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1

Scientific accomplishments and future research: Annual technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

This research involves the study of ecosystem dynamics near Toolik Lake in the North Slope region of Alaska. The primary focus is to test new applications of remote sensing systems and advanced digital analysis techniques for studying hydrologic/ecologic interactions. The primary goals are to: (1) evaluate the feasibility of using advanced remote sensing and digital database processing techniques to identify and measure landscape components important in land disturbance processes, and (2) establish and quantify spatial interrelationships between landform geometry (i.e., elevation, slope, and slope aspect) and ecologically important features such as snow distribution, solar insolation, depth to active layer, and plant biomass. A multi-layered digital database has been developed for the area from black-and-white and color infrared aerial photographs in conjunction with field data and large-scale topographic maps. This high-resolution database presently has twelve layers representing various ecological and terrain-related attributes including elevation, slope, slope aspect, snow distribution (two separate dates), primary vegetation, secondary vegetation, tertiary vegetation, percent open water, landform, surface form, and terrain units.

Not Available

1987-01-01

2

Replicative Nature of Indian Research, Essence of Scientific Temper, and Future of Scientific Progress*  

PubMed Central

A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed. PMID:22815607

Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

2004-01-01

3

Beyond 2013 - The Future of European Scientific Drilling Research - An introduction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them with the expected framework (available drilling platforms and anticipated funding levels). The key items that should be addressed during the EGU Session and the workshop will especially include : (1) The future of ECORD (science, technology, management). (2) New research initiatives and emerging fields in scientific drilling (3) Relationships between IODP and other programs (e.g. ICDP, IMAGES etc). (4) Collaboration between academia and industry. (5) New technologies and the Mission Specific Platform approach.

Camoin, G.; Stein, R.

2009-04-01

4

Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the last century every branch of scientific research has undergone gigantic strides towards perfection Great credit is due, ay, even in greater proportions than is given, to those talented minds, who, although on every hand impeded by obstacles, have successfully overcome every difficulty, and solved problems which excite the wonder and admiration of the universe. Within the limits in

C. H. W. Biggs

1870-01-01

5

Future scientific drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JOI-USSAC Workshop on Future Scientific Drilling was held April 6-8, 1987, at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. Participants consisted of 56 scientists from nine countries. The general sponsors of the workshop were JOI (the Joint Oceanographic Institutions) and the U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC) of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Non-U.S. participants were sponsored by their respective countries.The goals of the workshop were to develop thematic suites of drilling objectives in the South Atlantic from global, regional, and topical perspectives and to broaden the base of expertise on which ODP efforts are founded by including scientific input from non-ODP members. The workshop began with a plenary session at which general overviews of various aspects of current South Atlantic research were presented. For most of the workshop, participants separated into one of four working groups for specialized discussion. The topics of these specialized groups were evolution of oceanic lithosphere/tectonics,biostratigraphy,physical stratigrapgy/development of the sedimentary record, andgeochemistry. Once major themes had been developed, each group went on to consider where these objectives could be optimally addressed by drilling and what drilling strategies were necessary for each target area of interest. The workshop ended on the third day with a general session in which the considerations of the four working groups were summarized.

Meyers, Philip A.; Austin, James A., Jr.

6

The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the

David M. Gilbert

7

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

8

Students' Research-Informed Socio-scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.

Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

2012-01-01

9

Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

Strawn, George O.

2012-01-01

10

Future ISON development from points of view of scientific and applied researches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International scientific optical network (ISON) project achieved all initially formulated goals. ISON is the world-wide system providing periodical monitoring of space objects in GEO region across the globe. New level of quality of GEO research is achieved. For the first time our knowledge of true GEO population of objects brighter than 15.5m is almost complete. ISON provides the discovering and tracking of faint deep space debris. Large amount of data on long time intervals is obtained for few hundred fragments including ones having high area-to-mass ratio. About 1115000 measurements in 120000 tracks are collected and processed at KIAM database in 2009 that allowed to maintain the orbits of 1467 GEO objects including 892 spacecraft, 250 upper stages and AKMs and 325 fragments and objects of undetermined type. ISON administrative, software and engineering groups are formed to support current project activities. 20 new telescopes were produced as a part of this work. At the same time ISON is involved into new scientific and applied projects which are formulating new tasks and needing further ISON development. Part of ISON is involved into Roscosmos project aimed on search and prediction of possible collisions between operational spacecraft and other space objects. Therefore it is required that periodicity of object monitoring and measurement precision would be improved. It is necessary to involve new observatories to minimize the weather dependence as well as dedicated telescopes to provide additional tracking of potentially dangerous objects. The goal of HEO object population studying requires development of dedicated telescopes with wider field of view for monitoring of larger areas of the sky. KIAM, as the ISON project leader, is responsible also for development of the new model of the small object population (in first turn for high orbits) that requires involvement of additional large aperture telescopes to verify the model. In addition, dedicated ISON subsystem for asteroid research is under development. The paper will describe actions scheduled to improve ISON performances. In particular, the work on elaboration of remote control telescope and fully robotic telescope are carried out. These telescopes will be installed in the places where there is a lack of qualified observers. Possibility of involving of existing 1-m class telescopes is discussed. This work is partially supported with RBFR 09-01-00566 and 09-01-13540 grants.

Molotov, Igor; Agapov, Vladimir; Akim, Efraim

11

Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.  

PubMed

Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

2013-08-01

12

Future US scientific program  

SciTech Connect

Central to planning for the future program of high energy physics in the US is the Superconducting Super Collider. While it is being built during roughly the next decade, the present HEP laboratories plan an extensive program of physics measurements. Upgrades and new facilities will allow a vigorous program. 3 figs.

Price, L.E.

1991-01-01

13

Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.  

PubMed

New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

2014-06-01

14

Scientifically Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most principals are aware that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 makes it mandatory for school leaders who depend on federal funding to select and implement programs that are based on scientific research. This publication reviews five documents that offer insights into what is meant by scientifically based research and help school leaders…

Beghetto, Ron

2003-01-01

15

Future Influence Ranking of Scientific Literature  

E-print Network

Researchers or students entering a emerging research area are particularly interested in what newly published papers will be most cited and which young researchers will become influential in the future, so that they can catch the most recent advances and find valuable research directions. However, predicting the future importance of scientific articles and authors is challenging due to the dynamic nature of literature networks and evolving research topics. Different from most previous studies aiming to rank the current importance of literatures and authors, we focus on \\emph{ranking the future popularity of new publications and young researchers} by proposing a unified ranking model to combine various available information. Specifically, we first propose to extract two kinds of text features, words and words co-occurrence to characterize innovative papers and authors. Then, instead of using static and un-weighted graphs, we construct time-aware weighted graphs to distinguish the various importance of links es...

Wang, Senzhang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Zhoujun; Yu, Philip S; Shu, Xinyu

2014-01-01

16

Government Funding of Scientific Research  

NSF Publications Database

... Reports Government Funding of Scientific Research A WORKING PAPER OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD ... in research. While there are research aspects to technical development, research does not naturally ...

17

Future problems requiring scientific consideration.  

PubMed

Water is essential for life, a precept that should control all other considerations. Water and its toxicological safety represent a paradigm for much of what is happening in other areas of society in evolving perceptions of what is 'toxicity', what is 'risk' and what we wish to or are prepared to do about such 'risks' at what cost to ourselves and others. Water is an universal solvent and may contain a wide diversity of substances arising from sources and supply systems and modified by treatment and storage. The problems that are already present, and which are closely linked to others just beginning to be recognisable, arise from the growing sensitivity of analytical techniques showing exposure to novel or ever smaller amounts of known substances in water, how to recognize and evaluate their conventional and possibly new (i.e. previously unrealized) toxic actions, how to measure exposure to water as drunk and as in foods and drinks, in what way can safe exposure levels be set, and is it feasible to people to demonstrate that 'safety' has been achieved? Behind those lie the very real problems of deciding what is 'safety', what level of notional safety do we demand in our assessments, and how do we, the people, come to realise and accept the costs that we shall have to pay in demanding any given level of 'safety'? The latter includes deciding what is an appropriate level of safety for the community as a whole and any specially susceptible groups within it. These questions are deceptively simple to pose and tortuously difficult even to attempt to answer. But they are not all the future problems. Behind them lie the socio-political uncertainties of risk and its place in society-what real or perceived risks do we accept and why, and how in a democratic society are we, the people, to be informed about risks, how should we decide what to accept or reject, and how are we to balance our beliefs and wishes against the costs of prevention or acceptance of diseases that unclean or contaminated water can bring. PMID:10717379

Dayan, A D

2000-01-01

18

Exploring XP for Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we successfully apply XP (Extreme Programming) in a scientific research context? A pilot project at the NASA Langley Research Center tested XPs applicability in this context. Since the cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view, eight of XPs 12 practices seemed incompatible with the existing research culture. Despite initial awkwardness, the authors determined

William A. Wood; William L. Kleb

2003-01-01

19

The Economic and Scientific Future of Forensic Psychological Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The young field of forensic psychological assessment shows great promise. Its future is threatened, however, by economic forces in the legal system that may inhibit the development and use of applied research to strengthen its scientific base. In this article, these forces are explained by (a) describing the domain of clinical psychologists who perform assessments for courts, (b) reviewing current

Thomas Grisso

1987-01-01

20

International scientific cooperation: past and future.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article addresses some non-scientific, yet no less significant, aspects of international cooperation in science, focuses on the social responsibility of the scientists engaged in cooperative research, and relates this to Marcel Nicolet's role in and contributions to international programs.

Roederer, J. G.

1987-09-01

21

Research Center for Future Strategy  

E-print Network

#12;04 05 06 08 26 CONTENTS #12;38 40 72 78 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;8 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 9 #12;10 KAIST Research Center for Future Strategy #12;See Futures : The Quarterly Magazine 11 #12;12 KAIST Research

Hong, Soon Hyung

22

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is charged with âÂÂinitiating, developing and coordinating high quality international scientific research in the Antarctic regionâÂÂ. Given their mission, first-time users will not be surprised to find a number of high-quality resources in their publications area, including complete runs of their bulletins, reports, and topical articles, which address such areas as sea-level changes and climate transformation. For those interested in the governance of the region, there is a separate section dedicated to providing information about the Antarctic Treaty. For more general information, visitors would do well to look at the Antarctic Information section, which provides maps of the region, along with some basic statistics and details about the summer and winter research stations operated by various scientific institutes.

23

Student Involvement in Scientific Research  

E-print Network

/computational or experimental physics Talk to several faculty to help you decide what fits you best It is possible to workStudent Involvement in Scientific Research Department of Physics Sept. 5 & 12, 2012 #12;Department of Physics General comments: Important component of your education; in addition to studying science through

Holzwarth, Natalie

24

The Logic of Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the case for scientifically based research. The paper presents the case in concise outline form, providing a rationale; an analogy to medicine; strength of evidence argument; and thoughts about educational sciences. It asks and answers the questions What is EBE? (Evidence Based Education); and What is empirical evidence? In…

Reyna, Valerie F.

25

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

2010-10-01

26

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

2011-10-01

27

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

2012-10-01

28

50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300...Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management...be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data...

2013-10-01

29

[On freedom of scientific research].  

PubMed

Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods. PMID:23923630

Folkers, G

2013-07-01

30

Clinical Research: Assessing the Future in a Changing Environment; Summary Report of Conference Sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996 1 1 Summary report of conference sponsored by the American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, Washington, DC, March 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about funding of clinical research underlie all other problems identified at the Council on Scientific Affairs conference. Future National Institutes of Health (NIH) budgets are likely to be constant at best, and the general public expects cost containment to be an ongoing goal; this is exacerbated by the impending Medicare Trust Fund crisis. Meanwhile, traditional financial support of clinical

Marsha Meyer; Myron Genel; Roy D. Altman; Michael A. Williams; James R. Allen

1998-01-01

31

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2006 Accomplishment High Performance researcher may be interested in focusing scientific inquiry and study on locations in the computational collections of scientific data. In recent years, much of the work in computer and computational science has

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

32

Scientific Computation Survey of Research Interests  

E-print Network

Scientific Computation Survey of Research Interests TO THE APPLICANT: Complete this form and return research is of interest to you 1. 2. 3. Return this form to: Scientific Computation University of Minnesota to the Scientific Computation Program at the address listed below. Full Name

Thomas, David D.

33

Crime and punishment in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical arguments against scientific misconduct generally fail to support current policies on research fraud: they may not prove wrong what is usually considered research misconduct and they tend to make wrong things that are not normally seen as scientific fraud, in particular honest errors. I also point out that sanctions are not consistent with the reasons why scientific fraud is

Mathieu Bouville

2008-01-01

34

The research programme Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

The research programme Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use Welcome to a lunch.slu.se/futureagriculture For questions, please contact KatarinaVrede (katarina.vrede@slu.se) About Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use The changes and challenges facing agriculture in the future will be substantial, not only

35

The Future of Intelligence Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although future directions in human intelligence research are difficult to predict, it seems probable that future research will: (1) use larger numbers of subjects; (2) increase attention to and reporting of reliability; (3) become more theoretically based; and (4) use models more grounded in biology. (SLD)

Detterman, Douglas K.

1989-01-01

36

Mathematical Sciences Scientific Computing Research Environments (SCREMS)  

E-print Network

Mathematical Sciences Scientific Computing Research Environments (SCREMS) Project Summary Description 1. Overview, and Abstracts of Individual Research Projects Continuing advances in computer in research in computational mathematics, notably geometry (GANG1 ) and applied mathematics. In recent years

Sottile, Frank

37

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Årup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

38

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

Vermeir, Koen

2013-01-01

39

Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

Vermeir, Koen

2013-10-01

40

Current Scientific Progress and Future Scientific Prospects Enabled by Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First, we examine current scientific progress and understanding that have been possible through use of spaceborne precipitation radar measurements being provided by the TRMM and CloudSat satellites. Second, we look across a future 20-year time frame to assess how and why anticipated improvements in space radar systems will further advance scientific progress into topic areas once considered beyond the realm of space-based remote sensing. JAXA's 13.8 GHz Ku-band cross-track scanning Precipitation Radar (PR) developed for flight on NASA's non-sun-synchronous, diurnally-precessing TRMM satellite, was the first Earth radar flown in space that was designed specifically for precipitation measurement. Its proven accuracy in measuring global rainfall in the tropics and sub-tropics and its unanticipated longevity in continuing these measurements beyond a full decade have established the standards against which all follow-up and future space radars will be evaluated. In regards to the current PR measurement time series, we will discuss a selection of major scientific discoveries and impacts which have set the stage for future radar measuring systems. In fact, the 2nd contemporary space radar applicable for terrestrial precipitation measurement, i.e., JPL-CSA's 94 GHz nadir-staring Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) flown on NASA's sun-synchronous CloudSat satellite, although designed primarily for measurement of non-precipitating cloud hydrometeors and aerosols, has also unquestionably advanced precipitation measurement because CPR's higher frequency and greatly increased sensitivity (approximately 30 dBZ) has enabled global observations of light rain rate spectrum processes (i.e., rain rates below 0.05 mm per hourand of precipitation processes in the high troposphere (particularly ice phase processes). These processes are beyond reach of the TRMM radar because the PR sensitivity limit is approximately 17 dBZ which means its lower rain rate cutoff is around 0.3 mm per hour and its vertical profiling acuity is greatly limited above the melting layer. Thus, the newer CPR measurements have become important for a variety of scientific reasons that will be highlighted and assessed. In considering scientific progress likely to stem from future precipitation radar systems, we will specifically examine possible scientific impacts from three anticipated missions for which NASA and various of its space agency partners are expected to lead the way. These three missions are: (1) the nearterm Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission; (2) the decadal timeline Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (ACE) Mission; and the post-decadal timeline NEXRAD in Space (NIS) Mission. The observational capabilities of the planned radar systems for each of these three satellite missions are distinct from each other and each provides progressive improvements in precipitation measuring and scientific research capabilities relative to where we are now -- insofar as TRMM PR and the CloudSat CPR capabilities. The potential innovations in scientific research will be discussed in a framework of likely synergisms between next-generation radar capabilities and accessible dynamical and microphysical properties that have heretofore evaded detection.

Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Yang, Song

2008-01-01

41

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2006 Accomplishment HDF5-Fast fundamental Computer Science technologies and their application in production scientific research tools. Our technology � index, query, storage and retrieval � and use of such technology in computational and computer

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

42

50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regional Administrator or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to receive scientific research plans and issue Letters of Acknowledgment. In order to facilitate...

2012-10-01

43

Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1886, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society is a non-profit membership society of nearly 65,000 scientists and engineers who were elected to the Society because of their research achievements or potential.

44

How Scientific Illiteracy Threatens Our Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of Americans do not see the ways in which science holds relevance in their lives, and too many scientists are unable to explain why our work matters. Meanwhile, partisan politics, a new media environment, and religious ideologies have magnified the growing rift between science and mainstream American culture. Science should be a value shared by all, but it will take far more than political will to bridge what C.P. Snow once described as a ``vast gulf of mutual incomprehension'' between scientists and everyone else. The scientific community must find new ways of reaching out or we will fail to influence the public, inform the decision-making process, and rise to meet the greatest challenges of the 21st century.

Kirshenbaum, Sheril

2010-03-01

45

Ethics and Etiquette in Scientific Research  

E-print Network

1 Ethics and Etiquette in Scientific Research Rules of conduct for persons in authority How in research ­ Informed consent, IRB oversight Use of animals in research ­ Appropriate care/use, IACUC Carnegie Mellon University April 2007 #12;2 Research Ethics Covers Many Areas Use of human subjects

Treuille, Adrien

46

Government Funding of Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic function of science to perform research and to educate and train others for technological innovation in Australia is discussed. The generation of wealth, focus of public debate, and political decision making on research policy are also considered. (MSE)

Jones, Barry

1985-01-01

47

Job Description Job Title: Scientific Research Specialist  

E-print Network

Job Description Job Title: Scientific Research Specialist Job ID: 32738 Location: Tallahassee, FL Save Job Apply Now Return to Previous Page Department Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute Salary Range requires the use of machining Applicant Searches https://jobs.omni.fsu

McQuade, D. Tyler

48

Scientific Research in Education: A Socratic Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socrates and Admetus discuss the value of scientific research in education. They conclude that although RCTs have their place, they are not a panacea for education, and that the push for them by NCLB is not warranted.

Boody, Robert M.

2011-01-01

49

Hribf:. Scientific Highlights and Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosts a dedicated user program in nuclear physics using exotic beams. Vigorous and innovative research programs concentrating on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure and nuclear reactions are based at HRIBF, along with a Center of Excellence for Stewardship Science operated by Rutgers University and UNIRIB consortium. Recent work has concentrated on investigation of exotic nuclei beyond the N=50 and N=82 closed shells. HRIBF was developed out of an existing accelerator complex at ORNL at a modest initial cost. Projects to improve facility efficiency and reliability are underway. However, HRIBF will require additional investments to remain productive and competitive over the decade between now and the completion of the long-planned next-generation U.S. exotic beam facility. There are several additional ways in which a modest upgrade could substantially improve HRIBF performance and operation. The most promising and cost-effective of these appears to be addition of a high-power electron accelerator for production of neutron-rich species by photofission.

Beene, James R.

2008-08-01

50

Acculturation: Recommendations for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, future directions in acculturation research and design are suggested which could provide valuable new insights\\u000a and knowledge. Topics discussed include the importance of subject-selection procedures (ranging from individual characteristics\\u000a to group commonalities), various measurement issues (such as instrumentation and scoring methods), and research design procedures\\u000a (including discussion of complexities in design).

Richard M. Suinn

51

Scientific Research at Introduction 4  

E-print Network

York Botanical Garden Faculty Honorary Curators and Research Fellows Selected Research Grants Selected Faculty Publications The New York Botanical Garden Board Botanical Science Committee Library Visiting Rica. #12;3 Preface "The New York Botanical Garden is an advocate for the plant kingdom

Law, Wayne

52

DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research  

E-print Network

DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research April 10, 2014 Presented to the Fusion Energy Research Delivering world leading computational and networking capabilities to extend the frontiers-intensive computing applications to migrate to and take full advantage of emerging technologies from research

53

Bias and values in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now

Torsten Wilholt

2009-01-01

54

Scientific Culture and Educational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires federal grantees to use their funds on evidence-based strategies. The law includes definitions of research quality, which are also featured prominently in the administration’s strategic plan and in draft language for the re-authorization of the U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. These initiatives pose a rare opportunity and formidable challenge

Michael J. Feuer; Lisa Towne; Richard J. Shavelson

2002-01-01

55

Ethical virtues in scientific research.  

PubMed

Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane's defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity. PMID:23074991

Resnik, David B

2012-01-01

56

Scientific Communication in Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the production, dissemination, and assimilation of material published in the major journals on educational research--four "core" journals and three "tangential." Two questionnaires were used: one sent to the authors of all articles published in 1968 and 1969, and the second to the persons whom these authors cited as working…

Nelson, Carnot E.

57

Research ethics and scientific misconduct in biomedical research.  

PubMed

Scientists have the responsibility of judging what is best for the patient and the optimal conditions for the conduct of the study. All physicians should ensure that research they participate in is ethically conducted. Every clinician should learn and receive training in the responsible conduct of research and publication, and each project must be reviewed by an institutional review committee. Scientific misconduct is defined as any practice that deviates from those accepted by the scientific community and ultimately damages the integrity of the research process. "Sloppy Research" and "Scientific Fraud" include activities which can violate science, records and publication. Sloppy research is due to absence of appropriate training in research discipline and methodologies. In contrast, scientific fraud is defined as deliberate action during application, performance of research, and publication. It includes piracy, plagiarism and fraud. Research institutions should adopt rules and regulations to respond to allegations, start investigational operations and perform appropriate sanctions. PMID:12442615

Kansu, E; Ruacan, S

2002-01-01

58

Center for Research in Scientific Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Research in Scientific Computation (CRSC), based at North Carolina State University, aims to "foster research in scientific computing and provide a focal point for research in computational science, engineering and applied mathematics." The Center has developed a teaching experimental laboratory "where students are exposed to experimental design and data collection through demos and actual hands-on experience." The Center's multidisciplinary research addresses topics in scientific computation such as Numerical Optimization and Control, Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations, Mathematical Modeling and Analysis; Numerical Linear Algebra, and Parallel Computing. This website describes the Center's projects and offers links to the project websites. An online database makes available CRSC technical reports from 1992 to the present.

59

Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

Association of American Universities, 2011

2011-01-01

60

Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ? 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which could fly for over 20 hours over the ice pack or over the Antarctic continent could measure the horizontal and vertical extent of the ice sheet over unprecedented areas. Technical challenges, such as ensuring safe take-off and landing, appear not to be insurmountable. A second example is the study of the UTLS using a HALE platform such as the Global Hawk. Such a platform is well-suited for circumpolar flights, in which the same air masses could be encountered in a single flight, providing a quasi-lagrangian view of stratospheric ozone chemistry during the polar winter. Transects from the mid latitudes to the subtropics could also be designed, to study exchange processes across the tropopause and the age of air in the stratosphere. We will illustrate other possible scientific missions using other types of UAS platforms.

Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

2010-05-01

61

Some considerations on integrity in scientific research.  

PubMed

Some aspects of research integrity are presented and discussed, primarily through reference to institutional documents, particularly those published by the European Union. A scrupulous approach to scientific publications is emphasized as being crucial to integrity in research, while clinical trials are indicated as an area in which especially strict rules should be observed. The article comprises: an introduction, in which "integrity in research" is defined; some examples of violations of research integrity; an analysis of possible ways to implement general rules in particular contexts; a call for scrupulousness in scientific publications as a crucial factor in research integrity; a brief reference to ethics in clinical trials, where the observation of particularly severe rules is imperative. PMID:24770832

Petrini, C

2014-01-01

62

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions  

E-print Network

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions Robert J The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant

Meagher, Mary

63

Scientific research in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

Mtingwa, S.K.

1990-03-19

64

On Modeling Research Work for Describing and Filtering Scientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing models for Research Information Systems (RIS) properly address the description of people and organizations, projects, facilities and their outcomes, e.g. papers, reports or patents. While this is adequate for the recording and accountability of research investments, helping researchers in finding relevant people, organizations or results requires considering both the content of research work and also its context. The content is not only related to the domain area, but it requires modeling methodological issues as variables, instruments or scientific methods that can then be used as search criteria. The context of research work is determined by the ongoing projects or scientific interests of an individual or a group, and can be expressed using the same methodological concepts. However, modeling methodological issues is notably complex and dependent on the scientific discipline and research area. This paper sketches the main requirements for those models, providing some motivating examples that could serve as a point of departure for future attempts in developing an upper ontology for research methods and tools.

Sicilia, Miguel-Ángel

65

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me.  

PubMed

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

Narlikar, Jayant V

2008-01-01

66

Case Studies in Describing Scientific Research Efforts as Linked Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Web is growing with numerous scientific resources, prompting increased efforts in information management to consider integration and exchange of scientific resources. Scientists have many options to share scientific resources on the Web; however, existing options provide limited support to scientists in annotating and relating research resources resulting from a scientific research effort. Moreover, there is no systematic approach to documenting scientific research and sharing it on the Web. This research proposes the Collect-Annotate-Refine-Publish (CARP) Methodology as an approach for guiding documentation of scientific research on the Semantic Web as scientific collections. Scientific collections are structured descriptions about scientific research that make scientific results accessible based on context. In addition, scientific collections enhance the Linked Data data space and can be queried by machines. Three case studies were conducted on research efforts at the Cyber-ShARE Research Center of Excellence in order to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to create scientific collections. The case studies exposed the challenges and benefits of leveraging the Semantic Web and Linked Data data space to facilitate access, integration and processing of Web-accessible scientific resources and research documentation. As such, we present the case study findings and lessons learned in documenting scientific research using CARP.

Gandara, A.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Gates, A.

2013-12-01

67

Belgian Scientific Research Programme on the Antarctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1959 Antarctic Treaty set out to achieve "demilitarization, the ban on nuclear tests and on the disposal of radioactive waste material - the respect of which is guaranteed by a system of mutual inspection - and the promotion of international scientific cooperation. The approval in 1991 of the 'Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty' (Madrid Protocol), turned the area into a natural reserve dedicated to peace and science. The Protocol prohibits any non-scientific activity relating to mineral resources and otherwise, makes provision for the realization of environmental evaluations to be based upon scientific evidences." At this site, visitors can learn about the goals of the programme and also learn more about some of the many phases of its research projects. Also of interest are is the metadata section, including links to data from projects such as "The Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Cap." Overall, a very interesting site for those interested in the fruits of the Madrid Protocol and the science that has occurred in its wake.

68

Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research (PHASR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research, PHASR, is designed as a versatile, general purpose habitat system that addresses the problem of functional space and environmental soundness in a partially fabric-covered shelter. PHASR is used for remote field site applications that can be quickly deployed. PHASR will also provide four scientists with a comfortable and efficient use of interior space. PHASR is a NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program project conducted at the University of Houston College of Architecture, Sasadawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA). This report is prepared for NASA/USRA.

Griswold, Samantha S.

1992-01-01

69

ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky  

E-print Network

ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky Carnegie Mellon University August, 1998 Page 1 of 28 Ethics and Etiquette in Scientific Research Rules of Conduct for Persons in Authority://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Ethics/ethics.ps #12;ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky Carnegie Mellon University August

Narasimhan, Priya

70

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram  

E-print Network

Advanced Scientific Computing Research Funding Profile by Subprogram (dollars in thousands) FY 2003 FY 2005 Request Advanced Scientific Computing Research Mathematical, Information, and Computational,000 0 3,000 0 Subtotal, Advanced Scientific Computing Research..................... 163,185 203,490 -1

71

The United States of America and Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development

Gregory J. Hather; Winston Haynes; Roger Higdon; Natali Kolker; Elizabeth A. Stewart; Peter Arzberger; Patrick Chain; Dawn Field; B. Robert Franza; Biaoyang Lin; Folker Meyer; Vural Ozdemir; Charles V. Smith; Gerald van Belle; John Wooley; Eugene Kolker; Pedro Antonio Valdes-Sosa

2010-01-01

72

[AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow); a training model aimed at enhancement of clinical scientific research].  

PubMed

The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas. PMID:9380169

van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C

1997-06-21

73

The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

Krantz, Murray

2003-01-01

74

The future of yogurt: scientific and regulatory needs.  

PubMed

Lactation biology, microbial selection, and human diversity are central themes that could guide investment in scientific research, industrial innovation, and regulatory policy oversight to propel yogurt into the central role for health-promoting food products. The ability of yogurt to provide the nourishing properties of milk together with the live microorganisms from fermentation provides a unique combination of food assets. Academic research must now define the various targets on which these biological assets act to improve health and develop the metrics that can quantitatively document their benefits. The food industry must reconcile that yogurt and its microorganisms cannot be expected to provide measurable benefits for all consumers, at all doses, and at all times. A supportive regulatory oversight must demand safety and yet encourage innovations that support a value proposition for yogurt in health. Health valuation in the marketplace will be driven by parallel innovations, including accurate assessment technologies, validated microbial ingredients, and health-aware consumers. PMID:24695899

German, J Bruce

2014-05-01

75

Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract  

PubMed Central

Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy. “By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action.” Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

Resnik, David B.

2009-01-01

76

Ten Years of GLAPHI Method Developing Scientific Research Abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past ten years we had applied our method, GLAPHI, to teach how to do scientific research. The method has been applied from freshman students up to PhD professionals. The method is based in the search and analysis of scientific literature, the scientific question or problem, the approach of hypothesis and objetive, the estimation of the project cost and the timetable. It also includes statistics for research, author rights, ethics in research, publication of scientific papers, writting scientific reports and meeting presentations. In this work success and fails of GLAPHI methods will be discussed. Work partially supported by CONACyT (Mexico) under contract: SEP-2004-C01-46893

Vega-Carrillo, Hector R.

2006-12-01

77

Recruitment processesRecruitment processes French National Scientific and Technological ResearchFrench National Scientific and Technological Research  

E-print Network

researcher :: Job openings in December Recruitment based on a scientific program Application review (INRARecruitment processesRecruitment processes inin French National Scientific and Technological competitive entry processPermanent : national competitive entry process -- Temporary : direct recruitment

Canet, Léonie

78

Future Directions for Federal Research Funding  

E-print Network

i Future Directions for Federal Research Funding Merrill Series on The Research ....................................................................................28 Dean, College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, University of Kansas The Importance of External Grant Support for a Public College of Arts and Science First panel of researchers Richard Barohn

79

The Future of Research in Computer Games  

E-print Network

, emerging research problems of high consequence, future research infrastructure needs, and broader impacts research problems and opportunities in this arena. Six working group topics were identified based as learning, CGVWs for STEM and Humanities learning, etc. · CGVWs for Science, Health, Environment, Energy

Scacchi, Walt

80

An appraisal of future space biomedical research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

Vinograd, S. P.

1975-01-01

81

Institute for Scientific Computing Research Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy (DOE). The maturation of computational simulation as a tool of scientific and engineering research is underscored in the November 2004 statement of the Secretary of Energy that, ''high performance computing is the backbone of the nation's science and technology enterprise''. LLNL operates several of the world's most powerful computers--including today's single most powerful--and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Ultrascale simulation has been identified as one of the highest priorities in DOE's facilities planning for the next two decades. However, computers at architectural extremes are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Furthermore, each successful terascale simulation only points out the need for much better ways of interacting with the resulting avalanche of data. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to LLNL's core missions than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, LLNL must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) served as one of LLNL's main bridges to the academic community with a program of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, workshops, and an active seminar series. The ISCR identifies researchers from the academic community for computer science and computational science collaborations with LLNL and hosts them for short- and long-term visits with the aim of encouraging long-term academic research agendas that address LLNL's research priorities. Through such collaborations, ideas and software flow in both directions, and LLNL cultivates its future workforce. The Institute strives to be LLNL's ''eyes and ears'' in the computer and information sciences, keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be the ''feet and hands'' that carry those advances into the Laboratory and incorporates them into practice. ISCR research participants are integrated into LLNL's Computing and Applied Research (CAR) Department, especially into its Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). In turn, these organizations address computational challenges arising throughout the rest of the Laboratory. Administratively, the ISCR flourishes under LLNL's University Relations Program (URP). Together with the other five institutes of the URP, it navigates a course that allows LLNL to benefit from academic exchanges while preserving national security. While it is difficult to operate an academic-like research enterprise within the context of a national security laboratory, the results declare the challenges well met and worth the continued effort.

Keyes, D E

2005-02-07

82

Engineering creativity -can the arts help scientific research more directly?  

E-print Network

regularly used as a method of encouraging public engagement with scientific ideas and discoveriesEngineering creativity - can the arts help scientific research more directly? There is a long and fruitful history of artists taking inspiration from scientific discoveries and experiments, and even

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

83

Editorial Research Reports on the Scientific Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine reports published in this volume reflect upon the scientific revolution of the 20th century. Technological and scientific achievements are reviewed in the light of changes they have caused in human life. The challenge put forth is whether man can use wisely the new world of options that science opens for him. In this perspective the reports…

Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

84

Divine Earth's future (and pay your bills)... Improve Scientific Data Analysis for Earth's Climate  

E-print Network

Divine Earth's future (and pay your bills)... Scientific Computing Programmer Improve Scientific Data Analysis for Earth's Climate The Climate and Scientific Computing group at UC Irvine (www to improve understanding of Earth's climate. You will: Improve robustness, optimize, document, and ex- tend

Zender, Charles

85

The origin of scientific neurology and its consequences for modern and future neuroscience.  

PubMed

John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) created a science of brain function that, in scope and profundity, is among the great scientific discoveries of the 19th century. It is interesting that the magnitude of his achievement is not completely recognized even among his ardent admirers. Although thousands of practitioners around the world use the clinical applications of his science every day, the principles from which bedside neurology is derived have broader consequences-for modern and future science-that remain unrecognized and unexploited. This paper summarizes the scientific formalism that created modern neurology, demonstrates how its direct implications affect a current area of neuroscientific research, and indicates how Hughlings Jackson's ideas form a path toward a novel solution to an important open problem of the brain and mind. PMID:23811323

Steinberg, David A

2014-01-01

86

English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

2014-09-01

87

Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

88

Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

89

Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

2011-01-01

90

Creating the Future: Research and Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

1998-01-01

91

Permafrost research: an assessment of future needs  

SciTech Connect

The current status of permafrost science and engineering was reviewed. Deficencies in current scientific knowledge and engineering experience were identified and research responsive to these needs recommended. Although emphasis in this report is on arctica and subartic Alaska, many of the discussions and recommendations are applicable to Antarctica and non-permafrost areas where soils are subjected to annual freezing and thawing or are artificially frozen for construction purposes. 31 references. (ACR)

Not Available

1983-01-01

92

Media guide Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research  

E-print Network

NWO Media guide / text: Department of Information & Communication ISBN 90-77875-50-0X Keywords: scientific communication / communication / media Translation: Dave Thomas, Native Speaker Translations own website 49 10 Giving popular talks 51 11 Listening time 56 12 Viewing time 59 13 Avoiding common

van Suijlekom, Walter

93

Social Sleepwalkers. Scientific and Technological Research in California Agriculture. Research Monograph No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making a case for initiation of a systematic methodology that would predict and evaluate the potential social ramifications of scientific research, this monograph presents: (1) a review of the general lack of social concern among scientific researchers and rationale for utilization of scientific agricultural research as initiator of social…

Friedland, William H.

94

Scientific Publishing in Developing Countries: Challenges for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I first refer to the center-periphery dichotomy in terms of scientific output, placing emphasis upon the relation that exists between science and technology development, on the one hand, and social and economic development, on the other. I then analyze the main problems faced by most peripheral journals and the role nation states…

Salager-Meyer, Francoise

2008-01-01

95

Fusion -Aclean future Research at Culham Centre  

E-print Network

, cleaner ways of powering itself. Nuclear fusion ­ the process that provides the sun's energy ­ can play process that provides the energy in the sun and other stars. To utilise fusion reactions as an energyFusion -Aclean future Research at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy #12;Increasing energy demands

96

The Myth of "Scientific Method" in Contemporary Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether educational research should employ the "scientific method" has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: "positivist" or "interpretivist". In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research

Rowbottom, Darrell Patrick; Aiston, Sarah Jane

2006-01-01

97

The Frontiers of Resource-Related Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's and tomorrow's challenges with respect to energy rise beyond assessing the volume, type, distribution, and viability of various energy resources. Access to clean, reliable, and affordable energy supplies requires a much more comprehensive understanding of the full costs, benefits, and inherent risks encompassing the entire life cycle of both the energy commodity/capability itself, as well as those supplementary resources needed for energy production and use, such as water and minerals. Research and assessment science conducted by the US Geological Survey (USGS) spans this range from traditional energy resources such as oil, gas, and coal; to currently under utilized resources such as geothermal, wind, and uranium; as well as more long-term future resources such as gas hydrates. With mission space that includes energy and minerals, water, natural hazards, environmental health, ecosystems, and climate and land use change, increasingly USGS is taking advantage of its integrated science approach and its tradition of working with partners to conduct collaborative research developing methodologies that build on traditional energy-related research. The USGS is incorporating scientific information about geologic, geophysical, biologic, hydrologic, and in some cases socio-economic, trade-offs to be considered by decision makers regarding energy resource development and use. This basic resource information informs the Nation's decisions of how to manage a dynamically evolving energy mix in both an economically and environmentally sustainable manner.

McNutt, M. K.

2012-12-01

98

Using scientifically based research to guide educational decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article identifies what scientifically based research (SBR) means in the field of education. It describes how teachers and administrators are required by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to use SBR to select teaching practices, curriculum, and programs. The article is designed to help educators locate and use SBR to increase student learning. It offers improvement goals and action options for administrators, teachers, and policy makers. The value of using scientifically based research is discussed along with information about possible pitfalls and differing points of view about research types. Featured are case studies with examples of how scientifically based research is conducted. Also included are references and a list of resources about scientifically based research in education.

Buchler, Beth; Margolin, Jonathan

2004-01-01

99

[Reporting of scientific misconduct in health care research].  

PubMed

The incidence of scientific dishonesty in the Netherlands is not known, yet experiences at both the NWO (the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research) and Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine) indicate that there must be several cases per year. For scientific fraud to be prevented students and researchers should receive thorough teaching, and in research laboratories an emphasis should be placed upon integrity. The Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam has published a research protocol which is perfect for internal use. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences publishes brochures on good research practice for researchers, teachers and students. The NWO and the Vereniging van Universiteiten (Dutch Association of Universities) have set up a committee for scientific integrity to function as a fallback mechanism and to assess the institutional procedures or to repeat the inquiries. As healthcare research institutions other than universities are involved since authorities are not always objective, an independent committee has been established to assess complaints about scientific dishonesty, the Scientific Integrity Health Research. Like the Committee on Publication Ethics it will publish its cases anonymously on an annual basis. Its judgments will be communicated to the people involved and the proper authorities. PMID:12233155

Klasen, E C; Overbeke, A J P M

2002-08-31

100

Scientific Communication in Educational Research. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of studies concerned with the dissemination and assimilation of material contained in journal articles in educational research were conducted. These studies dealt with authors of the articles and other educational researchers conducting research in the same subject matter areas as the articles. The dissemination process was found to be…

Nelson, Carnot E.

101

Town Hall Meeting: Future Directions in Dynamic High Pressure Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock-compression research began in the 1940s for reasons of national defense. While military-related research will continue to be a major motivator of shock research, war between nations is not as probable today as it was in the last century. Today other issues are gaining national and international importance. This situation raises the possibility of redistribution of federal funding into fields other than those related directly to military research. It is timely to consider possible future directions that would put us in a position to obtain support to address emerging needs of society, while maintaining traditional expertise. Possibilities for future research at national and military laboratories and at universities are suggested in the context of ideas and questions posed in a recent report of the National Research Council of the National Academies. Dynamic-compression research is positioned to play a prominent role in general scientific research and such results are needed to enhance probabilities of achieving present and emerging technological goals of national importance.

Nellis, W. J.; Dlott, D.

2007-12-01

102

Basic research for future electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

Jahn, R. G.

1985-01-01

103

NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

1987-01-01

104

Trends in research and development for future detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of novel detector concepts has always played a major role in supporting and enabling scientific research. In the forthcoming phase of high energy physics (HEP), the design and development of new detectors and detector concepts will be even more important than it was in the past owing to the harsh environmental conditions and the challenging requests imposed by the physicists' needs for: improved spatial and time resolution, innovative functions, acquisition speed, radiation tolerance, minimal power consumption, robustness and reliability, minimal material and more. This overview addresses the challenges that upgrades and future projects in HEP will impose in terms of novel technologies and stresses the detectors' potential and limitations in attempting to achieve the scientific goals. In addition the increasingly strong dependence on large-scale industrial production and industrial development, especially in the area of integrated electronics, sensors and large complex systems will be addressed.

Cattai, Ariella

2013-12-01

105

More scientific research of 'fracking' urged in Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

... More scientific research of ' fracking ' urged in Pennsylvania ... opened up its doors to fracking in ways that many other ... and human health effects of fracking and, as a result, Pennsylvania ...

106

Scientific research, museum collections, and the rights of ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the question of how can museum professionals and the interested public resolve the competing claims\\u000a of traditional ownership and continuing scientific research in relation to museum collections.

Jeremy A. Sabloff

1999-01-01

107

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

108

Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

2008-11-01

109

Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

Mularz, E. J.

1985-01-01

110

Low back pain research--future directions.  

PubMed

Low back pain is a challenge for clinicians and researchers, due to the large variability in clinical presentation, lack of consensus regarding diagnostic criteria or clinical classification; wide variation in course and prognosis, and limited success in identifying effective treatments. However, increasing research efforts has generated an expanding body of evidence on the epidemiology, prognosis and treatment of back pain. This paper presents four key developments in research and clinical practice, and describes how these can influence the future direction of back pain research: (1) the increasing awareness of the impact of low back pain on population health; (2) new approaches to describing and investigating course and prognosis of back pain; (3) the need to better understand the bio-psycho-social mechanisms or pathways that explain impact and long-term outcomes in order to inform intervention research; and (4) the potential for stratified models of care to improve patient outcomes and efficiency of care for back pain. PMID:24315150

van der Windt, Danielle A; Dunn, Kate M

2013-10-01

111

Scientific Research and Agricultural Innovation in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development and interrelationships of agriculture and agricultural research in Israel since 1920, concluding that major contributing factors to successful relationship between research and production in agriculture are a rise in the educational level of the agricultural population and a thorough knowledge of the soil and climate. (JT)

Ben-David, Joseph; Katz, Shaul

1975-01-01

112

How "Scientific" Is Science Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research articles published in the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science…

Lawson, Anton E.

2010-01-01

113

Use of the Virtual ITM Observatory for Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Ionosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) is now an operational system and this presentation will demonstrate how it can benefit Heliophysics research. VITMO enables coordinated research by allowing users to locate science of interest that overlap in time and space. VITMO provides tools to seamlessly locate simultaneous overlapping datasets from multiple satellites and satellite- and ground site conjunctions. Many of these tools are integrated into the search system allowing the user to find files automatically when certain geophysical conditions are present, a satellite observes a region at the same time a ground based radar system is operating, or other conditions are met. These and future enhanced capabilities such as selecting data sets for study based on model/data comparisons will be presented. Also included, will be examples of how these capabilities allow the scientist to perform "what-if" based searches of data for analysis will be presented along with and a discussion of the types of scientific analysis that may be feasible through VITMO. VITMO can be found at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/.

Weiss, M.; Morrison, D.; Immer, E.; Potter, M.; Patrone, D.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.; Barnes, R. J.

2009-12-01

114

Scientific Fraud: Definitions, Policies, and Implications for Nursing Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific fraud is often a result of misguided attempts to attain professional success. To prevent fraud in nursing research, researchers should be socialized in an atmosphere of professional integrity, have established researchers as role models, and be rewarded for quality rather than quantity. (SK)

Chop, Rose M.; Silva, Mary Cipriano

1991-01-01

115

Heterogeneity of patenting activity and its implications for scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing commercialization of university discoveries has initiated a controversy on the impact for scientific research. It has been argued that an increasing orientation towards commercialization may have a negative impact on more fundamental research efforts in science. Several scholars have therefore analyzed the relationship between publication and patenting activity of university researchers, and most articles report positive correlations between

Dirk Czarnitzki; Wolfgang Glänzel; Katrin Hussinger

2009-01-01

116

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities, 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data in these tables are collected biennially through the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Congressionally mandated Survey of Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities. The 1999 survey was sent to research-performing colleges and universities in the United States and to U.S. biomedical research institutions that received National…

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

117

Tips for Preparing a Scientific Research Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tips prepared by the Woods Hole Sea Grant Program, with help from researchers, librarians, and teachers. Designed to help middle school or high school students organize their research papers from beginning to end, takes it step-by-step and week-by-week. Covers: how to start, identifying a topic; outlining the project, compiling resources, finding help; organizing resources, recognizing when you have enough; expanding the outline, writing clearly and logically; and reviewing the paper.

2010-08-03

118

Permafrost research: an assessment of future needs  

SciTech Connect

Permafrost--ground that remains continuously at temperatures below 0 C for two years or longer--covers nearly one fourth of the land surface of the earth and poses special engineering problems. The report examines the status of permafrost research, identifies the most urgent research and engineering needs, and recommends priorities to guide future effort in this field. Recommendations deal with detection and mapping, heat and mass transport processes, performanace monitoring, ground ice, active layer and ground temperature, material properties, development and application of technology, information management and transfer, and international cooperation.

Not Available

1983-01-01

119

Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future.  

PubMed

Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

2014-01-01

120

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:18617353

Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

2008-01-01

121

Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality. PMID:24142308

Oliveira, Maria Christina L.; Martelli, Daniella Reis B.; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmao L.; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Silva, Ana Cristina S. e; Martelli-Junior, Hercilio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

2013-01-01

122

Collaboratory for support of scientific research  

SciTech Connect

Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ``collaboratory`` refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries [1],[2]. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ``as good as being there`` is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote [3] Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative research Many research disciplines find themselves in a similar position, trying to better utilize facilities and increase productivity for both local and remote researchers A recently published issue of Interactions [4] includes a special section dedicated to collaboratories A description of collaborative observations at the Keck Observatory [2] indicates distinct and real advantages gamed by astronomers who can now remotely access this facility, even as the collaboratory is developing. Advantages range from simply making the facility available to more researchers without the cost of travel to the physiological advantage of not experiencing oxygen deprivation sickness due to high altitude observing The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory [2] which focuses on studies of the earth`s ionosphere and interactions with the solar wind now combines information from several observing sites, many in difficult to reach high latitude locations above the arctic circle Travel to these remote locations, fomrerly provided by military flights which are no longer needed, is now more expensive for researchers With a now obvious need for remote sensing and collaborations, the UARC has combined access to these experimental facilities and joined in global modeling efforts to better use the capabilities of researchers on an international scale. The final collaboratory featured [2] is that of our testbed development for the DIII-D tokamak experiment 141 to make it even more accessible in its role as a US national facility

Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.

1998-06-25

123

Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

124

Scientific Research in a Foreign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is a vital aspect in science and engineering. Not only does it further ideas and technology around the world, it brings people around the world together through collaborations. More often than not, the common language spoken among collaborators is English. This makes it easy for native English speakers. It becomes very difficult, however, when the common language spoken among

Meghan Bellows

2006-01-01

125

Sea Mammal Research Unit Scientific Report  

E-print Network

the environment ­ new and increasing levels of pollution, noise from industrial construction, drilling, seismics we carry out this research worldwide, one of our core objectives is to understand the causes declined. Viral disease has caused some of these declines. The others are for reasons that are not entirely

Brierley, Andrew

126

The Use of Microblogging for Field-Based Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documenting the context in which data are collected is an integral part of the scientific research lifecycle. In field-based research, contextual information provides a detailed description of scientific practices and thus enables data interpretation and reuse. For field data, losing contextual information often means losing the data altogether. Yet, documenting the context of distributed, collaborative, field-based research can be a significant challenge due to the unpredictable nature of real-world settings and to the high degree of variability in data collection methods and scientific practices of different researchers. In this article, we propose the use of microblogging as a mechanism to support collection, ingestion, and publication of contextual information about the variegated digital artifacts that are produced in field research. We perform interviews with scholars involved in field-based environmental and urban sensing research, to determine the extent of adoption of Twitter and similar microblogging platforms and their potential use for field-specific research applications. Based on the results of these interviews as well as participant observation of field activities, we present the design, development, and pilot evaluation of a microblogging application integrated with an existing data collection platform on a handheld device. We investigate whether microblogging accommodates the variable and unpredictable nature of highly mobile research and whether it represents a suitable mechanism to document the context of field research data early in the scientific information lifecycle.

Pepe, Alberto; Mayernik, M. S.

127

Scientific Research and the Public Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers\\u000a who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion that public trusts\\u000a science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that

David B. Resnik

128

ARCHAVE: A Virtual Reality Research Environment for Scientific Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created the ARCHAVE system, a novel virtual reality re- search environment, as a framework to evaluate virtual reality inter- action and data visualization techniques for scientific applications. During its initial development, we applied the system to archaeo- logical research, and the results obtained from this evaluation con- firm the usefulness of the environment in providing researchers with new

Daniel Acevedo

129

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics ESnet Network · Support adhoc network measurements for troubleshooting and infrastructure verification. ­ By ESnet Staff

130

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences); Margaret Eisenhart (University of Colorado); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2007-08-01

131

Mapping a Future: Archaeology, Feminism, and Scientific Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on work in science studies, I argue for the importance of fieldwork and research practices when considering the relative\\u000a significance of feminism within archaeology. Fieldwork, often presented as the unifying hallmark of all of anthropology, has\\u000a a different resonance in archaeology at the level of material practice and specific techniques. In order to understand the\\u000a relationship between archaeology and

Silvia Tomášková

2007-01-01

132

S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

133

Future directions and research priorities for food mutagens*  

PubMed Central

This article is an expanded summary of the workshop discussions. Its objective is to add perspective and future orientation to the scientific symposium presented in the previous articles of this volume. PMID:3757952

De Serres, F. J.; Zeiger, E.; Hatch, F. T.

1986-01-01

134

Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling  

SciTech Connect

The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

Not Available

1984-01-01

135

[Bad behaviors regarding research and scientific and medical publication].  

PubMed

Since a few years, the number of cases of fraud reported in the scientific and medical literature and retraction of articles has increased exponentially. Such fraud is due to fabrication, falsification, theft, embellishment or retention of data, plagiarism, incorrect list of authors or undisclosed conflicts of interest. This tendency has been explained by the need to publish for career advancement or the future of the department, the search for notoriety, the desire to grow rich and the lack of motivation to seek the truth. This crisis can be controlled by measures at different levels: society, universities, scientific institutions, study promoters, scientific and medical journals. A legal framework at EU level would allow to combat such fraud more efficiently. PMID:24505870

Sculier, J P

2013-01-01

136

Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George Ludwig takes the reader behind the scenes of space exploration in the 1950s. The well-known episodes in this history—such as the stories of Sputnik, Laika the cosmodog, and the founding of NASA—are here placed in the rich context of the scientific and technical goals that motivated Ludwig and his fellow researchers. Ludwig relates the personal experiences of the many engineers, physicists, and university students who made possible humanity’s first ventures into space.

Good, Gregory A.

2012-05-01

137

Individual characteristics and student's engagement in scientific research: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In light of the increasing recognition of the importance of physician scientists, and given the association between undergraduate research experiences with future scientific activity, it is important to identify and understand variables related to undergraduate students’ decision to engage in scientific research activities. The present study assessed the influence of individual characteristics, including personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics, on voluntary engagement in scientific research of undergraduate medical students. Methods For this study, all undergraduate students and alumni of the School of Health Sciences in Minho, Portugal were invited to participate in a survey about voluntary engagement in scientific research activities. Data were available on socio-demographic, personality and university admission variables, as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. A regression model was used to compare (1) engaged with (2) not engaged students. A classification and regression tree model was used to compare students engaged in (3) elective curricular research (4) and extra-curricular research. Results A total of 466 students (88%) answered the survey. A complete set of data was available for 435 students (83%). Higher scores in admission grade point average and the personality dimensions of “openness to experience” and “conscientiousness” increased chances of engagement. Higher “extraversion” scores had the opposite effect. Male undergraduate students were two times more likely than females to engage in curricular elective scientific research and were also more likely to engage in extra-curricular research activities. Conclusions This study demonstrated that student’ grade point average and individual characteristics, like gender, openness and consciousness have a unique and statistically significant contribution to students’ involvement in undergraduate scientific research activities. PMID:23066758

2012-01-01

138

The Promissory Future(s) of Education: Rethinking Scientific Literacy in the Era of Biocapitalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the biopolitical dimensions that have grown out of the union between biocapitalism and current science education reform in the US. Drawing on science and technology study theorists, I utilize the analytics of promissory valuation and salvationary discourses to understand how scientific literacy in the neo-Sputnik era has…

Pierce, Clayton

2012-01-01

139

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2011-04-01

140

77 FR 6784 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...purpose of collecting scientific data on catch may submit...submit reports of their scientific research activity after its completion. II. Method of Collection Information...Estimated Time per Response: Scientific research plans, 37...

2012-02-09

141

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2013-04-01

142

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2012-04-01

143

27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

...Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental...or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...officer may authorize any scientific university, college of...

2014-04-01

144

Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

2013-04-01

145

Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.  

SciTech Connect

Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

Choi, S. U.-S.

1998-10-20

146

Health effects: scientific research and mobile phone testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade ago, a major research initiative, with orchestrated monetary and programmatic support from both industry and the government, was launched to investigate the biological effects and health implications of radio frequency (RF) radiation emitted from cellular mobile telephones. The subject remains a focus of public concern and shows no sign of relenting. There is a lack of scientific consensus

J. C. Lin

2002-01-01

147

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1984-01-01

148

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research Human Resource Development Group  

E-print Network

Avenue, New Delhi ­ 110 012, INDIA CSIR-Nehru Science Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Scheme Council helped India usher in a scientific milieu, creating and nurturing talent in a wide variety of S&T domains ground for most of Indias talented scientists and technologists. CSIR annually publishes over 3800 papers

Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

149

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report  

E-print Network

climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report 2001­2002 #12;2 #12;3 Contents Preface Foreword Recent highlights On the role of cirrus clouds in climate 11 Pathways in the ocean 19 Monitoring of tropical processes relevant to climate change 29 Current projects Climate

Stoffelen, Ad

150

Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

2014-01-01

151

Report from the Stroke Research Priorities Meeting: Top scientific research opportunities from Workgroups on Stroke  

E-print Network

1 Report from the Stroke Research Priorities Meeting: Top scientific research opportunities from Workgroups on Stroke Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery Research In 2011, the NINDS began a two-phase planning process in order to identify the highest priority research areas in stroke to address over

152

E.3 EXOPLANETS RESEARCH The Exoplanets program element solicits basic research proposals to conduct scientific  

E-print Network

E.3-1 E.3 EXOPLANETS RESEARCH The Exoplanets program element solicits basic research proposals to conduct scientific investigations related to the research and analysis of extrasolar planets (exoplanets involving the detection of extrasolar planets. 1. Scope of Program The Exoplanets Research program solicits

Rathbun, Julie A.

153

The future of scientific communication in the earth sciences: The impact of the internet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Publication on paper of research results following peer-review and editing has been the accepted means of scientific communication for several centuries. Today, the continued growth in the volume of scientific literature, the increased unit costs of archiving paper publications, and the rapidly increasing power and availability of electronic technology are creating tremendous pressures on traditional scientific communication. The earth sciences are not immune from these pressures, and the role of the traditional publication as the primary means of communication is rapidly changing. Electronic publications and network technology are radically altering the relationship between interpretative result and the underlying data. Earth science research institutions, including the Kansas Geological Survey, are experimenting with new forms of on-line publication that assure broad access to research and data and improve application of research results to societal problems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Carr, T.R.; Buchanan, R.C.; Adkins-Heljeson, D.; Mettille, T.D.; Sorensen, J.

1997-01-01

154

3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential Documents...Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President...Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem...

2010-01-01

155

Guidelines for training in the ethical conduct of scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, scientists in training have learned the rules of ethical conduct by the example of their advisors and other\\u000a senior scientists and by practice. This paper is intended to serve as a guide for the beginning scientist to some fundamental\\u000a principles of scientific research ethics. The paper focuses less on issues of outright dishonesty or fraud, and more on the

Seymour J. Garte

1995-01-01

156

Curating Scientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method in Context  

E-print Network

Method The challenge of digital preserving scientific dataand methods into an overall process capable of producing an actionable preservation plan for scientificScientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method

Conway, Esther; Dunckley, Matthew; Giaretta, David

2009-01-01

157

Opening space research: Dreams, technology, and scientific discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 October 1957 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched Sputnik, the world's first man-made satellite. It may have been the dawn of humanity's toehold in space, but it was not the beginning of the story. In the AGU monograph Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George H. Ludwig describes the people, politics, and experiments that led from weather balloons and leftover German V-2 rockets to a highly successful U.S. space research program. In this interview, Ludwig shares some insights with Eos.

Schultz, Colin

2011-10-01

158

Future Arctic Research: Integrative Approaches to Scientific and Methodological Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has significant consequences for both the natural environment and the socioeconomics in the Arctic. The complex interplay between the changing atmosphere, cryosphere, and ocean is responsible for a multitude of feedbacks and cascading effects leading to changes in the marine and terrestrial ecosystems, the sea ice cycle, and atmospheric circulation patterns. The warming Arctic has also become a region of economic interest as shipping, natural resource exploitation, and tourism are becoming achievable and lucrative with declining sea ice. Such climatic and anthropogenic developments are leading to profound changes in the Arctic, its people, and their cultural heritage.

Schmale, Julia; Lisowska, Maja; Smieszek, Malgorzata

2013-08-01

159

Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Georgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

2014-01-01

160

Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.  

PubMed

Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

2013-07-30

161

Future technologies for our future world Research in the School of Electronics and Computer Science  

E-print Network

Future technologies for our future world Research in the School of Electronics and Computer Science will lead the country's research in nanotechnology and photonics. #12;Our world-leading facilities are central to our research capabilities and success - the Mountbatten Building, opened in 2008

Southampton, University of

162

Writing a Scientific Research Paper Parts of a research report/what each should contain  

E-print Network

Writing a Scientific Research Paper Parts of a research report/what each should contain Some principles of good writing General advice about creating a text Research Report Sections Introduction, figures) Introduction Introduces the topic that you will be exploring Explains why you are addressing

deYoung, Brad

163

Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

Eisner, Elliot

2006-01-01

164

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing  

E-print Network

Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing GREGORY D. ABOWD and ELIZABETH, applica- tion-driven research in ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes for future research in ubiquitous computing, we review the accomplishments of these efforts and point

Abowd, Gregory D.

165

African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

Kebede, Abebe

2002-03-01

166

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-01-01

167

Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

Not Available

1988-12-31

168

Investigating the Impact on Skill Development of an Undergraduate Scientific Research Skills Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and subsequent impact of a scientific research skills course. Student understanding of the university research environment, their confidence in finding and using scientific literature and in scientific writing and presentation pre- and post-course was investigated. The findings suggested that understanding of the research environment and research process which was poor pre-course, improved after its completion.

Kay H Yeoman; Barbara Zamorski

2008-01-01

169

Web Services Provide Access to SCEC Scientific Research Application Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote computer located elsewhere on the Internet. The value of a web service is that it can (1) run a scientific code without the user needing to install and learn the intricacies of running the code; (2) provide the technical framework which allows a user's computer to talk to the remote computer which performs the service; (3) provide the computational resources to run the code; and (4) bundle several analysis steps and provide the end results in digital or (post-processed) graphical form. Within an NSF-sponsored ITR project coordinated by SCEC, we are constructing web services using architectural protocols and programming languages (e.g., Java). However, because the SCEC community has a rich pool of scientific research software (written in traditional languages such as C and FORTRAN), we also emphasize making existing scientific codes available by constructing web service frameworks which wrap around and directly run these codes. In doing so we attempt to broaden community usage of these codes. Web service wrapping of a scientific code can be done using a "web servlet" construction or by using a SOAP/WSDL-based framework. This latter approach is widely adopted in IT circles although it is subject to rapid evolution. Our wrapping framework attempts to "honor" the original codes with as little modification as is possible. For versatility we identify three methods of user access: (A) a web-based GUI (written in HTML and/or Java applets); (B) a Linux/OSX/UNIX command line "initiator" utility (shell-scriptable); and (C) direct access from within any Java application (and with the correct API interface from within C++ and/or C/Fortran). This poster presentation will provide descriptions of the following selected web services and their origin as scientific application codes: 3D community velocity models for Southern California, geocoordinate conversions (latitude/longitude to UTM), execution of GMT graphical scripts, data format conversions (Gocad to Matlab format), and implementation of Seismic Hazard Analysis application programs that calculate hazard curve and hazard map data sets.

Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Okaya, D.; Kamb, L.; Maechling, P.

2003-12-01

170

US computer research networks: Current and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

1989-01-01

171

COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH Anusandhan Bhawan, 2, Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001  

E-print Network

COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH Anusandhan Bhawan, 2, Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 No:41 ft-At-110001 COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH Anusandhan Bhawan, 2, Rafi Marg, New Delhi

Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

172

Evolution of scientific ballooning and its impact on astrophysics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we celebrate the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays on a manned balloon, it seems appropriate to reflect on the evolution of ballooning and its scientific impact. Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Ballooning was revolutionized in 1950 with the introduction of the so-called natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for more than a half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey report supports super-pressure balloon development and the giant step forward it offers with ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights at constant altitudes for about 100 days.

Jones, William Vernon

2014-05-01

173

Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research  

PubMed Central

Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075

Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2008-01-01

174

PARC - Scientific Exchange Program (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

ScienceCinema

'PARC - Scientific Exchange Program' was submitted by the Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center (PARC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. PARC, an EFRC directed by Robert E. Blankenship at Washington University in St. Louis, is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

Blankenship, Robert E. (Director, Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center); PARC Staff

2011-11-03

175

FUTURE WORK Future research will focus on overcoming some of the more obvious  

E-print Network

, Research Support Lab, GIS Services METHODS The ISODATA (Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis TechniqueFUTURE WORK Future research will focus on overcoming some of the more obvious deficiencies with the technique presented here. There are two major deficiencies. The first is that the land use classes

Hall, Sharon J.

176

Continuity of Research Effort and Sources of Scientific Information by Educational Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Probes two aspects of scientific communication: (1) the extent to which journal article authors continue work in the same area as their articles; (2) the sources of information used by active researchers in conjunction with their current research. (Author/JM)

Nelson, Carnot E.; Adams, Carol V. W.

1973-01-01

177

An Important Difference between Scientific Research and Empiricist Research in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empiricists work with general concepts defined by their observed sets of objects. Their explanations involve their general concepts derived by trial and error from their untheoretical observations and experience. This paper distinguishes empirical educational research from scientific research to avoid confusion between the two. A reason for the…

Chambers, John H.

178

Component research for future propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of factors related to the acquisition and life-cycle cost, and mission reliability of helicopters is given. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Special attention is given to advanced propulsion systems and related component technologies, and system requirements, powerplants and component thrusts, compressor designs, combustion systems, turbine efficiency, blade tip treatment concepts and shaft dynamics are discussed in detail.

Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

1981-01-01

179

Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

1980-01-01

180

Directions in tropical agroforestry research: past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflections on the past two decades of organized research in tropical agroforestry raise several issues. Research efforts\\u000a started with an inductive and experiential approach but have subsequently followed a deductive and experimental approach that\\u000a includes hypothesis testing and the development of predictive capability; agroforestry research is thus being transformed\\u000a into a rigorous scientific activity. The research agenda, so far, has

P. K. R. Nair

1997-01-01

181

Research Universities and the Future of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

Duderstadt, James J.

2012-01-01

182

Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

2007-06-01

183

Organizational Errors: Directions for Future Research  

E-print Network

The goal of this chapter is to promote research about organizational errors—i.e., the actions of multiple organizational participants that deviate from organizationally specified rules and can potentially result in adverse ...

Carroll, John Stephen

184

Guiding future research on terrestrial ecosystem disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With North American ecosystems responsible for drawing hundreds of teragrams of carbon from the atmosphere each year, the tenuous balance of the terrestrial carbon budget can be upset for decades by disturbances such as fires, storms, disease outbreaks, insect infestations, and logging. Research cataloging the effects of such disturbances on regional carbon cycling tends to be sporadic or of limited scope. Most research has focused on forests but is less extensive for other important ecosystems such as grasslands or permafrost peatlands.

Schultz, Colin

2013-04-01

185

Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7). The STPL could acquire more technical assignments if examples of the areas where they posses expertise would be circulated around the center. The fact that the STPL owns high speed video capability could be 'advertised' among its customer base if there truly was an interest in building up a customer base in this area. The STPL could participate in events like TOPS as an exhibitor, as well as

Davidhazy, Andrew

1994-01-01

186

Future Scientific Digital Documents with MathML, XML, and SVG  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon State University Physics Department has recently initiated an undergraduate degree program in computational physics. Associated with that program is a National Science Foundation-funded project to develop curricula materials for introductory and advanced computational science classes. While we plan to publish traditional paper texts for these courses, we also are exploring ways to publish digital versions of these materials containing features that exploit new technologies. Specifically, we wish to advance digital books using multimodal and interactive elements to increase the access and understanding of mathematics and science. This installment of the education department describes the motivation behind, and the technologies needed for, the features we envision in future scientific documents.

Landau, Rubin; Vedliner, David; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat; Kyle, Kevin

2008-07-23

187

Future human bone research in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab crewmembers demonstrated negative calcium (Ca) balance reaching about -300 mg/day by flight day 84. Limited bone density (BMD) measurements documented that bone was not lost equally from all parts of the skeleton. Subsequent BMD studies during long duration Russian flights documented the regional extent of bone loss. These studies demonstrated mean losses in the spine, femur neck, trochanter, and pelvis of about 1%-1.6% with large differences between individuals as well as between bone sites in a given individual. Limited available data indicate postflight bone recovery occurred in some individuals, but may require several years for complete restoration. Long duration bedrest studies showed a similar pattern of bone loss and calcium balance (-180 mg/day) as spaceflight. During long duration bedrest, resorption markers were elevated, formation markers were unchanged, 1,25 vitamin D (VitD) and calcium absorption were decreased, and serum ionized Ca was increased. Although this information is a good beginning, additional spaceflight research is needed to assess architectural and subregional bone changes, elucidate mechanisms, and develop efficient as well as effective countermeasures. Space research poses a number of unique problems not encountered in ground-based laboratory research. Therefore, researchers contemplating human spaceflight research need to consider a number of unique problems related to spaceflight in their experimental design.

LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.; Schneider, V.

1998-01-01

188

The future of naval ocean science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

189

Acupuncture and Depth: Future Direction for Acupuncture Research  

PubMed Central

The research on acupuncture has increased steadily over the years and regular review and revision of the direction of future acupuncture research are necessary. This paper aims to review and explore the significance of acupuncture depth in modern acupuncture research. Searches conducted in Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases reflected a lack of focus on depth of acupuncture. We propose that the research trends of acupuncture should progress to the depth of insertion. It is suggested that future acupuncture research, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs), should take into consideration the depth of insertion. Comparison between databases using different language of medium suggests the need for international collaboration of researchers from the same field. It is also crucial to inherit and innovate traditional medicine (TM) through modern technology. The use of bibliometric method is also suitable for development of TM research trends. Acupuncture and depth should be considered as one of the future directions of acupuncture research. PMID:25114707

2014-01-01

190

Roadmapping Future E-Government Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

Bicking, Melanie

191

The image of scientific researchers and their activity in Greek adolescents' drawings.  

PubMed

The image prevailing among the public of scientific research and researchers constitutes a contradictory and complex combination of traditional stereotypes. We explore central facets of the image of scientific research and researchers as reflected in Greek adolescent students' drawings. Drawings were produced by 171 students participating in a drawing competition launched in the context of the "Researchers' Night 2007" implemented by three research institutions in Greece. Analysis of students' drawings involved dimensions related to the image of scientific researchers and of scientific research. Outcomes indicate that the students hold fairly outdated views of scientific researchers and their activity, involving stereotypic views of scientists and science, as well as gender stereotypes. Therefore there is an urgent need to promote a more relevant image of scientific researchers and their activity to young people and especially students. PMID:23823169

Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Samaras, Giannis

2012-07-01

192

The future for stem cell research.  

PubMed

Stem cells have offered much hope by promising to greatly extend the numbers and range of patients who could benefit from transplants, and to provide cell replacement therapy to treat debilitating diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The issue of stem cell research is politically charged, prompting biologists to begin engaging in ethical debates, and generating in the general public an unusually high level of interest in this aspect of biology. But excitement notwithstanding, there is a long way to go in basic research before new therapies will be established, and now the pressure is on for scientists and clinicians to deliver. PMID:11689952

Lovell-Badge, R

2001-11-01

193

The Future of Research in Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

Duke, Charles

2006-03-01

194

Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

195

Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System  

PubMed Central

Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

2010-01-01

196

Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System.  

PubMed

Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L

2010-06-01

197

The Past and Future of Tuberculosis Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed efforts in tuberculosis (TB) research have led to important new insights into the biology and epidemiology of this devastating disease. Yet, in the face of the modern epidemics of HIV\\/AIDS, diabetes, and multidrug resistance—all of which contribute to susceptibility to TB—global control of the disease will remain a formidable challenge for years to come. New high-throughput genomics technologies are

Iñaki Comas; Sebastien Gagneux

2009-01-01

198

The future of cometary plasma research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the acquisition and analysis of cometary data are reviewed with attention given to current research and projects under development. The need for supplementing the present cometary data is underscored by discussing observational missions from the ground and earth orbit such as the Giotto Extended Mission and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby. The interpretation of Comet Halley data is characterized as advanced with respect to both complete observational data and sophisticated modeling.

Neugebauer, Marcia

199

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;246 American Scientist, Volume 101 Macroscope © 2013 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction. Poetic Mathematics Gardner often quoted poems in his Mathemati- cal Games column for Scientific American

Glaz, Sarah

200

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2010-10-01

201

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2011-10-01

202

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2013-10-01

203

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

it alongside other banners labeled "truth," "rationality" and "the scientific method" to defend against whatA reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society mail to perms@amsci.org. ©Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society and other rightsholders #12

Galison, Peter L.

204

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...marine mammals (common and scientific names) that are the subject of the scientific research and any other species...216.3; and (vi) The methods to be used to conduct the...for Level B Harassment for Scientific Research applies to...

2012-10-01

205

The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

Danch, J. M.

2010-12-01

206

Project "phobos-grunt": Instruments for scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the scientific objectives of the project Phobos-Grunt. The set of scientific instruments installed on board the spacecraft is discussed and the main problems to be resolved using these devices.

Zelenyi, L. M.; Zakharov, A. V.

2012-12-01

207

There is no scientific rationale for race-based research.  

PubMed Central

For centuries, the colonial governments used a combination of race and ethnic characteristics to subjugate and control people of color, and scientists of the day provided evidence of the "natural order of things" to support national policies of domination, segregation and control. There have been many examples of events in the past 70 years to suggest that achievements by ethnic peoples are not genetically determined and that race and ethnicity are merely terms to describe external features, language, culture, social mores and folklore. BiDil was the first drug in this country approved by the FDA for use in a single "race" after a clinical trial that enrolled only members of that race. Thus arose the question of the efficacy of doing race-based research in humans. In order for this kind of research to have any scientific basis, each individually defined or self-declared race would have to have a 100% pure gene pool, and the data show that the gene pool among whites, blacks and Hispanics in America is very heterogeneous. This makes for far greater similarities among U.S. citizens than any perceived differences, and genomic science has failed to support the concept of racial categories in medicine. Scientists involved with the first mapping of the human genome have noted that there is no basis in the genetic code for race. That being the case, there appears to be no justification for race-based research among human beings. PMID:17595942

Hoover, Eddie L.

2007-01-01

208

Research and development: current impact and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to review current research with particular reference to new research and development initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A general review and survey of selected research and development topics is given and some new challenges and applications of future technologies are considered with particular reference to their impact and potential. Findings – The paper illustrates the multi- and

B. H. Rudall

2011-01-01

209

What Do Researchers Say about Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a thread of three pieces about scientific literacy. The first, written by Edgar Jenkins, provided an introduction to scientific literacy within the context of citizenship and the ways that scientific literacy might be interpreted by those with a concern about public understanding of science or the public engagement…

McGregor, Debbie; Kearton, Ginny

2010-01-01

210

Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

Samios,N.P.

2008-11-17

211

5 ways McGill researchers are BUILDING YOUR FUTURE  

E-print Network

-- using fuels made from corn husks and other agricultural waste. Volume 6, Number 2, Winter 2012 RESEARCH-engineering projects 25 Future Engines Getting more bang out of biofuels 28 Future Farms A five-point plan for growing efficient. A few years from now, the cars zipping past may be propelled by Earth-friendly biofuels, thanks

Fabry, Frederic

212

Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on

James O. Prochaska

2008-01-01

213

Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

Mathes, J. C.

214

Neurosciences research in space - Future directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

1991-01-01

215

Energy Frontier Research Centers Science for our Nation's Energy Future  

E-print Network

of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) #12;Energy Frontier Research Centers Science for our Nation's Energy Future US Department of Energy Office of Science www.energyfrontier.us43 ABOVE: CFSES addresses safe, secure and economical underground

216

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

217

A methodology for streamlining historical research: the analysis of technical and scientific publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article provides a framework for organizing and structuring the research of historical researchers who analyze technical and scientific publications. Because historical research spans both decades and centuries, an effective research methodology is essential. The framework consists of a multifaceted 10-step method for studying the written discourse of scientific and technical communication, specifically for interpreting historical data obtained from articles

J. T. Battalio

2002-01-01

218

Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary and viewgraphs of a discussion presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dealing the the 'data problem' are discussed. A brief history and a development of some basic mass storage system (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. Future MSS needs for future computing environments is discussed.

Olear, Bernard T.

1991-01-01

219

Determining Priorities for Future Mars Polar Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third International Workshop on Mars Polar Energy Balance and the CO2 Cycle; Seattle, Washington, 21-24 July 2009; Since 1997, five spacecraft have observed Mars's polar processes, resulting in an unprecedented amount of data with ranges of spatial and spectral resolutions not available from prior missions in the 1960s and 1970s. The vast amount of new data and the complex nature of Mars's polar processes led Mars polar scientists from around the world to gather in a small group environment to discuss the data, models, and emerging theories. The expertise of the 36 attendees of the Third International Workshop on Mars Polar Energy Balance and the CO2 Cycle included remote sensing, laboratory experimentation, and climate modeling. Nearly all spacecraft instruments that have been or are currently being used to monitor Mars's carbon dioxide (CO2) cycle were represented. At the workshop, participants agreed on the following five highest-priority programmatic and research recommendations to increase understanding of Mars's polar processes.

Titus, Timothy N.; Michaels, Timothy I.

2009-10-01

220

An exploration of future trends in environmental education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE researchers; and convenings with EE researchers and practitioners. We discuss four core

Nicole M. Ardoin; Charlotte Clark; Elin Kelsey

2012-01-01

221

It’s About Scientific Secrecy, Dummy: A Better Equilibrium Among Genomics Patenting, Scientific Research and Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a different pragmatic and patent-based approach to concerns regarding the negative effects of genetic-based\\u000a patenting on advancing scientific research and providing adequate and accessible health care services. At the basis of this\\u000a approach lies an explication of a mandatory provisional patented paper procedure (PPPA), designed for genetic-based patents\\u000a and administered by leading scientific journals in the field,

Miriam Bentwich

222

The Zooniverse: Cutting Edge Scientific Research in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly scientists and researchers from a multitude of disciplines are finding themselves inundated with more data than they could possibly interpret in a lifetime. Computers can be used entirely or partially for some data analysis; but there are some tasks that are currently best suited to human eyes, ears and brains. Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org) invites members of the public to help researchers analyze and interpret data. To date, hundreds of thousands of volunteers have been involved in classifying images, interpreting sounds and transcribing texts. Zooniverse citizen scientists are providing valuable analyses across a variety of fields, from the hunt for exoplanets in Planet Hunters (planethunters.org) to the transcription of Greek papyri in Ancient Lives (ancientlives.org). Multiple academic publications have resulted from the combined efforts of the Zooniverse community and science teams demonstrating that citizen science is more than ever becoming a well-established method of doing research. Unlike most research projects the data, analysis and interactions with the science teams have an established and visible online presence through the project website and related discussion sites and blogs. These in themselves provide a valuable classroom resource, an opportunity for free and easy access to cutting edge scientific research. Anecdotal evidence exists that teacher can and already do use Zooniverse projects. By providing a rich and varied scaffolding to accompany the Zooniverse projects the opportunity exists for bringing citizen scientists to a wider classroom audience. An audience that may include non-specialist teachers, who require additional support to deliver challenging content, or time strapped educators who haven't the time to develop their own accompanying resources to weave Zooniverse projects into their lessons. During the session we will discuss the recent Zooniverse projects specifically designed to support and promote classroom adoption locally, within the Chicago Public School (CPS) system and nationally within the United States. Introducing ZooTeach, a website where educators may share and search for lesson plans, activities, and resources. Beyond a simple lesson plan repository, ZooTeach is a community where educators are encouraged to modify, comment on, and otherwise actively participate in the educational efforts of Zooniverse. Teacher workshops run at Adler have and will continue to have the dual effect of promoting the Zooniverse and it's educational effort while increasing the pool of resources available nationally via ZooTeach. In house developed teacher guides and interactive tools allowing for the collection and manipulation of data will further enhance the classroom education experience and further lower the bar for entry into the world of citizen science.

Borden, K. A.; Whyte, L. F.; Smith, A.; Tarnoff, A.; Schmitt, H.

2012-12-01

223

Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

Universities UK, 2011

2011-01-01

224

The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)

Taylor, Jack A.

1993-01-01

225

The future of performance?related sports biomechanics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of performance?related research in sports biomechanics is presented describing the relevant techniques of data analysis and data processing together with the methods used in experimental and theoretical studies. Advances in data collection and processing techniques which are necessary for the future development of sports biomechanics research are identified. The difficulties associated with experimental studies in sports biomechanics are

M. R. Yeadon; J. H. Challis

1994-01-01

226

PERSPECTIVES Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVES Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics: where to from here? Niko Holderegger Ã? Helene H. Wagner Ã? Participants of the Landscape Genetics Research Agenda Workshop 2007 Received+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Landscape genetics is an emerging inter- disciplinary field that combines

227

The Role of Student-Advisor Interactions in Apprenticing Undergraduate Researchers into a Scientific Community of Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are themselves apprentices to faculty members. As such, research mentors of undergraduate students should be aware of the dual scientific and educational aspects of their advising role and its significance in shaping students' identities and career trajectories.

Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.

2011-12-01

228

Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to…

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2007-01-01

229

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;466 American Scientist, Volume 96 Feature Articles © 2008 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

Gerstein, Mark

230

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic mail to perms@amsci.org. ©Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society and other rightsholders #12

Richards, Robert J.

231

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;42 American Scientist, Volume 97 © 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

Bilham, Roger

232

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;78 American Scientist, Volume 96 © 2007 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

Kossin, James P.

233

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;22 American Scientist, Volume 94 Feature Articles © 2006 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

Settles, Gary S.

234

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;408 American Scientist, Volume 97 © 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

235

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;392 American Scientist, Volume 97 © 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

Chapman, Clark R.

236

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society  

E-print Network

A reprint from American Scientistthe magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society;164 American Scientist, Volume 96 © 2007 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction to Permissions, American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A., or by electronic

Richards, Robert J.

237

Ethics in a scientific approach: the importance of the biostatistician in research ethics committees.  

PubMed

In medical practice and research it is necessary to consider the rights of the researcher or physician and of the subject or patient, to conform to scientific standards and to examine the appropriateness with respect to laws and moral values. Research ethics committees have an important role to play in ensuring the ethical standards and scientific merit of research on human subjects. Research of no scientific value is also against ethical principles. To obtain valid and reliable results from biomedical research, it is a scientific and ethical obligation to make use of the science of statistics. Therefore, for research to be evaluated using biostatistics intensively from ethical and scientific points of view, a biostatistics expert is necessary on research ethics committees. Developments in Turkey are used as examples. PMID:18375684

Atici, E; Erdemir, A D

2008-04-01

238

Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

2014-01-01

239

Individual and Institutional Liability of Researchers in the Case of Scientific Fraud: Values and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How have university institutions generally tackled the fight against scientific fraud? We intend to throw light on the very process of public disclosure of scientific fraud, as it has transformed in the last 30 years within the framework of scientific research institutions. By focusing our analysis on the "denunciation process", we intend to refer…

Baier, Eric; Dupraz, Laure

2007-01-01

240

PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

2007-12-01

241

Production of Scientific and Technical Research Databases in France.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This description of the characteristics of scientific and technical information databases in France highlights database production and distribution across scientific fields regional distribution of producers, types of data included, recency of creation of databases, and users of databases. (4 references) (CLB)

Marx, Bernard

1987-01-01

242

Research Article Evaluating Scientific Inferences about the Florida Panther  

E-print Network

of the reliability of the scientific literature used to support conservation of Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi restoration, habitat use, Puma concolor coryi, reliability, scientific inference. In 1967, the Florida panther Species Act. Although P. concolor is widespread in South America, Central America, and western North

Beier, Paul

243

Microorganisms In Industry And Environment From Scientific and Industrial Research to Consumer Products  

E-print Network

Microorganisms In Industry And Environment From Scientific and Industrial Research to Consumer analogous of Amphotericin B. Microorganisms In Industry And Environment: pp. 668-671. Methods Aggregation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

1997-01-01

245

Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

2012-12-01

246

Chronic venous leg ulcer treatment: future research needs.  

PubMed

The prevalence and costs of chronic venous ulcer care in the US are increasing. The Johns Hopkins University Evidence-Based Practice Center recently completed a systematic review of the comparative effectiveness of advanced wound dressings, antibiotics, and surgical management of chronic venous ulcers. Of 10,066 citations identified in the literature search, only 66 (0.06%) met our liberal inclusion criteria for providing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for chronic venous ulcers. Based on review of those studies, members of our team and a panel of informed stakeholders identified important research gaps and methodological deficiencies and prioritized specific future research needs. Based on that review, we provide the results of our assessment of future research needs for chronic venous ulcer care. Advanced wound dressings were considered to have the highest priority for future research, followed by venous surgery and antibiotics. An imperative from our assessment is that future research evaluating interventions for chronic venous ulcers meet quality standards. In a time of increasing cost pressure, the wound care community needs to develop high-quality evidence to justify the use of present and future therapeutic modalities. PMID:24134795

Lazarus, Gerald; Valle, M Fran; Malas, Mahmoud; Qazi, Umair; Maruthur, Nisa M; Doggett, David; Fawole, Oluwakemi A; Bass, Eric B; Zenilman, Jonathan

2014-01-01

247

Melding Research on the Navajo Volcanic Field into Undergraduate Curriculum to Promote Scientific Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation highlights the curricular design and preliminary outcomes of undergraduate research in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College (FLC), supported by an NSF-RUI project on the Navajo volcanic field (NVF). A prime impact of this project was to support the education and career development of undergraduate students by further developing basic knowledge and skills in the context of authentic inquiry on petrologic-based research topics. Integrating research into the curriculum promoted scientific habits of mind by engaging students as "active agents" in discovery, and the creative development and testing of ideas. It also gave students a sense of ownership in the scientific process and knowledge construction. The initial phase of this project was conducted in Igneous Petrology at FLC in 2010. Eleven students were enrolled in this course which allowed them to work as a team in collaboration with the PI, and engage in all aspects of research to further develop and hone their skills in scientific inquiry. This course involved a small component of traditional lecture in which selected topics were discussed to provide students with a foundation to understand magmatic processes. This was complemented by a comprehensive review of the literature in which students read and discussed a spectrum of articles on Tertiary magmatism in the western United States and the NVF. Invited lectures by leading-scientists in geology provided opportunities for discussions and interaction with professional geologists. All of the students in the class engaged in the active collection of petrologic data in the field and laboratory sessions, and were introduced to the use of state-of-the art analytical tools as part of their experiences. Four students were recruited from the course to design, develop, and conduct long-term research projects on selected petrologic topics in the NVF. This research allowed these students to engage in the "messy" process of testing existing hypotheses on NVF magmatism, and developing new ideas and interpretations. The combined outcomes of these research projects provided a collection of original data which have made important contributions to our understanding of the history of the NVF. All student projects served to fulfill a mandatory senior-thesis research project and the students were required to attend professional meetings to present their results. Dissemination of the outcomes of student research into the broader geologic community allowed the students to interact as peers in their field of study. The insight and values that these future geoscientists gained from research experiences early in their education and careers is critical to their professional development. This process infused the students with a greater understanding of science methods and activities. The integration of classroom studies with applied research has a positive impact on the scientific awareness of budding geoscientists which stand to impact the future decisions of society and communities. Data collected on student perspectives document the successful outcomes of this combined research-education project.

Gonzales, D. A.

2011-12-01

248

The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and warming water temperatures. Citizen science projects fulfill the requirements of government granting institutions for outreach and scientific communication. This presentation will highlight marine research projects, which have not only engaged citizens in the scientific process but also discuss the impacts of associated outreach, capacity building and community environmental stewardship.

Burgess, S. N.

2010-12-01

249

International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2014-10-01

250

International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions, and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations, and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2013-01-01

251

Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various scientific disciplines represented in investigations on ISS? Are there lessons specific to human research, technology development, life sciences, and physical sciences that can be used to increase future research accomplishments? Research has been conducted and completed on ISS under a set of challenging constraints during the past 7 years. The history of research accomplished on ISS during this time serves as an indicator of the value and potential of ISS when full utilization begins. By learning from our early experience in completing research on ISS, NASA and our partners can be positioned to optimize research returns as a full crew complement comes onboard, assembly is completed, and research begins in full.

Robinson, Julie A.

2007-01-01

252

Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Briggs, R.S.

1990-10-01

253

A General Guide to Writing Scientific Research Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides instructions on how to write scientific reports. Topics include why we write reports, the basic format (introduction, methods and materials, results, and discussion, or 'IMRaD'), how to state a hypothesis, how to set up tables, graphs and figures, and how to write a discussion. There are also links to additional information, including a sample report, and a list of books on scientific writing.

2010-11-19

254

4 Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities GTR-NRS-P-107 FUTURES RESEARCH  

E-print Network

of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission, natural resource scarcity, food shortages, and overpopulation (e.g., Brown 1954, Meadows et al. 1972 in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing world poses a formidable challenge to environmental planners

255

It's Theories All the Way Down: A Response to Scientific Research in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the six principles that the National Research Council's report Scientific Research in Education claims define an enterprise as scientific. I argue that these principles are relatively vacuous generalities because one cannot determine anything about any of them from outside specific theories of specific domains (and domains…

Gee, James Paul

2005-01-01

256

Exploring invisible scientific communities: Studying networking relations within an educational research community. A Finnish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on making invisiblecolleges of educational science in Finlandvisible through analysing networking relationsbetween scientific research communities. Thestudy aims at developing methods to analyse theintensity and focus of social collaborationbetween educational research groups in order tounderstand internal relations of scientificdiscipline and support scientific evaluationwith information about participation andinformal communication beyond quantity ofpublished products. Informal and formalnetworking connections of

Palonen Tuire; Lehtinen Erno

2001-01-01

257

Learning from the Mistakes of Others: A Look at Scientific Misconduct in Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the issue of scientific misconduct and its implications for training social work researchers. Analyzes cases in which violation of legal and ethical research standards have occurred. Explores implications for faculty and curriculum development, and makes recommendations for the prevention and resolution of scientific misconduct in social…

Gibelman, Margaret; Gelman, Sheldon R.

2001-01-01

258

Portable housing : an exploration into lightweight housing for remote scientific research  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes the design of portable housing for use in scientific research applications in remote locations. Currently, remote research is conducted from tents or other portable shelters. Larger, more hospitable ...

McCluskey, Keith V. (Keith Vincent), 1971-

2002-01-01

259

Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of computing into the physical world promises more than the ubiquitous availability of computing infrastructure; it suggest new paradigms of interaction inspired by constant access to information and computational capabilities. For the past decade, application-driven research on abiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes:natural interfaces, context-aware applications,andautomated capture and access. To chart a course for future research

Gregory D. Abowd; Elizabeth D. Mynatt

2000-01-01

260

Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.  

PubMed

This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years. PMID:23134766

Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

2012-12-15

261

Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

Clark-Kazak, Christina

2012-01-01

262

Recent Action-Research and future course in Water Sector.  

E-print Network

Block 380 Thakar people. 200 animals. 40 households. And an acute shortage of water for 5 monthsRecent Action-Research and future course in Water Sector. Milind Sohoni, CTARA, IIT-soil, water, energy end-user defined or demand-driven-drinking water. Towards change-deliver technology

Sohoni, Milind

263

Nutrition Education Research: Directions for the Future. [Proceedings].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Nutrition Education Research Conference was hosted by the National Dairy Council on December 4-6, 1978. Specific purposes of the conference were to: (1) examine historical foundations; (2) analyze governmental activities; (3) determine current status; and (4) identify priorities for future efforts. The conference's general sessions focused on…

Brun, Judy K., Ed.

264

Coordination and Organization Definitions, Examples and Future Research Directions  

E-print Network

CoOrg 2005 Coordination and Organization Definitions, Examples and Future Research Directions Guido Abstract Coordination languages and models like Linda and Reo have been developed in com- puter science to coordinate the interaction among components and objects, and are nowadays used to model and analyze

van der Torre, Leon

265

PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH  

E-print Network

PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH SYSTEM AND POTENTIAL PROBLEMS: LESSONS- rowing of the labor market for post-docs wishing to pursue an academic career ­ will be developed by these issues, as they were greatly ins- pired by the American model? Will their "European culture" help them

266

Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

Harding, Luke

2014-01-01

267

Research for development : a World Bank perspective on future directions for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the history of development research at the World Bank and points to new future directions in both what we research and how we research. Six main messages emerge. First, research and data have long been essential elements of the Bank's country programs and its contributions to global public goods, and this will remain the

2010-01-01

268

Reproduction of Social Class in Teacher Education: The Influence of Scientific Theories on Future Teachers' Implicit Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of a hegemonic class concept in teacher education, more specifically, the changes in the construction of implicit theories of intelligence within future teachers when they were exposed to the scientific g-factor theory of intelligence. A 2 x 2 ANOVA (first versus last semester at the teacher…

Jonsson, Anna-Carin; Beach, Dennis

2010-01-01

269

The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Prologue to the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA STI Program offers researchers an infrastructure of people and systems that facilitates access to STI; worldwide. The Program is also NASA's institutional mechanism for disseminating the results of its research and developing activities. Through discussions in 1991, the STI Program formulated its Strategic Plan. The plan gives the Program a renewed sense of direction by focusing on future opportunities, customer requirements and Program goals, along with the changes needed to achieve those goals. The Program provides users access to a massive flow of STI which, in fact, represents the largest collection of aeronautical and space science information in the world. The STI Program products and services are outlined, along with the NASA centers, international operations, and the fact that total quality management drives NASA wide program developments. As is detailed, the NASA STI Program is using its resources as effectively as possible to meet the missing needs of NASA.

1991-01-01

270

How Might Research Inform Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific literacy is now seen as an essential component of informed citizenship and a key curriculum goal in many parts of the world. The relevant literature is vast and replete with a variety of definitions, descriptions, prescriptions, slogans and theoretical perspectives. It addresses not only formal education but also fields as diverse as…

Jenkins, Edgar

2010-01-01

271

Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

1992-01-01

272

Assessing the effects of fire disturbances on ecosystems: A scientific agenda for research and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial questions and responses focusing on (1) links among fire effects, fuels, and climate; (2) fire as a large-scale disturbance; (3) fire-effects modeling structures; and (4) managerial concerns, applications, and decision support. At the present time, understanding of fire effects and the ability to extrapolate fire-effects knowledge to large spatial scales are limited, because most data have been collected at small spatial scales for specific applications. Although we clearly need more large-scale fire-effects data, it will be more expedient to concentrate efforts on improving and linking existing models that simulate fire effects in a georeferenced format while integrating empirical data as they become available. A significant component of this effort should be improved communication between modelers and managers to develop modeling tools to use in a planning context. Another component of this modeling effort should improve our ability to predict the interactions of fire and potential climatic change at very large spatial scales. The priority issues and approaches described here provide a template for fire science and fire management programs in the next decade and beyond.

Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Keane, R.E.; Lenihan, J.M.; McKenzie, D.; Weise, D.R.; Sandberg, D.V.

1999-01-01

273

66 Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities GTR-NRS-P-107 ENVIRONMENTAL FUTURES RESEARCH AT  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL FUTURES RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Robert L. Olson began to arise. How.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting since the 1970s. This paper reviews past and current The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was born in 1970 facing backwards towards the past. Its

274

Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

Witt, A.C.

2011-01-01

275

The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

Sowell, J.

1999-12-01

276

Analysis of the Actual Scientific Inquiries of Physicists I -- Focused on research motivation  

E-print Network

This study was investigated to understand the in-depth features and processes of physicists' scientific inquiries. At first, research motives were investigated by interviewing six physicists who were prominent worldwide. As a result, three main types - incompleteness, discovery, and conflict - and nine subtypes of research motivation, were identified. Six additional background factors were found which might affect the design and start of research. Based on these findings, implications for teaching scientific inquiries to students were discussed.

Jang, J P K

2005-01-01

277

Pursuing Scientific Excellence Globally: Internationalising Research as a Policy Target  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International collaboration is a rapidly growing aspect of university research and a priority of research funding agencies. This article investigates the rationales that underlie Canadian federal research councils' support of international research collaborations. Such support has deep roots in Canadian science and technology policy but has…

Lasthiotakis, Helen; Sigurdson, Kristjan; Sá, Creso M.

2013-01-01

278

Ocean Forecasting and Monitoring Products for Scientific Community: the Mercator Ocean portfolio of Services and the future European Marine Core Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercator Ocean is a French public consortium formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by the six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). The services offered by Mercator-Ocean consist in a real-time general description of the physical state of the ocean (3D currents, salinity, temperature...) in order to provide the users' community with a wide range of ocean products. Many downstream activities are served in that framework covering applications like scientific research, off-shore, ship routing, environment and security (within the GMES European program). Within the future European Marine Core Service, Mercator Ocean as project leader and its partners will propose an extended portfolio of products and services covering a large part of the scientists' needs (coastal modelling, biology, climate...). In this talk, a review of the systems operated by Mercator Ocean will be proposed. In addition, a description of the products and services made available by both Mercator Ocean and the Marine Core Service will be given with a special focus on the part dedicated to the scientific community.

Toumazou, V.; Vinay, G.; Baudel, S.; Palin, D.; Kempa, D.; Bahurel, P.

2007-12-01

279

The Status and Future of Acupuncture Mechanism Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract On November 8–9, 2007, the Society for Acupuncture Research (SAR) hosted an international conference to mark the tenth anniversary of the landmark NIH [National Institutes of Health] Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture. More than 300 acupuncture researchers, practitioners, students, funding agency personnel, and health policy analysts from 20 countries attended the SAR meeting held at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. This paper summarizes important invited lectures in the area of basic and translational acupuncture research. Specific areas include the scientific assessment of acupuncture points and meridians, the neural mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation by acupuncture, mechanisms for electroacupuncture applied to persistent inflammation and pain, basic and translational research on acupuncture in gynecologic applications, the application of functional neuroimaging to acupuncture research with specific application to carpal-tunnel syndrome and fibromyalgia, and the association of the connective tissue system to acupuncture research. In summary, mechanistic models for acupuncture effects that have been investigated experimentally have focused on the effects of acupuncture needle stimulation on the nervous system, muscles, and connective tissue. These mechanistic models are not mutually exclusive. Iterative testing, expanding, and perhaps merging of such models will potentially lead to an incremental understanding of the effects of manual and electrical stimulation of acupuncture needles that is solidly rooted in physiology. PMID:18803495

Ahn, Andrew; Longhurst, John; Lao, Lixing; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Harris, Richard; Langevin, Helene M.

2008-01-01

280

Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

2002-01-01

281

Future research on human resource management systems in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-emphasizing the need to examine human resource management (HRM) in context, this article builds around four themes. First,\\u000a it analyses the main issues discussed in the existing literature regarding HRM in the Asian context. Second, it highlights\\u000a the critical challenges facing HRM function in the region. Third, along with the analysis, it presents an agenda for future\\u000a research. Fourth, it

Pawan Budhwar; Yaw A. Debrah

2009-01-01

282

Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

Patera, A. T.

1986-01-01

283

Games as a Platform for Student Participation in Authentic Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if…

Magnussen, Rikke; Hansen, Sidse Damgaard; Planke, Tilo; Sherson, Jacob Friis

2014-01-01

284

The AAAI Fall Symposium on "Discovery Informatics: The Role of AI Research in Innovating Scientific Processes"  

E-print Network

The AAAI Fall Symposium on "Discovery Informatics: The Role of AI Research in Innovating Scientific on Discovery Informatics was held in Arlington, VA on November 2-4, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to discuss the role of AI techniques in improving or innovating scientific discovery processes. This paper

Gil, Yolanda

285

Science in the wilderness: the predicament of scientific research in India's wildlife reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecology and allied scientific disciplines aim to understand patterns and processes pertaining to wild species, their ecosystems and their relationships with humans. India¿s wildlife reserves are important `living laboratories¿ for these disciplines. Today, there is a disturbing trend across India where scientists are increasingly denied access to wildlife reserves for scientific research or are seriously impeded, without scope for redress.

M. D. Madhusudan; Kartik Shanker; Ajith Kumar; C. Mishra; A. Sinha; R. Arthur; A. Datta; M. Rangarajan

2006-01-01

286

Scientific identity’ of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research: Review and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to describe the ‘scientific identity’ of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research by reviewing and evaluating the approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. The compiled results are analysed for patterns that appear to reveal the ‘scientific identity’ of each of the selected journals. In particular, scholars can note

Göran Svensson; Sander Svaeri; Kari Einarsen

2009-01-01

287

The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Omitted Research in the Context of GMO Use and Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessmentshave become apparent. The objective of this article is to discuss the policy and practical implementation of the Precautionary Principle. A major conclusion is that the void in scientific

Anne Ingeborg Myhr; Terje Traavik

2002-01-01

288

Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation and Scientific Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation and scientific data management efforts and discuss frameworks to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and

S D Ruppert; D A Dodge; A B Elliott; M D Ganzberger; T F Hauk; E M Matzel

2005-01-01

289

Scientific Development, Research Organisation and Research Career. Swedish Research on Higher Education, 1983:6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives concerning "research about research" are summarized, based on symposia sponsored by the University of Goteborg in Sweden. It is noted that studies of science, technology, and society (STS) are prevalent in several countries during the 1970s. Based on visits to STS programs in the United States, it is suggested that there are different…

Elzinga, Aant

290

Polar Research Board annual report 1988 and future plans  

SciTech Connect

This annual reports describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, it work and plans, and its principal activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1988. The Overview presents a concise summary of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions. This summary serves as a guide to the more detailed information in the rest of the report. The second and third sections, Arctic Activities'' and Antarctic Activities,'' describes the Board's activities in each region in detail. The fourth section outlines the work of the Board's subgroups, including the Board's Strategy studies and the activities of the Board's standing committees. At the end the report are lists of those who participated in the work of the Board and its subgroups and of those who represented the United States in the activities of SCAR representing membership during 1988. There are also lists of publications by the Board, reports issued during the past year, and those in preparation. 3 figs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

291

Conclusions, reflections, and prospects for future research, policy, and programming.  

PubMed

This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the vulnerability-agency binary. The author encourages more research into how power relations, relationships, and networks shape migration decisions and suggests the need to analyze comparative experiences of families and siblings who are "left behind." Finally, the chapter draws attention to the need for mixed methodological and disciplinary approaches and greater analysis of the intersection of social age and gender issues. PMID:22689526

Clark-Kazak, Christina

2012-01-01

292

Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. In 1984, Dr Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren reported the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers in The Lancet--a discovery that earned them the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005--but what progress have we made since then? Here, we have invited three international experts to give their insights into the advances in H. pylori research over the past 30 years and where research should be focused in the future. PMID:23752823

Fock, Kwong Ming; Graham, David Y; Malfertheiner, Peter

2013-08-01

293

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2011-01-01

294

Autism research: lessons from the past and prospects for the future.  

PubMed

The paper uses both the author's experience of research training, and the empirical studies of autism in which he participated over the last 40-plus years, to derive research lessons and to consider the needs and prospects for future research. Attention is drawn to: the importance of mentors; the need to use technologies in a hypothesis-testing fashion; the important of possible creative/innovative leaps and of recognition of the unexpected; the need to ask challenging questions and to recognize when the original ideas were mistaken. There is great value in broadening the scientific strategies used to investigate a particular condition and much is to be gained by deliberately seeking parallels with other conditions. PMID:15909410

Rutter, Michael

2005-04-01

295

High Impact Atmospheric Research to Advance Scientific Understanding of  

E-print Network

: Working Group 1: The Physical Science Basis, Figure 7.20 Glaciation Effect More Precipitation Semi Plan 2012, Table 9, page 25. #12;Linking Research to Public Policy Physical Science and Public Policy and tools for the proposed project linking physical science research to public policy research. New

Delene, David J.

296

Future directions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis research. An NHLBI workshop report.  

PubMed

The median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be approximately 3 years from the time of diagnosis, underscoring the lack of effective medical therapies for this disease. In the United States alone, approximately 40,000 patients die of this disease annually. In November 2012, the NHLBI held a workshop aimed at coordinating research efforts and accelerating the development of IPF therapies. Basic, translational, and clinical researchers gathered with representatives from the NHLBI, patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to review the current state of IPF research and identify priority areas, opportunities for collaborations, and directions for future research. The workshop was organized into groups that were tasked with assessing and making recommendations to promote progress in one of the following six critical areas of research: (1) biology of alveolar epithelial injury and aberrant repair; (2) role of extracellular matrix; (3) preclinical modeling; (4) role of inflammation and immunity; (5) genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants; (6) translation of discoveries into diagnostics and therapeutics. The workshop recommendations provide a basis for directing future research and strategic planning by scientific, professional, and patient communities and the NHLBI. PMID:24160862

Blackwell, Timothy S; Tager, Andrew M; Borok, Zea; Moore, Bethany B; Schwartz, David A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Bitterman, Peter; Blackburn, Michael R; Bradford, William; Brown, Kevin K; Chapman, Harold A; Collard, Harold R; Cosgrove, Gregory P; Deterding, Robin; Doyle, Ramona; Flaherty, Kevin R; Garcia, Christine Kim; Hagood, James S; Henke, Craig A; Herzog, Erica; Hogaboam, Cory M; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; King, Talmadge E; Loyd, James E; Lawson, William E; Marsh, Clay B; Noble, Paul W; Noth, Imre; Sheppard, Dean; Olsson, Julie; Ortiz, Luis A; O'Riordan, Thomas G; Oury, Tim D; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J; Sisson, Thomas H; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Violette, Shelia M; Weaver, Timothy E; Wells, Rebecca G; White, Eric S; Kaminski, Naftali; Martinez, Fernando J; Wynn, Thomas A; Thannickal, Victor J; Eu, Jerry P

2014-01-15

297

SciDB: Open Source DMAS for Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SciDB is a DMAS (Data Management and Analytics Software System) optimized for data management of big data and for big analytics. SciDB is organized around multidimensional array storage, a generalization of relational tables, and is designed to be scalable up to petabytes and beyond. Complex analytics are simplified with SciDB because arrays and vectors are first-class objects with built-in optimized operations. Spatial operators and time-series analysis are easy to express. Interfaces to common scientific tools like R as well as programming languages like C++ and Python are provided.

SciDB Team

2013-11-01

298

Comparing FutureGrid, Amazon EC2, and Open Science Grid for Scientific Workflows  

E-print Network

study of an astronomy application. The application analyzes data from the NASA Kepler mission in order of scientific applications. It examines the benefits and drawbacks of cloud and grid systems using the case. Introduction As scientific data volumes grow, scientists will increasingly require data processing services

Deelman, Ewa

299

Accounting Research in the Cornell Quarterly: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of accounting-related articles published in the Cornell Hospitality Quarterly shows a shift from prescription to description, with an increasing use of scientific research methods. The authors found that the literature has examined the industry’s use of the Uniform System of Accounts, cost management, and management control systems, including the effects of nonfinancial measures and the balanced scorecard. Although

James W. Hesford; Gordon Potter

2010-01-01

300

The Role of Mentors in Promoting Integrity and Preventing Scientific Misconduct in Nursing Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring may contribute to prevention of scientific misconduct because it establishes an environment that promotes positive character traits and coping skills. Nurse researchers should be trained as mentors and learn to identify causes of misconduct. (SK)

Wocial, Lucia D.

1995-01-01

301

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employed to transport the animal; and a written certification...transporting and maintaining the animals and that in his opinion...the well-being of the animal; (4) If the application is for a scientific research permit, a detailed...

2012-10-01

302

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employed to transport the animal; and a written certification...transporting and maintaining the animals and that in his opinion...the well-being of the animal; (4) If the application is for a scientific research permit, a detailed...

2011-10-01

303

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employed to transport the animal; and a written certification...transporting and maintaining the animals and that in his opinion...the well-being of the animal; (4) If the application is for a scientific research permit, a detailed...

2013-10-01

304

50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employed to transport the animal; and a written certification...transporting and maintaining the animals and that in his opinion...the well-being of the animal; (4) If the application is for a scientific research permit, a detailed...

2010-10-01

305

Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Academy of Sciences committee issued this report on the use of dogs and cats from Class B dealers in NIH funded research. The Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research acknowledges the scientific need for older, genetically diverse, and behaviorally tractable dogs and cats while also calling for the elimination of Class B dealers as suppliers of these animals because of animal welfare concerns.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-05-01

306

What Makes a Scientific Research Question Worth Investigating? Students' Epistemic Criteria and Considerations of Contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation introduces the construct of worthwhileness as an important aspect of students' practical epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for evaluating scientific research questions. Elementary (n=21) and high school students (n=21) participated in this study. As part of semi-structured interviews, students engaged in three novel tasks designed to elicit the epistemic criteria they use to evaluate scientific research questions in a variety of contexts. Findings indicate that elementary and high school students alike could engage in the practice of evaluating the worth of scientific questions. The criteria they employed included degree of interest, difficulty, and the contribution of questions to knowledge or to solving a problem. The criteria students considered varied by context. Several key differences emerged between the reasoning of the two grade cohorts. High school students tended to place more weight on the contribution of the research question. Also, the criteria reflected in the high school students' judgments of the scientific value of individual questions more closely accorded with the criteria they identified retrospectively as the basis of their judgments. Furthermore, the older cohort more often rationalized the selection and sequence of research questions within a single domain on the basis of epistemic contingency between questions. How students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile constitutes a key aspect of students' epistemic reasoning. It is particularly important to understand how students judge the worthwhilness of scientific research questions given the central epistemic role of research questions in scientific inquiry.

Berson, Eric Bruckner

307

Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

Breslavets, A. V.

1974-01-01

308

Future mmVLBI Research with ALMA: A European vision  

E-print Network

Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imagin...

Tilanus, R P J; Zensus, J A; Baudry, A; Bremer, M; Falcke, H; Giovannini, G; Laing, R; van Langevelde, H J; Vlemmings, W; Abraham, Z; Afonso, J; Agudo, I; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Altamirano, D; Asadi, S; Assaf, K; Augusto, P; Baczko, A-K; Boeck, M; Boller, T; Bondi, M; Boone, F; Bourda, G; Brajsa, R; Brand, J; Britzen, S; Bujarrabal, V; Cales, S; Casadio, C; Casasola, V; Castangia, P; Cernicharo, J; Charlot, P; Chemin, L; Clenet, Y; Colomer, F; Combes, F; Cordes, J; Coriat, M; Cross, N; D'Ammando, F; Dallacasa, D; Desmurs, J-F; Eatough, R; Eckart, A; Eisenacher, D; Etoka, S; Felix, M; Fender, R; Ferreira, M; Freeland, E; Frey, S; Fromm, C; Fuhrmann, L; Gabanyi, K; Galvan-Madrid, R; Giroletti, M; Goddi, C; Gomez, J; Gourgoulhon, E; Gray, M; di Gregorio, I; Greimel, R; Grosso, N; Guirado, J; Hada, K; Hanslmeier, A; Henkel, C; Herpin, F; Hess, P; Hodgson, J; Horns, D; Humphreys, E; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Ilyushin, V; Impellizzeri, V; Ivanov, V; Julião, M; Kadler, M; Kerins, E; Klaassen, P; Klooster, K van 't; Kording, E; Kozlov, M; Kramer, M; Kreikenbohm, A; Kurtanidze, O; Lazio, J; Leite, A; Leitzinger, M; Lepine, J; Levshakov, S; Lico, R; Lindqvist, M; Liuzzo, E; Lobanov, A; Lucas, P; Mannheim, K; Marcaide, J; Markoff, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Martins, C; Masetti, N; Massardi, M; Menten, K; Messias, H; Migliari, S; Mignano, A; Miller-Jones, J; Minniti, D; Molaro, P; Molina, S; Monteiro, A; Moscadelli, L; Mueller, C; Müller, A; Muller, S; Niederhofer, F; Odert, P; Olofsson, H; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Panessa, F; Paragi, Z; Paumard, T; Pedrosa, P; Pérez-Torres, M; Perrin, G; Perucho, M; Porquet, D; Prandoni, I; Ransom, S; Reimers, D; Rejkuba, M; Rezzolla, L; Richards, A; Ros, E; Roy, A; Rushton, A; Savolainen, T; Schulz, R; Silva, M; Sivakoff, G; Soria-Ruiz, R; Soria, R; Spaans, M; Spencer, R; Stappers, B; Surcis, G; Tarchi, A; Temmer, M; Thompson, M; Torrelles, J; Truestedt, J; Tudose, V; Venturi, T; Verbiest, J; Vieira, J; Vielzeuf, P; Vincent, F; Wex, N; Wiik, K; Wiklind, T; Wilms, J; Zackrisson, E; Zechlin, H

2014-01-01

309

Documentation in Evaluation Research: Managerial and Scientific Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of documentation in the planning and control functions of project management is reviewed. The importance of documentation in the assessment of research quality with respect to objectivity, validity, and replicability is discussed. An outline of documentation required in different phases of research projects is provided. (Author/DWH)

Pollard, William E.; And Others

1985-01-01

310

The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computational researchers increasingly make their results available in a reproducible way, and often outside the traditional journal publishing mechanism, questions naturally arise with regard to copyright, subsequent use and citation, and ownership rights in general. The growing number of scientists who release their research publicly face a gap in the current licensing and copyright structure, particularly on the Internet.

Victoria Stodden

2009-01-01

311

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research

L. Rowell Huesmann

2007-01-01

312

The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research

Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

2011-01-01

313

Regulation of marine scientific research by the European community and its member states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competence of the European Community (EC) in the area of marine scientific research, since 1987 based expressly on European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty provisions, is limited to the promotion and coordination of such research in the EC member states; it may also itself conduct research. In addition, the Community is becoming increasingly active in international cooperation, thus exercising external

Alfred H. A. Soons

1992-01-01

314

Management on the basis of the best scientific data or integration of ecological research within management?  

E-print Network

1 Management on the basis of the best scientific data or integration of ecological research within management? Lessons learned from the northern spotted owl saga on the connection between research and management in conservation biology Running title: Spotted owl, Research and Management Frédéric Gosselin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Impact of research funding on nanobiotechnology scientific production: Does concentration in a few universities make sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the impact of university&funded research and collaboration on scientific production of Canadian nanobiotechnology academics. This paper analyses a time&related model of the impact of academic research financing and network structure on research output measured by the number of papers and on the number of citations received by these publications. Results suggest that individual funding and a strong

Catherine Beaudry; Sedki Allaoui

2011-01-01

316

(865) 574-6185, mccoydd@ornl.gov Advanced Scientific Computing Research  

E-print Network

The Research Alliance in Math and Science (RAMS) program is carried out through the Computing and Computational's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research. The RAMS program continues to provide unique, hands on integrating new software for the science applications which researchers run on high performance computing

Pennycook, Steve

317

Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

Sever, Thomas L.

2003-01-01

318

Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

1994-01-01

319

Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ?20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

2011-07-01

320

Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

2007-01-01

321

A Flagship System Scientific research is integral to the  

E-print Network

the many private organizations support- ing UTHSC research are the March of Dimes, the American Heart, surgical oncology, transplants, colorectal surgery and renal cell carcinoma. A Broad Spectrum of Health

Cui, Yan

322

The Impact of Research Grant Funding on Scientific Productivity*  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we estimate the impact of receiving an NIH grant on subsequent publications and citations. Our sample consists of all applications (unsuccessful as well as successful) to the NIH from 1980 to 2000 for standard research grants (R01s). Both OLS and IV estimates show that receipt of an NIH research grant (worth roughly $1.7 million) leads to only one additional publication over the next five years, which corresponds to a 7 percent increase. The limited impact of NIH grants is consistent with a model in which the market for research funding is competitive, so that the loss of an NIH grant simply causes researchers to shift to another source of funding. PMID:21857758

Jacob, Brian A.; Lefgren, Lars

2011-01-01

323

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for

D. G. Perry; J. S. Dahmann

1987-01-01

324

Anxiety symptoms in epilepsy: salient issues for future research.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the distinct symptom profile, epidemiology, pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment of anxiety disorders. It highlights emerging neuroimaging research in mood and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. While structural neuroimaging has implicated frontal temporal grey matter structures in mood and anxiety disorders, diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) show promise in elucidating white matter changes. In addition, future MRS studies may demonstrate changes in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in these regions and hopefully help inform response to treatment. PMID:21741882

Hamid, Hamada; Ettinger, Alan B; Mula, Marco

2011-09-01

325

Reconciling Scientific Curiosity and Policy Needs in Atmospheric Chemistry Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young people generally choose a career in atmospheric chemistry because they care about the environment and want to make a difference. However, in the course of graduate training this initial motivation often becomes replaced by the more standard motivation of academic scientists: to understand the world (and get credit for it). We are taught during our Ph.D. that the more fundamental the research the better to earn the respect of our peers. And yet, in environmental research where funding is dominated by societal and policy demands, most of us have no choice but to follow this funding trail. This is not simple venality. Fortunately, most atmospheric chemists want to be societally relevant, we thrive on the spotlight thrown by society on atmospheric chemistry issues, and we are thankful that societal concerns are allowing our science to grow at a fast pace. It appears that the atmospheric chemistry community resolves its conflict between policy-driven vs. fundamental research by posting policy relevance as the canon for successful research, as the endpoint of useful work. The greatest glory then comes from picking up some fundamental knowledge along the way that provides bridges to other problems, and from uncovering new environmental problems that will require attention from policymakers. Sometimes we are frustrated, as when policymakers decide that research on our favorite problem is not needed anymore because there is now policy to address it. But of course we have to remember what got our research funded in the first place, lobby as we can, and move on. I will present, rather pretentiously, a few examples from my own research.

Jacob, D. J.

2002-05-01

326

MCP Based UV Detectors, Their Evolution Through Many Astrophysics Missions and Their Future Scientific Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microchannel plate (MCP) electron imaging amplifiers were introduced in the early 1960s as an outgrowth of work on single channel continuous dynode multipliers, and have since become a mainstay of many classes of imaging system. Initially used as an element in image intensifiers, the MCPs direct sensitivity to electrons, ions, and x-rays have resulted in an enormous range of applications, from UV astronomy to electron spectroscopy. Over the past 28 years the Experimental Astrophysics Group (EAG) at the Space Sciences Laboratory have pioneered the development and use of photon counting detection devices based on MCP technology. Their use on a variety of successful space missions (e.g., SOHO, ALEXIS, ACE, ROSAT, HST-STIS, HST-COS, EUVE, CHANDRA, SAMPEX, IMAGE, FUSE, TIMED, ROSETTA, NEW HORIZONS, CHIPS and GALEX) operating from the visible to X-ray regimes for both imagery and spectroscopy has demonstrated their high reliability, low power, low weight, operation at ambient temperature, immunity to the radiation environment of space, solar blindness and high temporal and spatial resolution. Improvements in quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and large format size are ongoing and are constructive in support on a number of upcoming Explorer proposal efforts and current studies for future missions. Though our research is currently aimed at developing a new type of MCPs for space astronomy missions, this technology will also be highly useful for imaging devices for biological, particle, atmospheric and homeland security/reconnaissance systems where MCPs are currently being utilized.

Siegmund, Oswald H. W.

2011-01-01

327

Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

2005-01-01

328

Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.  

PubMed

Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. PMID:24607673

Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

2014-04-01

329

What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

2007-02-01

330

Online Mentoring to Induct Junior Researchers into Scientific Literacy Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design/methodology/approach: An…

Singh, Gurmit

2010-01-01

331

Word recognition: The interface of educational policies and scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a tremendous amount of research in educational, cognitive and developmental psychology on the nature and acquisition of reading skills, practitioners have a goldmine of evidence upon which to design effective educational programs for beginning and problem readers. This evidence is highly consistent in terms of delineating different stages of reading that young children pass through, the

Marilyn J. Adams; Maggie Bruck

1993-01-01

332

CIRES/NGDC Research Associate Geomagnetism Scientific Team Lead  

E-print Network

's global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG) Participate in calibration, validation and data analysis-doctoral researchers and students in NGDC's geomagnetism team. Requirements PhD in geophysics, planetary physics knowledge of geomagnetism and/or planetary magnetism, geophysics, data analysis, mathematical statistics

Colorado at Boulder, University of

333

Evaluation of Abilities in Interpreting Media Reports of Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores early secondary school pupils' written evaluations of media reports of contemporary science research in a classroom setting. Finds little distinction between the nature and extent of secondary pupils' responses as compared to college science students' responses, but finds notable differences between these groups' responses and those of…

Ratcliffe, Mary

1999-01-01

334

PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable

M. Christiansen; E. Sevre; S. M. Wang; D. A. Yuen; S. Liu; M. D. Lyness; M. Broten

2007-01-01

335

Department of Organismal Biology Scientific reports -research groups  

E-print Network

by analysis #12;4 of the levels of gene expression and proteins important for normal brain development, recep and Development · Physiological Botany · Systematic Biology The research at the department has a wide and development, plant develop- ment, innate immune reactions in invertebrates, and the phylogenetic framework

Uppsala Universitet

336

Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Research  

PubMed Central

Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled “Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease” on September 21–22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene–environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease. PMID:22312017

Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J.; Boucher, Richard C.; Cutting, Garry R.; Engelhardt, John F.; Guggino, William B.; Karp, Christopher L.; Knowles, Michael R.; Kolls, Jay K.; LiPuma, John J.; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

2012-01-01

337

Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, H? emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

2012-10-01

338

Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.  

PubMed

Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration. PMID:21799912

Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

2011-01-01

339

The impact of electronic media violence: scientific theory and research.  

PubMed

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer's part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the "media violence effect" is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

Huesmann, L Rowell

2007-12-01

340

THE GAUSS CENTER RESEARCH IN MULTISCALE SCIENTIFIC COMPUTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent research of the author and his collaborators on multiscale computational methods is reported, emphasizing main ideas and inter-relations betw een various fields, and listing the relevant bibliography. The reported areas include: top-efficiency multigrid metho ds in fluid dynamics; atmospheric data assimilation; PDE solvers on unbounded domains; wave\\/ray methods for highly indefinite equations; many-eigenfunction problems and ab-initio quantum chemistry;

ACHI BRANDT

1997-01-01

341

Biobanks and Research: Scientific Potential and Regulatory Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The technical possibilities of automated data analysis of DNA samples and their bioinformatic processing have developed rapidly\\u000a over the last few years and are constantly being improved. A decade after the completion of a draft human genome sequence\\u000a was announced, a whole range of possibilities for medical research has unfolded, based on a combination of health and genetic\\u000a data in

Bernice S. Elger; Nikola Biller-Andorno

342

Preventing HIV among Young People: research priorities for the future  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them. PMID:23764629

Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances

2013-01-01

343

Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.  

PubMed

Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products development. A four-phase approach was developed to stimulate needs-articulation concerning future medical products for a broad range of patient groups covering 15 disease domains. 119 (expert) patients and 92 non-patient representatives were consulted using interviews and focus groups. In a facilitated way, patients appeared capable and willing to provide input useful for an advisory process. A broad range of medical products was defined serving different purposes. This study showed two dilemmas: first, finding a balance between a predefined focus and being sufficiently broad to enable patients and patient representatives to contribute, and second, finding a balance between relevance for many patients groups and saturation of data for a lower number of patient groups. By taking the context of patients' daily life as starting point patient groups provided new insights. The predefined focus was sometimes perceived as constraining. The GR considered the articulated needs constructive and incorporated patients' input in their advice to the Minister of Health. PMID:22739128

Elberse, Janneke Elisabeth; Pittens, Carina Anna Cornelia Maria; de Cock Buning, Tjard; Broerse, Jacqueline Elisabeth Willy

2012-10-01

344

Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

2013-04-01

345

National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research  

PubMed Central

The “h index” proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569–16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities. PMID:17991781

Kinney, A. L.

2007-01-01

346

Retractions in the scientific literature: is the incidence of research fraud increasing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScientific papers are retracted for many reasons including fraud (data fabrication or falsification) or error (plagiarism, scientific mistake, ethical problems). Growing attention to fraud in the lay press suggests that the incidence of fraud is increasing.MethodsThe reasons for retracting 742 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Reasons for retraction were initially

R Grant Steen

2010-01-01

347

310 American Scientist, Volume 97 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction  

E-print Network

310 American Scientist, Volume 97 © 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Reproduction and research methodology at the London School of Economics, published a se- ries of papers in the Journal, "10 Politically Incorrect Truths About Human Nature," for Psychology Today and in a book written

Gelman, Andrew

348

Research Curriculum for Residents Based on the Structure of the Scientific Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why the research requirement of the resident curriculum should be developed around the scientific method. The method can be stated in the form of: (1) make an observation; (2) make a hypothesis; (3) test the hypothesis; and (4) reach a conclusion. When research topics are broken down under these main steps, residents can see a more…

Summers, R. L.; Woodward, L. H.; Sanders, D. Y.; Galli, R. L.

1998-01-01

349

Indigenous Health: ACTION on Prevention - 50th annual Australian Society for Medical Research National Scientific Conference.  

PubMed

The 50th annual National Scientific Conference of the Australian Society for Medical Research was held in Cairns, Queensland, 13-16 November 2011. The theme, 'Indigenous Health: ACTION on Prevention' highlighted the direct action being undertaken by health and medical researchers, as well as allied health professionals, to improve long-term health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. PMID:22985135

Yazbeck, R; Dawson, P; Rogers, N; West, C; Keogh, R; Wallace, D; Polyak, S; Nowak, K; Burt, R; Taylor, J; Dunn, L; Philp, A; Parkinson-Lawrence, E

2012-01-01

350

"Scientifically-Based Research": The Art of Politics and the Distortion of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The US Federal Government is forcefully prescribing a narrow definition of "scientifically-based" educational research. US policy, emerging from contemporary neoliberal and technocratic viewpoints and funded and propagated on a large scale, has the potential to influence international thinking on educational research. In this article we continue a…

Shaker, Paul; Ruitenberg, Claudia

2007-01-01

351

Scientific misconduct from the perspective of research coordinators: a national survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To report results from a national survey of coordinators and managers of clinical research studies in the US on their perceptions of and experiences with scientific misconduct. Methods Data were collected using the Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire?Revised. Eligible responses were received from 1645 of 5302 (31%) surveys sent to members of the Association of Clinical Research Professionals and to subscribers of Research Practitioner, published by the Center for Clinical Research Practice, between February 2004 and January 2005. Findings Overall, the perceived frequency of misconduct was low. Differences were noted between workplaces with regard to perceived pressures on investigators and research coordinators, and on the effectiveness of the regulatory environment in reducing misconduct. First?hand experience with an incident of misconduct was reported by 18% of respondents. Those with first?hand knowledge of misconduct were more likely to report working in an academic medical setting, and to report that a typical research coordinator would probably do nothing if aware that a principal investigator or research staff member was involved in an incident of misconduct. Conclusion These findings expand the knowledge on scientific misconduct by adding new information from the perspective of research coordinators. The findings provide some data supporting the influence of workplace climate on misconduct and also on the perceived effectiveness of institutional policies to reduce scientific misconduct. PMID:17526690

Pryor, Erica R; Habermann, Barbara; Broome, Marion E

2007-01-01

352

Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

2009-01-01

353

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

354

SYMPOSIUM ON NEW SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH RELATED TO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

On February 26-27th, 2004, the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development, held a two-day public symposium on recently published scientific research related to the health effec...

355

LEARNING FROM THE MISTAKES OF OTHERS: A LOOK AT SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT IN RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the issue of scientific misconduct and its implications for the training of social work researchers. An analysis is presented of an increasing body of cases in which allegations have been made and violations of legal and ethical research standards have been substantiated. Case examples illustrate that fields closely related to social work are developing their own set

Margaret Gibelman; Sheldon R. Gelman

2001-01-01

356

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.

1981-01-01

357

Evaluation of the Scientific Outputs of Researchers with Similar H Index: a Critical Approach  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: h-index has been always reviewed as one of the most useful criteria for evaluating the scientific outputs of researchers by the sciencometric experts. In this study, the h-index of 40 Iranian researchers accompanied with its relationship to assessment criteria of scientific outputs such as the number of articles, scientific age, number of citations and self-citation were reviewed. Materials and Methods: The first part of this study was related to the literature review. But the information of 40 Iranian researchers’ Citation Reports was observational extracted from WOS database and the Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to answer the research hypotheses Results: Citation analysis showed that 40 selected researchers published 877 articles in web of science up to 9 January 2013. These articles have been cited 3858 time. The average of their h-index was estimated 38.5 ±12.12 Correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant and direct relationship between the h-index and the number of papers, the number of citations and self-citation (Sig>0.05) but there was no significant relationship between scientific age and h-index (Sig> 0.05). Conclusions: Analysis of the data showed that the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the researchers with the same h-index had considerable differences. Therefore, only the h-index should not be a criterion for scientific ranking of the researchers and other complementary indexes such as M parameter and G index along with h-index must be used to be able to more accurately determine the degree of scientific influence of the researchers with the same h. PMID:25395728

Ahangar, Hemmat Gholinia; Siamian, Hasan; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

2014-01-01

358

Scientific visualization in computational aerodynamics at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visualization methods used in computational fluid dynamics research at the NASA-Ames Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation facility are examined, including postprocessing, tracking, and steering methods. The visualization requirements of the facility's three-dimensional graphical workstation are outlined and the types hardware and software used to meet these requirements are discussed. The main features of the facility's current and next-generation workstations are listed. Emphasis is given to postprocessing techniques, such as dynamic interactive viewing on the workstation and recording and playback on videodisk, tape, and 16-mm film. Postprocessing software packages are described, including a three-dimensional plotter, a surface modeler, a graphical animation system, a flow analysis software toolkit, and a real-time interactive particle-tracer.

Bancroft, Gordon V.; Plessel, Todd; Merritt, Fergus; Walatka, Pamela P.; Watson, Val

1989-01-01

359

eCAT: Online electronic lab notebook for scientific research  

PubMed Central

Background eCAT is an electronic lab notebook (ELN) developed by Axiope Limited. It is the first online ELN, the first ELN to be developed in close collaboration with lab scientists, and the first ELN to be targeted at researchers in non-commercial institutions. eCAT was developed in response to feedback from users of a predecessor product. By late 2006 the basic concept had been clarified: a highly scalable web-based collaboration tool that possessed the basic capabilities of commercial ELNs, i.e. a permissions system, controlled sharing, an audit trail, electronic signature and search, and a front end that looked like the electronic counterpart to a paper notebook. Results During the development of the beta version feedback was incorporated from many groups including the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital Boston, Alex Swarbrick's lab at the Garvan Institute in Sydney and Martin Spitaler at Imperial College. More than 100 individuals and groups worldwide then participated in the beta testing between September 2008 and June 2009. The generally positive response is reflected in the following quote about how one lab is making use of eCAT: "Everyone uses it as an electronic notebook, so they can compile the diverse collections of data that we generate as biologists, such as images and spreadsheets. We use to it to take minutes of meetings. We also use it to manage our common stocks of antibodies, plasmids and so on. Finally, perhaps the most important feature for us is the ability to link records, reagents and experiments." Conclusion By developing eCAT in close collaboration with lab scientists, Axiope has come up with a practical and easy-to-use product that meets the need of scientists to manage, store and share data online. eCAT is already being perceived as a product that labs can continue to use as their data management and sharing grows in scale and complexity. PMID:20334629

2009-01-01

360

Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

2009-12-01

361

ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 10, Number 2, April to June 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a quarterly publication presenting articles covering recent developments in Far Eastern (particularly Japanese) scientific research. It is hoped that these reports (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) will prove to be of val...

M. L. Moore, N. A. Bond

1985-01-01

362

Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

2014-02-01

363

Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research  

PubMed Central

Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

Coller, Barry S.

2011-01-01

364

Principles of scientific research team formation and evolution  

PubMed Central

Research teams are the fundamental social unit of science, and yet there is currently no model that describes their basic property: size. In most fields, teams have grown significantly in recent decades. We show that this is partly due to the change in the character of team size distribution. We explain these changes with a comprehensive yet straightforward model of how teams of different sizes emerge and grow. This model accurately reproduces the evolution of empirical team size distribution over the period of 50 y. The modeling reveals that there are two modes of knowledge production. The first and more fundamental mode employs relatively small, “core” teams. Core teams form by a Poisson process and produce a Poisson distribution of team sizes in which larger teams are exceedingly rare. The second mode employs “extended” teams, which started as core teams, but subsequently accumulated new members proportional to the past productivity of their members. Given time, this mode gives rise to a power-law tail of large teams (10–1,000 members), which features in many fields today. Based on this model, we construct an analytical functional form that allows the contribution of different modes of authorship to be determined directly from the data and is applicable to any field. The model also offers a solid foundation for studying other social aspects of science, such as productivity and collaboration. PMID:24591626

Milojevic, Stasa

2014-01-01

365

Plant root research: the past, the present and the future  

PubMed Central

This special issue is dedicated to root biologists past and present who have been exploring all aspects of root structure and function with an extensive publication record going over 100 years. The content of the Special Issue on Root Biology covers a wide scale of contributions, spanning interactions of roots with microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the anatomy of root cells and tissues, the subcellular components of root cells, and aspects of metal accumulation and stresses on root function and structure. We have organized the papers into three topic categories: (1) root ecology, interactions with microbes, root architecture and the rhizosphere; (2) experimental root biology, root structure and physiology; and (3) applications of new technology to study root biology. Finally, we will speculate on root research for the future. PMID:22966495

Lux, Alexander; Rost, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

366

Developing human capital for successful implementation of international marine scientific research projects.  

PubMed

The oceans play a crucial role in the global environment and the sustainability of human populations, because of their involvement in climate regulation and provision of living and non-living resources to humans. Maintenance of healthy oceans in an era of increasing human pressure requires a high-level understanding of the processes occurring in the marine environment and the impacts of anthropogenic activities. Effective protection and sustainable resource management must be based, in part, on knowledge derived from successful research. Current marine research activities are being limited by a need for high-quality researchers capable of addressing critical issues in broad multidisciplinary research activities. This is particularly true for developing countries which will require the building of capacity for marine scientific research. This paper reviews the current activities aimed at increasing marine research capacity in developing and emerging countries and analyses the challenges faced, including: appropriate alignment of the research goals and societal and policy-relevant needs; training in multidisciplinary research; increasing capacity for overall synthesis of scientific data; building the capacity of technical staff; keeping highly qualified personnel in marine scientific research roles; cross-cultural issues in training; minimising duplication in training activities; improving linkages among human capital, project resources and infrastructure. Potential solutions to these challenges are provided, along with some priorities for action aimed at improving the overall research effort. PMID:24055460

Morrison, R J; Zhang, J; Urban, E R; Hall, J; Ittekkot, V; Avril, B; Hu, L; Hong, G H; Kidwai, S; Lange, C B; Lobanov, V; Machiwa, J; San Diego-McGlone, M L; Oguz, T; Plumley, F G; Yeemin, T; Zhu, W; Zuo, F

2013-12-15

367

The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research

Bekerman, Fabiana

2013-01-01

368

Scientific Research Database of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 5 years after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake stroke 70km away along the same fault system. Given the tremendous life loss and property damages as well as the short time and distance intervals between the two large magnitude events, the scientific probing into their causing factors and future seismic activities in the nearby region will continue to be in the center of earthquake research in China and even the world for years to come. In the past five years, scientists have made significant efforts to study the Wenchuan earthquake from various aspects using different datasets and methods. Their studies cover a variety of topics including seismogenic environment, earthquake precursors, rupture process, co-seismic phenomenon, hazard relief, reservoir induced seismicity and more. These studies have been published in numerous journals in Chinese, English and many other languages. In addition, 54 books regarding to this earthquake have been published. The extremely diversified nature of all publications makes it very difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible, to sort out information needed by individual researcher in an efficient way. An information platform that collects relevant scientific information and makes them accessible in various ways can be very handy. With this mission in mind, the Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology has developed a website www.wceq.org to attack this target: (1) articles published by major journals and books are recorded into a database. Researchers will be able to find articles by topics, journals, publication dates, authors and keywords e.t.c by a few clicks; (2) to fast track the latest developments, researchers can also follow upon updates in the current month, last 90days, 180 days and 365 days by clicking on corresponding links; (3) the modern communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter and their Chinese counterparts are accommodated in this site to share favorite research information with friends; (4) This site also serves as a bridge between readers and authors by providing messaging boards in many forms; (5) we also track relevant meeting presentations, ongoing researches as well as earthquake-related news; (6) furthermore, we also collect publications of earthquakes in the eastern Tibetan plateau and selected ones from other regions for comparison purpose. After nearly one year of operation, the database has been growing steadily with time and the major functionalities have been well developed and stabilized. Up to August 6 2013, totally 847 papers have been collected in our database. Among them 673, 21 and 153 papers are of Wenchuan, Lushan and Tohoko earthquake in interest, respectively. For the Wenchuan earthquake articles, nearly 10%, 20%, 25%,15%, 15% are of studies in seismogenic environment, precursors, rupture process, hazard relief and aftershocks & coseismic events, respectively. Built upon the ever growing database, the next move would be to do more analysis. One ongoing project would be to collect figures from articles that are of special interest to people in the field. A parallel project will also start to extend the database to include Tibetan Plateau studies.

Liang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.

2013-12-01

369

The future is yours--Get ready! Career options in scientific and technical fields. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This 50 page brochure was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory to encourage high school students to begin considering careers in the scientific and technical fields. The topics of the brochure include career selection, career options, a review of training required for each occupation, a collection of profiles of BNL employees describing how they chose and prepared for their careers, a description of BNL educational programs for high school students, and profiles of some of the students participating in these programs.

Not Available

1992-10-01

370

Scientific Production of Research Fellows at the Zagreb University School of Medicine, Croatia  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate scientific production among research fellows employed at the Zagreb University School of Medicine and identify factors associated with their scientific output. Method We conducted a survey among research fellows and their mentors during June 2005. The main outcome measure was publication success, defined for each fellow as publishing at least 0.5 articles per employment year in journals indexed in the Current Contents bibliographic database. Bivariate methods and binary logistic regression were used in data analysis. Results A total of 117 fellows (response rate 95%) and 83 mentors (100%) were surveyed. The highest scientific production was recorded among research fellows employed in public health departments (median 3.0 articles, interquartile range 4.0), compared with those from pre-clinical (median 0.0, interquartile range 2.0) and clinical departments (median 1.0, interquartile range 2.0) (Kruskal-Wallis, P?=?0.003). A total of 36 (29%) research fellows published at least 0.5 articles per employment year and were considered successful. Three variables were associated with fellows’ publication success: mentor’s scientific production (odds ratio [OR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.53), positive mentor’s assessment (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.10-9.05), and fellows’ undergraduate publication in journals indexed in the Current Contents bibliographic database (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.07-15.34). Conclusion Undergraduate publication could be used as one of the main criteria in selecting research fellows. One of the crucial factors in a fellow’s scientific production and career advancement is mentor’s input, which is why research fellows would benefit most from working with scientifically productive mentors. PMID:17042070

Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana; Buneta, Zoran; Cikes, Nada; Pecina, Marko

2006-01-01

371

Linking organ donors and the medical\\/scientific research community: a US perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Institute for the Advancement of Medicine (IIAM) provides non-transplantable organs and tissues for medical\\u000a and scientific research, education, and drug & device development. The benefits of using human organs and tissues for research\\u000a are vast, and donating for research provides donor families with a valuable option if their loved one’s organs are unsuitable\\u000a for transplantation. The use of

Dolores Baldasare

2011-01-01

372

Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Results/Conclusions Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, A. J.; Huete, A.; Keller, S.; Levetin, E.; Luvall, J.; Meyers, O.; Stylinski, C. D.; VandeWater, P.K.; Vukovic, A.

2013-01-01

373

Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Huete, Alfredo; Keller, Stephen; Levetin, Estelle; Luvall, Jeffrey; Meyers, Orrin; Stylinski, Cathlyn D.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Vukovic, Ana

2013-01-01

374

Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 29. Current and Future Utilization of Scientific and Technical Personnel in Energy-Related Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This National Science Foundation (NSF) bulletin summarizes the NSF program of energy manpower studies that assessed the impact of past energy developments and future options for scientific and technical manpower. This document summarizes the utilization of scientific personnel in energy-related activities in private industry in 1975 and shortages…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

375

Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders.  

PubMed

In this study, Barber's [(1961). Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134, 596-602] analysis of scientists' resistance to discoveries is examined in relation to an 18-year controversy between the dominant cognitive-behavioral paradigm or zeitgeist and its chief rival - eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in treating trauma-related disorders. Reasons for persistent opposition to training, utilization and research into an identified 'evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder' (EBT-PTSD) within US military and veterans' agencies closely parallels Barber's description of resistance based upon socio-cultural factors and scientific bias versus genuine scientific skepticism. The implications of sustained resistance to EMDR for combat veterans and other trauma sufferers are discussed. A unified or super-ordinate goal is offered to reverse negative trends impacting current and future mental healthcare of military personnel, veterans and other trauma survivors, and to bridge the scientific impasse. PMID:18950925

Russell, Mark C

2008-12-01

376

Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs  

SciTech Connect

In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

2011-03-29

377

Conflicts of Interest in Scientific Research Related to Regulation or Litigation  

PubMed Central

This article examines conflicts of interest in the context of scientific research related to regulation or litigation. The article defines conflicts of interest, considers how conflicts of interest can impact research, and discusses different strategies for dealing with conflicts of interest. While it is not realistic to expect that scientific research related to regulation or litigation will ever be free from conflicts of interest, society should consider taking some practical steps to minimize the impact of these conflicts, such as requiring full disclosure of information required for independent evaluation of research, prohibiting financial relationships between regulatory agencies and the companies they regulate, and banning payments to expert witnesses for specific research results, testimony or legal outcomes. PMID:19554198

Resnik, David B.

2009-01-01

378

Swiss scientific balloon and sounding rocket experiments and related research in 1999-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swiss have a long tradition in research activities on scientific balloons and sounding rockets, as well as in related research. The research fields covered are electrodynamics, trace gas chemistry and composition of the middle atmosphere, astrophysics (Sun, stars, interstellar matter) and life science (cell biology). In addition, the research in remote sensing in the microwave region from airplanes, ground and satellites is an important contributions to the understanding of the atmosphere and the Earth boundary layer. All Swiss activities are either in the frame of ESA programs or based on bilateral agreements with national research institutions, agencies and universities in different European countries.

Cogoli-Greuter, Marianne

2001-08-01

379

Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

2014-05-01

380

Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

Taylor, Jacqui

2012-01-01

381

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis\\u000a of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting\\u000a aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field\\u000a of molecular biology. The story of SARS

Siu Ling Wong; Jenny Kwan; Derek Hodson; Benny Hin Wai Yung

2009-01-01

382

Comparing different scientific approaches to personalized medicine: research ethics and privacy protection  

PubMed Central

In this article, two different scientific approaches to personalized medicine are compared. Biorepository at Vanderbilt University (BioVU) is a genomic biorepository at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA. Genetic biosamples are collected from leftover clinical blood samples; medical information is derived from an electronic medical records. Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine is a research resource at the University of Greifswald, Germany, comprised of clinical records combined with biosamples collected for research. We demonstrate that although both approaches are based on the collection of clinical data and biosamples, different legal milieus present in the USA and Germany as well as slight differences in scientific goals have led to different ‘ethical designs’. While BioVU can successfully operate with an ‘opt-out’ mechanism, an informed consent-based ‘opt-in’ model is indispensable to allow GANI_MED to reach its scientific goals. PMID:21892358

Langanke, Martin; Brothers, Kyle B; Erdmann, Pia; Weinert, Jakob; Krafczyk-Korth, Janina; Dörr, Marcus; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Heyo K; Assel, Heinrich

2011-01-01

383

Comparing different scientific approaches to personalized medicine: research ethics and privacy protection.  

PubMed

In this article, two different scientific approaches to personalized medicine are compared. Biorepository at Vanderbilt University (BioVU) is a genomic biorepository at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA. Genetic biosamples are collected from leftover clinical blood samples; medical information is derived from an electronic medical records. Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine is a research resource at the University of Greifswald, Germany, comprised of clinical records combined with biosamples collected for research. We demonstrate that although both approaches are based on the collection of clinical data and biosamples, different legal milieus present in the USA and Germany as well as slight differences in scientific goals have led to different 'ethical designs'. While BioVU can successfully operate with an 'opt-out' mechanism, an informed consent-based 'opt-in' model is indispensable to allow GANI_MED to reach its scientific goals. PMID:21892358

Langanke, Martin; Brothers, Kyle B; Erdmann, Pia; Weinert, Jakob; Krafczyk-Korth, Janina; Dörr, Marcus; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Heyo K; Assel, Heinrich

2011-07-01

384

Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice  

PubMed Central

Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that attend to the complexity of this process. Key Points Despite research regarding has showed students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, it remains somewhat equivocal. The studies included in this review show students’ improvements on skill, knowledge and tactical development, as we as game play, during the participation in Sport Education units. Some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies exposed superior learning opportunities to girls and lower skill-level students. The effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units can explain these equivocal results. Future research is encouraged to consider the implementation of protocols for student-coaches’ preparation, hybrid models, a retention test, the interaction of gender and skill level, and use research designs that attend to the complexity of the teaching-learning process.

Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

2014-01-01

385

Scientific Needs for Future X-Ray Sources in the U.S.: A White Paper  

SciTech Connect

Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects (Figure 1.1). The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons, and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.

Falcone , Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Robert Hettel, Zahid Hussain; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Fernando Sannibale, John Seeman; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Robert; Zholents, Alexander; /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

2008-10-22

386

Scientific Needs for Future X-ray Sources in the U.S. -- A White Paper  

SciTech Connect

Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving heath, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons and spins, x rays have proved especially valuable.

Falcone, Roger; Stohr, Joachim; Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Galayda, John; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z.-X.; Schoenlein, Bob; Zholents, Alexander

2008-10-16

387

A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Abstract Health game research has flourished over the last decade. The number of peer-reviewed scientific publications has surged as the clinical application of health games has diversified. In response to this growth, several past literature reviews have assessed the effectiveness of health games in specific clinical subdomains. The past literature reviews, however, have not provided a general scope of health games independent of clinical context. The present systematic review identified 149 publications. All sources were published before 2011 in a peer-reviewed venue. To be included in this review, publications were required (1) to be an original research, (2) to focus on health, (3) to utilize a sound research design, (4) to report quantitative health outcomes, and (5) to target healthcare receivers. Initial findings showed certain trends in health game publications: Focus on younger male demographics, relatively low number of study participants, increased number of controlled trials, short duration of intervention periods, short duration and frequency of user–game interaction, dominance of exercise and rehab games, lack of underlying theoretical frameworks, and concentration on clinical contexts such as physical activity and nutrition. The review concludes that future research should (1) widen the demographics to include females and elderly, (2) increase the number of participants in controlled trials, (3) lengthen both the intervention period and user–game interaction duration, and (4) expand the application of health games in new clinical contexts. PMID:24416638

Lu, Amy Shirong; Gharghabi, Fardad; Coleman, Whitney

2012-01-01

388

Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.  

PubMed

Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. PMID:23963919

Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

2013-11-01

389

Scientific and Ethical Reflections on Academic Corruption in Universities: On the Science Research Evaluation System in China's Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the science research activities in China's institutions of higher learning in recent years indicates that there is a major connection between the current instances of corruption in scientific research at colleges and universities and the evaluations system for scientific research implemented at many of the colleges and universities.…

Xiaochun, Wu; Dan, Jia

2007-01-01

390

How Research Physicists and High-School Physics Teachers Deal with the Scientific Explanation of a Physical Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need to integrate the segregated perspective underlying research on scientific conceptions. Insights from scientists can provide information about the essential components of ideal knowledge. The purpose of this study was to investigate how researchers and teachers deal with scientific explanation. Three research physicists and five…

Edgington, Judith R.; Barufaldi, James P.

391

Collagen cross-linkage: a comprehensive review and directions for future research.  

PubMed

Individuals with keratoconus form a significant proportion of patients for a practitioner specialising in corneal diseases. Yet it is a disease where the pathogenesis is poorly understood, and until recently, there has been no treatment apart from transplantation that could be offered that was curative or even capable of slowing the progression of the disease. Collagen cross-linking treatment using riboflavin and UV light has been developed to address this need, and the initial results are promising. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate this treatment in light of the scientific basis for cross-linking, to highlight the strengths and limitations of the evidence in terms of efficacy and long-term safety, and finally to identify areas for future research in this area with a significant potential to change the way we treat our keratoconus patients. In addition, we hope that our unbiased review for the first time would bring together, in a concise fashion, scientific information for a practitioner contemplating on offering this treatment and to help inform their patients of its potential risks and benefits. PMID:19666925

Ashwin, P T; McDonnell, P J

2010-08-01

392

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1986. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Techncial Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1987-01-01

393

The Benefits of Sustained Silent Reading: Scientific Research and Common Sense Converge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers and administrators are caught between opposing forces in education. Often, they're forced into compliance with scientifically based reading research (SBRR) requiring methods and materials that run counter to their own beliefs. Or, teachers are forced to eliminate reading methods that their own experience has shown to be effective.…

Garan, Elaine M.; DeVoogd, Glenn

2008-01-01

394

www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America Scientific research can provide important and timely  

E-print Network

306 www.frontiersinecology.org © The Ecological Society of America Scientific research can provide of science knowledge in environmental policy making and environmental management, as well as to encourage serves as a convener. SCIENCE, COMMUNICATION, AND CONTROVERSIES The role of interface organizations

Gold, Art

395

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Fuzzy Assessment of Land Suitability for Scientific Research Reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the characteristics of a set of sites as potential scientific research reserves is an example of land suitability assessment. Suitability in this case is based upon multiple criteria, many of which can be linguistically imprecise and often incompatible. Fuzzy logic is a useful method for characterizing imprecise suitability criteria and for combining criteria into an overall suitability rating. The

DAVID M. STOMS; JENNIFER M. MCDONALD; FRANK W. DAVIS

2002-01-01

396

Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

Caruthers, Bill J.

2009-01-01

397

Political Intervention in Scientific Peer Review: Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) rescinded funding for a survey of adolescent health risk-taking behavior. The decision overturned a series of scientific and ethical peer and administrative reviews of the research, which had been chosen in a competitive evaluation of proposals to advance knowledge about the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other diseases.

William Gardner; Brian L. Wilcox

1993-01-01

398

June 14-16 2004: NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop Meeting Dates June 14-16 2004 Meeting Site One Bethesda Metro Center Bethesda, Maryland 20814 This workshop addressed the biology and the methods of pre-clinical cancer detection.

399

The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

2004-01-01

400

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1984 is compiled. Approximately 1650 citations are included comprising formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.

1985-01-01

401

Statutory sex crime relationships between juveniles and adults: A review of social scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the social scientific literature about non-forcible, voluntary sexual relationships between adults and juveniles, what we have termed “statutory sex crime relationships” or “statutory relationships.” In the available literature, the topic is poorly defined and the research weak, but there are clearly a diverse variety of contexts and dynamics to such relationships. We detail a wide-ranging set of

Denise A. Hines; David Finkelhor

2007-01-01

402

[Eating disorders: state of the art research and future challenges].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are a common mental disorder during adolescence and young adulthood. While prevalence rates of eating disorders dramatically increased during the second half of the last century, these rates have remained relatively stable over the last 20 years. According to ICD-10 eating disorders are diagnostically categorized as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and atypical eating disorders or eating disorders not otherwise specified. Concerning the etiology, genetic factors are involved, especially in anorexia nervosa, as well as psychological and sociocultural factors. Evidence-based recommendations are available for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and in this context cognitive behavioral therapy is seen as the first choice. In contrast, the state of knowledge concerning the treatment of anorexia nervosa is still limited, especially concerning effective treatments for adults. Recent data only provide evidence for the effectiveness of family therapy for adolescents. Due to the lack of high quality studies, research on therapy for anorexia nervosa is a future challenge. PMID:23104604

Voderholzer, U; Cuntz, U; Schlegl, S

2012-11-01

403

Future research directions for the Great Waters program  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Report to Congress contained Section 112(m), requiring the assessment of the deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay and coastal waters. This program, called the Great Waters program, is required to have a report to Congress in 3 years and every 2 years thereafter. The first Report to Congress is to be released this spring. With the completion of the first Great Waters report and the ensuing discussions within the EPA, it is now appropriate to assess the future needs and direction of the program. One knows where one stands in terms of the state of the knowledge, and what kinds of efforts are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of atmospheric deposition of toxics to aquatic ecosystems. Given that the problem is a vastly complex one, and that research in this area is extremely expensive, the EPA must now determine where efforts are best spent to collect the most important information to meet the mandate of Section 112(m) of the Clean Air Act. The EPA is working on a program strategy to target those most-effective efforts. This paper will describe the strategy and the rationale for its design.

McCullough, M.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

404

Killing Me Softly--Future Challenges in Apoptosis Research  

PubMed Central

The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. In this review we focus on three aspects of apoptosis research which we believe are the most crucial and most exciting areas currently investigated and that will need to be better understood in order to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic measures. First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. Second, the complexity of combination therapy is elucidated using the PI3-K-mediated signaling network as a specific example. Here we show that the current clinical approach to sensitize malignancies to apoptosis by maximal, prolonged inhibition of so-called survival pathways can actually be counter productive. Third, we propose that under certain conditions which will need to be clearly defined in future, chronification of a tumor might be preferable to the attempt at a cure. Finally, we discuss further problems with utilizing apoptosis induction in cancer therapy and propose a novel potential therapeutic approach that combines the previously discussed features. PMID:24595238

Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Bruhl, Oliver; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

2014-01-01

405

Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction  

PubMed Central

The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

Chandrasekar, Raman

2013-01-01

406

Future Research Directions for Understanding Neighborhood Contributions to Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes several promising future directions for neighborhood research to address health inequalities. First, there is a need to apply a Geography of Opportunity framework to understand how vast spatial (neighborhood, regional) inequality translates into health inequality. Such a framework highlights inequality that unfolds across an entire region, as well as the continuing significance of race/ethnicity for producing disparities in health and in the social determinants of health. The Geography of Opportunity framework also points to some of the methodological limitations of current neighborhood health studies, given the structure of neighborhood racial inequality in the US for estimating how important neighborhoods are for producing racial health disparities. Second, there is a need to incorporate life course concepts, data, and methods, including to model residential histories, neighborhood temporal change and residential mobility, starting early in life. A life course focus would help inform when in life neighborhoods matter most for health and health inequalities, as well as improve exposure assessment of residential contexts. Third, we must model mechanisms linking neighborhoods and health, including the role of individual and household socioeconomic status (SES). Lastly, we need to more meaningfully integrate social determinants of health, including drawing on policy evaluations that aim to improve neighborhood environments or that aim to expand household neighborhood choice. Doing so would inform how specific modifiable neighborhood exposures stimulated by policy may influence health and health disparities. PMID:23660539

Osypuk, Theresa L.

2013-01-01

407

CABS: Green Energy for Our Nation's Future (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

SciTech Connect

'CABS: Green Energy for our Nation's Future' was submitted by the Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CABS, an EFRC directed by Jan Jaworski at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (lead), Michigan State University, the University of Nebraska, New Mexico Consortium/LANL, and Washington State University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

Jan Jaworski (Director, Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems) [Director, Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems; Sayre, Richard T. (previous Director) [previous Director; CABS Staff

2011-05-01

408

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

SAMIOS, N.P.

2005-10-10

409

In preparation for future and extreme situations: Orientations for affirmed conjectural research on social and ecological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last three decades, under pressure of concern about global change, studies about possible futures of social and ecological systems have rapidly developed. Some of them have reached an impressive level of ambition and impact on policy debates. However, only a limited number of research fields have yet embarked on such studies, whereas many more should become involved. Development of such research is also limited by the fact that it is still considered almost exclusively as a matter of collective assessment, at the interface between academia and policy making, rather as the fundamental scientific endeavour it is really. To push further, a number of stumbling blocks have still to be overcome until the conjectural nature of any research about future events and processes is fully accepted and scientists widen their repertoire of approaches for the study of possible futures. Such a study is necessary to prepare both for long-term transformations of the environment and for extreme events: beyond some significant differences, both domains share the fundamental traits that make the study of futures such a peculiar and challenging endeavour. In this effort, the resources provided by the futures studies field could be more thoroughly mobilized.

Mermet, Laurent

2008-09-01

410

14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes to animal research in 2014  

E-print Network

14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes to animal research in 2014 A report by Ipsos MORI for the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills John;14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 2 � 2014 Ipsos MORI � all rights

Napp, Nils

411

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several different stages of community-based participatory research, including research design, data interpretation, and publication, and makes some suggestions for practice and policy. To manage potential conflicts between scientific and community interests, investigators and community partners should enter into written agreements at the beginning of the study. In some cases, it may be necessary for a third party, such as a review committee from a supporting institution, the community, or a funding agency, to help investigators and community partners resolve disagreements. It may also be useful, in some situations, to publish a dissenting opinion when investigators and community partners cannot agree on how to interpret findings resulting from a study. These strategies may help address some of the challenges of implementing community-based participatory research. PMID:20597018

Resnik, David B.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

2011-01-01

412

The role of data\\/code archives in the future of economic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines the role of data and program?code archives in making economic research ‘replicable.’ Replication of published results is recognized as an essential part of the scientific method. Yet, historically, both the ‘demand for’ and ‘supply of’ replicable results in economics has been minimal. ‘Respect for the scientific method’ is not sufficient to motivate either economists or editors of

Richard G. Anderson; William H. Greene; B. D. McCullough; H. D. Vinod

2008-01-01

413

Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by fires, floods, and vegetation and soil removal that can result in rapid local degradation of permafrost by thermokarst or thermo-erosion involving both vertical and lateral thaw. Though local in nature, disturbance processes are widespread in permafrost regions and their occurrence and magnitude are likely to increase with climate warming in the Arctic. Permafrost research is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary, involving geophysicists, hydrologists, terrestrial and aquatic ecologists, geochemists, geologists, engineers, modelers, and sociologists. During IPY, large, integrated projects such as the TSP, Carbon Pools in Permafrost (CAPP), and Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network (ACCO-Net) have sought to better understand permafrost and the impacts of its degradation at high latitudes. Despite our accumulating knowledge of changing permafrost conditions during Quaternary climate cycles, the extensive presence of thermokarst in northern regions, and the large carbon pools in permafrost that can feedback to climate change, future permafrost dynamics and its impacts remain poorly quantified on the panarctic scale. To make progress, disciplines must team together to understand the patterns, processes, and consequences of permafrost thaw to the earth system.

Romanovsky, V. E.; Grosse, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

2010-12-01

414

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

2007-01-01

415

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of the most

Robert J. Gatchel; Yuan Bo Peng; Madelon L. Peters; Perry N. Fuchs; Dennis C. Turk

2007-01-01

416

Violence and Reproductive Health: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Despite the scope of violence against women and its importance for reproductive health, very few scientific data about the relationship between violence and reproductive health issues are available. Methods: The current knowledge base for several issues specific to violence and reproductive health, including association of violence with pregnancy, pregnancy intention, contraception use, pregnancy terminations, and pregnancy outcomes, are reviewed

Julie A. Gazmararian; Ruth Petersen; Alison M. Spitz; Mary M. Goodwin; Linda E. Saltzman; James S. Marks

2000-01-01

417

Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress Due to Interdisciplinary Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Special Issue on "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress due to Interdisciplinary Research" reports a number of findings resulting from a collaborative effort run from 2006 until 2013, in the framework of the DFG Priority Program 1257 "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System". Contributions have been arranged along five lines, i.e. (1) improvements in geodesy: satellite mass monitoring through gravimetry and altimetry, (2) applications in large-scale hydrology, (3) applications in solid Earth research, (4) applications in cryospheric research, (5) applications in ocean sciences.

Kusche, Jürgen; Klemann, Volker; Sneeuw, Nico

2014-11-01

418

From comparative effectiveness research to patient-centered outcomes research: policy history and future directions.  

PubMed

Containing growth in health care expenditures is considered to be essential to improving both the long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and the future affordability of health care in the US. As health care expenditures have increased, so too have concerns about the quality of health care. Better information on the clinical effectiveness of alternative treatments and other interventions is needed to improve the quality of care and restrain growth in expenditures. This article explains the key role played by the federal government in defining the context and process of comparative effectiveness research as well as its funding. Subsequently, the article explores the mission, priorities, and research agenda of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, which is an independent, nonprofit corporation established in 2010 by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. PMID:22746239

D'Arcy, Laura P; Rich, Eugene C

2012-07-01

419

What Makes a Good Research Question? 1. A good scientific question is one that can be answered through  

E-print Network

What Makes a Good Research Question? 1. A good scientific question is one that can be answered through scientific research. · "Is Stone Creek polluted?"This is a good question because you can predict's polluted. · "Why is quicksand so dangerous?"This is not a good question.There is no way to observe it

420

Lab Coats or Trench Coats? Detective Sleuthing as an Alternative to Scientifically Based Research in Indigenous Educational Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amidst late 19th-century efforts to emphasize modern medicine's transition to a more scientific approach, physicians seeking to represent themselves as scientists began wearing white laboratory coats. Today educational researchers are likewise urged to don metaphorical white coats as scientifically based research is held up as the cure-all…

Kaomea, Julie

2013-01-01

421

Multilevel Interventions in Health Care: Building the Foundation for Future Research - About  

Cancer.gov

Access articles online or order a free, printed copy of the May 2012 cross-disciplinary publication that aims to expand the scientific base of multilevel intervention research and improve health care and cancer outcomes for individuals.

422

Sexual Violence and HIV Transmission: Summary Proceedings of a Scientific Research Planning Meeting  

PubMed Central

This summarizes proceedings of a Scientific Research Planning Meeting on Sexual Violence and HIV transmission, convened by the Social Science Research Council on 19–20 March 2012 at the Greentree Foundation in New York. The Meeting brought together an interdisciplinary group of basic, clinical, epidemiological and social science researchers and policy makers with the aim of: (1) examining what is known about the physiology of sexual violence and its role in HIV transmission, acquisition and pathogenesis; (2) specifying factors that distinguish risks throughout the maturation of the female genital tract, the reproductive cycle and among post-menopausal women; and (3) developing a research agenda to explore unanswered questions. The Meeting resulted in a consensus Research Agenda and White Paper that identify priorities for HIV research, policy and practice as it pertains to the role of sexual violence and genital injury in HIV transmission, acquisition and pathogenesis, particularly among women and girls. PMID:23157400

Klot, Jennifer F.; Auerbach, Judith D.; Berry, Miranda R.

2013-01-01

423

UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

Johnson, Charles W.

2014-01-01

424

Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is designed to relate some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at NCAR dealing with the 'data problem'. A brief history and a development of some basic Mass Storage System (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. There is discussion of future MSS needs for future computing environments.

Olear, Bernard T.

1992-01-01

425

Research activities and UK public libraries: past imperfect, future tense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates current research activities in public library services. Draws from interviews with 20 chief librarians. Findings reinforce earlier perceptions and data about research activities in the sector. Analysis explores factors such as research purpose, role of corporate strategy, limitations imposed by lack of suitably trained staff, support and funding. Presents evidence that research activity and method is largely confined to

Deborah Goodall

1998-01-01

426

Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists\\u000a has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily\\u000a life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and\\u000a land transportation can be

I. Gultepe; R. Tardif; S. C. Michaelides; J. Cermak; A. Bott; J. Bendix; M. D. Müller; M. Pagowski; B. Hansen; G. Ellrod; W. Jacobs; G. Toth; S. G. Cober

427

Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists\\u000a has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily\\u000a life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and\\u000a land transportation can be

I. Gultepe; R. Tardif; S. C. Michaelides; J. Cermak; A. Bott; J. Bendix; M. D. Müller; M. Pagowski; B. Hansen; G. Ellrod; W. Jacobs; G. Toth; S. G. Cober

2007-01-01

428

Cooperative group research endeavors in small-cell lung cancer: current and future directions.  

PubMed

The International Lung Cancer Congress (ILCC), now in its ninth year, is a key forum for representatives of cooperative groups in North America, Europe, and Japan to discuss ongoing and planned clinical trials in lung cancer. Many of the significant strides in lung cancer treatment often originate from investigations designed within the cooperative group system and were a feature of the 2008 ILCC. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents 15% of all lung cancers diagnosed annually and is characterized by rapid growth kinetics, disseminated metastases, and development of chemotherapy resistance. Many questions remain regarding the optimal use of radiation therapy and approaches for enhancing the effects of chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. Herein, we explore and outline the scientific vision of each cooperative group's SCLC research portfolio, as presented at the 2008 ILCC. Highlights include an ongoing Intergroup phase III study exploring differing radiation therapy schemes for limited-stage SCLC and a Southwest Oncology Group 0124 trial establishing platinum/etoposide as the standard of care for untreated extensive-stage SCLC in North America. Continued research efforts sponsored by these groups will represent the future of SCLC diagnosis and management. PMID:19808190

Sangha, Randeep; Lara, Primo N; Adjei, Alex A; Baas, Paul; Choy, Hak; Gaspar, Laurie E; Goss, Glenwood; Saijo, Nagahiro; Schiller, Joan H; Vokes, Everett E; Gandara, David R

2009-09-01

429

The Impact of the Next Generation Science Standards on Future Professional Development and Astronomy Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Science Standards will have a profound impact on the future science education of students and professional development for teachers. The science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas laid out in the Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2011) will change the focus and methods of how we prepare teachers to meet these new standards. Extending beyond just the use of inquiry in the classroom, teachers will need support designing and implementing integrated experiences for students that require them to apply knowledge of content and practices. Integrating the three dimensions central to the new standards will pose curricular challenges and create opportunities for innovative space science projects and instruction. The science research and technology community will have an important role in supporting authentic classroom practices as well as training and support of teachers in these new ways of presenting science and technology. These changes will require a new focus for teacher professional development and new ways to research impacts of teacher training and changes in classroom practice. In addition, new and innovative tools will be needed to assess mastery of students’ knowledge of practices and the ways teachers effectively help students achieve these new goals. The astronomy education community has much to offer as K-12 and undergraduate level science educators rethink and redefine what it means to be scientifically literate and figure out how to truly measure the success of these new ways of teaching science.

Buxner, Sanlyn

2013-06-01

430

Animal Research.Info: The global resource for scientific evidence in Animal research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides reliable information from scientists worldwide about the contribution of animal research to medical advances. Includes a timeline of medical science, a list of diseases and research, nobel prizes, articles, and lectures.

Animal Research.Info (Animal Research.Info)

2013-12-01

431

Scientific positivism and the controversy over research into lesbian and gay parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in developmental psychology have concluded that no significant differences exist between children raised by lesbians\\u000a and gay men and those raised by heterosexuals. Although these scientific studies have attracted criticism, scrutiny has shown\\u000a that they are actually epistemologically sounder than the body of knowledge that the critics themselves have developed in\\u000a order to mount their case against lesbian and

Aleardo Zanghellini

2007-01-01

432

Polish Polar Research as a medium of international scientific communication 1996-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidisciplinary journal Polish Polar Research is bibliometrically ana? lysed as a medium of international scientific communication in light of current citation data from SCI Ex 1996-2002. Despite its world?wide distribution and distinctive visibility in the polar society, the journal's two?years impact factor is invariably not very high (below 0.35) because the cited papers are mostly from the 1980s. The

Grzegorz RACKI

2002-01-01

433

Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research

Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

2011-01-01

434

Scientific institutions and effective governance: a case study of Chinese stem cell research  

PubMed Central

In terms of stem cell research, China appears both as a “powerhouse” armed with state-of-the-art facilities, internationally trained personnel and permissive regulation and as a “bit player,” with its capability for conducting high quality research still in question. The gap between China’s assiduous endeavors and the observed outcome is due to a number of factors. Based on interviews with 48 key stakeholders active in Chinese stem cell research, this article examines how the structure of scientific institutions has affected effective governance in China. It is demonstrated that despite China’s recent efforts to attract highly competent researchers and to launch new regulatory initiatives, the effects of these attempts have been diminished by an absence of middle-layer positions within research teams and by the uncoordinated administrative structures among regulatory bodies. PMID:24143127

Zhang, Joy Yueyue

2013-01-01

435

Cognitive Research in GIScience: Recent Achievements and Future Prospects  

E-print Network

and external symbolic structures and processes, and is practically motivated by the desire to improve, researchers are studying the role of emotion in cognition, as well. Cognitive research incorporates several

Montello, Daniel R.

436

Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

2008-09-01

437

Perceived Value of Research Preparation Opportunities for Future Music Education Professors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to describe research leaders' perceptions of the relative importance of various research preparation opportunities for future music education professors. The 122 questionnaire respondents answered 38 Likert-type and open-ended content questions that asked about research experiences, research skills, research

Rohwer, Debbie; Svec, Christina

2014-01-01

438

Research on fission induced plasmas and nuclear pumped lasers at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of research on gaseous uranium and uranium plasmas is being conducted at The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the proof of principle of a gaseous uranium fueled reactor, and (2) pursue fundamental research on nuclear pumped lasers. The relevancy of the two parallel programs is embodied in the possibility of a high-performance uranium plasma reactor being used as the power supply for a nuclear pumped laser system. The accomplishments in the two above fields are summarized

Helmick, H. H.

1979-01-01

439

Leaders, leadership and future primary care clinical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. METHODS: Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. RESULTS: Primary care research has benefited from a small

John Furler; Jennifer Cleland; Chris Del Mar; Barbara Hanratty; Umesh Kadam; Daniel Lasserson; Colin McCowan; Parker Magin; Caroline Mitchell; Nadeem Qureshi; Greta Rait; Nick Steel; Mieke van Driel; Alison Ward

2008-01-01

440

Selecting Research Topics: Personal Experiences and Speculations For the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rapidly changing field of information systems, every researcher faces important choices about what research topics to explore and how to pursue that research. This paper addresses these questions by summarizing a panel discussion at the 2001 Decision Sciences Institute (DSI) annual meeting. The first part of this paper provides a framework explaining factors that can be used in

Steven Alter; Alan R. Dennis

2002-01-01

441

Past Endeavors and Future Perspectives for Sport Management Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the bulk of research in sport management would primarily stem from masters' and doctoral studies, quality research by sport management scholars is now published regularly in some of the best journals the profession can offer. This research is original and exclusive to the field, however, its findings are not systematically organized. There is a need to put in order

Daniel Soucie; Alison Doherty

1996-01-01

442

Portland State University Graduate School of Education Research unit Futures Project: Preparing Special Educators to Use  

E-print Network

Portland State University Graduate School of Education Research unit Futures Project: Preparing Special Educators to Use Evidence-Based Practices to Support Desirable Futures for Students: falcor@pdx.edu Purpose: The Futures Project prepares 60 highly qualified special educators at the master

443

Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Future of Cable TV Section. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This group of four papers considers the future of the cable television industry, and in particular, examines the impact of recent court and regulatory decisions in this field. The papers presented are: (1) "The First Amendment, Cable TV, and the Must-Carry Rule: Moving towards a Cost-Benefit Analysis" (John R. Woodbury, Federal Trade Commission);…

Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

444

Institute for scientific computing research;fiscal year 1999 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale scientific computation, and all of the disciplines that support it and help to validate it, have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The Laboratory operates the computer with the highest peak performance in the world and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Computers at the architectural extremes, however, are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Even such successes as the Laboratory's two Bell Prizes awarded in November 1999 only emphasize the need for much better ways of interacting with the results of large-scale simulations. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to the core missions of the Laboratory than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, the Laboratory must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In FY 1999, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) has expanded the Laboratory's bridge to the academic community in the form of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, a workshop, and a very active seminar series. ISCR research participants are integrated almost seamlessly with the Laboratory's Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC), which, in turn, addresses computational challenges arising throughout the Laboratory. Administratively, the ISCR flourishes under the Laboratory's University Relations Program (URP). Together with the other four Institutes of the URP, it must navigate a course that allows the Laboratory to benefit from academic exchanges while preserving national security. Although FY 1999 brought more than its share of challenges to the operation of an academic-like research enterprise within the context of a national security laboratory, the results declare the challenges well met and well worth the continued effort. A change of administration for the ISCR occurred during FY 1999. Acting Director John Fitzgerald retired from LLNL in August after 35 years of service, including the last two at helm of the ISCR. David Keyes, who has been a regular visitor in conjunction with ASCI scalable algorithms research since October 1997, overlapped with John for three months and serves half-time as the new Acting Director.

Keyes, D

2000-03-28

445

Preparing undergraduates for the future of scientific collaboration: Benefits, challenges and technological solutions in Distributed REU Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As research problems increasingly require multi-disciplinary approaches they naturally foster scientific collaborations between geographically distributed colleagues. This increasing trend in scientific research, the rapid evolution of communication technology, cognitive research into distance education, and the current generation of undergraduate students' eagerness to embrace and use technology, increases the relevance of distributed REU sites. Like traditional REU sites that host a cohort of students in one geographic location, distributed REU sites also seek to attract, nurture, and retain students in a STEM career pipeline. Distributed REU sites are unique in that some or all of the interns are geographically distributed during the research period. This arrangement allows the REU site to capitalize on distributed scientific resources such as field sites, research facilities, or human capital. At their core, distributed REU sites are fundamentally constructed of elements that have proven to be effective components of any undergraduate research experience. They also strive to develop and employ specialized programming that leverages collaboration tools through a cyberinfrastructure to enable interns to develop meaningful social and academic relationships with one another. Since 2006 the IRIS Consortium and NEES have facilitated separate, NSF funded, distributed REU Sites. Implementation and evaluations of these programs have revealed a number of successes and benefits. Longitudinal tracking indicates that distributed REU Sites are at least as successful as traditional sites in attracting, nurturing, and retaining students in a STEM career pipeline. A distributed arrangement also offers benefits over a traditional REU site, such as the flexibility to place interns at a variety of institutions with mentors making only an annual commitment to participate. This ensures that all mentors are eager to participate and are concerned with their intern's growth. It also exposes all interns to a larger spectrum of research topics and approaches within a field than would be available within a single research site. Evaluations also reveal that fostering social and academic interactions among interns working on generally unrelated projects at separate locations is challenging and requires a consistent, focused effort by the program. In part this is because creating a cohort experience in this situation requires a layer of interaction beyond the networks naturally establish by the interns when co-located. A critical first step is to establish a social presence among the group. This occurs through early face-to-face meetings and then is carried forward as interns transition to virtual interactions. These virtual interactions occur through a variety of technological solutions. Both commercially and freely available technologies such as blogging software, Facebook, an online course management system, virtual worlds, and a variety of online conferencing applications are used to connect the students both synchronously and asynchronously. We have documented the strengths and weaknesses of these individual solutions and show how combinations, combined with programmatic interventions, can offer a suite of functionality necessary to facilitate both social and academic interactions and influence career paths.

Hubenthal, M.; Anagnos, T.

2012-12-01

446

Scientific rewards and conflicts of ethical choices in human subjects research.  

PubMed

The primary responsibility of the American Psychological Association's (APA) Committee on Standards in Research (CSR) is to advise the APA on issues and standards related to the protection of human participants in psychological research. A related goal is to enhance the use of good ethical practices by APA members. The purpose of this article is to foster the view of research ethics not as an affront to the integrity of sound research, but as opportunities for scientific rewards, including increased understanding of the meaning of data, enhanced recruitment, and the inclusion of more representative samples. Three ethical practices are discussed as examples of this general premise: respect for confidentiality, use of debriefing, and assurance that participants are noncoerced volunteers. The Committee's intent is to promote consideration of these issues, not to promulgate specific guidelines or procedures. PMID:1497218

Blanck, P D; Bellack, A S; Rosnow, R L; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Schooler, N R

1992-07-01

447

An Overview of the Future Development of Climate and Earth System Models for Scientific and Policy Use (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of climate and earth system models has been regarded primarily as the making of scientific tools to study the complex nature of the Earth’s climate. These models have a long history starting with very simple physical models based on fundamental physics in the 1960s and over time they have become much more complex with atmospheric, ocean, sea ice, land/vegetation, biogeochemical, glacial and ecological components. The policy use aspects of these models did not start in the 1960s and 1970s as decision making tools but were used to answer fundamental scientific questions such as what happens when the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration increases or is doubled. They gave insights into the various interactions and were extensively compared with observations. It was realized that models of the earlier time periods could only give first order answers to many of the fundamental policy questions. As societal concerns about climate change rose, the policy questions of anthropogenic climate change became better defined; they were mostly concerned with the climate impacts of increasing greenhouse gases, aerosols, and land cover change. In the late 1980s, the United Nations set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to perform assessments of the published literature. Thus, the development of climate and Earth system models became intimately linked to the need to not only improve our scientific understanding but also answering fundamental policy questions. In order to meet this challenge, the models became more complex and realistic so that they could address these policy oriented science questions such as rising sea level. The presentation will discuss the past and future development of global climate and earth system models for science and policy purposes. Also to be discussed is their interactions with economic integrated assessment models, regional and specialized models such as river transport or ecological components. As an example of one development pathway, the NSF/Department of Energy supported Community Climate System and Earth System Models will be featured in the presentation. Computational challenges will also part of the discussion.

Washington, W. M.

2010-12-01

448

The Future of Research Methods in Africana Studies Graduate Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the state of research methods in Africana studies. In addition, the role that courses on research methods\\u000a play in Africana Studies departments is also explored. Content analysis of departmental course offerings and descriptions\\u000a reveal that half of graduate level degrees granting Africana Studies programs offer departmental courses on research methods.\\u000a Moreover, the majority of the programs that

Serie Mcdougal

449

[Research proposals submitted to the Dutch Investigative Medicine Fund; evaluation of the scientific quality by the Council for Scientific Research (NWO)].  

PubMed

The Council for Medical and Health Research (MW-NWO) assessed the scientific quality of research proposals submitted to the Dutch Investigative Medicine Fund, and analysed if there had been changes over time in the proportion of proposals which the MW-NWO advised to reject, the role of reports of external reviewers and the most important methodological flaws. In the period 1995-1999 'reject' had been advised for an average of 50% of the proposals, with a tendency to a smaller proportion in recent years. In nearly half of the proposals the judgements of external reviewers were not in agreement with each other. There was only a weak correlation between the judgements of the reviewers and the final advice of NWO. Among the most important flaws mentioned in the NWO advice were: efficacy not proven (a prerequisite for the Fund), proposed study not needed to solve the policy problem and methodological flaws, e.g. design and power calculation not adequate, deficiencies of inclusion and exclusion criteria. PMID:11198965

Hoeksema, H L; Klasen, E C

2001-01-01

450

Can We Escape the Program? Inventing Possible-Impossible Futures in/for Australian Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay brings together two lines of inquiry. Firstly, I revisit research on futures in education conducted during the 1980s and re-examine some of the propositions and principles that this research generated about "the future" as an object of inquiry in education. Secondly, I argue that the language of complexity invites us to rethink…

Gough, Noel

2010-01-01

451

Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

Miller, Kelly E.

2014-01-01

452

The fluid dynamics of river dunes: A review and some future research directions  

E-print Network

The fluid dynamics of river dunes: A review and some future research directions Jim Best Earth, and deposition within many rivers. Progress in understanding the fluid dynamics associated with alluvial dunes morphology. Citation: Best, J. (2005), The fluid dynamics of river dunes: A review and some future research