs applicability in this context. Since the cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view, eight of XPs 12 practices seemed incompatible with the existing research culture. Despite initial awkwardness, the authors determined

William A. Wood; William L. Kleb

2003-01-01

17

Scientific Research in Educational Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) ought to reaffirm its commitment to theoretical research. Research in educational administration during the last twenty years has been applied or practical rather than purely theoretical or scientific. Although there is certainly a place for practical research, theoretical research ought…

Hoy, Wayne K.

1978-01-01

18

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600.512 Wildlife... Foreign Fishing § 600.512 Scientific research. (a) Scientific research activity . Persons planning to conduct...

2011-10-01

19

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is charged with Âinitiating, developing and coordinating high quality international scientific research in the Antarctic regionÂ. Given their mission, first-time users will not be surprised to find a number of high-quality resources in their publications area, including complete runs of their bulletins, reports, and topical articles, which address such areas as sea-level changes and climate transformation. For those interested in the governance of the region, there is a separate section dedicated to providing information about the Antarctic Treaty. For more general information, visitors would do well to look at the Antarctic Information section, which provides maps of the region, along with some basic statistics and details about the summer and winter research stations operated by various scientific institutes.

20

Moving Into the Future with New Dimensions and Strategies: A Vision for 2020 for Women's Health Research. Volume II. Regional Scientific Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten years after the last womens health research agenda was updated, the ORWH launched a series of five regional scientific workshops and public hearings to ensure that research on womens health continues to be on the cutting edge of science, based upon th...

2010-01-01

21

Legal issues in scientific research.  

PubMed

In recent years, regulatory and law enforcement authorities responsible for combating fraud and abuse have focused greater attention on the scientific research process, in particular, the process of seeking reimbursement for research costs, the process of performing clinical research, and the potential improper remuneration of researchers or research subjects. This article describes how the federal False Claims Act, which allows the government to recover treble damages plus substantial penalties from persons who knowingly submit false claims or make false statements to the government, has been used to achieve a number of multimillion-dollar settlements with research institutions. The article also discusses instances of temporary suspension of research activities at a number of prominent institutions and the investigation of illegal "inducements" or "kickbacks" provided by manufacturers to researchers and by research institutions to patients. PMID:11754713

Kalb, Paul E; Koehler, Kristin Graham

2002-01-01

22

Future of acidification research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidification is not a simple process operating separately from other geochemical, biochemical and biological processes. It is a part of an extremely complex ecological development of our nature influenced by energy-hungry ever growing human population. Acidification as a general biogeochemical process will be implicitly studied in most of the future ecological research projects dealing with global climate changes and land

T. Paces

1995-01-01

23

Teaching scientific integrity and research ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of misconduct in scientific research have enforced a lively public and scientific discussion. The international scientific community has been engaged during the last years in the search for adequate responses to fraud and misconduct. Most of the new guidelines emphasize the responsibility of researchers and scientific institutions for preventive measures; the teaching of research ethics should be included in

Gerlinde Sponholz

2000-01-01

24

Antiemetic research: future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose and methods  As a part of reviewing the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) antiemetic guidelines in Perugia\\u000a in 2009, an expert group identified directions for future antiemetic research.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and conclusions  In future trials, the prediction of nausea and vomiting may combine algorithms based on observed prognostic factors relating\\u000a to the patient and the anticancer therapy, the identification

Ian Olver; Alexander Molassiotis; Matti Aapro; Jørn Herrstedt; Steven Grunberg; Garry Morrow

2011-01-01

25

Scientific Methods for Prevention Intervention Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction: Scientific Methods for Prevention Intervention Research; Prevention Intervention Research: Focus and Perspective; Testing Theory through Developmental Epidemiologically Based Prevention Research; Hypothesis Formulation and Testing ...

A. Cazares L. A. Beatty

1994-01-01

26

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300.104 Wildlife...Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures issued pursuant to the...

2010-10-01

27

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300.104 Wildlife...Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures issued pursuant to the...

2009-10-01

28

Present and future of scientific bird ringing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999 scientific bird ringing will celebrate its first century of existence. Started mainly to investigate bird movements, bird ringing has become a much more flexible method to study different aspects of bird biology. Bird ringing can only be properly organised if an effective international co-operation exists. In Europe, this co-ordination is ensured by EURING, made of 35 national ringing centres; sister organisations exist in other parts of the world (like Africa, Australia, U.S. and Canada), sharing the same aims and problems. This RTD is mainly targeted to ornithologists involved with the co-ordination of bird ringing stations and national centres world-wide. Common aspects of the organisation of ringing activities, as well as of the potential ringing has and will have in the future in addressing major scientific questions in Ornithology will be taken into account. The advisability of setting up a standing committee on bird ringing within the IOC will be discussed, and the project of creating a world-wide organisation of ringing schemes in order to further improve communication and exchange of experiences will also be addressed. This new organisation would be formally founded in 1999, when an international conference organised by EURING to celebrate the first 100 years of bird ringing will be held in Denmark.

Spina, F.; Tautin, J.

1998-01-01

29

Present and future of scientific bird ringing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999 scientific bird ringing will celebrate its first century of existence. Started mainly to investigate bird movements, bird ringing has become a much more flexible method to study different aspects of bird biology. Bird ringing can only be properly organised if an effective international co-operation exists. In Europe, this co-ordination is ensured by EURING, made of 35 national ringing centres; sister organisations exist in other parts of the world (like Africa, Australia, U.S. and Canada), sharing the same aims and problems. This RTD is mainly targeted to ornithologists involved with the co-ordination of bird ringing stations and national centres world-wide. Common aspects of the organisation of ringing activities, as well as of the potential ringing has and will have in the future in addressing major scientific questions in Ornithology will be taken into account. The advisability of setting up a standing committee on bird ringing within the IOC will be discussed, and the project of creating a world-wide organisation of ringing schemes in order to further improve communication and exchange of experiences will also be addressed. This new organisation would be formally founded in 1999, when an international conference organised by EURING to celebrate the first 100 years of bird ringing will be held in Denmark.

Spina, F.; Tautin, J.

1999-01-01

30

Large scale scientific computing - future directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every new generation of scientific computers has opened up new areas of science for exploration through the use of more realistic numerical models or the ability to process ever larger amounts of data. Concomitantly, scientists, because of the success of past models and the wide range of physical phenomena left unexplored, have pressed computer designers to strive for the maximum performance that current technology will permit. This encompasses not only increased processor speed, but also substantial improvements in processor memory, I/O bandwidth, secondary storage and facilities to augment the scientist's ability both to program and to understand the results of a computation. Over the past decade, performance improvements for scientific calculations have come from algoeithm development and a major change in the underlying architecture of the hardware, not from significantly faster circuitry. It appears that this trend will continue for another decade. A future archetectural change for improved performance will most likely be multiple processors coupled together in some fashion. Because the demand for a significantly more powerful computer system comes from users with single large applications, it is essential that an application be efficiently partitionable over a set of processors; otherwise, a multiprocessor system will not be effective. This paper explores some of the constraints on multiple processor architecture posed by these large applications. In particular, the trade-offs between large numbers of slow processors and small numbers of fast processors is examined. Strategies for partitioning range from partitioning at the language statement level (in-the-small) and at the program module level (in-the-large). Some examples of partitioning in-the-large are given and a strategy for efficiently executing a partitioned program is explored.

Patterson, G. S.

1982-06-01

31

Crime and punishment in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical arguments against scientific misconduct generally fail to support current policies on research fraud: they may not prove wrong what is usually considered research misconduct and they tend to make wrong things that are not normally seen as scientific fraud, in particular honest errors. I also point out that sanctions are not consistent with the reasons why scientific fraud is

Mathieu Bouville

2008-01-01

32

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Årup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

33

Essay: The Future of Scientific Publishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can the scientific publishing enterprise deal with the increasing specialization of individual physicists? The possible aids include virtual journals, the new APS journal Physics, and the possibility of artificial intelligence programs.

Sandweiss, Jack

2009-05-01

34

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

Vermeir, Koen

2013-10-01

35

Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1886, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society is a non-profit membership society of nearly 65,000 scientists and engineers who were elected to the Society because of their research achievements or potential.

36

Scientific Research, 1977 Jahresbericht 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general overview of technology developments in air transportation, aircraft design, space flight technology, reconnaissance, and energy and propulsion systems is given. Specific topics covered include: (1) future systems, safety, and guided flights; (2)...

1978-01-01

37

Evaluation for University Scientific Research Capability Based on FCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper conducts a research on university scientific research capability, in which an evaluation index system and evaluation model of university scientific research capability is constructed. The university scientific research capability consists of three aspects, i.e., scientific research input capability, transformation efficiency capability and scientific research output capability. The approach adopted in the paper is a quantitative technique based on

Weiwei Liu; Chunsheng Shi

2008-01-01

38

Planning versus Free Choice in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefits of centrally planning the topics of scientific research and who should be engaged in them are studied by means of a linear program. The efficiency conditions show that the planning goals could be achieved through self-motivated choices of scientists without direction by planners, when the “scientific worth” of problems is well-defined and known, provided the costs of

Martin J. Beckmanna

2006-01-01

39

Scientific Information Retrieval System for Research Grants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method developed for the Division of Radiological Health research grants for use in retrieving scientific information readily by means either of a manual system or an automatic information processing system, or a combination of the two, is described. Th...

J. J. Sabo S. Wieder

1966-01-01

40

More on Scientific Research - Emotions and Conflicts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document comments upon a feature of scientific work which is the almost inevitable characteristic situations that are intertwined with research work and acquire the properties of peculiar inner conflicts. These conflicts are of three kinds: technical ...

V. Engelgardt

1970-01-01

41

Air Force Scientific Research Bibliography 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography includes abstracts of all technical reports, journal articles, books, symposium proceedings, and monographs produced and published by scientists supported in whole or in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research during the calen...

T. C. Goodwin D. C. Yates J. F. Lindsay N. G. Lamb J. A. Gunn

1969-01-01

42

How Scientific Illiteracy Threatens Our Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of Americans do not see the ways in which science holds relevance in their lives, and too many scientists are unable to explain why our work matters. Meanwhile, partisan politics, a new media environment, and religious ideologies have magnified the growing rift between science and mainstream American culture. Science should be a value shared by all, but it will take far more than political will to bridge what C.P. Snow once described as a ``vast gulf of mutual incomprehension'' between scientists and everyone else. The scientific community must find new ways of reaching out or we will fail to influence the public, inform the decision-making process, and rise to meet the greatest challenges of the 21st century.

Kirshenbaum, Sheril

2010-03-01

43

Bias and values in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now

Torsten Wilholt

2009-01-01

44

The Ethics of Teaching and Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A compilation of essays deals with two vital ethical issues: (1) in such matters as genetic research, human subject research, and behavior modification, the conflict between freedom in scientific research and protection of the immediate public; and (2) the question of whether ethical guidelines have to be developed for teachers, or academic…

Hook, Sidney; And Others

45

Scientific Culture and Educational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires federal grantees to use their funds on evidence-based strategies. The law includes definitions of research quality, which are also featured prominently in the administration’s strategic plan and in draft language for the re-authorization of the U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. These initiatives pose a rare opportunity and formidable challenge

Michael J. Feuer; Lisa Towne; Richard J. Shavelson

2002-01-01

46

Ethical Virtues in Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane’s defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity.

Resnik, David B.

2012-01-01

47

Research ethics and scientific misconduct in biomedical research.  

PubMed

Scientists have the responsibility of judging what is best for the patient and the optimal conditions for the conduct of the study. All physicians should ensure that research they participate in is ethically conducted. Every clinician should learn and receive training in the responsible conduct of research and publication, and each project must be reviewed by an institutional review committee. Scientific misconduct is defined as any practice that deviates from those accepted by the scientific community and ultimately damages the integrity of the research process. "Sloppy Research" and "Scientific Fraud" include activities which can violate science, records and publication. Sloppy research is due to absence of appropriate training in research discipline and methodologies. In contrast, scientific fraud is defined as deliberate action during application, performance of research, and publication. It includes piracy, plagiarism and fraud. Research institutions should adopt rules and regulations to respond to allegations, start investigational operations and perform appropriate sanctions. PMID:12442615

Kansu, E; Ruacan, S

2002-01-01

48

The future of pediatric research.  

PubMed

The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities. PMID:17950318

Boat, Thomas F

2007-11-01

49

Center for Research in Scientific Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Research in Scientific Computation (CRSC), based at North Carolina State University, aims to "foster research in scientific computing and provide a focal point for research in computational science, engineering and applied mathematics." The Center has developed a teaching experimental laboratory "where students are exposed to experimental design and data collection through demos and actual hands-on experience." The Center's multidisciplinary research addresses topics in scientific computation such as Numerical Optimization and Control, Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations, Mathematical Modeling and Analysis; Numerical Linear Algebra, and Parallel Computing. This website describes the Center's projects and offers links to the project websites. An online database makes available CRSC technical reports from 1992 to the present.

50

Technologies for scientific drilling and borehole research  

SciTech Connect

Use of the drill bit to access the third dimension of the earth's crust provides an exciting opportunity for geoscientists to evaluate hypotheses on the structure and processes occurring in the crust. The Continental Scientific Drilling Programs (CSDP) being initiated in many places can provide this opportunity but scientific enthusiasm is dampened by a perceived technology limitation to provide the needed research facility (drillhole) and instrumentation. This paper discusses the borehole as a research facility using currently active research drilling to illustrate technological solutions. Subsequent discussion summarizes the status of drilling technologies and borehole instrumentation capabilities. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Traeger, R.K.

1985-01-01

51

Doctoral Preparation of Scientifically Based Education Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding improved ways to train education researchers has taken on new urgency as federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 call for “scientifically based research in education.” The authors of this article suggest an approach to socializing doctoral students to a common “culture of science” (a set

Margaret Eisenhart; Robert L. DeHaan

2005-01-01

52

Firm utilization of university scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the assumption that scientific research taking place in universities “trickles down” to industry. Publication characteristics are used to examine the collaboration and utilization behavior of scientists employed in the computer equipment and aircraft industries. The data indicate that these industries are using research generated by university scientists and that collaboration between sectors is occurring. Four sets of

Kristi M. Tornquist; Stephen A. Hoenack

1996-01-01

53

Scientific research in education: A critical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the debate in the USA about quality in educational research which has underpinned particular approaches to educational research being mandated in federal legislation. It argues that the movement towards 'evidence-based policy and practice' oversimplifies complex problems and is being used to warrant governmental incursion into legislating scientific method. It calls for critical readings of current policy and

Patti Lather

2004-01-01

54

Television and Human Behavior: The Research Horizon, Future and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current activity in the area of television research was reviewed, with an emphasis on some of the factors which will influence future research. An analysis was made of: (1) the priorities held by the scientific community in regard to research on television and human behavior, (2) the perspectives within the community that are likely to influence…

Comstock, George; And Others

55

A Visual Database Environment for Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a visual database environment designed to be used for scientific research in the imaging sciences. It provides hierarchical relational structures that allow the user to model data as entities possessing properties, parts and relationships, and it supports multi-level queries on these structures. A schema constructor interface allows users to define for each structure, not only its components,

Rex M. Jakobovits; Lara M. Lewis; James P. Ahrens; Linda G. Shapiro; Steven L. Tanimoto; James F. Brinkley

1996-01-01

56

Research Interests of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet is published for the purpose of inviting proposals for scientific research in support of Air Force areas of interest. It is divided into five sections: The first action (Announcement) refers to the AFOSR Broad Agency Announcement published i...

A. J. Driscoll

1988-01-01

57

Scientific Literacy through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding on the GLOBE Programs investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy of both content and the nature of science. Through the use of the Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships model Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve both the needs of the classroom and the scientific investigation requirements. During the proof of concept phase of the partnership model implementation numerous high school students developed scientific plans, through consultation with scientists that teachers facilitated, and collected data sets that provided useful to all members of the partnership. The students and teachers learned many of the best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This talk will focus primarily on one example Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships started in 2002 and is still running in Washington DC, "Expanding the GLOBE Aerosol Protocol through Cross-Ground Validation AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements." Other science investigation opportunities and examples will be discussed.

Niepold, F.

2006-05-01

58

On Modeling Research Work for Describing and Filtering Scientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing models for Research Information Systems (RIS) properly address the description of people and organizations, projects, facilities and their outcomes, e.g. papers, reports or patents. While this is adequate for the recording and accountability of research investments, helping researchers in finding relevant people, organizations or results requires considering both the content of research work and also its context. The content is not only related to the domain area, but it requires modeling methodological issues as variables, instruments or scientific methods that can then be used as search criteria. The context of research work is determined by the ongoing projects or scientific interests of an individual or a group, and can be expressed using the same methodological concepts. However, modeling methodological issues is notably complex and dependent on the scientific discipline and research area. This paper sketches the main requirements for those models, providing some motivating examples that could serve as a point of departure for future attempts in developing an upper ontology for research methods and tools.

Sicilia, Miguel-Ángel

59

The Gray Area for Incorruptible Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper I try to contribute to the discussion about incorruptible professional behavior in scientific research. For\\u000a this purpose I take Merton’s famous norms as a point of departure, not in order to note that scientists do not always conform\\u000a to them, but to conceive them as ‘default-norms’ by raising the question which deviations may be defensible and which

Theo A. F. Kuipers

60

Future prospects in depression research  

PubMed Central

Major depression is a common, disabling, and often difficult-to-treat illness. Decades of research into the neurobiology and treatment of depression have greatly advanced our ability to manage this disorder. However, a number of challenges remain. A substantial number of depressed patients do not achieve full remission despite optimized treatment. For patients who do achieve resolution of symptoms, depression remains a highly recurrent illness, and repeated episodes are common. Finally, little is known about how depression might be prevented, especially in individuals at increased risk. In the face of these challenges, a number of exciting research efforts are currently under way and promise to greatly expand our knowledge of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of depression. This review highlights these future prospects for depression research with a specific focus on lines of investigation likely to generate novel, more effective treatment options.

Holtzheimer III, Paul E.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

2006-01-01

61

Artificial Intelligence Research Branch Future Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engin...

H. Stewart

1992-01-01

62

THE FUTURE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: ONE SCIENTIST'S PERSPECTIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent explosion of information, especially in digital form, is revolutionizing many fields of scientific endeavor, including the assorted venues scientists use to disseminate their research results. Scientists should take a keen interest in this nascent paradigm shift ­ it is already having a p...

63

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me.  

PubMed

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

Narlikar, Jayant V

2008-01-01

64

[Ethical principles in human scientific research].  

PubMed

Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers. PMID:7732235

Cruz-Coke, R

1994-07-01

65

European research on future Internet design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future Internet has become the federating theme for European research on communication networks and services. At the core lies research on communication networks toward an efficient, scalable, and reliable future Internet coupled with research on the underlying technologies, in particular mobile and wireless access and optical networks. This article first presents the motivation for a bold initiative for future Internet

Peter Stuckmann; Rainer Zimmermann

2009-01-01

66

[AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow); a training model aimed at enhancement of clinical scientific research].  

PubMed

The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas. PMID:9380169

van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C

1997-06-21

67

Future scientifically worthwhile missions to the Saturn system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the International Cassini/Huygens (CH) mission suggests multiple avenues for future scientific exploration of the Saturn system. Currently scientists and engineers think viable options for future missions include examining in more detail Saturn itself, Titan, Enceladus (and possibly other small icy satellites), and the ring system, in the near- to mid-term time frames and beyond. But the very successes of the CH mission that revealed these exciting options also make it more difficult for future missions to provide science that extends significantly beyond CH. That very capable instrument complement, coupled with a tour that sampled well the diversity of the system, leaves only more difficult observations yet to be done. A recent study commissioned by NASA and led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory concluded that only flagship-class missions can improve sufficiently on CH's observations of Titan and Enceladus to make them scientifically worth their mission costs [1]. That study's science advisory teams found that there are three avenues by which future missions can conduct scientifically worthwhile investigations at those destinations: make measurements not previously feasible (i.e., carry instruments different from or significantly improved over those on CH); extend coverage in space or time to unexplored areas; or make observations of previously unknown phenomena. Such improvements are not easily accomplished. Although the study identified some missions to the Saturn system that could be flown for 1B US (2006 dollars) or less, none of those were deemed of sufficient science value to be worth the cost. What kinds of flagship-class missions have science returns that justify their costs? Fortunately the range of possibilities covers all the major system components mentioned above. This paper will discuss the kinds of mission concepts that could address the major science questions at each one, and will describe what aspects of those missions make them unlikely to fit within smaller resource caps. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency. [1] K. Reh et al., Titan and Enceladus 1B Mission Feasibility Study Report, JPL D-37401, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 30 Jan. 2007.

Spilker, T.

2007-08-01

68

Scientific Integrity: Maintaining the Legitimacy of the Research Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, most scientific research is conducted in higher education institutions. Funding for science is dependent on the ability of these institutions to support and maintain the legitimacy of the scientific enterprise. As long as the public sees scientific research as beneficial to the common good, support will be forthcoming from government and other sources. In other words, the financial underpinnings

Melissa S. Anderson

69

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON AUSTRALIAN RURAL PRODUCTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the relationship between scientific agricultural research and aggregate rural productivity is investigated. The Solow 'residual' model is used to estimate productivity changes. An attempt is made to investigate the extent to which scientific research, measured by scientific personnel, 'explains' technical change. An education and climatic variable are added to the model. The results suggest a positive relationship

Trevor Hastings

1981-01-01

70

Mythical Thinking, Scientific Discourses and Research Dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak’s article “Mismatches between ‘scientific’\\u000a and ‘non-scientific’ ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science” (IPBS 2011) as a point of\\u000a departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed\\u000a with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be

Sven Hroar Klempe

2011-01-01

71

Research on Evaluation of University Scientific Research Capability Based on Discrete Hopfield Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an evaluation model for the university scientific research capability based on improved discrete Hopfield neural network ,which can provides scientific reference for colleges and universities to identify the status of their own research capability, enhance scientific research capability and improve their ranks. The model makes concepts of evaluation for scientific research indexes into quantitative data and use

Wei Dai; Zhangming Shi

2010-01-01

72

Research and implementation of scientific research supporting system in digital campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching, scientific research and social service are the three base functions of universities, and the level of scientific research is an important goal for universities to improve its core competitive ability. According to the characteristics of university scientific research activities, this article puts forward a construction mentality of scientific research supporting system, and designs and realizes the system function model,

Fu Xiaolong; Yuan Fang; Jiang Dongxing

2010-01-01

73

Media Research, Past, Present, Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The highlights of articles evaluating the results of media research over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and the constructionists' and the reductionists' approaches to media research are described. It is pointed out that for the researcher in medi...

G. M. Torkelson

1981-01-01

74

Ten Years of GLAPHI Method Developing Scientific Research Abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past ten years we had applied our method, GLAPHI, to teach how to do scientific research. The method has been applied from freshman students up to PhD professionals. The method is based in the search and analysis of scientific literature, the scientific question or problem, the approach of hypothesis and objetive, the estimation of the project cost and the timetable. It also includes statistics for research, author rights, ethics in research, publication of scientific papers, writting scientific reports and meeting presentations. In this work success and fails of GLAPHI methods will be discussed. Work partially supported by CONACyT (Mexico) under contract: SEP-2004-C01-46893

Vega-Carrillo, Hector R.

2006-12-01

75

Some Perils to Ethical Creative Scientific Research in The Academia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modem research in natural sciences has become a large and complex enterprise involving substantial research funds, enormous infrastructures, team work and group dynamics. It is also characterized by a dazzling inter–play of egos. competition, fundchasing, fame–seeking and other social (rather than scientific) factors. Since a great deal of scientific research is carried out in universities, it is of interest to

Ashok K. Vijh

1996-01-01

76

Institute for Scientific Computing Research Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy (DOE). The maturation of computational simulation as a tool of scientific and engineering research is underscored in the November 2004 statement of the Secretary of Energy that, ''high performance computing is the backbone of the nation's science and technology enterprise''. LLNL operates several of the world's most powerful computers--including today's single most powerful--and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Ultrascale simulation has been identified as one of the highest priorities in DOE's facilities planning for the next two decades. However, computers at architectural extremes are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Furthermore, each successful terascale simulation only points out the need for much better ways of interacting with the resulting avalanche of data. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to LLNL's core missions than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, LLNL must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) served as one of LLNL's main bridges to the academic community with a program of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, workshops, and an active seminar series. The ISCR identifies researchers from the academic community for computer science and computational science collaborations with LLNL and hosts them for short- and long-term visits with the aim of encouraging long-term academic research agendas that address LLNL's research priorities. Through such collaborations, ideas and software flow in both directions, and LLNL cultivates its future workforce. The Institute strives to be LLNL's ''eyes and ears'' in the computer and information sciences, keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be the ''feet and hands'' that carry those advances into the Laboratory and incorporates them into practice. ISCR research participants are integrated into LLNL's Computing and Applied Research (CAR) Department, especially into its Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). In turn, these organizations address computational challenges arising throughout the rest of the Laboratory. Administratively, the ISCR flourishes under LLNL's University Relations Program (URP). Together with the other five institutes of the URP, it navigates a course that allows LLNL to benefit from academic exchanges while preserving national security. While it is difficult to operate an academic-like research enterprise within the context of a national security laboratory, the results declare the challenges well met and worth the continued effort.

Keyes, D E

2005-02-07

77

Mythical thinking, scientific discourses and research dissemination.  

PubMed

This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak's article "Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science" (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The author demonstrates how the most widespread demarcation criterion, the criterion of verification, is self-contradictory, not only when it comes to logic, but also in the achievement of isolating natural sciences from other forms of knowledge. According to Aristotle induction is a rhetorical device and as far as scientific statements are based on inductive inferences, they are relying on humanities, which rhetoric is a part of. Yet induction also has an empirical component by being based on sense-impressions, which is not a part of the rhetoric, but the psychology. Also the myths are understood in a rhetorical (Lévi-Strauss) and a psychological (Cassirer) perspective. Thus it is argued that both scientific and non-scientific discourses can be mythical. PMID:21461605

Hroar Klempe, Sven

2011-06-01

78

Editorial Research Reports on the Scientific Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nine reports published in this volume reflect upon the scientific revolution of the 20th century. Technological and scientific achievements are reviewed in the light of changes they have caused in human life. The challenge put forth is whether man can use wisely the new world of options that science opens for him. In this perspective the reports…

Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

79

Research Training--Present & Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

80

Mental health of scientific researchers I. Characteristics of job stress among scientific researchers working at a research park in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the characteristics of job stress in scientific researchers, a self-administered questionnaire survey\\u000a for 16,330 workers was carried out at Tsukuba Research Park City, Japan. The data of 7,063 (43%) workers aged 20–59?years\\u000a old were analyzed, and the characteristics of job stress in 3,290 scientific researchers were compared with those of 1,799\\u000a technicians and 1,849 clerks. The

Takayuki Kageyama; Ichiyo Matsuzaki; Nobuaki Morita; Shin-ichiro Sasahara; Shinji Satoh; Hiroyuki Nakamura

2001-01-01

81

FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS IN ARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The following technical abstract refers to the (4th of 6) invited oral presentations given by Dr. Skoda at the APHIS-ARS-Mexico US Commission for the Eradication of Screwworm Meeting, March 2000. Research for the next three to five years at the Midwest Livestock Insects Research Unit was outlined. ...

82

Burnout: Summary and Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burnout literature is reviewed, compared, and summarized. Based on this process a definition of burnout is proposed encompassing three components: emotional and\\/or physical exhaustion, lowered work productivity, and overdepersonalization. A model to aid researchers is presented accompanied by research questions in need of answer if burnout is to be more fully understood.

Baron Perlman; E. Alan Hartman

1982-01-01

83

Hail Control. Operative and Scientific Research Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Physical basis of artificial modification of clouds; Development of hail control in the world; Characteristics of the hail control system developed in the U.S.S.R.; Development of hail control in Yugoslavia; Professional-scientific definition of...

D. Radinovic

1972-01-01

84

Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It…

O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

2011-01-01

85

Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

2011-01-01

86

Scientific Research for Undergraduate Students: A Review of the Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engaging students in authentic scientific research has become an important component of undergraduate science education at many institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore authentic research experiences as contexts for learning. The authors revi

Mckinney, Lyle; Sadler, Troy D.

2010-05-01

87

Future Research Directions in Laterality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the current conceptual state of research into neuropsychological laterality and considers some issues which might appropriately be considered for the forward development of the field. It considers the biological context which has been adopted for these studies and the psychological significance of performance asymmetries. A principal emphasis of the paper is the degree to which inferences, rather

J. Graham Beaumont

1997-01-01

88

Lakatos' Scientific Research Programmes as a Framework for Analysing Informal Argumentation about Socio-scientific Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos’ scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio?scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non?science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio?scientific issues. Our analysis showed that the science majors’ informal arguments were significantly better than the non?science majors’

2008-01-01

89

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop was held in 1990 in Muscle Shoals, Alabama to discuss current and future research on phosphorus in agriculture. Twenty four presentations were given in areas ranging from basic to applied research. For five of the research areas presented at the workshop, this paper presents a literature review, a review of presentations at the workshop, and a discussion of

F. J. Sikora; P. M. Giordano

1995-01-01

90

Recent Developments in Scientific Research Ballooning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program is committed to meeting the need for extended duration scientific investigations by providing advanced balloon vehicles and support systems. A sea change in ballooning capability occurred with the inauguration of 8 20 day flights around Antarctica in the early 1990's. The attainment of 28 31 day flights and a record-breaking 42-day

W. Vernon Jones

2007-01-01

91

Encouraging Balanced Scientific Research through Formal Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Connecticut science standards include a "Science, Technology, and Society" (STS) standard for each grade level. This standard encourages students to explore how scientific knowledge affects the quality of their lives. By relating science concepts to real-world decision making, STS investigations give students a framework through which they…

Yurgelun, Nancy

2007-01-01

92

Encouraging Balanced Scientific Research through Formal Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new Connecticut science standards include a "Science, Technology, and Society" (STS) standard for each grade level. This standard encourages students to explore how scientific knowledge affects the quality of their lives. By relating science concepts to real-world decision making, STS investigations give students a framework through which…

Yurgelun, Nancy

2007-01-01

93

The Future of College and Research Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of college and research libraries is discussed in the context of the changing role of academic librarians, the assistance technology may give to libraries, the political activity required to achieve government aid for libraries, and the future of higher education. (Author/AWP)

Bailey, Stephen K.

1978-01-01

94

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research  

SciTech Connect

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

Sikora, F.J. (ed.)

1992-03-01

95

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry ...

F. J. Sikora

1992-01-01

96

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

Nigg, Joel T.

2012-01-01

97

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact

Joel T. Nigg

2012-01-01

98

Social Sleepwalkers. Scientific and Technological Research in California Agriculture. Research Monograph No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Making a case for initiation of a systematic methodology that would predict and evaluate the potential social ramifications of scientific research, this monograph presents: (1) a review of the general lack of social concern among scientific researchers and rationale for utilization of scientific agricultural research as initiator of social…

Friedland, William H.

99

Competence Mapping through Analysing Research Papers of a Scientific Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Main goal of a scientific community is the collaborative production of new knowledge through research and scholarship. An\\u000a integrative research approach, fostered by confrontation and collaboration among researchers, is widely recognized as a key\\u000a factor to improve the quality of production of a scientific community. Competence mapping is a valid approach to highlight\\u000a expertise, encourage re-use of knowledge, contributing significantly

Antonio P. Volpentesta; Alberto M. Felicetti

2011-01-01

100

Integrating Visualization and Interaction Research to Improve Scientific Workflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific-visualization research is, nearly by necessity, interdisciplinary. In addition to their collaborators in application domains (for example, cell biology), researchers regularly build on close ties with disciplines related to visualization, such as graphics, human-computer interaction, and cognitive science. One of these ties is the connection between visualization and interaction research. This isn't a new direction for scientific visualization (see the

Daniel F. Keefe

2010-01-01

101

Finding a Mentor for High School Independent Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Being involved with scientific research in high school is rewarding and fun. Research enables students to: (1) learn in depth about a particular area; (2) meet other students who are also enthusiastic about learning and who have done amazing research; and (3) earn scholarships for college if the research is entered in competitions. Completing a…

Hess, Amber

2008-01-01

102

The Myth of "Scientific Method" in Contemporary Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether educational research should employ the "scientific method" has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: "positivist" or "interpretivist". In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research

Rowbottom, Darrell Patrick; Aiston, Sarah Jane

2006-01-01

103

Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly presents the major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade and provides recommendations for future research. Some of the major research-related developments have emanated largely from three research centers dedicated to the study of Hispanic mental health, a national organization of service providers, and a minority mental health fellowship program. Numerous individuals from various

Amado M. Padilla; Kathryn J. Lindholm

1984-01-01

104

The Future Direction of Nutrition Research: Science, Public Health, Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although predicting the future directions of research in nutrition may be risky, in this essay I will outline some specific scientific questions and some concepts that may be important to research in the future. Four main categories seem to me to be of major importance: 1) nutrient regulation of gene expression, 2) nutrition in the causation and prevention of chronic

RICHARD L ATKINSON

105

Using scientifically based research to guide educational decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article identifies what scientifically based research (SBR) means in the field of education. It describes how teachers and administrators are required by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to use SBR to select teaching practices, curriculum, and programs. The article is designed to help educators locate and use SBR to increase student learning. It offers improvement goals and action options for administrators, teachers, and policy makers. The value of using scientifically based research is discussed along with information about possible pitfalls and differing points of view about research types. Featured are case studies with examples of how scientifically based research is conducted. Also included are references and a list of resources about scientifically based research in education.

Buchler, Beth; Margolin, Jonathan

2004-01-01

106

Does poverty research in Russia follow the scientific method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first critical review of literature on poverty published in Russia between 1992 and 2006. Using a dataset of about 250 publications in Russian scientific journals, the authors assess whether the poverty research in Russia satisfies the general criteria of a scientific publication and if such studies could provide reliable guidance to the Russian government as it

Michael Lokshin

2008-01-01

107

The Acquisition of Monographis in Large Academic Scientific Research Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses current issues and problems in the process of acquiring scientific monographs in large academic scientific research libraries. The use and value of monographic material, the broad scope of the collections, the libraries' diverse clientele and the competing demands for resource dollars are described. Approval plans are discussed at length. Cooperative agreements results in faster access to materials

Maxine H. Reneker; Suzanne Fedunok

1983-01-01

108

Should IACUCs review scientific merit of animal research projects?  

PubMed

Whether IACUCs should review animal research protocols for scientific merit is not addressed in the federal regulations, resulting in ongoing confusion on the subject. The authors examine this issue, discuss the pros and cons, suggest how IACUCs can go about reviewing protocols for scientific merit, and question what effect recent changes in regulations will have on this issue. PMID:14752528

Mann, Michael D; Prentice, Ernest D

2004-01-01

109

Enabling Successful Submissions of Scientific Data for Preservation and Future Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing scientific data and research-related information for submission to a scientific data archive or digital repository for long-term preservation and dissemination is a critical task for data stewardship, but can be challenging for those who have produced data initially for their own use. We describe here a data submission system designed to assist data producers in preparing and describing their data in ways that balance the need for comprehensive information about the data with the practicalities of what data producers are willing and able to provide. The system is based on a model for web-based services that enables self-submission and supports the workflow needed for gathering the information required for long-term preservation and use by current and future research, education, and decision-making communities. To inform the design of the system for a range of data types, submissions of both Earth and social science data sets were analyzed to identify successful practices that could be implemented in a self-submission system. We describe these successful data submission practices along with the features of a self-submission system that should help encourage the submission of scientific data by both natural and social scientists.

Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

2009-12-01

110

Future Research Needs in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with future research needs and problems in learning disabilities, and is divided into the following two broad categories: (1) supporting conditions, which involve necessary prerequisites to the research effort; and (2) procedural considerations, which deal with methodological concerns. First, the problems posed by supporting…

Senf, Gerald M.

111

Future of Materials and Materials Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to summarize the presentations on porcelain materials, endodontic materials, casting metals, impression materials, armamentarium, amalgam, resins, composites, cements, bonding agents, adhesives, and calcium phosphate materials. Eight series of recommendations for future research are presented and include areas of basic research, animal models, biocompatibility, correlated laboratory and clinical testing procedures, epidemiological studies, workshops and conferences,

J. W. Stanford

1988-01-01

112

The Future Agenda for Alumni Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Striving for a standardized alumni research terminology should parallel future research efforts in such areas as measurement of donor potential, modeling alumni giving patterns, and examination of involvement in alumni activities. A taxonomy and a strategy for achieving standardization are described. (MLW)

Dunn, John A., Jr.

1988-01-01

113

Information Science Approaches to Scientific Information Systems and Their Implications to Scientific Researches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some crucial aspects of international scientific information systems whose establishment will be urgently required in the near future are explored. The exploration is concerned with futuristic aspects of the coming thirty-two years of the present century. The main sections of this report cover: (1) descriptions of the cybernetic era; (2) aspects…

Kitagawa, Tosio

114

General Discussion - Future Perspectives - Future Research on Urban Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the session on urban soils has brought together scientists of different countries and different perspectives and approaches on urban soils, there is the need for a more general discussion at the end of the session. In the last years, urban soils gained more and more attention from planners, politicians but also from scientists. What are the lessions we learned from this session? What generalisations can be gained? What new concepts have been discussed and what are the fields of future research?

Session Convener, The; Co-Conveners, The

2010-05-01

115

AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Technical Report Summaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research Technical Report Summaries are published quarterly as of March, June, September, and December of each calendar year. They consist of a brief summary of each AFOSR technical report received in the Technical Infor...

B. J. Wert

1985-01-01

116

Planning in Scientific Research Institutes and Design Bureaus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussed here are the problems of planning, operational accounting and operational reporting at the institutions of scientific research and design bureaus. Emphasis is put on the following points: continuity of planning and concordance between the long-r...

P. D. Shoshmin V. A. Shcherbakov

1968-01-01

117

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center 2007 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.

Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul

2008-10-23

118

Strategic reading, ontologies, and the future of scientific publishing.  

PubMed

The revolution in scientific publishing that has been promised since the 1980s is about to take place. Scientists have always read strategically, working with many articles simultaneously to search, filter, scan, link, annotate, and analyze fragments of content. An observed recent increase in strategic reading in the online environment will soon be further intensified by two current trends: (i) the widespread use of digital indexing, retrieval, and navigation resources and (ii) the emergence within many scientific disciplines of interoperable ontologies. Accelerated and enhanced by reading tools that take advantage of ontologies, reading practices will become even more rapid and indirect, transforming the ways in which scientists engage the literature and shaping the evolution of scientific publishing. PMID:19679805

Renear, Allen H; Palmer, Carole L

2009-08-14

119

Scientific Research for Undergraduate Students: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Engaging students in authentic scientific research has become an important component of undergraduate science education at many institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore authentic research experiences as contexts for learning. The authors review empirical studies of undergraduate research experiences in order to critically evaluate…

Sadler, Troy D.; McKinney, Lyle

2010-01-01

120

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities, 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The data in these tables are collected biennially through the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Congressionally mandated Survey of Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities. The 1999 survey was sent to research-performing colleges and universities in the United States and to U.S. biomedical research institutions that received National…

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

121

Scientifically Based Research in Education: Epistemology and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author begins to trace the concept scientifically based research in federal legislation, in the Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences, and in the reports of several National Research Council committees. She also discusses how this concept has produced a certain scientism that has been deployed to attempt to control the field of educational research. She

Elizabeth Adams St. Pierre

2006-01-01

122

Scientific Fraud: Definitions, Policies, and Implications for Nursing Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific fraud is often a result of misguided attempts to attain professional success. To prevent fraud in nursing research, researchers should be socialized in an atmosphere of professional integrity, have established researchers as role models, and be rewarded for quality rather than quantity. (SK)

Chop, Rose M.; Silva, Mary Cipriano

1991-01-01

123

How "Scientific" Is Science Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research articles published in the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science…

Lawson, Anton E.

2010-01-01

124

How "Scientific" Is Science Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research articles published in the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science…

Lawson, Anton E.

2010-01-01

125

Space research and scientific-technological progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of advancements in space research and the value of the space effort for the pure and applied sciences, technology, and the national economy are discussed along with the high cost of space programs and the necessity of a definite hierarchy in selecting objectives and goals. The directions of Soviet space research are outlined as follows: investigation of near-earth

B. N. Petrov

1975-01-01

126

A realistic view of the future of scientific ballooning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of the past twenty years have brought about significant increases in the reliability of scientific balloon vehicles and operations. Scientists have enjoyed an unprecedented flight success ratio in recent years. Significant discoveries in the atmospheric science and space science disciplines have recently been made using balloon-borne instruments. Unfortunately, the number of balloon flights is decreasing each year and

L. G. Seely; M. S. Smith

2002-01-01

127

Scientific Publishing in Developing Countries: Challenges for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I first refer to the center-periphery dichotomy in terms of scientific output, placing emphasis upon the relation that exists between science and technology development, on the one hand, and social and economic development, on the other. I then analyze the main problems faced by most peripheral journals and the role nation states…

Salager-Meyer, Francoise

2008-01-01

128

Data Management Guide of Public Participation in Scientific Research. DataONE Public Participation in Scientific Research Working Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Data Management Guide for Public Participation in Scientific Research is a practitioner's reference for managing data, an important part of citizen science project design and sustainability. This 15-page guide highlights essential issues and processes...

2013-01-01

129

Tips for Preparing a Scientific Research Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tips prepared by the Woods Hole Sea Grant Program, with help from researchers, librarians, and teachers. Designed to help middle school or high school students organize their research papers from beginning to end, takes it step-by-step and week-by-week. Covers: how to start, identifying a topic; outlining the project, compiling resources, finding help; organizing resources, recognizing when you have enough; expanding the outline, writing clearly and logically; and reviewing the paper.

2010-08-03

130

U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program: Ongoing activities and scientific research strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interagency Coordinating Group for Continental Scientific Drilling (ICG/CSD), composed of representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE), National Science Foundation (NSF), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), has devised a multiyear, multihole scientific research strategy for the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). Using this strategic plan, the agencies of ICG/CSD expect to establish and maintain a management and operational infrastructure for continental scientific drilling.Phase I is the initial 3-year, base scientific drilling program beginning in Fiscal Year 1991. Combined funding from the three agencies is expected to be about $3 million per year, to drill 10 to 15 shallow- to intermediate-depth holes over the 3-year period. The elements of Phase I are: targets of significant scientific importance at shallow and occasionally intermediate depths research using drill holes of opportunity continuing research and development related to CSDP activities archiving, storing and distributing drilling samples collecting, managing and distributing drilling and drilling-related data.

Kolstad, George A.

131

Collaboratory for support of scientific research  

SciTech Connect

Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ``collaboratory`` refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries [1],[2]. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ``as good as being there`` is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote [3] Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative research Many research disciplines find themselves in a similar position, trying to better utilize facilities and increase productivity for both local and remote researchers A recently published issue of Interactions [4] includes a special section dedicated to collaboratories A description of collaborative observations at the Keck Observatory [2] indicates distinct and real advantages gamed by astronomers who can now remotely access this facility, even as the collaboratory is developing. Advantages range from simply making the facility available to more researchers without the cost of travel to the physiological advantage of not experiencing oxygen deprivation sickness due to high altitude observing The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory [2] which focuses on studies of the earth`s ionosphere and interactions with the solar wind now combines information from several observing sites, many in difficult to reach high latitude locations above the arctic circle Travel to these remote locations, fomrerly provided by military flights which are no longer needed, is now more expensive for researchers With a now obvious need for remote sensing and collaborations, the UARC has combined access to these experimental facilities and joined in global modeling efforts to better use the capabilities of researchers on an international scale. The final collaboratory featured [2] is that of our testbed development for the DIII-D tokamak experiment 141 to make it even more accessible in its role as a US national facility

Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.

1998-06-25

132

Analysis and programming for scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes significant analyses and computer programming problems performed in support of Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories scientists. Ephemerides systems, orbit determination systems, systems to investigate ionospheric and geomagnetic phenomena, atmospheric density studies, and analyses of satellite wire-boom dynamics have been covered in varying degrees of depth.

J. N. Bass; K. H. Bhavnani; M. G. Hurwitz; T. Shu; J. L. Stancik; L. A. Whelan

1974-01-01

133

Scientific Workflow: A Survey and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workflow technologies are emerging as the dominant ap- proach to coordinate groups of distributed services. However with a space filled with competing specifications, standards and frameworks from mul- tiple domains, choosing the right tool for the job is not always a straight- forward task. Researchers are often unaware of the range of technology that already exists and focus on implementing

Adam Barker; Jano I. Van Hemert

2007-01-01

134

Scientific Research in a Foreign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is a vital aspect in science and engineering. Not only does it further ideas and technology around the world, it brings people around the world together through collaborations. More often than not, the common language spoken among collaborators is English. This makes it easy for native English speakers. It becomes very difficult, however, when the common language spoken among

Meghan Bellows

2006-01-01

135

30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...before I may conduct scientific research? 280.11 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities...

2010-07-01

136

30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...before I may conduct scientific research? 280.11 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities...

2009-07-01

137

The Use of Microblogging for Field-Based Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documenting the context in which data are collected is an integral part of the scientific research lifecycle. In field-based research, contextual information provides a detailed description of scientific practices and thus enables data interpretation and reuse. For field data, losing contextual information often means losing the data altogether. Yet, documenting the context of distributed, collaborative, field-based research can be a significant challenge due to the unpredictable nature of real-world settings and to the high degree of variability in data collection methods and scientific practices of different researchers. In this article, we propose the use of microblogging as a mechanism to support collection, ingestion, and publication of contextual information about the variegated digital artifacts that are produced in field research. We perform interviews with scholars involved in field-based environmental and urban sensing research, to determine the extent of adoption of Twitter and similar microblogging platforms and their potential use for field-specific research applications. Based on the results of these interviews as well as participant observation of field activities, we present the design, development, and pilot evaluation of a microblogging application integrated with an existing data collection platform on a handheld device. We investigate whether microblogging accommodates the variable and unpredictable nature of highly mobile research and whether it represents a suitable mechanism to document the context of field research data early in the scientific information lifecycle.

Pepe, Alberto; Mayernik, M. S.

138

Corporate entrepreneurship: Current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest future research on the processes and knowledge-based resources in corporate entrepreneurship (CE), argue for the need to appreciate the heterogeneity of CE in relation to new contexts, and suggest appropriate strategies for such contexts. First, we highlight the key contributions of the papers in this special issue, with a particular focus on how they provide

Phillip H. Phan; Mike Wright; Deniz Ucbasaran; Wee-Liang Tan

2009-01-01

139

The arenaviruses: some priorities for future research  

PubMed Central

In this paper Lassa virus is used as a model in pinpointing priorities for future research on the arenaviruses. Suggestions for specific investigations and public health measures cover the detection of Lassa virus infection, the pathology and therapy of the disease, and its prevention and control.

Johnson, Karl M.

1975-01-01

140

Scientific Research and the Public Trust  

PubMed Central

This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion the public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. Well-focused arguments that use public trust to support rules or policies for the conduct of research should specify a) which public is being referred to (e.g. the general public or a specific public, such as a particular community or group); b) what this public expects from scientists; c) how the rule or policy will ensure that these expectations are met; and d) why is it important to meet these expectations.

Resnik, David B.

2011-01-01

141

The Open-Source software development paradigm: Nothing new to scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I demonstrate that - because of its propensity for innovation and flexibility in both the traditional scientific research and corporate research communities - the Open Source Software (OSS) development paradigm does indeed apply to scientific research. Open-Source and Scientific Research Basic scientific research has traditionally been a community-based process. Society provides monetary subsidies for basic research, and

John Daues

142

The competitiveness of scientific research and measures to increase it  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the consideration of the problem of the competitiveness of scientific research as an independent scientific\\u000a line in the context of the science of science, whose main methodological instruments could be the adapted economic concepts\\u000a of competitiveness and clusters, as well as mathematical models of competitive interactions (including models described in\\u000a the terms and equations of population dynamics)

V. M. Moskovkin

2007-01-01

143

Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On August 30, 2011, the Institute of Medicine hosted a workshop, Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research, sponsored by the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The workshop explored the need for sex...

T. M. Wizemann

2012-01-01

144

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

145

USDA Forest Service Research and Development: Code of Scientific Ethics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This code has been developed by a committee of scientists in USDA Forest Service Research & Development (FS R&D) after feedback from colleagues and extensive research on science ethics. The code is based on the Code of Scientific Ethics of the USDA Agricu...

2000-01-01

146

Imaging physics at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) is launching a research program in imaging physics planned to start in fiscal year 1997 (FY97). Both active (man made illumination sources) and passive (solar illuminated) imaging methods will be included in the program. The purpose of the program is to develop a national thrust for imaging science which will lay the

William W. Arrasmith

1996-01-01

147

Modeling Scientific Research Articles - Shifting Perspectives and Persistent Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review over 10 years of research at Elsevier and various Dutch academic institutions on establishing a new format for the scientific research article. Our work rests on two main theoretical principles: the concept of modular documents, consisting of content elements that can exist and be published independently and are linked by meaningful relations, and the use of semantic data

Anita de Waard; Joost Kircz

2008-01-01

148

Scientifically Based Research in Education: Epistemology and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author begins to trace the concept "scientifically based research" in federal legislation, in the Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences, and in the reports of several National Research Council committees. She also discusses how this concept has produced a certain "scientism" that has been deployed to…

St.Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

2006-01-01

149

Overview: Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities, 1998  

NSF Publications Database

October 1999 Overview: Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities ... Overview: Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities, 1998 Portable ...

150

Dietary therapies for epilepsy: future research.  

PubMed

Since 1921, dietary therapies have remained valuable options in the treatment of intractable childhood epilepsy. The traditional ketogenic diet has been well demonstrated, including in a recent randomized, controlled trial, as being highly effective. More recent alternative diets such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, modified Atkins diet, and low-glycemic-index treatment have expanded the use of this modality to more children as well as adults. In this review, we discuss our top 10 most pressing research topics related to the ketogenic diet that warrant future study. As well, two promising ketogenic diet clinical researchers discuss their past and current research to help answer some of these questions. PMID:21441072

Kessler, Sudha K; Neal, Elizabeth G; Camfield, Carol S; Kossoff, Eric H

2011-03-26

151

Exploring the Use of Virtual Worlds as a Scientific Research Platform: The Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA), the first professional scientific organization based exclusively in virtual worlds (VWs). The goals of MICA are to explore the utility of the emerging VR and VWs technologies for scientific and scholarly work in general, and to facilitate and accelerate their adoption by the scientific research community. MICA itself is an experiment in academic and scientific practices enabled by the immersive VR technologies. We describe the current and planned activities and research directions of MICA, and offer some thoughts as to what the future developments in this arena may be.

Djorgovski, S. G.; Hut, P.; McMillan, S.; Vesperini, E.; Knop, R.; Farr, W.; Graham, M. J.

152

Cajal's first steps in scientific research.  

PubMed

More than 125 years ago, Santiago Ramón y Cajal was able to draft and prove the neuron doctrine, and later, to develop prophetic theories about neural function and plasticity, many of which have been proven by current neuroscience. It was chance that made Cajal, during his doctorate studies, have his first contact with histology and force him to study the then current theories about pathogenesis of inflammation. Thus, he gained knowledge of the vascular hypothesis, by Julius Cohnheim, a German pathologist who, opposing the opinion of his teacher and father of cellular pathology, Rudolf Virchow, made leukocytes the protagonists of inflammation, given their ability to develop ameboid movements directed by chemical signals. Cohnheim's chemotactic theory deeply influenced Cajal's conception of biology. So, the basic postulates of chemotaxis can be identified at different moments in Cajal's research, from the description of the "growth cone" in embryonic neuroblasts, the origin of the neurotrophic theory, to the proposal of the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuronal plasticity. From Cajal's point of view, the neurons move during their development and also adapt to different external circumstances. Chemical endogenous substances can stimulate this movement in a similar way to leukocytes during the process of inflammation. PMID:22588002

Serrano-Castro, P J; Garcia-Torrecillas, J M

2012-05-12

153

Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling  

SciTech Connect

The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

Not Available

1984-01-01

154

Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

2012-01-01

155

Scientific Norms and Ethical Misconduct: Research towards the Design of a Course in Scientific Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We report our study of chemistry graduate students' beliefs regarding the normative values of their disciplines and their perceptions of the ethical challenges they face as students, teachers, and scientific researchers. Using a phenomenographical lens, we interviewed seven graduate students who had achieved Ph.D. candidacy and at least 3 full…

Verdan, Andrea M.; Ingallinera, J. Tyler; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

2010-01-01

156

Scientific Norms and Ethical Misconduct: Research towards the Design of a Course in Scientific Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report our study of chemistry graduate students' beliefs regarding the normative values of their disciplines and their perceptions of the ethical challenges they face as students, teachers, and scientific researchers. Using a phenomenographical lens, we interviewed seven graduate students who had achieved Ph.D. candidacy and at least 3 full…

Verdan, Andrea M.; Ingallinera, J. Tyler; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

2010-01-01

157

African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences

Abebe Kebede

2002-01-01

158

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment.

Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

2008-01-01

159

Biosafety: future priorities for research in health care.  

PubMed

Currently the public interest in biosafety issues has focussed on the discussions surrounding the use of genetically modified organisms, very specifically on the use of transgenic plants in agriculture. Although many of the questions raised in connection with genetically modified organisms are of legitimate scientific interest, attention should be drawn back to a number of other more classical biosafety research areas, namely the problem of control of new and reemerging infectious diseases, the need for new vaccines, control of transport and routes of dissemination, biosafety information exchange and networking, where research results are dearly needed. In the area of modern biotechnology new applications such as gene therapy and transgenic animals will be on the list of future priorities for biosafety related activities and research. PMID:11165365

Doblhoff-Dier, O; Collins, C H

2001-02-13

160

Scientific presentations and publications on odontological research in Argentina.  

PubMed

The results of odontological research which are presented at the annual meetings of the Argentine Division of the International Association for Dental Research (A.D.I.A.D.R.) are proof of the scientific production of this country in this area. An analysis of the presentations allows for the quantitative evaluation of the activity of the area. A deeper appraisal of the reality of research, involves the analysis of quality and publication efficiency. A useful indicator is the relationship between the quantity of the presentations and subsequent publications (Publ./Pres. Ratio) in Journals with peer review. In 1990, the authorities of the Division presented an evaluation of the 10 previous years (Acta Odont. Latinoamer. 7(2):39-46, 1993). The current Board of Directors has considered timely to update that information. With this aim in mind the presentations at A.D.I.A.D.R. over the period 1990-1995 were considered. Employing the authors index of the A.D.I.A.D.R. meeting we searched for possible publications in Medline. The references were compared with the data from the presentations, disregarding those which had not been communicated previously in the Division. The data obtained were grouped according to Research Center and subject area. The Publ./Pres. Ratio was calculated. The time to publication and language of publication were considered. Of a total of 506 presentations, 61 were published, Ratio Publ./Pres. 1:8 (12%). Considering each Center individually the ratio was 1:6 for the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), 1:13 for the National University of Córdoba (UNC), 1:3 for the National University of La Plata (UNLP) and 1:2 for the National University of Rosario (UNR). There were no records of publications from the National Universities of Tucumán and of the North-East. The groups of investigation with greater quantity of presentations and better Publ./Pres. Ratio were Dental Mat./Restorative Dent./Endod. (ratio 1:8), Physiol./Pharmacol./Biochem. (Ratio 1:4) and Oral Pathol. (Ratio 1:4) of UBA, and Physiol./Pharmacol. (Ratio 1:1) of UNC. Most of the publications were in English (86%) and within 4 years of presentation. The current Publ./Pres. Ratios are similar to those communicated in 1990 in the area of the basic investigation and represent acceptable values. An increase in this proportion is expected in the future especially in the area of applied clinical research, since publication would imply prior peer review and thus qualitative evaluation of the work. PMID:11885083

Collet, A M; Piloni, M J; Keszler, A

1997-01-01

161

Benefits and pitfalls of scientific research during undergraduate medical education  

PubMed Central

Objective: The integration of scientific research into medical education is a widely discussed topic. Most research training programs are offered on a voluntary basis. In Germany, it is mandatory to complete a doctoral thesis to obtain the academic title “doctor”. The reasons why students start a dissertation project and the influence of this project on their undergraduate studies and later career choices are not well known. Method: This study was conducted at five German universities in 2003, with a total of 437 fifth-year students participating in it. A standardised questionnaire was used to ask participants about their current or finished dissertation (group A), a dissertation they had discontinued (group B) or why they had never started a dissertation project (group C). Results: The two most important reasons for students from group A to start a dissertation were “interest in the topic” and “advantage for job applications”. Compared with group B, they mentioned “improved ability to critically appraise scientific studies” and “doing scientific work independently” significantly more often as a result of working on their dissertation. Starting a dissertation project early during undergraduate studies was correlated with a less successful outcome. Moreover, working on a dissertation significantly reduced time spent on undergraduate studies. Students from group C named the "workload of undergraduate studies" and “no time” most frequently as reasons for not having started a dissertation. Conclusion: Students who have been working successfully on a dissertation rate items regarding the acquisition of scientific research skills significantly more positively, and participation in undergraduate studies seems to be negatively affected by working on a dissertation project. Therefore, basic training in scientific research methodology should become an integrated part of the medical undergraduate curriculum, while special programs should be offered for students with a particular interest in scientific research programs or an academic career.

Kuhnigk, Olaf; Bothern, Aenne M.; Reimer, Jens; Schafer, Ingo; Biegler, Astrid; Jueptner, Markus; Gelderblom, Mathias; Harendza, Sigrid

2010-01-01

162

Space research scientific and educational project of Moscow State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific and educational project of space research was initiated in Lomonosov Moscow State University in order to incorporate modern space research in the university and high education, to popularize basics of space physics, and to enhance public interest in space exploration. On 20 January, 2005 the First Russian University Satellite UNIVERSITETSKIY was launched into circular polar orbit (inclination 83 deg., altitude 940-980 km). The onboard scientific complex TATYANA as well as the mission control and information receiving center, was designed and developed in Moscow State University. The scientific program of the mission include measurements of space radiation in different energy channels, and Earth UV luminosity and lightening. A multimedia lectures "Life of the Earth in the Solar Atmosphere" containing the basic information and demonstrations of the heliophysics (including Sun structure and solar activity, heliosphere and geophysics, solar-terrestrial connections and solar influence on the Earth's life) was created for upper high-school and junior university students. For the upper-university students there was created a dozen of special computerized lab exercises based on the experimental quasi-realtime data obtained from our satellites. Students specialized in space physics from a few Russian universities are involved in scientific work based. Educational program of the project (both the multimedia lectures and lab exercises) is concentrated to upper high school, middle university and special level for space physics students. The space research scientific and educational activity of Moscow State University is a non-profit project and is open for all interested parties.

Krasotkin, S. A.; Mjagkova, I. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Radchenko, V. V.; Ryazantseva, M. O.

163

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to issue a scientific research permit, the Director...necessary or desirable scientific purpose, taking into...be derived from the scientific research contemplated and...the marine mammal in question and the marine...

2009-10-01

164

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to issue a scientific research permit, the Director...necessary or desirable scientific purpose, taking into...be derived from the scientific research contemplated and...the marine mammal in question and the marine...

2010-10-01

165

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2013-04-01

166

The SCAR Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica Scientific Research Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.

Storey, John W. V.; Abe, Lyu; Andersen, Michael; Anderson, Philip; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Ichikawa, Takashi; Karle, Albrecht; Lloyd, James; Masi, Silvia; Steinbring, Eric; Travouillon, Tony; Tuthill, Peter; Zhou, HongYang

2013-01-01

167

Translational research: current status, challenges and future strategies  

PubMed Central

Advances in translational research are expected to mitigate the recent drought in new drug development. Despite significant progress recently made in biological sciences, the results are decidedly mixed with significant breakthrough in some disease areas while extensive work remains to be completed in other areas. This review article provides a general survey of the current landscape of translational research so as to identify progress and areas of needs and the associated strategy. While significant advances in the development of translational tools have been made in all fronts, the availability of predictive preclinical models remains critical for the success of translational research. This is directly correlated with the success of translational research as illustrated by the recent approval of targeted drug therapies. By the same logic, unexpected side effects can also be explained by laboratory findings, thus completing the translational cycle. Because of this reason, further collaboration between preclinical and clinical scientists is essential. Non-scientific issues have important influence on the future of this endeavor cannot be underestimated either. Nonetheless, with definitive commitment of private industry and public resources, the future of translational research is promising.

Yu, Dale

2011-01-01

168

Back to the Future: Contrasting Scientific Styles in Understanding Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this rejoinder to Willis, Smagorinsky, and Douglas, the authors discuss how many of the points raised by Willis and Smagorinsky regarding their original article, which appeared in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher, are concerned less with the methods themselves than with different styles of science. The authors of this rejoinder…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Schatschneider, Christopher; Morrison, Frederick J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry J.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.

2009-01-01

169

PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO PROFILE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: CITATION MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex systemcolon; scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these

J. A. DEL RIO; R. N. KOSTOFF; E. O. GARCIA; A. M. RAMIREZ; J. A. HUMENIK

2002-01-01

170

New Group of Researchers Focuses on Scientific Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article reports in late January 2006, a group of scholars announced the formation of a federally-backed professional society that will focus solely on advancing scientifically rigorous studies in education. The society, which is known as Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, has caused ripples of controversy among…

Viadero, Debra

2006-01-01

171

Scientific and Technical Photography at NASA Langley Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming...

A. Davidhazy

1994-01-01

172

Scientific production of electronic health record research, 1991-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe increasing numbers of publications on electronic health record (EHR) indicate its increasing importance in the world. This study attempted to quantify the scientific production of EHR research articles, and how they have changed over time, in an effort to investigate changes in the trends cited in these critical evaluations.

Hsyien-chia Wen; Yuh-shan Ho; Wen-shan Jian; Hsien-chang Li; Yi-hsin Elsa Hsu

2007-01-01

173

Knowledge Network Model of Scientific Research Achievement and its Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote knowledge sharing and knowledge reuse of scientific research achievements, this paper proposes a knowledge network model which acts as a direct access to the knowledge existed in the achievements. As knowledge network can be treated with a kind of complex networks, this paper then optimizes the primitive knowledge network model by analyzing its network characteristics. Figures

Yang Yu; Yanzhong Dang

2008-01-01

174

Commercial excimer laser for scientific researches and microtechnologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The powerful sources of UV radiation on a base of discharge excimer lasers find wide application in scientific research and technology. Short wavelengths, high peak and mean powers, and the possibility of quick working mixture exchange are making this type of laser extremely attractive for photochemistry, lithography, and laser medicine. Nevertheless, it is known that without taking special measures, excimer

Sergey S. Alimpiev; Sergey V. Likhansky; Alexey Z. Obidin; Serge K. Vartapetov; Igor A. Veselovsky

1992-01-01

175

Web Services Provide Access to SCEC Scientific Research Application Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote

N. Gupta; V. Gupta; D. Okaya; L. Kamb; P. Maechling

2003-01-01

176

Underwater Habitats for Scientific Research in the Great Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

University of Michigan scientists utilized the SUBLIMNOS underwater habitat for conducting a series of projects to aid in evaluating the potential use of a small sized habitat as a tool for scientific research. The projects were carried out in Little Dunk...

L. H. Somers R. F. Anderson

1970-01-01

177

The globalization of health research: harnessing the scientific diaspora.  

PubMed

The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames. PMID:19318794

Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I

2009-04-01

178

Scientific Inquiry on Anomalous Atmospheric Light Phenomena: Past Research Gaps and New Methodological Goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the experience of this author, a decade of scientific research on earthlights is amply discussed and pondered from the point of view of instrumental measurements. After an introduction that shows a brief synthesis of what has been done so far, all the different measurement techniques and tactical/strategic procedures that have been used so far or that are planned for the near future are discussed in detail. Constructive criticism on the gaps that emerged from this research is punctually pointed out. New procedural ideas are widely proposed and scientifically motivated in order to improve this research and to stimulate researchers on this field in order to search for an optimum common protocol.

Teodorani, M.

2009-12-01

179

The Promissory Future(s) of Education: Rethinking Scientific Literacy in the Era of Biocapitalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates the biopolitical dimensions that have grown out of the union between biocapitalism and current science education reform in the US. Drawing on science and technology study theorists, I utilize the analytics of promissory valuation and salvationary discourses to understand how scientific literacy in the neo-Sputnik era has…

Pierce, Clayton

2012-01-01

180

Introduction to scientific research: research experiences for undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A course for research experiences for undergraduates in mathematics is described. The classroom environment is nontraditional in the sense that formal lectures, group discussions, brainstorming sessions, and structured computer demonstrations are used. The course is structured so that it is self-contained and requires students to have basic programming skills and calculus. The use of symbolic computational languages, such as Maple,

J. J. Westman

2002-01-01

181

A Perspective on Single/within Subject Research Methods and "Scientifically Based Research."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses concerns with the No Child Left Behind definition of scientifically based research and its preference for random-assignment experiments from a single/within subject research perspective. A comprehensive program of research that can focus on the bridging the gap between research and practice is proposed. (CR)|

McDonnell, John; O'Neill, Rob

2003-01-01

182

Toolkit for evaluating impacts of public participation in scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toolkit for Evaluating Impacts of Public Participation in Scientific Research is being developed to meet a major need in the field of visitor studies: To provide project developers and other professionals, especially those with limited knowledge or understanding of evaluation techniques, with a systematic method for assessing project impact that facilitates longitudinal and cross-project comparisons. The need for the toolkit was first identified at the Citizen Science workshop held at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in 2007 (McEver et al. 2007) and reaffirmed by a CAISE inquiry group that produced the recent report: "Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing its Potential for Informal Science Education" (Bonney et al. 2009). This presentation will introduce the Toolkit, show how it is intended to be used, and describe ways that project directors can use their programmatic goals and use toolkit materials to outline a plan for evaluating the impacts of their project.

Bonney, R.; Phillips, T.

2011-12-01

183

74 FR 10667 - Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells Memorandum of March 9, 2009...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as...Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem...

2009-03-11

184

The Implications of Fraud in Medical and Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraud is an important issue that affects research of both scientific and clinical fields because of its potential to adversely\\u000a affect patient care. Fraud can take many forms, each with varying prevalence and implications. A number of ethical institutions\\u000a have been created to investigate and regulate this malpractice. Using case examples, we describe the various forms of fraud\\u000a and their

Alistair A. P. Slesser; Yassar A. Qureshi

2009-01-01

185

UCAR/NCAR Junior Faculty Forum on Future Scientific Directions (18-20 June 2003).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Junior Faculty Forum on Future Scientific Directions was held in Boulder during June 18-20, 2003. The objective of the forum, sponsored by UCAR and the NCAR Advanced Study Program, was to bring together junior faculty and members of NCAR's Early Caree...

2006-01-01

186

Wildland fire research: Future Search conference notes - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Commonly identified desired outcomes include: research, integrated across ... responsive and proactive research balances long-term scientific goals with ... an interdepartmental competitive grant program; create a coordinated response to ...

187

Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.  

SciTech Connect

Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

Choi, S. U.-S.

1998-10-20

188

Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7).

Davidhazy, Andrew

1994-12-01

189

A Closer Look at Scientifically Based Research: How to Evaluate Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The No Child Left Behind Act has brought research, particularly scientific based research, beyond discussions in graduate schools and back into the consciousness of educators in the field. For many educators, it has been a long time since those discussions, and key concepts about educational research may have become hazy. In this fourth article…

T.H.E. Journal, 2004

2004-01-01

190

Evaluating Research in Career and Technical Education Using Scientifically-Based Research Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recent emphasis on scientifically-based research (SBR) as the government's favored research paradigm has direct implications for career and technical education (CTE). From a practical standpoint, federal funds will now be appropriated exclusively on scholars' readiness and ability to engage the "right" research questions. While the government…

Gemici, Sinan; Rojewski, Jay W.

2007-01-01

191

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in the IPY 2007-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) initiates, develops, and coordinates international scientific research in the Antarctic region. SCAR is assuming a leadership position in the IPY primarily through its five major Scientific Research Programs; ACE, SALE, EBA, AGCS, and ICESTAR; which will be briefly described.Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) promotes the exchange of data and ideas between research groups focusing

M. C. Kennicutt; T. J. Wilson; C. Summerhayes

2005-01-01

192

Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice. PMID:23816867

Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

2013-06-25

193

Web Services Provide Access to SCEC Scientific Research Application Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote computer located elsewhere on the Internet. The value of a web service is that it can (1) run a scientific code without the user needing to install and learn the intricacies of running the code; (2) provide the technical framework which allows a user's computer to talk to the remote computer which performs the service; (3) provide the computational resources to run the code; and (4) bundle several analysis steps and provide the end results in digital or (post-processed) graphical form. Within an NSF-sponsored ITR project coordinated by SCEC, we are constructing web services using architectural protocols and programming languages (e.g., Java). However, because the SCEC community has a rich pool of scientific research software (written in traditional languages such as C and FORTRAN), we also emphasize making existing scientific codes available by constructing web service frameworks which wrap around and directly run these codes. In doing so we attempt to broaden community usage of these codes. Web service wrapping of a scientific code can be done using a "web servlet" construction or by using a SOAP/WSDL-based framework. This latter approach is widely adopted in IT circles although it is subject to rapid evolution. Our wrapping framework attempts to "honor" the original codes with as little modification as is possible. For versatility we identify three methods of user access: (A) a web-based GUI (written in HTML and/or Java applets); (B) a Linux/OSX/UNIX command line "initiator" utility (shell-scriptable); and (C) direct access from within any Java application (and with the correct API interface from within C++ and/or C/Fortran). This poster presentation will provide descriptions of the following selected web services and their origin as scientific application codes: 3D community velocity models for Southern California, geocoordinate conversions (latitude/longitude to UTM), execution of GMT graphical scripts, data format conversions (Gocad to Matlab format), and implementation of Seismic Hazard Analysis application programs that calculate hazard curve and hazard map data sets.

Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Okaya, D.; Kamb, L.; Maechling, P.

2003-12-01

194

[Critical remarks regarding guidelines based on scientific research].  

PubMed

National and international guidelines for diagnosis and treatment are increasingly applied as standards for medical interventions. Evidence-based consensus guidelines are not consistently based on the outcome of scientific studies. Recent research yielding inherent low-grade evidence is liable to be overruled by personal impressions, sentiments and common sense. Guidelines are based on the average patient, with a certain range. With increasing specialisation, one increasingly sees that doctors justifiably digress from a guideline when a patient differs substantially from the average. PMID:17624155

Nieweg, O E

2007-06-01

195

Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognizing the need to raise awareness of the risk of severe space-weather impacts on critical infrastructures, the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), in collaboration with the Directorate-General Enterprise and Industry, organized the Space-Weather Awareness Dialogue, a high-level event held in Brussels, Belgium, on 25-26 October 2011. The dialogue sought to highlight the potential effects of extreme space weather on technological infrastructures both in space and on the ground; to identify related scientific, operational, and policy challenges for disaster prevention, preparedness, and response; and to recommend actions that will reduce the vulnerability of critical infrastructures.

Good, Gregory A.

2012-05-01

196

Neurosciences research in space Future directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

197

Understanding The Impact of an Apprenticeship-Based Scientific Research Program on High School Students’ Understanding of Scientific Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students’ understanding\\u000a of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students’ understanding of science and scientific inquiry were\\u000a collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic scientific research helped\\u000a the participants to develop competency in experimentation methods it

Mehmet Aydeniz; Kristen Baksa; Jane Skinner

2011-01-01

198

Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and Future Research Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various sources of stem cells are described, as are the techniques used to isolate and develop them. A comprehensive listing of various stem cell isolation and characterizations is also included. In order to ensure the reader is provided information b...

2001-01-01

199

PARC - Scientific Exchange Program (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

ScienceCinema

'PARC - Scientific Exchange Program' was submitted by the Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center (PARC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. PARC, an EFRC directed by Robert E. Blankenship at Washington University in St. Louis, is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

200

[Scientific research in nursing education: Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais research groups].  

PubMed

This study aims to characterize the scientific production of the Research Groups in Nursing Education (RGNE) of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil. This is a documentary quantitative descriptive retrospective research, conducted by searching the CVs of all researchers who are part of the RGNEs in the Lattes database, followed by the search, organization, and evaluation of their scientific production according to Qualis/CAPES. The period studied was from 1995 to 2009 (the last five CAPES triennia) and included articles, books, book chapters, and full papers in conference proceedings. Results show that Rio de Janeiro has the higher number of articles in Nursing Education, highlighting the qualification of researchers at doctorate level. Both states present historic and socio-economic factors that favor scientific development. PMID:21987995

Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Lino, Mônica Motta; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral

2011-06-01

201

ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as “fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research”.Purpose The purpose of this study

Sandra M Reynolds

2004-01-01

202

Scientific Research in a Democratic Culture: Or What's a Social Science For?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempting to guide both researchers and the federal government in the devel- opment of a stronger scientific culture for education research, the National Research Council report, Scientific Research in Education, falls short in its conception of research dissemination. Rather than considering the potential of new publishing technologies to ensure much wider circulation and impact for education research as integral

John Willinsky

2005-01-01

203

Space Weather Research and the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research recognizes of the importance of space weather to global technological infrastructure, placing a strong emphasis on targeted space physics research and development in partnership with other US federal agencies. This is exemplified by AFOSR participation in the interagency National Space Weather Program led by the National Science Foundation, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

Paul Bellaire

204

Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.  

PubMed

Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

2013-04-30

205

Simulator Training Requirements and Effectiveness Study (STRES): Future Research Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, prepared for Air Force personnel responsible for the development and execution of future programs of research on the design, development, and use of aircrew training devices (ATDs), presents topics to be considered in the development of futur...

W. W. Prophet J. B. Shelnutt W. D. Spears

1981-01-01

206

Women in Physics and Scientific Research in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines ``for women.'' If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.

Girata, Doris

2009-04-01

207

Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more diverse and complex. For revealing how the multi-facets of scientific inquiry are

Yi-Fen Yeh; Tsung-Hau Jen; Ying-Shao Hsu

2012-01-01

208

Research Based Science Education: Bringing Authentic Scientific Research into the Secondary Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers and students at Northview High School in Brazil, Indiana have the opportunity to engage in authentic scientific research through our participation in two national projects, TLRBSE and PEPP. Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is a teacher professional development and retention program coupled with authentic scientific research projects in astronomy. Teacher-Leaders are trained in research-based pedagogy and serve as mentors to less experienced colleagues and work with students to develop science research methods and research projects for the classroom. Astronomical data collected at Kitt Peak by astronomers and teachers is made available on CD for classroom use. Northview is in its second year as a TLRBSE school. The Princeton Earth Physics Project (PEPP) trains mentor teachers in fundamentals of research in seismology. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the high school. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. The Northview Seismic Station has been in operation since 1998. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discus how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes and barriers to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

Sayers, J.

2003-12-01

209

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-01-01

210

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-12-31

211

The Future of Educational Research in the Professions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Professions Education Research Notes" is devoted to the theme of "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions." Four articles have been extracted from the issue to form this document: "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions," by Carole J. Bland, introduces the other articles and describes, as context for…

Bland, Carole J.; And Others

1986-01-01

212

[Research groups in nursing education: research areas and scientific production in three regions of Brazil].  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify themes of research areas and scientific literature of Research Groups in Nursing Education (GPEE in Portuguese) of the North, Northeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. This is a descriptive and exploratory study. It was identified 12 GPEE, 45 fields of research and 448 scientific papers, of which 60% have appeared in magazines classified as A, B1 and B2. Even though 36% of the research areas were about education, only 25% of the papers covered this theme. Furthermore, 34% of the research areas were about care and 44% of the papers were about it. It's necessary to rethink the GPEE organization in regards to areas and research projects, to advance towards the consolidation of Nursing Education as an area of knowledge production. PMID:22911418

Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Prado, Marta Lenise do; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane

213

Designing to Support Collaborative Scientific Research Across Distances: The nanoManipulator Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of our research is to design and evaluate a distributed, collaborative virtual environment to support scientific research using a specialised scientific instrument, a nanoManipulator (nM). We began with an ethnographic study to develop an understanding of scientific collaboration, including current work practices using a nM. This understanding suggests that collaborative scientific research is cognitive work that is supported

Diane H. Sonnenwald; Ronald E. Bergquist; Kelly L. Maglaughlin; Eileen Kupstas Soo; Mary C. Whitton

2001-01-01

214

Institute for Scientific Computing Research Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is jointly administered by the Computing Applications and Research Department (CAR) and the University Relations Program (URP), and this joint relationship expresses its mission. An extensively externally networked ISCR cost-effectively expands the level and scope of national computational science expertise available to the Laboratory through CAR. The URP, with its infrastructure for managing six institutes and numerous educational programs at LLNL, assumes much of the logistical burden that is unavoidable in bridging the Laboratory's internal computational research environment with that of the academic community. As large-scale simulations on the parallel platforms of DOE's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) become increasingly important to the overall mission of LLNL, the role of the ISCR expands in importance, accordingly. Relying primarily on non-permanent staffing, the ISCR complements Laboratory research in areas of the computer and information sciences that are needed at the frontier of Laboratory missions. The ISCR strives to be the ''eyes and ears'' of the Laboratory in the computer and information sciences, in keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be ''feet and hands, in carrying those advances into the Laboratory and incorporating them into practice. In addition to conducting research, the ISCR provides continuing education opportunities to Laboratory personnel, in the form of on-site workshops taught by experts on novel software or hardware technologies. The ISCR also seeks to influence the research community external to the Laboratory to pursue Laboratory-related interests and to train the workforce that will be required by the Laboratory. Part of the performance of this function is interpreting to the external community appropriate (unclassified) aspects of the Laboratory's own contributions to the computer and information sciences--contributions that its unique mission and unique resources give it a unique opportunity and responsibility to make. Of the three principal means of packaging scientific ideas for transfer--people, papers, and software--experience suggests that the most effective means is people. The programs of the ISCR are therefore people-intensive. Finally, the ISCR, together with CAR, confers an organizational identity on the burgeoning computer and information sciences research activity at LLNL and serves as a point of contact within the Laboratory for computer and information scientists from outside.

Keyes, D E; McGraw, J R; Bodtker, L K

2003-03-11

215

Predicting the future: towards symbiotic computational and experimental angiogenesis research.  

PubMed

Understanding the fundamental organisational principles underlying the complex and multilayered process of angiogenesis is the mutual aim of both the experimental and theoretical angiogenesis communities. Surprisingly, these two fields have in the past developed in near total segregation, with neither fully benefiting from the other. However, times are changing and here we report on the new direction that angiogenesis research is taking, where from well-integrated collaborations spring new surprises, experimental predictions and research avenues. We show that several successful ongoing collaborations exist in the angiogenesis field and analyse what aspects of their approaches led them to achieve novel and impactful biological insight. We conclude that there are common elements we can learn from for the future, and provide a list of guidelines to building a successful collaborative venture. Specifically, we find that a near symbiosis of computation with experimentation reaps the most impactful results by close cyclical feedback and communication between the two disciplines resulting in continual refinement of models, experimental directions and our understanding. We discuss high impact examples of predictive modelling from the wider, more established integrated scientific domains and conclude that the angiogenesis community can do nothing but benefit from joining this brave new, integrated world. PMID:23415766

Bentley, Katie; Jones, Martin; Cruys, Bert

2013-02-13

216

Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the

Ritterbusch

2000-01-01

217

The image of scientific researchers and their activity in Greek adolescents' drawings.  

PubMed

The image prevailing among the public of scientific research and researchers constitutes a contradictory and complex combination of traditional stereotypes. We explore central facets of the image of scientific research and researchers as reflected in Greek adolescent students' drawings. Drawings were produced by 171 students participating in a drawing competition launched in the context of the "Researchers' Night 2007" implemented by three research institutions in Greece. Analysis of students' drawings involved dimensions related to the image of scientific researchers and of scientific research. Outcomes indicate that the students hold fairly outdated views of scientific researchers and their activity, involving stereotypic views of scientists and science, as well as gender stereotypes. Therefore there is an urgent need to promote a more relevant image of scientific researchers and their activity to young people and especially students. PMID:23823169

Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Samaras, Giannis

2010-11-01

218

A study for sustaining quality improvement of scientific research in Romanian universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the outcomes of a research conducted to identify some solutions that support the improvement process of the academic scientific research in the context of Romania's accession to the European Union. The research starting point for the research has been a survey that has evaluated the way the academic scientific research is perceived by the academic community by

M. Olaru; C. Paunescu; I. M. D. Sandru

219

30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...G prospecting or scientific research? 280.21 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting...G prospecting or scientific research activities...

2009-07-01

220

30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...G prospecting or scientific research? 280.21 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting...G prospecting or scientific research activities...

2010-07-01

221

Scientific Opportunities at OPAL, the New Australian Research Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australian physics is entering a new ``golden age,'' with the startup of bright new neutron and photon sources in Sydney and Melbourne, in 2006 and 2007 respectively. The OPAL reactor and the Australian Synchrotron can be considered the greatest single investment in scientific infrastructure in Australia's history. They will essentially be ``sister'' facilities, with a common open user ethos, and a vision to play a major role in international science. Fuel was loaded into the reactor in August 2006, and full power (20MW) achieved in November 2006. It is our plan to commence the formal user program in mid 2007, but commissioning experiments will have taken place well before then. The first three instruments in operation will be a high-resolution powder diffractometer (for materials discovery), single-crystal diffractometer (for small-molecule crystallography) and a strain scanner (for mechanical engineering and industrial applications). These will be closely followed by four more instruments with broad application in nanoscience, condensed- matter physics and other scientific disciplines. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere. To date there is committed funding for 9 instruments, with a capacity to install a total of ˜18 beamlines. An update will be given on the status of OPAL, its thermal and cold neutron sources, its instruments and hopefully the first data.

Robinson, Robert

2007-03-01

222

[Sex, gender and health: developments in scientific research].  

PubMed

The feminist movement was involved from its start in the struggle for better healthcare for women. The academic discipline 'Women's studies medical sciences', which developed in the 1980's, supported this struggle. Initial points given special attention in this new discipline were the autonomy of the (female) patient, the importance of the psychosocial context of symptoms and the demedicalisation of women's complaints. The focus of research has now shifted from reproductive health to female health during the entire lifespan. Furthermore, research has developed from female health to gender in relation to health, explicitly including men's health and the social constructions of masculinity. The psychosocial context ofgender-related complaints is of importance. Next, the concept 'gender' was replaced by the concept of'diversity', thus facilitating criticism of the ongoing medical concepts of neutrality and universality. In the future, research should be interdisciplinary, with explicit attention for the differences between men and women and the psychosocial context. PMID:17352305

Lagro-Janssen, A L M

2007-02-10

223

Investigating the Impact on Skill Development of an Undergraduate Scientific Research Skills Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the design and subsequent impact of a scientific research skills course. Student understanding of the university research environment, their confidence in finding and using scientific literature and in scientific writing and presentation pre- and post-course was investigated. The findings suggested that understanding of the…

Yeoman, Kay H.; Zamorski, Barbara

2008-01-01

224

Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System  

PubMed Central

Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.

Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

2010-01-01

225

The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

Danch, J. M.

2010-12-01

226

Project "phobos-grunt": Instruments for scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the scientific objectives of the project Phobos-Grunt. The set of scientific instruments installed on board the spacecraft is discussed and the main problems to be resolved using these devices.

Zelenyi, L. M.; Zakharov, A. V.

2012-12-01

227

There is no scientific rationale for race-based research.  

PubMed Central

For centuries, the colonial governments used a combination of race and ethnic characteristics to subjugate and control people of color, and scientists of the day provided evidence of the "natural order of things" to support national policies of domination, segregation and control. There have been many examples of events in the past 70 years to suggest that achievements by ethnic peoples are not genetically determined and that race and ethnicity are merely terms to describe external features, language, culture, social mores and folklore. BiDil was the first drug in this country approved by the FDA for use in a single "race" after a clinical trial that enrolled only members of that race. Thus arose the question of the efficacy of doing race-based research in humans. In order for this kind of research to have any scientific basis, each individually defined or self-declared race would have to have a 100% pure gene pool, and the data show that the gene pool among whites, blacks and Hispanics in America is very heterogeneous. This makes for far greater similarities among U.S. citizens than any perceived differences, and genomic science has failed to support the concept of racial categories in medicine. Scientists involved with the first mapping of the human genome have noted that there is no basis in the genetic code for race. That being the case, there appears to be no justification for race-based research among human beings.

Hoover, Eddie L.

2007-01-01

228

78 FR 37242 - Draft Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Scientific Working Group on Medicolegal Death Investigation AGENCY: National Institute...Scientific Working Group for Medicolegal Death Investigation will make available to the...Research in Forensic Pathology/Medicolegal Death Investigation''. The opportunity...

2013-06-20

229

What Do Researchers Say about Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a thread of three pieces about scientific literacy. The first, written by Edgar Jenkins, provided an introduction to scientific literacy within the context of citizenship and the ways that scientific literacy might be interpreted by those with a concern about public understanding of science or the public engagement…

McGregor, Debbie; Kearton, Ginny

2010-01-01

230

Entrepreneurship: Past Research and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions and shortcomings of past entrepreneurship research can be viewed within the context of six research design specifications: purpose, theoretical perspective, focus, level of analysis, time frame and methodology. The authors suggest a unifying definition of the field of entrepreneurship. The recent trend toward theory driven research that is contextual and process oriented is encouraging. It is time for

Murray B. Low; Ian C. MacMillan

1988-01-01

231

The future of naval ocean science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine

John A. Orcutt; Kenneth Brink

1993-01-01

232

On Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research and How to Remove Them A Public Comment on NIH Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell research has captured a lot of attentions from scientific communities and general public. Thus, it is not a surprise that US President would choose this research field to begin his action of removing barriers to responsible scientific research. However, without first removing some common barriers in scientific communication and restoring true democracy in scientific research, any responsible scientific

Shi V. Liu

233

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP: VOLUME 56 RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING.  

SciTech Connect

The sixth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on November 20-21, 2003, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present members of the Scientific Review Committee are Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (absent), Professor Stephen Sharpe, and Professor Jack Sandweiss, Committee Chair. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his research efforts. In addition, a special presentation was given jointly by our collaborators, Professors Norman Christ and Robert Mawhinney of Columbia University, on the progress and status of the IRBRC QCDSP/QCDOC Supercomputer program. A demonstration of a 64-node (64 Gflops peak speed) QCDOC machine in action followed. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

SAMIOS,N.P.LEE,T.D.

2004-01-06

234

Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

Samios,N.P.

2008-11-17

235

Crystalline photovoltaic cell research status, and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of crystalline cell research is reviewed, recent results for both 1-sun and concentrator applications are presented, and future research directions are outlined. Future directions include an initiative to develop reliable, high-efficiency, cost-effective concentrator cells in US industry. Collaborative research into production engineering will be an important aspect of this concentrator initiative. Production-oriented research in cooperation with the US

D. E. Hasti; D. L. King; J. D. McBrayer

1990-01-01

236

Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Can a Successful Program of Research Exist without Scientific-Based Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study represents an attempt at determining if a construct, rather than an instructional method, is supported by scientifically-based research. The purpose of this study was to examine the credibility of evidence-based claims underlying the literature related to Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (Shulman, 1986). Using a hybrid…

Holder, K. C.

2004-01-01

237

Opportunities and Benefits as Determinants of the Direction of Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research and private-sector technological innovation are different in terms of objectives, constraints, and organizational forms. For example, the for-profit objective that drives private-sector innovation is absent from much of scientific research, and individual researchers have many times more control in scientific research than in private-sector innovation. These differences and the lack of any obvious objective that would drive the

Mikko Packalen; Jay Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

238

Future Scientific Digital Documents with MathML, XML, and SVG  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon State University Physics Department has recently initiated an undergraduate degree program in computational physics. Associated with that program is a National Science Foundation-funded project to develop curricula materials for introductory and advanced computational science classes. While we plan to publish traditional paper texts for these courses, we also are exploring ways to publish digital versions of these materials containing features that exploit new technologies. Specifically, we wish to advance digital books using multimodal and interactive elements to increase the access and understanding of mathematics and science. This installment of the education department describes the motivation behind, and the technologies needed for, the features we envision in future scientific documents.

Landau, Rubin; Vedliner, David; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat; Kyle, Kevin

2008-07-23

239

Unresolved problems and future considerations in diarrheal research.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the growing magnitude of morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease; the definition, causes, and impact of chronic diarrhea; and unanswered questions about microbial etiologies, determinants of host susceptibility and impact, and the relevance of sociocultural setting to control strategies. Over 7% (12,600 children/day) of children in Africa, Asia, and Latin America die from diarrhea in their first 5 years of life, and poverty and rapid population growth are contributing to a worsening of this situation. Although advances have been made in our understanding of the etiology and management of acute diarrhea, little is known about the problem of chronic diarrhea the illness associated with the greatest risk of malnutrition. Moreover, 30-50% of cases of diarrhea remain with undiagnosed etiologies. Further study is needed to determine the role of cellular and humoral immunity in the specific enteric infections in order to enhance this immunity in new vaccine development. Genetic and age determinants of host susceptibility are important problems requiring further study. The social setting in which enteric infections take place may contribute to the transmission of or susceptibility to enteric infections. Future approaches to the control of diarrheal diseases must integrate advances in the following areas: epidemiologic, physiologic, biochemical, pharmacologic, immunologic, and antimicrobial control. The modern tools of molecular biology and improved understanding of scientific and social issues are expected to usher in an exciting new era in research on diarrheal diseases. PMID:3945586

Guerrant, R L

240

Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

2007-06-01

241

Supporting Educational Researchers of the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postgraduate research in fields such as education is characterised by long completion times and high attrition rates when compared to science?related fields. This paper reports on a project which established a collaborative group of postgraduate students and supervisors in a Faculty of Education to explore issues related to postgraduate supervision. Comments from students suggested that they perceived postgraduate research as

Sue Johnston; Juliana Broda

1996-01-01

242

Building New Futures for Research Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past six years, the Association of Research Libraries Office of Management Services (OMS) has worked with over 20 libraries to assist in the development of strategic plans. These efforts mark a change in the attitude of academic and research libraries towards their environment. This article will review key strategic planning concepts and outline the program developed by OMS

Susan Jurow; Duane E. Webster

1991-01-01

243

Shaping the future of GPR soils research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workshops were held at the GPR08 and IWAGPR09 conferences with the intention of developing closer links between GPR users and soil spectroscopy researchers, including developing an improved understanding of the associated research needs. Both workshops were well attended and provided a useful forum that identified elements central to greater interchange of information between the two disciplines. This paper will detail

C. D. F. Rogers; A. M. Thomas; S. A. Grant

2010-01-01

244

The Future of e-Research Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present selected results of a systematic study of different types of e-Research infrastructures. The paper is based on ongoing research to compare a range of e- Infrastructures of broad diversity focusing on: geographical diversity, representing efforts from around the globe; disciplinary diversity, including the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities; organizational diversity, for example, multi-institutional or

Kathryn Eccles; Ralph Schroeder; Eric T. Meyer; Zack Kertcher; Franz Barjak; Tobias Huesing; Simon Robinson

245

Research Universities and the Future of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

Duderstadt, James J.

2012-01-01

246

Operations management research: evolution and alternative future paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the evolution of operations management (OM) research along two major dimensions from 1977 to 2003 and discusses possible paths for research progression in the future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To identify OM research papers, a careful definition of OM research was constructed based initially on earlier work and then more precisely extended through empirical analysis.

Christopher W. Craighead; Jack Meredith

2008-01-01

247

It’s About Scientific Secrecy, Dummy: A Better Equilibrium Among Genomics Patenting, Scientific Research and Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a different pragmatic and patent-based approach to concerns regarding the negative effects of genetic-based\\u000a patenting on advancing scientific research and providing adequate and accessible health care services. At the basis of this\\u000a approach lies an explication of a mandatory provisional patented paper procedure (PPPA), designed for genetic-based patents\\u000a and administered by leading scientific journals in the field,

Miriam Bentwich

248

Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the

Lois Curfman McInnes; Tamara Dahlgren; Jarek Nieplocha; David Bernholdt; Ben Allan; Rob Armstrong; Daniel Chavarria; Wael Elwasif; Ian Gorton; Joe Kenny; Manoj Krishan; Allen Malony; Boyana Norris; Jaideep Ray; Sameer Shende

2007-01-01

249

Future Directions for Higher Education Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the general picture drawn in this paper is not wholly discouraging in terms of research receptivity, the potential\\u000a lessons for researcher behaviour that might lead to a more positive receptor function are not easy to identify. The broad\\u000a conclusion is in fact virtually a tautology — that attempts to secure a mutually fruitful relationship might produce a better\\u000a relationship.

Maurice Kogan; Mary Henkel

250

Future trends in television teaching and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper has attempted an overview of the current status of television teaching for the purpose of suggesting critical research\\u000a areas and informational gaps. While television is currently growing at an accelerated pace, there is a continuous need for\\u000a developing new uses and applications which will strengthen its acceptance and value as an educational medium. The need for\\u000a increased research

Joseph H. Kanner

1957-01-01

251

3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and conduct human embryonic stem cell research has been limited by Presidential...for the exploration of human stem cell research, and in so doing to enhance...scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human...

2010-01-01

252

Benefits associated with nutrigenomics research and their reporting in the scientific literature: researchers' perspectives.  

PubMed

Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (NGx) are fields of research that have raised significant expectations about their potential benefits. This article presents empirical data from an online survey seeking the opinions of NGx researchers (n=126) regarding the achievability of the potential benefits of NGx, the time envisioned for their realization, the motives that may lead to their explicit mention in scientific peer-reviewed articles and the audience(s) targeted by NGx researchers when reporting their results in such articles. Results show that caution should be taken to avoid the risks associated with biohype and the premature dissemination of the potential benefits of NGx among various audiences. PMID:23672589

Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, B

2013-01-01

253

Virtually Science: An Agent-based Model of the Rise and Fall of Scientific Research Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is there more to Ôgood scienceÕ than explaining novel facts? Social interaction within the scientific community plays a pivotal role in defining acceptable research. This paper develops an agent-based computational model of scientific communities to explore the connection between research outcomes and the socio-cultural environment they are constructed in. Agent-to-agent interaction is added to the notion of scientific research programs

Daniel Farhat

2010-01-01

254

The future of naval ocean science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

255

Contestation and Change in National Policy on “Scientifically Based” Education Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the definitions of “scientifically based research” in education that have appeared in recent national legislation and policy. These definitions, now written into law in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002, and the focus of the National Research Council’s 2002 publication, Scientific Research in Education, are

Margaret Eisenhart; Lisa Towne

2003-01-01

256

Internet Research and the Sociology of Cyber-Social-Scientific Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perspectives from the sociology of scientific knowledge are deployed to explore the birth of Internet research, focusing in particular on the development of methodological approaches. For a researcher based in the sociology of scientific knowledge, being an Internet researcher has been a vivid opportunity to experience at firsthand a phenomenon usually studied from the outside. The article begins by assessing

Christine Hine

2005-01-01

257

Roadmapping Future E-Government Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

Bicking, Melanie

258

Future trends of AFRL cryocooler research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, Air Force Research Labs (AFRL), Space Vehicles Directorate, has significantly defined the science and technology (S&T) path forward for cryocoolers in support of Air Force space missions. There are two trends that are emerging for cryocooler S&T: the first is missile warning and the second is responsive space. Missile warning is moving towards larger Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which generate large heat loads. Responsive space is moving towards a cheap, fast alternative to augment, or reconstitute space capabilities. At first glance, these two trends require completely different approaches to cryocooler S&T. However, decreasing the size, weight, and power of cryocoolers supports both trends. This paper will discuss the technology path chosen by AFRL to meet the Air Force (AF) mission needs for cryocoolers to include AFRL's research path, and potential Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) opportunities to help support the research goals.

Pettyjohn, Erin

2012-06-01

259

Individual and Institutional Liability of Researchers in the Case of Scientific Fraud: Values and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How have university institutions generally tackled the fight against scientific fraud? We intend to throw light on the very process of public disclosure of scientific fraud, as it has transformed in the last 30 years within the framework of scientific research institutions. By focusing our analysis on the "denunciation process", we intend to…

Baier, Eric; Dupraz, Laure

2007-01-01

260

Individual and Institutional Liability of Researchers in the Case of Scientific Fraud: Values and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

How have university institutions generally tackled the fight against scientific fraud? We intend to throw light on the very process of public disclosure of scientific fraud, as it has transformed in the last 30 years within the framework of scientific research institutions. By focusing our analysis on the “denunciation process”, we intend to refer to the dual issue of the

Eric Baier; Laure Dupraz

2007-01-01

261

Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…

Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2012-01-01

262

Scientific Uncertainty in News Coverage of Cancer Research: Effects of Hedging on Scientists' and Journalists' Credibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|News reports of scientific research are rarely hedged; in other words, the reports do not contain caveats, limitations, or other indicators of scientific uncertainty. Some have suggested that hedging may influence news consumers' perceptions of scientists' and journalists' credibility (perceptions that may be related to support for scientific

Jensen, Jakob D.

2008-01-01

263

Results from the DIII-D scientific research program  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high {beta}), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. The authors have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with {beta}{sub N} H{sub 98y} {approximately} 6 for 5 {tau}{sub E} ({approximately}1 s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. They have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment.

Taylor, T.S.; Burrell, K.H.; Baker, D.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

1998-11-01

264

PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

2007-12-01

265

The growth of chinese scientific research, 1973–84  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), scientific work came to a halt in China. Universities closed, primary and secondary school education shut down, and intellectuals (including scientists and engineers) were sent to the countryside or to factories to work. The effects of the Cultural Revolution are reflected in China's output of scientific literature. In 1973, for example, only one Chinese paper

J. Davidson Frame; F. Narin

1987-01-01

266

The future for stem cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have offered much hope by promising to greatly extend the numbers and range of patients who could benefit from transplants, and to provide cell replacement therapy to treat debilitating diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The issue of stem cell research is politically charged, prompting biologists to begin engaging in ethical debates, and generating in the

Robin Lovell-Badge

2001-01-01

267

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

268

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

269

Future Directions in Youth Involvement Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth activity involvement has received increasing research and theoretical attention and should be of particular interest to social development investigators. Involvement has been correlated with a wide range of positive developmental indices, although not for all activities nor for all children. However, our ability to interpret such findings…

Rose-Krasnor, Linda

2009-01-01

270

Reshaping the Future of Social Studies: Literature/Research Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature/research review was conducted to provide information to guide future work on the Western Canadian Protocol Social Studies K-12 Project and reflects the researchers' perspectives on topics and subjects reviewed. The review represents a broad synthesis of relevant research and literature in the key areas identified, not an exhaustive…

McKay, Roberta; Gibson, Susan

271

Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on

James O. Prochaska

2008-01-01

272

Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

Mathes, J. C.

273

Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the ZFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt...

H. T. Powell E. M. Campbell W. J. Hogan C. D. Orth

2001-01-01

274

Pathways to the Future: A Review of Military Family Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each chapter in this compendium focuses on a particular topic area and reviews what we have learned, identifies gaps in our present knowledge, and suggests directions for future research on military members and their families. In several cases, theoretica...

P. McClure

1999-01-01

275

The future of poultry science research: things I think I think.  

PubMed

Much poultry research progress has occurred over the first century of the Poultry Science Association. During that time, specific problems have been solved and much basic biological knowledge has been gained. Scientific discovery has exceeded its integration into foundation concepts. Researchers need to be involved in the public's development of critical thinking skills to enable discernment of fact versus fiction. Academic, government, and private institutions need to hire the best people. Issues of insufficient research funding will be remedied by a combination of strategies rather than by a single cure. Scientific advocacy for poultry-related issues is critical to success. Two other keys to the future are funding for higher-risk projects, whose outcome is truly unknown, and specific allocations for new investigators. Diligent, ongoing efforts by poultry scientists will enable progress beyond the challenges. PMID:19439648

Taylor, R L

2009-06-01

276

A scientometric model for the assessment of scientific research performance within public institutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nowadays, the Italian science sector is undergoing a strategic reform due to budget cuts and there is a need for measuring and evaluating research performance of public research institutes. This research presents a new measure to assess the scientific research performance of public research institutes. The new model is successfully applied to 108 public research institutes belonging to the

Mario Coccia

2005-01-01

277

A General Guide to Writing Scientific Research Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides instructions on how to write scientific reports. Topics include why we write reports, the basic format (introduction, methods and materials, results, and discussion, or 'IMRaD'), how to state a hypothesis, how to set up tables, graphs and figures, and how to write a discussion. There are also links to additional information, including a sample report, and a list of books on scientific writing.

2010-11-19

278

Collisionless shocks: Cluster results and scientific objectives for future multi-satellite multi-scale missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster multipoint measurements of collisionless Earth s bow shock resulted in several important discoveries Besides confirmation of major results on large scale shock front structure Cluster satellites found important new features Among them are i the discovery of small scale potential structures of the electric field containing a quite important part of the whole potential jump ii the identification of temporal variations of the shock front structure for relatively high Mach number shocks iii the determination of mirror wave characteristics in the magnetosheath region iv the variability of SLAMS in the front of the quasiparallel shock v the quasi-exponential decrease of the energetic particle distributions with the distance from the shock front All these results are based on the Cluster multipoint approach A great advantage of Cluster is the different characteristic scale of the tetrahedron formed by the spacecraft for different stages of the mission However some scientific objectives cannot be investigated in the frame of Cluster as they require to be studied using simultaneously several spatial and or temporal scales This is in particular the case for the scientific objectives related with the time variability of shocks and the response of the shock to external perturbations These objectives are of special importance for space weather applications Our goal is to discuss them and to determine the corresponding requirements to be taken into account in future multi-satellite multi-scale projects

Krasnoselskikh, V.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Pinçon, J.-L.

279

Determining Priorities for Future Mars Polar Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third International Workshop on Mars Polar Energy Balance and the CO2 Cycle; Seattle, Washington, 21-24 July 2009; Since 1997, five spacecraft have observed Mars's polar processes, resulting in an unprecedented amount of data with ranges of spatial and spectral resolutions not available from prior missions in the 1960s and 1970s. The vast amount of new data and the complex nature of Mars's polar processes led Mars polar scientists from around the world to gather in a small group environment to discuss the data, models, and emerging theories. The expertise of the 36 attendees of the Third International Workshop on Mars Polar Energy Balance and the CO2 Cycle included remote sensing, laboratory experimentation, and climate modeling. Nearly all spacecraft instruments that have been or are currently being used to monitor Mars's carbon dioxide (CO2) cycle were represented. At the workshop, participants agreed on the following five highest-priority programmatic and research recommendations to increase understanding of Mars's polar processes.

Titus, Timothy N.; Michaels, Timothy I.

2009-10-01

280

An exploration of future trends in environmental education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE researchers; and convenings with EE researchers and practitioners. We discuss four core

Nicole M. Ardoin; Charlotte Clark; Elin Kelsey

2012-01-01

281

Future directions for research on youth with bipolar spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The past 25 years has witnessed significant advances in our knowledge of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BPSD) in youth. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are clarifying the unique features of its pediatric presentation, including continuities and discontinuities across the spectrum of severity. Advances have been made, both in the pharmacological and psychological management of BPSD in youth. Current investigations may ultimately shed light on new treatment strategies. Future research is anticipated to be influenced by NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). With this article, we summarize what is currently known about the basic phenomenology of pediatric BPSD, its clinical course, assessment and treatment, beginning with a summary of the major studies that have shed light on the topic. Next, we present a tally and content review of current research as an indicator of trends for the future. Then, we describe what we believe are important future directions for research. Finally, we conclude with implications for contemporary clinicians and researchers. PMID:23915232

Fristad, Mary A; Algorta, Guillermo Perez

2013-08-05

282

Exploring invisible scientific communities: Studying networking relations within an educational research community. A Finnish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on making invisiblecolleges of educational science in Finlandvisible through analysing networking relationsbetween scientific research communities. Thestudy aims at developing methods to analyse theintensity and focus of social collaborationbetween educational research groups in order tounderstand internal relations of scientificdiscipline and support scientific evaluationwith information about participation andinformal communication beyond quantity ofpublished products. Informal and formalnetworking connections of

Palonen Tuire; Lehtinen Erno

2001-01-01

283

The role of mentors in promoting integrity and preventing scientific misconduct in nursing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers face the challenge of protecting the trust of the subjects they study and ultimately serve. Scientific misconduct in any form violates this trust. This article discusses the importance of mentoring and how it promotes integrity and can help to prevent scientific misconduct in nursing research.

Lucia D. Wocial

1995-01-01

284

A Call for Evidence: Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Spring 2003 issue of the "Learning Point," the North Central Regional Educational Lab's (NCREL) magazine, focuses on the theme "A Call for Evidence Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research." Articles and materials in the issue are: "Wake-Up Call: Facing the Challenge to Use Scientifically Based Research in Schools"…

NCREL's Learning Point, 2003

2003-01-01

285

Comparative Study of Input-Output Efficiency on College Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with studying input-output efficiency of scientific research in colleges and universities by using the method of principal component analysis. A mathematical model including multiple scientific research input-output indicators of colleges in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government are built to make further quantitative analysis and comparative studies. As a result, higher input

Lei Chen; Guicheng Shen; Fang Yan

2010-01-01

286

Empirical Findings and Suggestions for Future Research on Organizational Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a companion piece to Technical Report No 7 (AD-785 003) from this grant. It reviews the research in organizational communication completed and in progress suggests some directions future research might take, and mentions how the results of t...

K. H. Roberts C. A. O'Reilly

1974-01-01

287

Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future  

SciTech Connect

We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

2001-04-10

288

Television and Violence: Methodological Issues for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper identifies limitations of previous investigations of the relation between televised violence and viewer aggression and suggests a framework for future research concerning the effects of media viewing on child development. It is suggested that typical research is short-term, cross-sectional, and laboratory-based. Factors which mediate…

Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

289

The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)|

Taylor, Jack A.

1993-01-01

290

The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)

Taylor, Jack A.

1993-01-01

291

Operations management research: contemporary themes, trends and potential future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the contemporary research themes published in IJOPM in order to contribute to current debates about the future directions of operations management (OM) research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – All 310 articles published in IJOPM from volume 24 issue 9 in 2004 through volume 29, issue 12 in 2009 are analysed using content analysis

Andrew Taylor; Margaret Taylor

2009-01-01

292

Research planning for the future of psychiatric diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10 years prior to the anticipated 2013 publication of DSM-5, processes were set in motion to assess the research and clinical issues that would best inform future diagnostic classification of mental disorders. These efforts intended to identify the clinical and research needs within various populations, examine the current state of the science to determine the empirical evidence for

D. A. Regier; E. A. Kuhl; W. E. Narrow; D. J. Kupfer

293

Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

Universities UK, 2011

2011-01-01

294

Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in…

Universities UK, 2011

2011-01-01

295

The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and warming water temperatures. Citizen science projects fulfill the requirements of government granting institutions for outreach and scientific communication. This presentation will highlight marine research projects, which have not only engaged citizens in the scientific process but also discuss the impacts of associated outreach, capacity building and community environmental stewardship.

Burgess, S. N.

2010-12-01

296

Longitudinal Study of Scientific Journal Prices in a Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study that evaluated the determinants of price increases of scientific journals over time from a variety of publishers, disciplines, and countries. It was found that inflation and greater journal length explained most price increases, and that journal prices from commercial publishers increased much more rapidly than those from…

Marks, Kenneth E; And Others

1991-01-01

297

Scientific Research and Science in Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web-searchable, bibliographic database of more than 10,000 citations to scientific journal articles, books, proceedings, abstracts, videos, dissertations and theses, raw data, reports, letters, and manuscripts dealing with Yellowstone National Park. Most citations have abstracts, many have additional notes, and all have subject headings assigned to facilitate searches.

Cindy, Kaag; University, Washington S.

298

RESULTS OF SPACE WEATHER RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC-EDUCATIONAL MICROSATELLITE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of space studies are used in many applications, including the education. Work with the schools is a natural method to inform the general public about the role and value of space studies for humanity. The first Russian- Australian scientific- educational micro-satellite \\

S. I. Klimov; O. R. Grigoryan; V. A. Grushin; D. I.. Novikov; V. L. Petrov; S. P. Savin

299

How Might Research Inform Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientific literacy is now seen as an essential component of informed citizenship and a key curriculum goal in many parts of the world. The relevant literature is vast and replete with a variety of definitions, descriptions, prescriptions, slogans and theoretical perspectives. It addresses not only formal education but also fields as diverse as…

Jenkins, Edgar

2010-01-01

300

How Might Research Inform Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific literacy is now seen as an essential component of informed citizenship and a key curriculum goal in many parts of the world. The relevant literature is vast and replete with a variety of definitions, descriptions, prescriptions, slogans and theoretical perspectives. It addresses not only formal education but also fields as diverse as…

Jenkins, Edgar

2010-01-01

301

Current progress and future directions for research in instructional technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two perspectives on the status of current research are offered: (1) In the past 15 years, the field has made extraordinary\\u000a advances in the technical excellence of research studies, and yet (2) our analytical investment at the front end of research\\u000a planning has not kept pace. An analysis of present problems is accompanied by two suggestions for future developments in

Richard E. Clark

1989-01-01

302

Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

1985-09-01

303

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 2001. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents information on the amount of science and engineering (S&E) research space existing at U.S. colleges, universities, and nonprofit biomedical research institutions based on research data collected biennially through the National Science Foundation. Data are also provided on the adequacy of this research space to meet current…

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

304

Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Briggs, R.S.

1990-10-01

305

Data Fusion for the Discovery of Scientific Impacts in the Hydrologic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data fusion involves approaches and tools for brining together data from a variety of sources. Our application involves the merger of textual information contained in scientific papers with databases containing data on citations. The goal of this exercise is to discover the evolution of scientific ideas in hydrology, and elements that make scientific research impactful. What we have discovered so far indicates that the research topic is one of such important elements which characterize this feature. Previously, selected years (1980, 1985, and 1990-1996) of papers published in Water Resources Research were analyzed and research topic of each paper was determined automatically by textual data mining techniques. Citation data from ISI web of science combined with research strands were analyzed by statistical methods to reveal the impactfulness of the strands. RCI (relative citation impact) is calculated by dividing the percent of citations related to one strand by percent of papers for that strand. As expected, the percent of papers in each research strand varied. What was surprising was the pattern of development of each strand. Pioneering work within a strand attracts the bulk of citations. Within a few years, the ideas are integrated into the field. This data fusion exercise provides insights on the relationship between research topic and scientific impact. Other elements, such as the usage of knowledge (applicability in practice) and the transfer of information (accessibility to practitioners), which make impacts of scientific research are proposed and scrutinized in order to evaluate the development and impactfulness of scientific researches.

Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y.

2002-12-01

306

Research in Special Education: Scientific Methods And Evidence-based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

r: This article sets the context for the developrhent of research quality indicators and guidelines for evidence of effective practices provided by different methodologies. The current con- ceptualization of scientific research in education and the complexity of conducting research in spe- cial education settings underlie the development of quality indicators. Programs of research in special education may be viewed as

Samuel L. Odom; ELLEN BRANTLINGER; RUSSELL GERSTEN; ROBERT H. HORNER; BRUCE THOMPSON; Texas A; KAREN R. HARRIS

307

Scientometric analysis of the topical content of scientific research and its particularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for quantitative evaluation of the topical content of scientific research is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the number and topic of publications in different fields. A mathematical model, describing the connection between level and width of research, between topic renewal and concentration of research is developed. Furthermore, coefficients characterizing various aspects of research

A. P. Trofimenko

1990-01-01

308

Research on Personalized Recommendation System of Scientific and Technological Periodical Based on Automatic Summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the theoretical methods and technology of automatic summarization system and personalized recommend system, ire study how to access to thesis document index, theme words, summary, readers' evaluations and other important recommended information from the vast amount of scientific and technological periodical documents quickly and effectively. The aim is to improve the scientific workers' research efficiency remarkably. On the basis

Qifeng Yang; Sihang Zhang; Bin Feng

2007-01-01

309

A survey of poverty research in Russia: Does it follow the scientific method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first critical review of the literature on poverty published in Russia between 1992 and 2006. Using a dataset of about 250 publications in Russian scientific journals we assess whether the poverty research in Russia satisfies the general criteria of a scientific publication and if such studies could provide reliable guidance to the Russian government as it

Michael Lokshin

2009-01-01

310

Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation and Scientific Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation and scientific data management efforts and discuss frameworks to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and

S D Ruppert; D A Dodge; A B Elliott; M D Ganzberger; T F Hauk; E M Matzel

2005-01-01

311

Human capital, social capital and scientific research in Europe: an application of linear hierarchical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to

Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano

2011-01-01

312

Remarks on the Communicative Functions of Hedging in Popular Scientific and Specialist Research Articles on Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 15 popular scientific journal articles and 15 specialist medical-research articles indicates that in medical discourse hedging, the expression of tentativeness and possibility by epistemic devices, can be applied in less specialized English- for-Special-Purposes (ESP) texts such as popular scientific articles, but in different…

Varttala, Teppo

1999-01-01

313

Keeping the balance: exploring the link of futures research with innovation and strategy processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Futures research can support decisions concerning innovation and strategy issues. To encourage companies to use the results of futures studies, the futures researcher has to be aware of how those companies (clients) have organised their innovation and strategy processes. It is our position that futures researchers should balance the way they conduct futures research with the way innovation and strategy

Patrick A. van der Duin; Erik den Hartigh

2009-01-01

314

A shifting mosaic of scholarly publishing, scientific delivery, and future impact changing the face of learned societies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonprofit scientific societies hope that their activities advance their particular mission and impact their profession and, in the broadest sense, humanity in positive ways. The digital age has provided unprecedented mechanisms to enhance the delivery of science to the world. The marketplace of scientific publishing is a rapidly shifting mosaic of challenges and opportunities, and the responses of nonprofit and commercial publishers vary widely, but their outcomes are still uncertain. The response of the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) provides an example of how a relatively small society has altered its scientific delivery to enhance member benefits while attempting to sustain its economic viability. Since 2000, ASM has moved from a self-publishing, break-even, print-only model to a copublishing agreement with a commercial publisher (Alliance Communications Group, a division of Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas), which now offers members various print and electronic options and generates a shared royalty. Although it is too early to gauge the economic impact of these changes, the ASM leadership clearly attempted to signal its desire for members to view their society as a package of opportunities for edification and involvement rather than just a provider of serial subscriptions. Future challenges facing nonprofit scientific societies include open access, fiscal realities, archiving of publications, and scientific and societal impact; future opportunities include a strengthening of member responsibilities and professionalism, development of data registries to enhance scientific progress, and bundling of like societies. The manner in which nonprofit scientific societies respond to these challenges and opportunities will no doubt affect their sustainability and future impact. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2007-01-01

315

Status of Scientific Research in Italy: The Public Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 50% of the overall expenditure for research and development in Italy is financed with government funds. Seventeen ministries are more or less involved with research activities either directly through state owned or controlled organizations or indire...

C. Cesarano

1982-01-01

316

Guidance for the Description of Animal Research in Scientific Publications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication of research articles involving animal studies is central to many disciplines in science and biomedicine. Effective descriptions in such publications enable researchers to interpret the data, evaluate and replicate findings, and move the sc...

2011-01-01

317

Elements of scientific research: Modeling discoveries in oxide superconductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a program, CER, which models the research tasks carried out in the process of the discovery of high-temperature superconductors in 1986 and 1987. The program simulates some of these research tasks through the activities of its autonomous operators. Each of these operators carries out a research task, applying several different learning methods at three different levels. In its

Sakir Kocabas

1992-01-01

318

Measuring Supply Chain Performance: Current Research and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to go some way towards addressing the dearth of research into performance measurement systems and metrics\\u000a of supply chains by critically reviewing the contemporary literature and suggesting possible avenues for future research.\\u000a The article provides a taxonomy of performance measures followed by a critical evaluation of measurement systems designed\\u000a to evaluate the performance of supply chains. The

Craig Shepherd; Hannes Günter

319

Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of computing into the physical world promises more than the ubiquitous availability of computing infrastructure; it suggest new paradigms of interaction inspired by constant access to information and computational capabilities. For the past decade, application-driven research on abiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes:natural interfaces, context-aware applications,andautomated capture and access. To chart a course for future research

Gregory D. Abowd; Elizabeth D. Mynatt

2000-01-01

320

50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section...216.16 Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be...

2011-10-01

321

Thyroid nodule guidelines: agreement, disagreement and need for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews agreement, disagreement and need for future research of the thyroid nodule guidelines published by the British Thyroid Association, National Cancer Institute, American Thyroid Association and the joint, transatlantic effort of three large societies, the American Society of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi and the European Thyroid Association, published in 2010. Consensus exists for most topics in the

Laszlo Hegedüs; Erik Alexander; Roberto Valcavi; Enrico Papini; Hossein Gharib; Ralf Paschke

2011-01-01

322

75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a teleconference meeting of the Spinal Cord Injury & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be...

2010-10-22

323

Integration of scientific research training into undergraduate medical education: a reminder call.  

PubMed

There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The importance and compulsoriness of this trend has been greatly highlighted at the Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. Despite the importance and benefits of undergraduate research, attempts of medical schools to encourage undergraduates to take part in formal research training during undergraduate medical education remain unsatisfactory. This article serves as a 'reminder call' highlighting the requisite to integrate scientific research training into undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:24149135

Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alkattan, Khaled

2013-10-21

324

Integration of scientific research training into undergraduate medical education: a reminder call  

PubMed Central

There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The importance and compulsoriness of this trend has been greatly highlighted at the Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. Despite the importance and benefits of undergraduate research, attempts of medical schools to encourage undergraduates to take part in formal research training during undergraduate medical education remain unsatisfactory. This article serves as a ‘reminder call’ highlighting the requisite to integrate scientific research training into undergraduate medical curricula.

Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alkattan, Khaled

2013-01-01

325

Electronic Medical Records (EMRs), Epidemiology, and Epistemology: Reflections on EMRs and Future Pediatric Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly common in pediatric patient care. EMR data represent a relatively novel and rich resource for clinical research. The fact, however, that pediatric EMR data are collected for the purposes of clinical documentation and billing rather than research creates obstacles to their use in scientific investigation. Particular issues include accuracy, completeness, comparability between settings, ease of extraction, and context of recording. Although these problems can be addressed through standard strategies for dealing with partially accurate and incomplete data, a longer term solution will involve work with pediatric clinicians to improve data quality. As research becomes one of the explicit purposes for which pediatricians collect EMR data, the pediatric clinician will play a central role in future pediatric clinical research.

Wasserman, Richard C.

2011-01-01

326

Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2007-06-01

327

Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Academy of Sciences committee issued this report on the use of dogs and cats from Class B dealers in NIH funded research. The Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research acknowledges the scientific need for older, genetically diverse, and behaviorally tractable dogs and cats while also calling for the elimination of Class B dealers as suppliers of these animals because of animal welfare concerns.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-05-01

328

Performance Evaluation of Scientific Research Program in Zhejiang Colleges Based on Uncertainty Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper concentrates on the performance evaluation of scientific research program in Zhejiang colleges based on uncertainty\\u000a analysis. Firstly, it sets up the index system. It considers the characteristics of scientific research program in Zhejiang\\u000a colleges and determines some indexes. It introduces the membership function to determine the membership degree of indexes.\\u000a Secondly, the paper confirms the index weights. It

Lian-fen Yang; Yun Tang

329

Virtually science: an agent-based model of the rise and fall of scientific research programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is there more to ‘good science’ than explaining novel facts? Social interaction within scientific communities plays a pivotal role in defining acceptable research practices. This article explores the connection between research outcomes and the socio-cultural environment they are constructed in by developing an agent-based computational model of scientific communities. Agent-to-agent interaction is added to a system of knowledge production inspired

Daniel Farhat

2011-01-01

330

Revisiting four scientific debates in ocean acidification research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, ocean acidification has gained continuously increasing attention from scientists and a number of stakeholders and has raised serious concerns about its effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. With the increase in interest, funding resources, and the number of scientific investigations focusing on this environmental problem, increasing amounts of data and results have been produced, and a progressively growing and more rigorous understanding of this problem has begun to develop. Nevertheless, there are still a number of scientific debates, and in some cases misconceptions, that keep reoccurring at a number of forums in various contexts. In this article, we revisit four of these topics that we think require further thoughtful consideration including: (1) surface seawater CO2 chemistry in shallow water coastal areas, (2) experimental manipulation of marine systems using CO2 gas or by acid addition, (3) net versus gross calcification and dissolution, and (4) CaCO3 mineral dissolution and seawater buffering. As a summation of these topics, we emphasize that: (1) many coastal environments experience seawater pCO2 that is significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere and is strongly linked to biological processes; (2) addition of acid, base or CO2 gas to seawater can all be useful techniques to manipulate seawater chemistry in ocean acidification experiments; (3) estimates of calcification or CaCO3 dissolution based on present techniques are measuring the net of gross calcification and dissolution; and (4) dissolution of metastable carbonate mineral phases will not produce sufficient alkalinity to buffer the pH and carbonate saturation state of shallow water environments on timescales of decades to hundreds of years to the extent that any potential negative effects on marine calcifiers will be avoided.

Andersson, A. J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

2012-03-01

331

Knowledge as a common good: the societal relevance of scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and report on them widely. Core questions they should be

Lex M. Bouter

2010-01-01

332

Scientific Research in Jordanian Higher Education Institutions: An Evaluation of the Status and Obstacles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…

bin Tareef, Atif

2009-01-01

333

Scientific Research in Jordanian Higher Education Institutions: An Evaluation of the Status and Obstacles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…

bin Tareef, Atif

2009-01-01

334

Impact of research funding on nanobiotechnology scientific production: Does concentration in a few universities make sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the impact of university&funded research and collaboration on scientific production of Canadian nanobiotechnology academics. This paper analyses a time&related model of the impact of academic research financing and network structure on research output measured by the number of papers and on the number of citations received by these publications. Results suggest that individual funding and a strong

Catherine Beaudry; Sedki Allaoui

2011-01-01

335

The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computational researchers increasingly make their results available in a reproducible way, and often outside the traditional journal publishing mechanism, questions naturally arise with regard to copyright, subsequent use and citation, and ownership rights in general. The growing number of scientists who release their research publicly face a gap in the current licensing and copyright structure, particularly on the Internet.

Victoria Stodden

2009-01-01

336

Regulating scientific research: should scientists be left alone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our current political climate, deci- sions about whether to fund research on new stem cell lines or do chimera experiments seem to arbitrarily depend on the religious and economic interests of the administration. Not unreasonably, many scientists be- lieve that science should be left to its own devices in determining research priorities and conducting re- search. When nonscientific considerations

Kristen K. Intemann; Inmaculada de Melo-Martin

2007-01-01

337

Scientific Research on Children's Reading and Library Work With Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the U.S.S.R., research is carried out on the part played by books and libraries in the development of schoolchildren. Studies are undertaken on children as actual or potential readers and on methods for guiding their reading. The organization of research work in children's libraries is described. (Author/SJ)|

Medvedeva, N.

1972-01-01

338

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research

L. Rowell Huesmann

2007-01-01

339

Scientific Drilling in the Snake River Plain: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River-Yellowstone volcanic province has long been linked to the concept of lithospheric drift over a fixed mantle thermal anomaly or hotspot. This concept is reinforced by seismic tomography that images this anomaly to depths around 500 km, but alternative proposals still present a serious challenge. Basaltic volcanism spans a significant age range and basaltic volcanism in the western SRP lies well off the hotspot track and cannot be related directly to the hotspot in any simple way. The plume-track age progression is documented by rhyolite volcanic centers, but even these represent extended time periods that overlap in age with adjacent centers. Scientific drilling projects carried out over the last two decades have made significant contributions to our understanding of both basaltic and rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Snake River-Yellowstone hotspot system. Because these drill holes also intercept sedimentary interbeds or, in the case of the western SRP, thick sections of Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments, they have also contributed to our understanding of basin formation by thermal collapse in the wake of the hotspot passage or by rifting, paleoclimate of the interior west, and groundwater systems in volcanic rocks. Many of these drill holes are associated with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the eastern plain; others were drilled for geothermal or petroleum exploration. The latter include older holes that were not instrumented or logged in detail, but which still provide valuable stratigraphic controls. We focus here on the result of basalt drilling, which have been high-lighted in recent publications. Basaltic volcanism in the Snake River plain is dominated by olivine tholeiites that have major and trace element characteristics of ocean island basalt: the range in MgO is similar to MORB, but Ti, Fe, P, K, Sr, Zr and LREE/HREE ratios are all higher. Recent studies of basalts from the drill holes show that they evolved by fractionation in a mid-crustal sill complex that has been imaged seismically. Further, the chemical and isotopic systematics of these basalts require assimilation of consanguineous mafic material inferred to represent previously intruded sills. Major and trace element modeling suggest formation of the primary melts by melting of a source similar to E- MORB source. Trace element systematics document mixing between a plume-like source and a more depleted source that is not DMM. A similar more depleted source is inferred for Hawaii, suggesting that it is not continental lithosphere. Future scientific drilling in the SRP is the focus of Project HOTSPOT, a multi-disciplinary initiative that seeks to document time-space variations in the SRP-Yellowstone volcanic system. A workshop sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program was held in May 2006 to develop a targeted program of scientific drilling that examines the entire plume-lithosphere system across a major lithospheric boundary, with holes targeting basalt, rhyolite, and sediments. These drill holes will complement geophysical studies of continental dynamics (e.g., Earthscope), as well as current studies centered on Yellowstone. Additional components of a targeted drilling program include studies of lacustrine sediments that document paleoclimate change in North America during the Pliocene—Pleistocene and fluid flow at deeper crustal levels.

Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Geist, D.; Vetter, S. K.

2006-12-01

340

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field of molecular biology. The story of SARS

Siu Ling Wong; Jenny Kwan; Derek Hodson; Benny Hin Wai Yung

2009-01-01

341

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research

Wong, Siu Ling; Kwan, Jenny; Hodson, Derek; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

2009-01-01

342

Machine-Assisted Indexing of Scientific Research Summaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, a computer system indexes word combinations in research summaries, according to a Classifying Dictionary, prior to review by the professional staff. (Author/PF)|

And Others; Hunt, Bernard L.

1975-01-01

343

Air Force Scientific Research Bibliography 1962, Volume Vi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains abstracts and bibliographic data of reports issued or published during 1962 as a result of AFOSR sponsored research. The disciplines covered include physics, chemistry, engineering sciences (subsuming mechanics and propulsion), life ...

T. C. Goodwin V. G. Hooker D. C. Yates P. A. Patrick A. H. Hatch

1968-01-01

344

Reconciling Scientific Curiosity and Policy Needs in Atmospheric Chemistry Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young people generally choose a career in atmospheric chemistry because they care about the environment and want to make a difference. However, in the course of graduate training this initial motivation often becomes replaced by the more standard motivation of academic scientists: to understand the world (and get credit for it). We are taught during our Ph.D. that the more fundamental the research the better to earn the respect of our peers. And yet, in environmental research where funding is dominated by societal and policy demands, most of us have no choice but to follow this funding trail. This is not simple venality. Fortunately, most atmospheric chemists want to be societally relevant, we thrive on the spotlight thrown by society on atmospheric chemistry issues, and we are thankful that societal concerns are allowing our science to grow at a fast pace. It appears that the atmospheric chemistry community resolves its conflict between policy-driven vs. fundamental research by posting policy relevance as the canon for successful research, as the endpoint of useful work. The greatest glory then comes from picking up some fundamental knowledge along the way that provides bridges to other problems, and from uncovering new environmental problems that will require attention from policymakers. Sometimes we are frustrated, as when policymakers decide that research on our favorite problem is not needed anymore because there is now policy to address it. But of course we have to remember what got our research funded in the first place, lobby as we can, and move on. I will present, rather pretentiously, a few examples from my own research.

Jacob, D. J.

2002-05-01

345

Priorities for future public health research in orofacial clefts.  

PubMed

The National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a workshop in January 2006, entitled "Prioritizing a Research Agenda for Orofacial Clefts." The goals of the meeting were to review existing research on orofacial clefts (OFCs), identify gaps in knowledge that need additional public health research, and develop a prioritized research agenda that can help guide future public health research. Experts in the field of epidemiology, public health, genetics, psychology, speech pathology, dentistry, and health economics participated to create the research agenda. Research gaps identified by the participants for additional public health research included: the roles of maternal nutrition, obesity, and diabetes in the etiology of OFCs; psychosocial outcomes for children with OFCs; the quality of life for families and children with OFCs; and the health care costs of OFCs. To create the research agenda, the participants prioritized the research gaps by public health importance, feasibility, and outcomes of interest. This report summarizes the workshop. PMID:17608558

Yazdy, Mahsa M; Honein, Margaret A; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Frias, Jaime L

2007-07-01

346

The French scientific balloon activities in 1999 - 2000 and future campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), has a significant balloon activity. This paper gives an updated overview of its scientific balloon programme. We first introduce the bases of this programme, before listing the different types of balloons offered to scientists and the launch sites used. Then we report on the recent scientific balloon campaigns, and present

François Dulac; Nicole Papineau; Pierre Faucon

2001-01-01

347

The Status and Future of Acupuncture Mechanism Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract On November 8–9, 2007, the Society for Acupuncture Research (SAR) hosted an international conference to mark the tenth anniversary of the landmark NIH [National Institutes of Health] Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture. More than 300 acupuncture researchers, practitioners, students, funding agency personnel, and health policy analysts from 20 countries attended the SAR meeting held at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. This paper summarizes important invited lectures in the area of basic and translational acupuncture research. Specific areas include the scientific assessment of acupuncture points and meridians, the neural mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation by acupuncture, mechanisms for electroacupuncture applied to persistent inflammation and pain, basic and translational research on acupuncture in gynecologic applications, the application of functional neuroimaging to acupuncture research with specific application to carpal-tunnel syndrome and fibromyalgia, and the association of the connective tissue system to acupuncture research. In summary, mechanistic models for acupuncture effects that have been investigated experimentally have focused on the effects of acupuncture needle stimulation on the nervous system, muscles, and connective tissue. These mechanistic models are not mutually exclusive. Iterative testing, expanding, and perhaps merging of such models will potentially lead to an incremental understanding of the effects of manual and electrical stimulation of acupuncture needles that is solidly rooted in physiology.

Ahn, Andrew; Longhurst, John; Lao, Lixing; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Harris, Richard; Langevin, Helene M.

2008-01-01

348

Stem cell research: cloning, therapy and scientific fraud.  

PubMed

Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed. PMID:16965321

Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E

2006-10-01

349

The future of interdisciplinary research and training: how to conquer the silo guardians.  

PubMed

We have entered a new era in biomedical research in which large interdisciplinary teams are being established to answer important scientific questions. Scientists of multidisciplinary backgrounds within universities are combining forces and inter-institutional consortia that include alliances between academia and industry are springing up around the country to generate breakthrough advances. A number of driving forces are at work to establish these collaborative research approaches. By contrast, there also are barriers to be surmounted by institutions with silo mentalities for effective partnerships to be established. In order for this new era of research to reach maximal effectiveness, new approaches to education of the young and retraining of established administrators and scientists must take place. These issues were explored thoroughly at the 2006 annual meeting of the Association of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Neurobiology Chairpersons (AACBNC) that was held in Aruba from January 18 to 21. The theme of this historic meeting was the Future of Interdisciplinary Research and Training: Breaking Down the Barriers. In this introductory article, we discuss the formation of a trendsetting Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, the concept of the AACBNC meeting, and the influence of the Institute on the content of the meeting. The proceedings of this meeting, including Nobel Laureate Papers and Nobel Round-Table Discussions on the future of interdisciplinary research and training, are contained in this special issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine, a journal dedicated to the publication of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research in the biomedical sciences. PMID:16816124

Goodman, Steven R; Blake, Charles A

2006-07-01

350

Scientists' performance and consolidation of research teams in Biology and Biomedicine at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Empirical evidence is given on how membership in a consolidated, well-established research team provides researchers with\\u000a some competitive advantage as compared to their colleagues in non-consolidated teams. Data were obtained from a survey of\\u000a researchers ascribed to the 'Biology and Biomedicine' area of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research, as well as from\\u000a their curricula vitae. One quarter of the

Jesús Rey-rocha; Belén Garzón-garcía; María José Martín-sempere

2006-01-01

351

Towards Automatic Recognition of Scientifically Rigorous Clinical Research Evidence  

PubMed Central

The growing numbers of topically relevant biomedical publications readily available due to advances in document retrieval methods pose a challenge to clinicians practicing evidence-based medicine. It is increasingly time consuming to acquire and critically appraise the available evidence. This problem could be addressed in part if methods were available to automatically recognize rigorous studies immediately applicable in a specific clinical situation. We approach the problem of recognizing studies containing useable clinical advice from retrieved topically relevant articles as a binary classification problem. The gold standard used in the development of PubMed clinical query filters forms the basis of our approach. We identify scientifically rigorous studies using supervised machine learning techniques (Naïve Bayes, support vector machine (SVM), and boosting) trained on high-level semantic features. We combine these methods using an ensemble learning method (stacking). The performance of learning methods is evaluated using precision, recall and F1 score, in addition to area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Using a training set of 10,000 manually annotated MEDLINE citations, and a test set of an additional 2,000 citations, we achieve 73.7% precision and 61.5% recall in identifying rigorous, clinically relevant studies, with stacking over five feature-classifier combinations and 82.5% precision and 84.3% recall in recognizing rigorous studies with treatment focus using stacking over word + metadata feature vector. Our results demonstrate that a high quality gold standard and advanced classification methods can help clinicians acquire best evidence from the medical literature.

Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian

2009-01-01

352

Online mentoring to induct junior researchers into scientific literacy practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An evaluation study was conducted on the impact of this programme over two conferences. Survey

Gurmit Singh

2010-01-01

353

Prostate cancer; the interface between pathology and basic scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research into prostate cancer increasingly demands greater input from pathologists. There is a requirement for improved morphological assessment, classification and grading of neoplasia. The provision of optimally preserved material and establishment of tissue ‘banks’ is vital to facilitate molecular biological analysis. Microdissection of archival material can provide a source of relatively pure DNA and mRNA which can be further

E.-N. Lalani; A. Stubbs; G. W. H. Stamp

1997-01-01

354

Online Mentoring to Induct Junior Researchers into Scientific Literacy Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design/methodology/approach: An…

Singh, Gurmit

2010-01-01

355

The Future of HIV Vaccine Research and the Role of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review covers the role of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise (the Enterprise), an alliance of independent organizations committed to development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine. It discussesthe history, impact on the field and future directions and initiatives of the alliance, in the context of recent progress in HIV vaccine research and development. Recent Findings Significant progress has been made in the field since the release of the 2005 Scientific Strategic Plan (The Plan) of the Enterprise. Over the last year, the Enterprise embarked on an impact assessment of the 2005 Planand the development of the 2010 Plan. Enterprise Working Groups identified key priorities in the field, several of which are discussed in this review, including: changing the nature, purpose and process of clinical trials; increasing and facilitating data sharing; and optimizing existing and attracting new resources. Summary This isan important moment in HIV vaccine research. New clinical trial and laboratory results have created new opportunities to advance the search for an HIV vaccineand reinvigorated the field. The Enterprise will publish its 2010 Scientific Strategic Planthis year, providinga framework for setting new priorities and directions, and encouraging new and existing partners to embark on a shared scientific agenda.

Voronin, Yegor; Manrique, Amapola; Bernstein, Alan

2010-01-01

356

Ecotechnological Solutions for Slope Stability: Perspectives for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter concludes the work presented in this book. Future research topics are proposed which include suggestions for\\u000a developing a database of plant species useful for erosion control and slope stability. Decision support systems also need\\u000a more work and should be available for the general practitioner to use without specialist training. Field studies and numerical\\u000a modelling should be combined to

Alexia Stokes

357

Scientifically Based Research and Peer-Reviewed Research under the IDEA: The Legal Definitions, Applications, and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A systematic analysis of the references to "scientifically based research" (SBR) and closely related terms, such as "peer-reviewed research" (PRR), in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) legislation, regulations, commentary, and case law reveal that SBR and its primary variants apply largely to state support obligations, such…

Zirkel, Perry A.; Rose, Tessie

2009-01-01

358

Relationship education research: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the article is the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy, and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the coauthors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and the couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K

2012-01-01

359

Defining future directions in spinal cord tumor research  

PubMed Central

The relative rarity of spinal cord tumors has hampered the study of these uncommon nervous system malignancies. Consequently, the understanding of the fundamental biology and optimal treatment of spinal cord tumors is limited, and these cancers continue to inflict considerable morbidity and mortality in children and adults. As a first step to improving the outcome of patients affected with spinal cord tumors, the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases Research in cooperation with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke convened a workshop to discuss the current status of research and clinical management of these tumors. The overall goal of this meeting was to initiate a process that would eventually translate fundamental basic science research into improved clinical care for this group of patients. Investigational priorities for each of these areas were established, and the opportunities for future multidisciplinary research collaborations were identified.

Claus, Elizabeth B.; Abdel-Wahab, May; Burger, Peter C.; Engelhard, Herbert H.; Ellison, David W.; Gaiano, Nicholas; Gutmann, David H.; Heck, Daniel A.; Holland, Eric C.; Jallo, George I.; Kruchko, Carol; Kun, Larry E.; Maria, Bernard L.; Rumboldt, Zoran; Seminara, Daniela; Spinella, Giovanna M.; Stophel, Linda; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Wrensch, Margaret; Gilbertson, Richard J.

2011-01-01

360

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists.

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2011-01-01

361

EMDR 12 years after its introduction: past and future research.  

PubMed

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was one of the first treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to be evaluated in controlled research and has to date been empirically supported by 13 such studies. This article reviews the historical context and empirical research of EMDR over the past dozen years. Historically, EMDR's name has caused confusion in that "desensitization" is considered to be only a by-product of reprocessing and because the eye movement component of EMDR is only one form of dual stimulation to be successfully used in this integrative approach. Research is needed to determine the comparative efficacy of EMDR relative to cognitive-behavioral treatments of PTSD. However, this has been hampered by the lack of independent replication studies of the latter treatments. Current component analyses of EMDR have failed to effectively evaluate the relative weighting of its procedures. Parameters for future research and the testing of protocols for diverse disorders are suggested. PMID:11748594

Shapiro, Francine

2002-01-01

362

Twin registries worldwide: an important resource for scientific research.  

PubMed

Twins can provide unique opportunities to study causal influences on variation in human behaviors, development, and diseases. During the past 10 years, the number of twin registries has increased rapidly across the globe and we thought it timely to bring these to the attention of our readership. In this special issue, we invited papers on twin registries and cohorts from 28 countries representing five continents. Subjects covered include how to establish and maintain twin registries, accurately assess zygosity, collect biospecimens, and other important issues related to twin studies. This special issue shows that over 1.5 million twins and their families are participating in twin studies worldwide. Research interests will be highlighted, with the aim of fostering collaborative research. PMID:23324558

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Craig, Jeffrey M

2013-01-16

363

THE GAUSS CENTER RESEARCH IN MULTISCALE SCIENTIFIC COMPUTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent research of the author and his collaborators on multiscale computational methods is reported, emphasizing main ideas and inter-relations betw een various fields, and listing the relevant bibliography. The reported areas include: top-efficiency multigrid metho ds in fluid dynamics; atmospheric data assimilation; PDE solvers on unbounded domains; wave\\/ray methods for highly indefinite equations; many-eigenfunction problems and ab-initio quantum chemistry;

ACHI BRANDT

1997-01-01

364

Biobanks and Research: Scientific Potential and Regulatory Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The technical possibilities of automated data analysis of DNA samples and their bioinformatic processing have developed rapidly\\u000a over the last few years and are constantly being improved. A decade after the completion of a draft human genome sequence\\u000a was announced, a whole range of possibilities for medical research has unfolded, based on a combination of health and genetic\\u000a data in

Bernice S. Elger; Nikola Biller-Andorno

365

Accurate Scientific Visualization in Research and Physics Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate visualization is key in the expression and comprehension of physical principles. Many 3D animation software packages come with built-in numerical methods for a variety of fundamental classical systems. Scripting languages give access to low-level computational functionality, thereby revealing a virtual physics laboratory for teaching and research. Specific examples will be presented: Galilean relativistic hair, energy conservation in complex systems, scattering from a central force, and energy transfer in bi-molecular reactions.

Wendler, Tim

2011-10-01

366

Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.  

PubMed

This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts. PMID:24048622

O'Brien, Timothy L

2012-02-22

367

Using "Household Chemistry Projects" To Develop Research Skills and To Teach Scientific Writing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in a junior-level Chemistry library resources and scientific writing course were assigned semester-long "Household Chemistry Projects." Students were asked to independently develop written proposals for research they could do at their homes using ordinary household supplies. Upon approval of their proposals, students performed the research and wrote up in their results in standard journal format. The final drafts were subjected to peer review, and published in a class journal. Through feedback and rewriting, students not only improved their scientific writing skills, but also learned about designing, conducting, and criticizing research.

Schmidt, Michael H.

1997-04-01

368

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigation of scientists' actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists' actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from…

Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

2009-01-01

369

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of scientists' actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists' actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from…

Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

2009-01-01

370

Bio-medicolegal scientific research in Europe. A country-based analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European mosaic of socio-cultural, economic and legal realities is reflected in forensic and legal medicine, in which a great variety of operational modes of forensic medical services, organisational systems, structures, functional competences and scientific research strategies can be observed. The present work analyses the European bio-medicolegal scientific output of the last 5.5 years (exact time window, January 1, 2005-June

Guido Viel; Rafael Boscolo-Berto; Rossana Cecchi; Thomas Bajanowski; Nuno Duarte Vieira; Santo Davide Ferrara

2011-01-01

371

Alzheimer's Disease Research: Scientific Productivity and Impact of the Top 100 Investigators in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online availability of scientific-literature databases and natural-language-processing (NLP) algorithms has enabled large-scale bibliometric studies within the field of scientometrics. Using NLP techniques and Thomson ISI reports, an initial analysis of the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the neurosciences as well as a summary of the various research foci within the AD scientific community are presented. Citation analyses and

Aaron A. Sorensen

2009-01-01

372

An Agent-Based Model of Research Collaboration in Collaborative Tagging for Scientific Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an agent-based model of research collaboration in collaborative tagging system in order to develop an effective collaboration support system for scientific research communities. Based on a survey on social software such as collaborative tagging for the purpose of collaboration on the web, at first we analyze requirements for the social software as a collaboration support system for

Piyanuch Klaisubun; Takashi Ishikawa

2006-01-01

373

Scientific misconduct from the perspective of research coordinators: a national survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To report results from a national survey of coordinators and managers of clinical research studies in the US on their perceptions of and experiences with scientific misconduct. Methods Data were collected using the Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire?Revised. Eligible responses were received from 1645 of 5302 (31%) surveys sent to members of the Association of Clinical Research Professionals and to subscribers of Research Practitioner, published by the Center for Clinical Research Practice, between February 2004 and January 2005. Findings Overall, the perceived frequency of misconduct was low. Differences were noted between workplaces with regard to perceived pressures on investigators and research coordinators, and on the effectiveness of the regulatory environment in reducing misconduct. First?hand experience with an incident of misconduct was reported by 18% of respondents. Those with first?hand knowledge of misconduct were more likely to report working in an academic medical setting, and to report that a typical research coordinator would probably do nothing if aware that a principal investigator or research staff member was involved in an incident of misconduct. Conclusion These findings expand the knowledge on scientific misconduct by adding new information from the perspective of research coordinators. The findings provide some data supporting the influence of workplace climate on misconduct and also on the perceived effectiveness of institutional policies to reduce scientific misconduct.

Pryor, Erica R; Habermann, Barbara; Broome, Marion E

2007-01-01

374

Judging the Scientific and Medical Literature: Some Legal Implications of Changes to Biomedical Research and Publication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades judges (and regulators) in all common law jurisdictions have increased their reliance on published medical and scientific literature. During the same period biomedical research has undergone fundamental and unprecedented change. This article explores some of the changes to the location, organization and funding of biomedical research in order to assess their implications for liability and

Gary Edmond

2008-01-01

375

Research on the Transforming of the Scientific and Technical Achievements: A Game Visual Angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper tries to build a game model of the scientific and technical achievements transforming between the research side and the enterprise side, and holds that these transforming depends on the expected revenue of the two sides and the proportion of successful transforming. At the same time, the transforming is dependent on the cost of the research side and the

Jinwang Li; Peilan Guan

2009-01-01

376

Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

2010-01-01

377

Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation and Scientific Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research.

S D Ruppert; D A Dodge; M D Ganzberger; D B Harris; T F Hauk

2009-01-01

378

Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

Pepe, Alberto

2010-01-01

379

Qualitative methods in sport: a concise overview for guiding social scientific sport research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a concise overview of qualitative methods in sport and the social sciences. A broad definition of qualitative research is first offered, after which various qualitative traditions – ethnography, grounded theory, narrative inquiry and critical inquiry – are described. After describing these traditions, the paper highlights several ways in which social scientific sport researchers might collect data for

Brett Smith; Nick Caddick

2012-01-01

380

“A Good Personal Scientific Relationship”: Philip Morris Scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM), the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI). A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand,

Ross MacKenzie; Jeff Collin

2008-01-01

381

The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

2009-01-01

382

Accelerating searches of research grants and scientific literature with novo|seekSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioalma's novo|seek is a powerful alternative to traditional literature searching on the web. Designed to help scientists with their research projects and proposals within the life science community, novo|seek is a dynamic information extraction system for quickly identifying key concepts found in published papers. Here we demonstrate how a single concept can initiate complete exploration of scientific literature, current research

Ramón Alonso Allende

2009-01-01

383

"Scientifically-Based Research": The Art of Politics and the Distortion of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The US Federal Government is forcefully prescribing a narrow definition of "scientifically-based" educational research. US policy, emerging from contemporary neoliberal and technocratic viewpoints and funded and propagated on a large scale, has the potential to influence international thinking on educational research. In this article we continue…

Shaker, Paul; Ruitenberg, Claudia

2007-01-01

384

Scientifically Based Research and Evidence-Based Education: A Federal Policy Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a look at the federal policy context for the scientifically based research (SBR) and evidence-based education (EBE) initiatives by sharing U.S. Department of Education presentations and related publications about SBR and EBE. It discusses the impact of these policy initiatives on special education research activities.…

Smith, Anne

2003-01-01

385

Enhancing Scientifically-Based Research for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a brief overview of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) requirement that schools use instructional strategies based on scientifically-based research (SBR) to improve the academic performance of students. Controversies resulting from the definition of SBR, complexities encountered in conducting research in schools, and the…

Ortiz, Alba A.; Yates, James R.

2008-01-01

386

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between

David B. Resnik; Caitlin E. Kennedy

2010-01-01

387

Scientific identity of “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing : Findings and queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing by examining the methodological approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of “top” research journals in marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion and journal ranking

Göran Svensson; Thomas Helgesson; Terje Slåtten; Bård Tronvoll

2008-01-01

388

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

389

Analysis of the Actual Scientific Inquiries of Physicists I -- Focused on research motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was investigated to understand the in-depth features and processes of physicists' scientific inquiries. At first, research motives were investigated by interviewing six physicists who were prominent worldwide. As a result, three main types - incompleteness, discovery, and conflict - and nine subtypes of research motivation, were identified. Six additional background factors were found which might affect the design

Kyoung-ae Jang

2005-01-01

390

The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of

J. M. Danch

2010-01-01

391

The informal modeling of input-preprocessing subsystems for scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsystem of input and preprocessing of the information (SIPI) as the constituent part of an automated system for scientific research (ASSR) is considered. With the purposes of systematization of methods and construction tools of the given subsystem depending on time and precision characteristics the informal model of its operation was developed. The subject knowledge of the researched object of

Michuil Goldshtein; A. Matveyev

2002-01-01

392

Knowledge Resources Integrated Model of Basic Scientific Research Achievements Based on Supernetwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient achievements management is much significance for the development of basic scientific research, and so all of the knowledge resources of achievements should be managed. In order to integrate the different types of knowledge resources of basic research achievements, this paper proposes a supernetwork model of knowledge resources. First, the person network, the material network and the knowledge network

Yang Yu; Yanzhong Dang; Pengyuan Xu; Jiang Yu

2008-01-01

393

Education or Scientific Research: how do firms benefit from the proximity of universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of universities on the technological performance of adjacent firms. We extend existing research by jointly analyzing, and comparing, the effects of education (graduates) and scientific research activities (publications) of universities on firms’ technological performance. Adopting the Griliches-Jaffe knowledge production framework, our study is conducted at the regional level, employing panel data for 101 Italian provinces

B. Leten; P. Landoni; B. Van Looy

2011-01-01

394

Using "Household Chemistry Projects" To Develop Research Skills and To Teach Scientific Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project that was designed to teach scientific writing but also proved to be useful in teaching general research skills. Involves students designing and conducting their own research projects using common household chemicals and equipment available in their homes. Discusses project structure, pedagogy, and outcomes. (JRH)

Schmidt, Michael H.

1997-01-01

395

1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

NONE

1993-12-31

396

The Users and Uses of Scientific and Technical Information: Critical Research Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a 1973 workshop held in Denver, Colorado, 21 participants familiar with the uses of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) services gathered to identify the system's major research needs. Initially, 50 research projects were suggested in the areas of design, management, operations, marketing, and global considerations. Using a priority…

Freeman, James E.; Rubenstein, Albert H.

397

National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research  

PubMed Central

The “h index” proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569–16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities.

Kinney, A. L.

2007-01-01

398

Mineral resources: research objectives for continental scientific drilling  

SciTech Connect

Many important metals are concentrated in mineral deposits formed by hydrothermal activity driven by heat from subvolcanic intrusions. The report identifies and prioritizes for research drilling specific mineral-deposit systems that are suitably accessible and geometrically complete in the sense that no portion of the deposit has been removed by faulting or erosion. Examples are given of ore types that should be considered in selecting areas of existing drill holes for further study, including porphyry copper systems, precious-metal environments, massive sulfide deposits, Mississippi Valley-type deposits, and sedimentary environments.

Not Available

1984-01-01

399

Educational Research--Past, Present, and Future as Viewed by Graduates of an Educational Research Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the preparation of Educational Research graduates from the University of Alabama, assess their employment history, and solicit opinions concerning the present and future status of Educational Research. A survey instrument mailed to graduates (Ed.S. and Ph.D) from 1973 to the present…

Jarrell, Michele G.; And Others

400

Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

Loescher, H. W.; Jacobs, J. M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D. A.; Poulos, G. S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B. P.; Shanley, J. B.; Krajewski, W.

2007-01-01

401

Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

2011-12-01

402

Challenges and future directions for tailored communication research.  

PubMed

As informatics technology advances, a growing number of research trials on tailored communications provide an accumulation of promising evidence to support their efficacy. These trials also reveal gaps and opportunities for future research. The scope and boundaries of tailoring must be redefined in terms of both new technology and the trade-offs between complexity, demand burden on participants, and the minimal information required for effective and efficient tailoring. Basic and methods research is needed to broaden theory, develop a common language, standardize measures, and isolate the key mediating mechanisms that facilitate tailored communications. Applied research must consider more rigorous research designs for efficacy trials and conduct more effectiveness trials to investigate the mechanisms of technology transfer to enhance large-scale diffusion of tailored communications. The role of contextual variables needs to be examined, as well as their interaction with different population groups, and also the channels, modes, and methods of tailored message delivery. Research is also needed on the feasibility of tailoring across clusters of multiple risk factors to identify the commonalities, differences, and interrelations among diverse behaviors. The potential cost-effectiveness of tailored communications must also be examined. No matter how efficacious, tailored communications delivered to large populations (i.e. mass-customization) will not make a public health impact unless proven to be practical and cost-efficient. PMID:10721436

Abrams, D B; Mills, S; Bulger, D

1999-01-01

403

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

2007-01-01

404

Hemostasis research in India: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Hemostasis research in India has a long history considering the fact that it is one of the youngest specialities in the world. If we take creation of prothrombin time (PT) test as one of the beginning of modern hemostsis research, then the specialty is no older than 60 years. School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, Banaras Hindu University, All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Delhi, Christian Medical College at Vellore, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research at Chandigarh, and KEM Hospital at Mumbai contributed substantially in defining various bleeding disorders in our country. Unfortunately, some of these institutes are no longer as active in the field as they used to be. Currently, the Institute of Immunohaematology at Mumbai, Chrstian medical College at Vellore, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Delhi are actively engaged in hemostsis research in India. Developing prenatal diagnostic technologies, mutation detection of various hemostatic disorders, developing low-cost management technologies for hemophilia, and other bleeding disorders are becoming important present day research activity in the area of hemostasis in addition to age old areas of prevalence and unusual case description studies. Entry of many new corporate hospitals, development of structured postgraduate training program in hematology, and easy availability of instruments and reagents are likely to foster further growth in this area of medical research in India in future. PMID:21890571

Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka; Shetty, Shrimati

2011-09-02

405

Linking organ donors and the medical\\/scientific research community: a US perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Institute for the Advancement of Medicine (IIAM) provides non-transplantable organs and tissues for medical\\u000a and scientific research, education, and drug & device development. The benefits of using human organs and tissues for research\\u000a are vast, and donating for research provides donor families with a valuable option if their loved one’s organs are unsuitable\\u000a for transplantation. The use of

Dolores Baldasare

2011-01-01

406

Scientific evaluations of citation quality of international research articles in the SCI database: Thailand case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Quantitative and qualitative scientific evaluations of the research performance of Thai researchers were carried out with\\u000a regards to their international publications and citations in four different subject categories; namely Clinical Medicine,\\u000a Chemistry, Material Sciences, and Engineering. This work used citations to publications of Thai researchers in the Science\\u000a Citation Index (SCI) database during 1998-2002 as a data source. The calculations

Narongrit Sombatsompop; Apisit Kositchaiyong; Teerasak Markpin; Sekson Inrit

2006-01-01

407

PS3-47: Rural Health Research Initiative in the HMORN: A New Scientific Interest Group.  

PubMed

Background/Aims Rural health describes a set of health issues, health care challenges and research priorities driven by a single geo-demographic factor: low population density. Rural areas compared to urbanized areas have fewer providers per capita, longer distance to care, lower socioeconomic status, higher rates of untreated illness, greater exposure to agricultural chemicals, and higher rates of alcohol use, fatal motor vehicle crashes, and suicide. Accessing clinical data for large numbers of rural residents can be challenging. To meet this challenge, seven sites formed the HMORN Rural Health Scientific Interest Group (SIG). Methods VDW data from seven HMORN sites were analyzed. Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes describe commuting flow but include data on urban, town, and rural tracts; RUCA codes were used to categorize areas as urban, large rural town, small rural town, or isolated rural area. We determined prevalence of chronic conditions by rural status and age group (child, adult, seniors). Results Common diseases were hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, alcohol/drug use, depression, and cancers. Most sites saw stable rates of rural vs. urban patients over the years. Rates of pediatric obesity increased at all sites. Adult obesity increased markedly among seniors while dyslipidemia and diabetes increased in all age groups. Cancer among adults also trended upward over time and exceeded national averages. Hypertension among adults appeared lower than US national average in 2010 (32%). Conclusions Economic challenges and other factors may further accentuate existing health and health care disparities experienced by many Americans living in rural areas. The Rural Health SIG of the HMORN is poised to conduct meaningful, multi-site research addressing health care issues, health care delivery and care follow-up for this special patient population. Future analyses will explore variation in chronic disease by rural status and the influence of economic factors within geographies. PMID:24085917

Copeland, Laurel; Sun, Fangfang; Haller, Irina; Roberts, Melissa; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Vanwormer, Jeffrey; Gessert, Charles; Behl, Ajay; Shapiro, Gary; Morales, Leo; Elliott, Thomas

2013-09-01

408

PS3-47: Rural Health Research Initiative in the HMORN: A New Scientific Interest Group  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Rural health describes a set of health issues, health care challenges and research priorities driven by a single geo-demographic factor: low population density. Rural areas compared to urbanized areas have fewer providers per capita, longer distance to care, lower socioeconomic status, higher rates of untreated illness, greater exposure to agricultural chemicals, and higher rates of alcohol use, fatal motor vehicle crashes, and suicide. Accessing clinical data for large numbers of rural residents can be challenging. To meet this challenge, seven sites formed the HMORN Rural Health Scientific Interest Group (SIG). Methods VDW data from seven HMORN sites were analyzed. Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes describe commuting flow but include data on urban, town, and rural tracts; RUCA codes were used to categorize areas as urban, large rural town, small rural town, or isolated rural area. We determined prevalence of chronic conditions by rural status and age group (child, adult, seniors). Results Common diseases were hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, alcohol/drug use, depression, and cancers. Most sites saw stable rates of rural vs. urban patients over the years. Rates of pediatric obesity increased at all sites. Adult obesity increased markedly among seniors while dyslipidemia and diabetes increased in all age groups. Cancer among adults also trended upward over time and exceeded national averages. Hypertension among adults appeared lower than US national average in 2010 (32%). Conclusions Economic challenges and other factors may further accentuate existing health and health care disparities experienced by many Americans living in rural areas. The Rural Health SIG of the HMORN is poised to conduct meaningful, multi-site research addressing health care issues, health care delivery and care follow-up for this special patient population. Future analyses will explore variation in chronic disease by rural status and the influence of economic factors within geographies.

Copeland, Laurel; Sun, Fangfang; Haller, Irina; Roberts, Melissa; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; VanWormer, Jeffrey; Gessert, Charles; Behl, Ajay; Shapiro, Gary; Morales, Leo; Elliott, Thomas

2013-01-01

409

Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.  

PubMed

Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. PMID:20398161

High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E

2010-04-01

410

Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ?20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

2011-05-03

411

Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.  

PubMed

Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0. PMID:19183518

Foster, Brian C

2008-01-01

412

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine Resources Cooperative Science Center. The lesson had wide applicability and could be used as training on the processes of scientific inquiry, as part of the life science curriculum on crustaceans, or as part of an Earth science/environmental science curriculum.

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael

2010-03-01

413

Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica: a new SCAR Scientific Research Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 2008 the IAU became a union member of the ICSU body SCAR—the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. At the same time, SCAR initiated a Planning Group to establish a Scientific Research Program in Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines.

Storey, J. W. V.

2010-11-01

414

Geomagnetically induced currents: Present knowledge and future research  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge base regarding the production of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power systems is briefly reviewed. The relationship between electric and magnetic fields for a layered earth is derived and used to calculate the electric fields produced in Quebec during the March 13, 1989, magnetic disturbance. Factors influencing the distribution of GIC throughout a system are also examined. The transfer functions of the earth and of power systems vary with frequency and so the relation between GIC and magnetic field variations is most appropriately examined in the frequency domain. Data collection requirements to allow this in future research are discussed.

Boteler, D.H. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1994-01-01

415

Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders.  

PubMed

In this study, Barber's [(1961). Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134, 596-602] analysis of scientists' resistance to discoveries is examined in relation to an 18-year controversy between the dominant cognitive-behavioral paradigm or zeitgeist and its chief rival - eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in treating trauma-related disorders. Reasons for persistent opposition to training, utilization and research into an identified 'evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder' (EBT-PTSD) within US military and veterans' agencies closely parallels Barber's description of resistance based upon socio-cultural factors and scientific bias versus genuine scientific skepticism. The implications of sustained resistance to EMDR for combat veterans and other trauma sufferers are discussed. A unified or super-ordinate goal is offered to reverse negative trends impacting current and future mental healthcare of military personnel, veterans and other trauma survivors, and to bridge the scientific impasse. PMID:18950925

Russell, Mark C

2008-10-22

416

Strategies for Using the Views on Scientific Inquiry VOSI Instrument for Astronomy Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronomy education research, AER, becomes more sophisticated, so increases the number of assessment instruments available to the community. We are finding significant success with the "Views on Scientific Inquiry,” or VOSI, instrument for targeting how students’ understanding of science's model for progress. Initially developed by Rene Schwartz, Norman Lederman and colleagues, the VOSI is an open-ended written or interview instrument focusing on eliciting elements of scientific inquiry. The VOSI team examined how a number of cross-disciplinary scientists viewed scientific inquiry to create the VOSI. The underlying hope was to find a way to measure enhancements in how students could learn more about scientific inquiry and understand more about how students are apt to go into STEM fields or, at least, become more science literate citizens who value science. The VOSI measures as many as eight categories of science attributes aligned with the goals of education including: descriptive, conceptualization, problem solving, ethical reasoning, scientific values and attitudes, communication, collaboration, and self-assessment. Surprisingly, these categories seem to receive the only a scant amount of attention in a conventional ASTRO 101 class. We propose that a parallel direction for fruitful research and development in astronomy education research is enhanced VOSI scores rather than only enhanced astronomy content knowledge.

Slater, Stephanie; Lyons, D. J.; Slater, T. F.; for Astronomy, Center; Physics Education ResearchCAPER Team

2011-01-01

417

Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.  

PubMed

Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information. PMID:21538033

Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

2011-08-01

418

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis\\u000a of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting\\u000a aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field\\u000a of molecular biology. The story of SARS

Siu Ling Wong; Jenny Kwan; Derek Hodson; Benny Hin Wai Yung

2009-01-01

419

The Role of Scientific and Engineering Societies in Development: Present Perspectives and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There can be no doubt that engineers and scientists have a vital role to play in the developmental processes by which the na tions of the Third World will bring greater health, safety, pro sperity and self-reliance to their peoples, but the role that the professionalengineering and scientific societies must play re mains undefined. In this paper the roles these

Donald Fink

1979-01-01

420

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists’ Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of scientists’ actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific\\u000a inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists’ actual research: their motivations for scientific\\u000a inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from their research. To do this,\\u000a we interviewed six prominent physicists about

Kyoung-Ae Jang; Ikgyun Kim

2009-01-01

421

Scientific and Ethical Reflections on Academic Corruption in Universities: On the Science Research Evaluation System in China's Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the science research activities in China's institutions of higher learning in recent years indicates that there is a major connection between the current instances of corruption in scientific research at colleges and universities and the evaluations system for scientific research implemented at many of the colleges and universities.…

Xiaochun, Wu; Dan, Jia

2007-01-01

422

Scientific and Ethical Reflections on Academic Corruption in Universities: On the Science Research Evaluation System in China's Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the science research activities in China's institutions of higher learning in recent years indicates that there is a major connection between the current instances of corruption in scientific research at colleges and universities and the evaluations system for scientific research implemented at many of the colleges and universities.…

Xiaochun, Wu; Dan, Jia

2007-01-01

423

Statement of the American Sociological Association on the Importance of Collecting Data and Doing Social Scientific Research on Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This statement describes the basis for the American Sociological Association's (ASA) position regarding scientific research on race, illustrating the importance of such data to further scientific investigation and inform public policy. Race is a complex, sensitive, and controversial topic in scientific discourse and public policy. The controversy…

American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

424

Statement of the American Sociological Association on the Importance of Collecting Data and Doing Social Scientific Research on Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This statement describes the basis for the American Sociological Association's (ASA) position regarding scientific research on race, illustrating the importance of such data to further scientific investigation and inform public policy. Race is a complex, sensitive, and controversial topic in scientific discourse and public policy. The controversy…

American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

425

How to Read Scientific Research Articles: A Hands-On Classroom Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…

Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily

2009-01-01

426

Political Intervention in Scientific Peer Review: Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) rescinded funding for a survey of adolescent health risk-taking behavior. The decision overturned a series of scientific and ethical peer and administrative reviews of the research, which had been chosen in a competitive evaluation of proposals to advance knowledge about the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other diseases.

William Gardner; Brian L. Wilcox

1993-01-01

427

Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

Caruthers, Bill J.

2009-01-01

428

Statutory sex crime relationships between juveniles and adults: A review of social scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the social scientific literature about non-forcible, voluntary sexual relationships between adults and juveniles, what we have termed “statutory sex crime relationships” or “statutory relationships.” In the available literature, the topic is poorly defined and the research weak, but there are clearly a diverse variety of contexts and dynamics to such relationships. We detail a wide-ranging set of

Denise A. Hines; David Finkelhor

2007-01-01

429

Analysing How Scientists Explain Their Research: A Rubric for Measuring the Effectiveness of Scientific Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present article presents a rubric we developed for assessing the quality of scientific explanations by science graduate students. The rubric was developed from a qualitative analysis of science graduate students' abilities to explain their own research to an audience of non-scientists. Our intention is that use of the rubric to characterise…

Sevian, Hannah; Gonsalves, Lisa

2008-01-01

430

Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to and sharing of data are essential for the conduct and advancement of science. This article argues that publicly funded research data should be openly available to the maximum extent possible. To seize upon advancements of cyberinfrastructure and the explosion of data in a range of scientific disciplines, this access to and sharing of publicly funded data must be

Peter W. Arzberger; Peter Schroeder; Anne Beaulieu; Geoffrey C. Bowker; Kathleen Casey; Leif Laaksonen; David Moorman; Paul Uhlir; Paul Wouters

2004-01-01

431

The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop…

Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

2004-01-01

432

Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Scientifically Based Research. NCREL Quick Key 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, schools and districts are seeking information to identify, plan, and implement federally funded programs and practices that have been proven to be effective through scientifically based research (SBR). The purpose of this brochure is to help administrators, educators, parents, and…

Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2004

2004-01-01

433

Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr...

N. P. Samios

2008-01-01

434

Q-Methodology: An Overview with Comments Relative to Artistic and Scientific Elements of Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper demonstrates how Q-methodology combines artistic and scientific procedures to allow social science researchers to develop and test theories about differences in persons. Q-methodology is based on factor analysis. In R-technique factor analysis, the most commonly used technique, variables define the columns and persons define the rows…

Daniel, Larry G.

435

Scientific and statistical reviews of manuscripts submitted to Nursing Research: Comparison of completeness, quality, and usefulness.  

PubMed

Sound statistical analysis is fundamental to high-quality reporting of quantitative studies. Peer review are also important in determining whether statistical procedures in submitted manuscripts are appropriate and effectively reported. However, the quality of statistical reviews of manuscripts submitted to nursing journals has not been previously evaluated. The purpose of this project was to compare the content and quality of statistical and scientific (general) reviews of manuscripts submitted to Nursing Research. The General Assessment of Reviews of Nursing Research (GARNR) and the Statistical Assessment of Reviews of Nursing Research (SARNR) were used to evaluate 105 reviews of 35 manuscripts assigned to both scientific and statistical review between August 2007 and February 2009. Scientific reviews were rated as more comprehensive, but most did not evaluate statistical aspects of a manuscript. Statistical reviews were more likely to identify fatal flaws, were generally rated higher in overall usefulness to the editor in making a decision on whether to publish, and were rated as more useful to authors for improving a manuscript. Statistical and scientific reviews are complementary and both are necessary. More thorough integration of substantive and methodological content in reviews of quantitative studies has potential for even greater leverage of effort and improved quality of nursing research reports. PMID:20637932

Henly, Susan J; Bennett, Jill A; Dougherty, Molly C

436

The Science of Learning Choices: NCLB Shifts Emphasis to Scientifically-Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monthly newsletter of the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) promotes high levels of learning for all students and staff. It includes the following articles: "The Science of Learning Choices: NCLB Shifts its Emphasis to Scientifically-Based Research" (Joan Richardson); "Dramatic Improvement Depends on Powerful Intention, Action"…

Richardson, Joan, Ed.

2002-01-01

437

March 20 - 22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop - Poster Session  

Cancer.gov

4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA Poster Session Tuesday, March 22, 2006 3:30 – 5:30 p.m. Poster Highlights 5:30 – 6:30 p.m. Chairs Dean Brenner, M.D., University of Michigan David Sidransky,

438

Remarks on the Communicative Functions of Hedging in Popular Scientific and Specialist Research Articles on Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hedging, the expression of tentativeness and possibility by means of epistemic devices, is often held to be a central feature of more technical ESP texts such as scientific specialist-to-specialist research articles. Furthermore, hedges are also seen as characteristic of medical discourse. This study demonstrates that in medical discourse hedging can also be applied frequently in less specialized ESP texts such

Teppo Varttala

1999-01-01

439

Evolutionary dynamics and scientific flows of nanotechnology research across geo-economic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze, by concentration measures, metrics of dispersion and heterogeneity, the dynamics of the production of scientific output in nanosciences and nanotechnologies across worldwide economic players. The main result is that the concentration ratio of the production of nanotechnology research across different macro subject areas has been reducing over time and space, because knowledge

Coccia Mario

2011-01-01

440

Towards a privacy preserving policy based infrastructure for social data access to enable scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a policy based infrastructure for social data access with the goal of enabling scientific research, while preserving privacy. We describe motivating application scenarios that could be enabled with the growing number of user datasets such as social networks and medical datasets. These datasets contain sensitive user information and sufficient caution must be exercised while sharing

Palanivel Kodeswaran; Evelyne Viegas

2010-01-01

441

Situational determinism revisited: scientific research programmes in economics twenty years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spiro Latsis (Latsis 1972) applied Imre Lakatos’ methodology of scientific research programmes (MSRP) to economics. In that paper he proposed a distinction between ‘situational determinism’ and alternative theory. His distinction is effective at highlighting the importance of determinism in economics, the drive of economists to create fully deterministic models, at least up to a probability distribution. But he has been

John Nightingale

1994-01-01

442

Applications of variational principles to modeling a partially inflated scientific research balloon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for modeling a partially inflated scientific research balloon in static equilibrium is developed using a variational method. In this condition, the surface of the balloon will sag to form folds and wrinkles which are difficult to analyze. Previous numerical work to analyze these types of balloons was based on minimizing extrema of potential energy of balloon shapes that

William G. Collier Jr.

2000-01-01

443

A study on innovative talents training model based on the combination of scientific research and teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new period, the cultivation of innovative talents is the era responsibility and historical mission of Chinese universities. However, the disadvantages of traditional training model seriously restrict the cultivation of undergraduate innovative ability. According to analyze the existential problems of China's innovative talents training model, this paper, on the one hand, discusses the necessity of interaction between scientific research

Minghui Guo; Yong Wang; Jian Li

2010-01-01

444

An international comparative study of basic scientific research capacity: OECD countries, Taiwan and Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an econometric model relating to the technological development problem of a technologically less developed country, by which its basic scientific research capacity (BSRC) and the gap in terms of time lag can be measured and forecasted in connection with factor analysis and the estimated BSRC progress function. Based on the analysis, the coauthors recommend some technology policies

Yang Taek Lim; Chung Han Song

1996-01-01

445

Modeling the process of evaluation of scientific research results in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business processes modeling has become a trend in modern business. It helps to overcome the problems of complexity, misunderstandings of conducted activities and communication at all levels. This article presents AS-IS model of the process of evaluation of scientific research results in Serbia developed in WebSphere tool. Presented model has provided a better insight into the process and possibility to

O. Grljevic; A. M. Serdar; I. Horvat

2010-01-01

446

An ontology-based process model for scientific research software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new software development model based on ontology is proposed in this paper. Each part of the model including the definition, the assignment and the end products is specified and described in detail. The ontology-based software development model takes the characteristics of software development in scientific research field into consideration, adopts the advanced theory and method of ontology, absorbs fully

Hai-tao Li; Hua-dong Wang

2010-01-01

447

Preparing Students for Competent Scientific Practice: Implications of Recent Research in Science and Technology Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current empirical research in science and technology studies provides new and different views of science and scientists that contrast markedly with the mythical views that underlie many curricular efforts geared toward increasing scientific literacy. If descriptions of science and scientists that emerge from science and technology studies are legitimate, considerable implications arise for educational aims guiding science instruction, learning experiences

Michelle K. McGinn; Wolff-Michael Roth

1999-01-01

448

Information and communications technology for crisis management: Defining an agenda for scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technology (ICT) for post-disaster management of critical infrastructures functions best when its design follows from a solid understanding of the sociotechnical systems that it is meant to support. Yet as is evident from past and more current research, there are significant gaps in scientific understanding concerning how ICT should be designed, used and evaluated in this settings.

David Mendonça; Harry Bouwman

2008-01-01

449

Multi-Disciplinary Research on the Baikal Rift Zone (Field Session of the Scientific Council).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Academy of Sciences' Scientific Council for multi-disciplinary studies of the terrestrial crust and upper mantle held, on June 13-20, its scheduled Field Session (visit to Irkutsk), devoted to the problem of research on the Baikal rift zone. Participa...

G. I. Reisner

1966-01-01

450

Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of

Samios

2008-01-01

451

Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 29. Current and Future Utilization of Scientific and Technical Personnel in Energy-Related Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This National Science Foundation (NSF) bulletin summarizes the NSF program of energy manpower studies that assessed the impact of past energy developments and future options for scientific and technical manpower. This document summarizes the utilization of scientific personnel in energy-related activities in private industry in 1975 and shortages…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

452

Child and adolescent psychiatry: past scientific achievements and challenges for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide history of scientific achievements in child and adolescent psychopathology is reviewed from the mid-twentieth\\u000a century onwards. Attention is drawn, e.g., to diagnostic distinctions, measures of psychopathology, the several roles of epidemiological\\u000a longitudinal studies, temperament and personality, developmental psychopathology, the use of ‘natural experiments’ to test\\u000a causal inferences, environmental risks, the importance of gene–environment interplay, the relative coming together

Michael Rutter

2010-01-01

453

The future is yours--Get ready! Career options in scientific and technical fields. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This 50 page brochure was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory to encourage high school students to begin considering careers in the scientific and technical fields. The topics of the brochure include career selection, career options, a review of training required for each occupation, a collection of profiles of BNL employees describing how they chose and prepared for their careers, a description of BNL educational programs for high school students, and profiles of some of the students participating in these programs.

Not Available

1992-10-01

454

Basic trends of scientific research into the problem of titanium in the Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the state-of-the-art and prospects of the research into the development of physical and metallurgical foundations\\u000a of creation of new alloys based on titanium and cost-efficient technologies of their production and treatment at the Ukrainian\\u000a scientific-research institutions with an aim to improve their service properties and, hence, promote more extensive application\\u000a of these unique structural materials.

B. E. Paton; A. P. Shpak; O. M. Ivasyshyn

2006-01-01

455

Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific\\/technical research environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is

Krossa

1996-01-01

456

Ethical, Legal, Social, and Political Implications of Scientific Research on Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research on the causes of sexual orientation has captured the attention of many Americans. Some researchers, citing\\u000a evidence from neuroscience, genetics, and psychology, claim that sexual orientation is either inborn or fixed at an early\\u000a age. Many lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and their allies have welcomed this claim, finding in it confirmation of their sense\\u000a that they did not

Edward Stein

457

Vitamin D and cancer: current dilemmas and future research needs.  

PubMed

A diversity of scientific literature supports a role for vitamin D in decreasing colorectal cancer incidence, but the available evidence provides only limited support for an inverse association between vitamin D status and the risk of other types of cancer. We need additional studies analyzing the dose-response relation between vitamin D status and cancer risk, the optimal level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the length of time required to observe an effect, and the time period of life when exposure is most relevant. Studies of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms have found that not all polymorphisms have the same association with cancer, and the cancer site could further dictate which polymorphisms might be most important; this indicates a need for more research on gene-environment interactions. Several dietary components and the balance between energy intake and expenditure influence vitamin D metabolism. These studies show that scientists need to identify confounders and modifiers of the biological response to vitamin D, including dietary factors, lifestyle factors such as exercise, and race or ethnicity. Transgenic and knockout animals are powerful tools for identifying the molecular targets of bioactive food components. Scientists should therefore make increased use of these models to identify molecular targets for vitamin D. Many research gaps relate to the need to develop predictive, validated, and sensitive biomarkers, including biomarkers that researchers can use to reliably evaluate intake or exposure to vitamin D, assess one or more specific biological effects that are linked to cancer, and effectively predict individual susceptibility as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics. PMID:18689403

Davis, Cindy D

2008-08-01

458

The organization of scientists and its relation to scientific productivity: Perceptions of Chinese stem cell researchers  

PubMed Central

Chinese government funding of R&D ranks third in the world. Yet China ranks only 17th in terms of scientific productivity per unit of investment. The author recently conducted fieldwork on the team structure of 22 Chinese stem cell research groups. Interview data suggest that although Chinese research groups closely resemble their international counter-parts in many respects, there are also significant differences which are perceived by interviewees to affect levels of scientific productivity. One characteristic of Chinese research teams is a common deficiency in middle-layer positions. This shortage of experienced professionals is perceived by scientists participating in this study to have led to two consequences. First, inexperienced student researchers often form the backbone of scientific teams in China, which leads to frequent interruptions of research and extended laboratory training. Second, research teams consist of a relatively small number of personnel. These structural features are seen to create excessive social boundaries, which impede the exchange of information and further worsens the segmentation of resources. This article engages the question of the extent to which interviewees’ local ‘embedded’ understandings of these difficulties may make a productive contribution to the analysis of the structural, and infra-structural, organization of Chinese professional bioscience teams.

Zhang, Joy Yueyue

2013-01-01

459

The need to act a little more 'scientific': biomedical researchers investigating complementary and alternative medicine.  

PubMed

The advent of scientific research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has contributed to the current state of flux regarding the distinction between biomedicine and CAM. CAM research scientists play a unique role in reconfiguring this boundary by virtue of their training in biomedical sciences on the one hand and knowledge of CAM on the other. This study uses qualitative interviews to explore how CAM researchers perceive and negotiate challenges inherent in their work. Our analysis considers eight NIH-funded CAM researchers': (1) personal engagement with CAM, (2) social reactions towards perceived suspiciousness of research colleagues and (3) strategic methodological efforts to counteract perceived biases encountered during the peer review process. In response to peer suspicion, interviews showed CAM researchers adjusting their self-presentation style, highlighting their proximity to science, and carefully 'self-censoring' or reframing their unconventional beliefs. Because of what was experienced as peer reviewer bias, interviews showed CAM researchers making conciliatory efforts to adopt heightened methodological stringency. As CAM researchers navigate a broadening of biomedicine's boundaries, while still needing to maintain the identity and research methods of a biomedical scientist, this article explores the constant pressure on CAM researchers to appear and act a little more 'scientific'. PMID:19891621

Polich, Ginger; Dole, Christopher; Kaptchuk, Ted J

2009-11-04

460

Status of muon collider research and development and future plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of the research on muon colliders is discussed and plans are outlined for future theoretical and experimental studies. Besides work on the parameters of a 3-4 and 0.5 TeV center-of-mass (COM) energy collider, many studies are now concentrating on a machine near 0.1 TeV (COM) that could be a factory for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. We discuss the research on the various components in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate pions from a heavy-Z target and proceeding through the phase rotation and decay (?-->???) channel, muon cooling, acceleration, storage in a collider ring, and the collider detector. We also present theoretical and experimental R&D plans for the next several years that should lead to a better understanding of the design and feasibility issues for all of the components. This report is an update of the progress on the research and development since the feasibility study of muon colliders presented at the Snowmass '96 Workshop [R. B. Palmer, A. Sessler, and A. Tollestrup, Proceedings of the 1996 DPF/DPB Summer Study on High-Energy Physics (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA, 1997)].

Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Atac, Muzaffer; Autin, Bruno; Balbekov, Valeri I.; Barger, Vernon D.; Benary, Odette; Berg, J. Scott; Berger, Michael S.; Black, Edgar L.; Blondel, Alain; Bogacz, S. Alex; Bolton, T.; Caspi, Shlomo; Celata, Christine; Chou, Weiren; Cline, David B.; Corlett, John; Cremaldi, Lucien; Diehl, H. Thomas; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Fernow, Richard C.; Finley, David A.; Fukui, Yasuo; Furman, Miguel A.; Gabriel, Tony; Gallardo, Juan C.; Garren, Alper A.; Geer, Stephen H.; Ginzburg, Ilya F.; Green, Michael A.; Guler, Hulya; Gunion, John F.; Gupta, Ramesh; Han, Tao; Hanson, Gail G.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Holtkamp, Norbert; Johnson, Colin; Johnstone, Carol; Kahn, Stephen A.; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Kim, Eun San; King, Bruce J.; Kirk, Harold G.; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Lebrun, Paul; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Peter; Li, Derun; Lissauer, David; Littenberg, Laurence S.; Lu, Changguo; Luccio, Alfredo; Lykken, Joseph D.; McDonald, Kirk T.; McInturff, Alfred D.; Miller, John R.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Moretti, Alfred; Mori, Yoshiharu; Neuffer, David V.; Ng, King-Yuen; Noble, Robert J.; Norem, James H.; Onel, Yasar; Palmer, Robert B.; Parsa, Zohreh; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Popovic, Milorad; Prebys, Eric J.; Qian, Zubao; Raja, Rajendran; Reed, Claude B.; Rehak, Pavel; Roser, Thomas; Rossmanith, Robert; Scanlan, Ronald M.; Sessler, Andrew M.; Shadwick, Brad; Shu, Quan-Sheng; Silvestrov, Gregory I.; Skrinsky, Alexandr N.; Smith, Dale; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Stefanski, Ray; Striganov, Sergei; Stumer, Iuliu; Summers, Don; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Teng, Lee C.; Tollestrup, Alvin V.; Torun, Ya?mur; Trbojevic, Dejan; Turner, William C.; Vahsen, Sven E.; van Ginneken, Andreas; Vsevolozhskaya, Tatiana A.; Wan, Weishi; Wang, Haipeng; Weggel, Robert; Willen, Erich H.; Wilson, Edmund J.; Winn, David R.; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yokoi, Takeichiro; Zhao, Yongxiang; Zolotorev, Max

1999-08-01

461

Future Directions of Sickle Cell Disease Research: The NIH Perspective  

PubMed Central

Efforts to enhance therapy for children and adults with sickle cell disease have proven more challenging than might have been predicted from the fact that an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis antedated that of many other diseases for which good treatments presently exist. The multi-organ injury that occurs with sickle cell disease certainly contributes to this clinical reality. Research over decades indicates that the primary defect in hemoglobin that results in polymerization of the protein under low oxygen conditions and resultant cellular deformity of the red blood cell initiates a complex downstream pathogenesis associated with vascular injury and organ ischemia. Deciphering this in a manner that informs successful therapies that improve all target organs continues to challenge hematologists. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is dedicated to support research across the basic science, translational a clinical spectrum to achieve these clinical outcomes. The following provides a brief summary of the research strategies which NHLBI is presently supporting and will support in the future to enhance care and ultimately, to effect cure of this hemoglobin disease that causes such suffering to those who inherit this monogenic disease.

Hoots, W. Keith; Shurin, Susan B.

2012-01-01

462

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

SAMIOS, N.P.

2005-10-10

463

Clinical Pharmacokinetic Service and Research--Present Status and Future Goals at SUNY-Buffalo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)|

Koup, Jeffrey R.

1976-01-01

464

Scientifically Based Research: Establishing a Research Agenda for the Technology in Teacher Education Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Education sponsored a summit that addressed the need for scientifically-based evidence on the use of technology in teaching and learning. One hundred leaders from the Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT[3]) federal initiative were invited to participate in the meeting, held in Fall 2003. The recommendations…

Thompson, Ann D.

2005-01-01

465

History and future of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article by Cook et al offers an interesting new methodological approach to the debate about (supposedly lacking) scientific consensus on global warming, showing that contrarian claims that there was no such consensus are clearly misleading. But once the attribution issue can be regarded as settled, new questions and controversies arise. They ultimately result from the different technological and organizational pathways towards a new global society model that takes its adverse climate change effects into account and seeks for new, but also risky solutions.

Reusswig, Fritz

2013-09-01

466

Scientific exploration of lunar surface using a rover in Japanese future lunar mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new lunar mission (SELENE-B) including a lander is now in consideration in Japan. The mission will follow up SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer, a global remote sensing mission of the moon in 2004). Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of the polar region to discover the trapped ice. We have already developed a 5-wheel engineering-model rover, Micro5, which has a long manipulator with a camera on top. The rover can climb over 15cm steps and rocks by a new suspension system PEGASUS.

Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Okada, T.; Saiki, K.; Kuroda, Y.; Kunii, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Akiyama, N.; Ohtake, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Higa, M.; Hirata, N.; Sugihara, T.; Haruyama, J.; Otake, H.; Yoshioka, N.; Terazono, J.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Kodama, S.; Rover Group in Japan

467

Scientific Needs for Future X-ray Sources in the U.S. -- A White Paper  

SciTech Connect

Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving heath, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.

Falcone, Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Bob; Zholents, Alexander

2008-10-16

468

Scientific Needs for Future X-Ray Sources in the U.S.: A White Paper  

SciTech Connect

Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects (Figure 1.1). The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons, and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.

Falcone , Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Robert Hettel, Zahid Hussain; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Fernando Sannibale, John Seeman; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Robert; Zholents, Alexander; /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

2008-10-22

469

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field of molecular biology. The story of SARS illustrates vividly some NOS features advocated in the school science curriculum, including the tentative nature of scientific knowledge, theory-laden observation and interpretation, multiplicity of approaches adopted in scientific inquiry, the inter-relationship between science and technology, and the nexus of science, politics, social and cultural practices. The story also provided some insights into a number of NOS features less emphasised in the school curriculum—for example, the need to combine and coordinate expertise in a number of scientific fields, the intense competition between research groups (suspended during the SARS crisis), the significance of affective issues relating to intellectual honesty and the courage to challenge authority, the pressure of funding issues on the conduct of research and the ‘peace of mind’ of researchers, These less emphasised elements provided empirical evidence that NOS knowledge, like scientific knowledge itself, changes over time. They reflected the need for teachers and curriculum planners to revisit and reconsider whether the features of NOS currently included in the school science curriculum are fully reflective of the practice of science in the 21st century. In this paper, we also report on how we made use of extracts from the news reports and documentaries on SARS, together with episodes from the scientists’ interviews, to develop a multimedia instructional package for explicitly teaching the prominent features of NOS and scientific inquiry identified in the SARS research.

Wong, Siu Ling; Kwan, Jenny; Hodson, Derek; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

2009-01-01

470

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of scientists’ actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists’ actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from their research. To do this, we interviewed six prominent physicists about why and how they researched and what they obtained from their research results. We also analyzed their published papers. In the previous part of this study, types and features of the physicists’ research motivations were identified (Park and Jang, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 47(3), 401-408, 2005). In this article, as the second part of the study, it was found: (1) Various inquiry skills including theoretical as well as experimental research skills and the social skills of scientific inquiry were used in physicists’ research. (2) New inventions, articulation of, and falsification of the previous findings were regarded as important research results. (3) Physicists’ research processes were often non-linear and cyclical. For each of these findings, implications for teaching scientific inquiry in schools were developed. Finally, we proposed a model of scientific inquiry process consisting of research motives, scientific inquiry skills, and results of inquiry.

Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

2009-01-01

471

The future of infant speech perception research: Gotta wear shades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of infant speech perception research is very bright in large part because of the legacy left to us by Peter W. Jusczyk. I will selectively review a number of studies, many of them conducted by Peter and his colleagues, that I consider to be especially interesting and/or provocative and that have helped to advance our understanding of the development of speech perception. For example, in two fairly recent studies, 4.5 to 6-month-old infants were shown to display some incipient spoken word recognition ability [D. R. Mandel et al., Psychol. Sci. 6, 314-317 (1995); R. Tincoff and P. W. Jusczyk, ibid. 10, 172-175 (1999)]. In effect, these studies have smashed the sound-meaning barrier that was, according to traditional estimates, placed somewhere between 9 and 13 months of age and have important implications for current developmental theory. This work is also illustrative of one trend apparent in recent research, namely, to accord greater attention to infants' perception of ecologically-relevant stimuli and/or their perception of speech stimuli in ecologically-relevant contexts. Still, there is much to be learned about spoken word recognition beyond infancy and before adulthood if we are to arrive at a complete picture of this core aspect of spoken language processing.

Walley, Amanda C.

2002-05-01

472

Future developments in brain-machine interface research.  

PubMed

Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition. PMID:21779720

Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2011-01-01

473

Outstanding Issues and Future Directions of Inner Magnetospheric Research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several research areas of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) system have reached a state, where the coupling mechanisms can no longer be treated as boundary conditions or ad-hoc assumptions in our physical models. It is nothing new that our community has become increasingly aware of the necessity to use global measurements from multiple observation platforms and missions, in order to understand both the system as a whole as well as its individual subsystems. In this presentation we briefly review the current status and outstanding issues of inner MI research. We attempt to establish a working definition of the term "Systems Approach", then present observational tools and techniques that enable such an approach. Physical modeling plays a central role not only in understanding the mechanisms at work, but also in determining the key quantities to be measured. We conclude by discussing questions relevant to future directions. Are there new techniques that need more attention? Should multi-platform observations be included as a default component already at the mission-level in the future? Is solar minimum uninteresting from an MI perspective? Should we actively compare to magnetospheres of other planets? Examples of outstanding issues in inner MI research include the circulation of ionospheric plasma from low to high latitudes and its escape to the magnetosphere, where it is energized by magnetospheric processes and becomes a part of the plasma pressure that in turn affects the ionospheric and magnetospheric electric field. The electric field, in turn, plays a controlling role in the transport of both magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma, which is intimately linked with ionospheric conductance. The conductance, in turn, is controlled by thermospheric chemistry coupled with plasma flow and heating and magnetospheric precipitation and Joule heating. Several techniques have emerged as important tools: auroral imaging, inversions of ENA images to retrieve the plasma pressure distribution and the associated currents (example: IMAGE and stereo imaging from TWINS), EUV imaging to retrieve the global plasmaspheric dynamics (example: IMAGE), magnetospheric magnetic field measurements to reconstruct the global dynamics of the magnetic field and current systems (example: TS07d), global networks of radar measurements of ionospheric flows (example: superDarn), tomographic inversion of GPS signal measurements to reconstruct 3D electron density profiles (example: COSMIC), low-altitude magnetic field measurements to derive maps of field-aligned currents (example: Iridium and AMPERE).

Brandt, P. C.

2009-12-01

474

A Small Town in the World of Big Science: Contributions of Roorkee to Scientific and Technological Research, 1996-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roorkee, a town in the Uttarakhand state of India, has the distinction of being a town of excellence in terms of advanced engineering educa- tion and scientific research for over a century. Three international level for institutions scientific and engineering education and research i.e IITR, CBRI and NIH are located in this small town of just over a 100,000 inhabitants.

Yogendra Singh; M. Furqan Ullah

475

Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: An interdisciplinary research framework perspective.  

PubMed

Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23963919

Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

2013-09-20

476

Does the world need a scientific society for research on how to improve healthcare?  

PubMed

In this editorial, we reflect on the arguments for starting a scientific society focused on research on how to improve healthcare. This society would take an inclusive approach to what constitutes healthcare. For instance, it should include mental health healthcare, treatment for substance abuse, the work of allied health professions, and preventive healthcare. The society would be open to researchers from all traditions. Thus, we take an inclusive approach to what constitutes scientific research, as long as it uses rigorous methods, is focused on improving healthcare, and aims at knowledge that can be transferred across settings. The society would primarily target scientific researchers but would invite others with an interest in this area of research, regardless of their discipline, position, field of application, or group affiliation (e.g., improvement science, behavioral medicine, knowledge translation). A society would need fruitful collaboration with related societies and organizations, which may include having combined meetings. Special links may be developed with one or more journals. A website to provide information on relevant resources, events, and training opportunities is another key activity. It would also provide a voice for the field at funding agencies, political arenas, and similar institutions. An organizational structure and financial resources are required to develop and run these activities. Our aim is to start an international debate, to discover if we can establish a shared vision across academics and stakeholders engaged with creating scientific knowledge on how to improve healthcare. We invite readers to express their views in the online questionnaire accessed by following the URL link provided at the end of the editorial. PMID:22376988

Wensing, Michel; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

2012-02-29

477

ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 12, Number 1, January-March 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a quarterly publication presenting articles covering recent developments in Far Eastern (particularly Japanese) scientific research. Current practice and concepts of superlattice devices are covered. Chinese research efforts in plasma science and ...

G. B. Wright S. Kawano

1987-01-01

478

From genetic discovery to future personalized health research.  

PubMed

During the past ten years the field of human disease genetics has made major leaps, including the completion of the Human Genome Project, the HapMap Project, the development of the genome-wide association (GWA) studies to identify common disease-predisposing variants and the introduction of large-scale whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing studies. The introduction of new technologies has enabled researchers to utilize novel study designs to tackle previously unexplored research questions in human genomics. These new types of studies typically need large sample sizes to overcome the multiple testing challenges caused by the huge number of interrogated genetic variants. As a consequence, large consortia-studies are at present the default in disease genetics research. The systematic planning of the GWA-studies was a key element in the success of the approach. Similar planning and rigor in statistical inferences will probably be beneficial also to future sequencing studies. Already today, the next-generation exome sequencing has led to the identification of several genes underlying Mendelian diseases. In spite of the clear benefits, the method has proven to be more challenging than anticipated. In the case of complex diseases, next-generation sequencing aims to identify disease-associated low-frequency alleles. However, their robust detection will require very large study samples, even larger than in the case of the GWA-studies. This has stimulated study designs that capitalize on enriching sets of low-frequency alleles, for example, studies focusing on population isolates such as Finland or Iceland. One example is the collaborative SISu Project (Sequencing Initiative Suomi) that aims to provide near complete genome variation information from Finnish study samples and pave the way for large, nationwide genome health initiative studies. PMID:23165095

Palotie, Aarno; Widén, Elisabeth; Ripatti, Samuli

2012-11-16

479

Obligatory course unit! Trainee astronomers learn to communicate their future scientific results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.

Del Puerto, C.

2008-06-01

480

An Inquiry Approach to Fostering Stronger Earth Science Backgrounds in Current and Future Middle and High School Science Teachers: Research Techniques as Mechanisms of Teaching Time Scales and Systems Interactions in the Earth System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth science provides an ideal opportunity to integrate authentic research into middle and high school curricula by providing a context for teaching scientific content, promoting a sense of intrigue through the inquiry process, and sharpening skills needed for future scientific endeavors. The University of New Hampshire's offerings as part of the Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project provide for

J. G. Bryce; E. Finkel; E. Froburg; K. Graham; S. Hale; J. E. Johnson; R. K. Varner; K. L. von Damm; T. Fellows

2008-01-01