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1

The Future of Endothelin Research: Scientific Mentoring and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone was one of the key discoveries in physiology in the 1980s, including the characterization of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors such as endothelin. Young investigators, often while starting research as part of their PhD degree, have been instrumental in carrying out the work that led some of the most important discoveries in the endothelin field. This article reviews the importance of mentoring for research in general and for endothelin research in particular, including examples of outstanding young investigators that have been instrumental in some of the key discoveries in the endothelin field. Recognizing scientific excellence among young investigators has a long tradition in the history of the International Conferences on Endothelin. Winners of “Young Investigator Awards” of the past five endothelin conferences (ET-8, ET-9, ET-10, ET-11, and ET-12) are presented, as well as recipients of the “ET-12 Best Presentation Awards” established on the occasion of the Twelfth International Conference on Endothelin ET-12 in Cambridge in September 2011.

Barton, Matthias; Pollock, David M.

2013-01-01

2

Replicative nature of Indian research, essence of scientific temper, and future of scientific progress.  

PubMed

A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no.Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed. PMID:22815607

Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

2004-01-01

3

The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding. PMID:15114283

Gilbert, David M

2004-05-01

4

The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the

David M. Gilbert

5

Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

Strawn, George O.

2012-01-01

6

Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.  

PubMed

The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market. PMID:10173136

Emilien, G

1997-01-01

7

Future ISON development from points of view of scientific and applied researches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International scientific optical network (ISON) project achieved all initially formulated goals. ISON is the world-wide system providing periodical monitoring of space objects in GEO region across the globe. New level of quality of GEO research is achieved. For the first time our knowledge of true GEO population of objects brighter than 15.5m is almost complete. ISON provides the discovering and tracking of faint deep space debris. Large amount of data on long time intervals is obtained for few hundred fragments including ones having high area-to-mass ratio. About 1115000 measurements in 120000 tracks are collected and processed at KIAM database in 2009 that allowed to maintain the orbits of 1467 GEO objects including 892 spacecraft, 250 upper stages and AKMs and 325 fragments and objects of undetermined type. ISON administrative, software and engineering groups are formed to support current project activities. 20 new telescopes were produced as a part of this work. At the same time ISON is involved into new scientific and applied projects which are formulating new tasks and needing further ISON development. Part of ISON is involved into Roscosmos project aimed on search and prediction of possible collisions between operational spacecraft and other space objects. Therefore it is required that periodicity of object monitoring and measurement precision would be improved. It is necessary to involve new observatories to minimize the weather dependence as well as dedicated telescopes to provide additional tracking of potentially dangerous objects. The goal of HEO object population studying requires development of dedicated telescopes with wider field of view for monitoring of larger areas of the sky. KIAM, as the ISON project leader, is responsible also for development of the new model of the small object population (in first turn for high orbits) that requires involvement of additional large aperture telescopes to verify the model. In addition, dedicated ISON subsystem for asteroid research is under development. The paper will describe actions scheduled to improve ISON performances. In particular, the work on elaboration of remote control telescope and fully robotic telescope are carried out. These telescopes will be installed in the places where there is a lack of qualified observers. Possibility of involving of existing 1-m class telescopes is discussed. This work is partially supported with RBFR 09-01-00566 and 09-01-13540 grants.

Molotov, Igor; Agapov, Vladimir; Akim, Efraim

8

Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute.

Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

2013-01-01

9

Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.  

PubMed

Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

2013-08-01

10

Scientific Institutions of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of a 1971 American Academy for the Advancement of Science symposium, this volume considers the future of scientific institutions with 11 articles on the social relations of science, the dynamics of institutional change, and the institutional system of science. (RH)

Ritterbush, Philip C., Ed.

11

Scientifically Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most principals are aware that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 makes it mandatory for school leaders who depend on federal funding to select and implement programs that are based on scientific research. This publication reviews five documents that offer insights into what is meant by scientifically based research and help school leaders…

Beghetto, Ron

2003-01-01

12

Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.  

PubMed

New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

2014-06-01

13

Attrition and related trends in scientific rigor: A score card for ART adherence intervention research and recommendations for future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific rigor in intervention trials is frequently used in systems that identify effective interventions for dissemination.\\u000a In these systems, and in work that synthesizes bodies of research, percent attrition is often considered a fatal threat to\\u000a validity. However, differential attrition, versus percent total, is of primary concern. Key methodologic, design, and analytic\\u000a issues pertaining to scientific rigor in longitudinal designs

K. Rivet Amico; Jennifer J. Harman; Megan A. O’Grady

2008-01-01

14

The Future of Scientific Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computing technologies are undergoing a dramatic transition. Multicore chips with up to eight cores are now available from many vendors. This trend will continue, with the number of cores on a chip continuing to increase. In fact, many-core chips, e.g., NVIDIA GPUs, are now being seriously explored in many areas of scientific computing. This technology shift presents a challenge for computational science and engineering--the only significant performance increases in the future will be through the increased exploitation of parallelism. At the same time, petascale computers based on these technologies are being deployed at sites across the world. The opportunities arising from petascale computing are enormous--predicting the behavior of complex biological systems, understanding the production of heavy elements in supernovae, designing catalysts at the atomic level, predicting changes in the earth's climate and ecosystems, and designing complex engineered systems. But, petascale computers are very complex systems, built from multi-core and many-core chips with 100,000s to millions of cores, 100s of terabytes to petabytes of memory, and 10,000s of disk drives. The architecture of petascale computers has significant implications for the design of the next generation of science and engineering applications. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the directions in computing technologies as well as describe the petascale computing systems being deployed in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Dunning, Thom

2012-02-01

15

The Future of University Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of the research-related activities of universities in countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is examined. Additionally, the extent to which the universities are affected by the demands placed upon them, and implications of the situation for the future well-being of the scientific

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

16

[The future of scientific libraries].  

PubMed

"Making predictions is always very difficult, especially about the future". Niels Bohr's quote is very appropriate when looking into the future of libraries. If the Web is now the richest library in the world, it is also the most friendly and therefore the most convenient. The evolution of libraries in the coming years - both traditional and online - will probably depend on their ability to meet the information needs of users: improved ease of use and better reliability of the information. These are objectives that require money and - given the general reduction in budgets - it is not obvious that the results will be achieved. However, there are many promising experiences at the international level that show that the world of libraries is populated by projects and creativity. Traditional or digital, libraries will increasingly present themselves more as a sharing tool than as a repository of information: it is the sharing that translates data into knowledge. In the healthcare field, the integration of online libraries with the epidemiological information systems could favor the fulfillment of unconscious information needs of health personnel; libraries will therefore be a key tool for an integrated answer to the challenge of continuing education in medicine. The Internet is no longer a library but an information ecosystem where the data are transformed into knowledge by sharing and discussion. PMID:24326701

De Fiore, Luca

2013-10-01

17

Sr and O Geochemistry of ANDRILL AND-2A Biogenic Carbonates. Scientific Outcomes; Current and Future Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr isotope studies carried out on macrofossils recovered at several depths from the ANDRILL (ANtarctic DRILLing Program) core AND-2A, in Southern McMurdo Sound, have thus far contributed to the core’s age model, paleoenvironmental interpretation and diagenetic history. Although a complete Sr isotope stratigraphic analysis was prevented by the paucity of suitable material, the remarkable preservation of several calcite macrofossil specimens was exploited to help refine the age model for the core. Furthermore, the ?18O compositions of these well-preserved shells confirmed a climate transition between the late Early Miocene and the early Late Miocene. Ages obtained from Sr-isotopic compositions of aragonite specimens were spurious and prompted further research to resolve this discrepancy. Sr-isotopic compositions of highly modified pore water from the AND-2A core were found to be in disequilibrium with the analyzed carbonates at all stratigraphic levels. In spite of the apparently pristine mineralogy of the fossil fragments and the uncertainties associated with the probable alteration mechanism, Sr and O isotope results suggest that differential diagenesis affected the core’s shell material at many stratigraphic intervals. Interstitial fluids Sr-isotopic values for the upper core turned out to be uncharacteristically high relative to seawater. This is intriguing given the large proportion of volcanic material present in AND-2A, which is highly reactive and has low Sr-isotopic compositions. High Sr-isotopic values are also uncharacteristic of pore water in general. Sr-isotopic compositions for the whole-rock and carbonate components in the sections of core in contact with this high 87Sr/86Sr fluids have been measured and are now being assessed. These results will contribute to understand pore water origin and behavior, which is in turn relevant to the recent glacial history of Southern McMurdo Sound. The variety and significance of the results, and just as important, the questions generated by AND-2A Sr and O geochemistry suggest that detailed research of the kind have much to contribute in studies of other Antarctic cores from which sedimentary material is already available, and also in future drilling campaigns.

Marcano, M. C.; Mukasa, S. B.; Lohmann, K. C.

2010-12-01

18

Early societies popularize scientific research.  

PubMed

Private scientific societies, popular in the eighteenth century, supported and encouraged research on such devices as the electrostatic generator and the Leyden jar, paving the way for later electrophysiological research. PMID:6358812

Hackmann, W D

1983-01-01

19

Exploring XP for Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we successfully apply XP (Extreme Programming) in a scientific research context? A pilot project at the NASA Langley Research Center tested XPs applicability in this context. Since the cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view, eight of XPs 12 practices seemed incompatible with the existing research culture. Despite initial awkwardness, the authors determined

William A. Wood; William L. Kleb

2003-01-01

20

The Economic and Scientific Future of Forensic Psychological Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The young field of forensic psychological assessment shows great promise. Its future is threatened, however, by economic forces in the legal system that may inhibit the development and use of applied research to strengthen its scientific base. In this article, these forces are explained by (a) describing the domain of clinical psychologists who perform assessments for courts, (b) reviewing current

Thomas Grisso

1987-01-01

21

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 1999 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... 1999 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 1999 This ...

22

Tunisian women in scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of Tunisian women conducting scientific research is comparable to that of countries where educating girls has been going on much longer. Although women play an increasingly important role in the field of research, they rarely hold positions of responsibility. Enormous similarities exist between the degree of integration of Tunisian women in science and technology and that of developed countries. Since independence and the removal of discrimination between girls and boys, Tunisian women have been catching up very quickly.

Jaziri, Sihem

2013-03-01

23

Scientific ballooning: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Cosmic rays were discovered 100 years ago with an experiment flown on a manned balloon. A major change in balloon design occurred in 1950 with the introduction of the socalled natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for the past half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. Ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights enabled by constant-volume balloons should result in an even greater sea change in scientific ballooning than the inauguration of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights in Antarctica during the 1990-91 austral summer.

Jones, W. Vernon

2013-02-01

24

Present and future of scientific bird ringing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999 scientific bird ringing will celebrate its first century of existence. Started mainly to investigate bird movements, bird ringing has become a much more flexible method to study different aspects of bird biology. Bird ringing can only be properly organised if an effective international co-operation exists. In Europe, this co-ordination is ensured by EURING, made of 35 national ringing centres; sister organisations exist in other parts of the world (like Africa, Australia, U.S. and Canada), sharing the same aims and problems. This RTD is mainly targeted to ornithologists involved with the co-ordination of bird ringing stations and national centres world-wide. Common aspects of the organisation of ringing activities, as well as of the potential ringing has and will have in the future in addressing major scientific questions in Ornithology will be taken into account. The advisability of setting up a standing committee on bird ringing within the IOC will be discussed, and the project of creating a world-wide organisation of ringing schemes in order to further improve communication and exchange of experiences will also be addressed. This new organisation would be formally founded in 1999, when an international conference organised by EURING to celebrate the first 100 years of bird ringing will be held in Denmark.

Spina, F.; Tautin, J.

1998-01-01

25

Scientific Methods for Prevention Intervention Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction: Scientific Methods for Prevention Intervention Research; Prevention Intervention Research: Focus and Perspective; Testing Theory through Developmental Epidemiologically Based Prevention Research; Hypothesis Formulation and Testing ...

A. Cazares L. A. Beatty

1994-01-01

26

Future of Interoperability (IR) Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation provides a forum for discussion about the work presented by the Interoperability (IR) focus area and the future of interoperability research. Of particular interest will be the direction IR research should take in future years

Cate, Karen; Allen, Bonnie Danette

2011-01-01

27

Scientific Literacy and Support of Scientific Research. Draft Copy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is concerned with determining student attitudes towards the support of scientific research. It is divided into three major topics. The first section briefly summarizes recent concern in the scientific community over public attitudes toward science. Section two reviews public opinion data on attitudes towards science, and three…

Noe, Michael J.

28

CIRS: International Center for Scientific Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Center for Scientific Research created this website to provide the public across the globe with access to scientific information. Users can learn about the latest news in physics, astronomy, geology, and other scientific fields. The site features links to researchers and scientific organizations in 222 countries. Visitors can search for links by topic and name. The site features information on the latest awards given to top scientists. Users can also find out about the countless science journals and books.

29

Essay: the future of scientific publishing.  

PubMed

How can the scientific publishing enterprise deal with the increasing specialization of individual physicists? The possible aids include virtual journals, the new APS journal Physics, and the possibility of artificial intelligence programs. PMID:19518927

Sandweiss, Jack

2009-05-15

30

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Årup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

31

Current Scientific Progress and Future Scientific Prospects Enabled by Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First, we examine current scientific progress and understanding that have been possible through use of spaceborne precipitation radar measurements being provided by the TRMM and CloudSat satellites. Second, we look across a future 20-year time frame to assess how and why anticipated improvements in space radar systems will further advance scientific progress into topic areas once considered beyond the realm of space-based remote sensing. JAXA's 13.8 GHz Ku-band cross-track scanning Precipitation Radar (PR) developed for flight on NASA's non-sun-synchronous, diurnally-precessing TRMM satellite, was the first Earth radar flown in space that was designed specifically for precipitation measurement. Its proven accuracy in measuring global rainfall in the tropics and sub-tropics and its unanticipated longevity in continuing these measurements beyond a full decade have established the standards against which all follow-up and future space radars will be evaluated. In regards to the current PR measurement time series, we will discuss a selection of major scientific discoveries and impacts which have set the stage for future radar measuring systems. In fact, the 2nd contemporary space radar applicable for terrestrial precipitation measurement, i.e., JPL-CSA's 94 GHz nadir-staring Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) flown on NASA's sun-synchronous CloudSat satellite, although designed primarily for measurement of non-precipitating cloud hydrometeors and aerosols, has also unquestionably advanced precipitation measurement because CPR's higher frequency and greatly increased sensitivity (approximately 30 dBZ) has enabled global observations of light rain rate spectrum processes (i.e., rain rates below 0.05 mm per hourand of precipitation processes in the high troposphere (particularly ice phase processes). These processes are beyond reach of the TRMM radar because the PR sensitivity limit is approximately 17 dBZ which means its lower rain rate cutoff is around 0.3 mm per hour and its vertical profiling acuity is greatly limited above the melting layer. Thus, the newer CPR measurements have become important for a variety of scientific reasons that will be highlighted and assessed. In considering scientific progress likely to stem from future precipitation radar systems, we will specifically examine possible scientific impacts from three anticipated missions for which NASA and various of its space agency partners are expected to lead the way. These three missions are: (1) the nearterm Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission; (2) the decadal timeline Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (ACE) Mission; and the post-decadal timeline NEXRAD in Space (NIS) Mission. The observational capabilities of the planned radar systems for each of these three satellite missions are distinct from each other and each provides progressive improvements in precipitation measuring and scientific research capabilities relative to where we are now -- insofar as TRMM PR and the CloudSat CPR capabilities. The potential innovations in scientific research will be discussed in a framework of likely synergisms between next-generation radar capabilities and accessible dynamical and microphysical properties that have heretofore evaded detection.

Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Yang, Song

2008-01-01

32

Future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ''South'', is limited in contrast to the countries in the ''North''. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range...

K. P. Broadbent R. Lafond

1990-01-01

33

Museum Education Research: Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six museum education and learning researchers discuss the need to study how people learn and behave in museums and what kind of current research studies should be undertaken. Mary Ellen Munley, in "Back to the Future: A Call for Coordinated Research Programs in Museums," describes the differences between the terms "evaluation,""audience research,"…

Journal of Museum Education: Roundtable Reports, 1986

1986-01-01

34

Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploration has always played a vital role within NASA, in spite of current perceptions that today it is adrift as a consequence of the resource challenges associated with construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). On the basis of the significance of human spaceflight within NASA's overall mission, periodic evaluation of its strategic position has been conducted by various groups, most recently exemplified by the recent Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise Strategic Plan. While such reports paint one potential future pathway, they are necessarily constrained by the ground rules and assumptions under which they are developed. An alternate approach, involving a small team of individuals selected as "brainstormers," has been ongoing within NASA for the past two years in an effort to capture a vision of a long-term future for human spaceflight not limited by nearer-term "point design" solutions. This paper describes the guiding principles and concepts developed by this team. It is not intended to represent an implementation plan, but rather one perspective on what could result as human beings extend their range of experience in spaceflight beyond today's beach-head of Low-Earth Orbit (LEO).

Garvin, James

2002-01-01

35

Seabed rock drilling: previous scientific results and future applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of remotely-operated seabed rock drills have been developed that allow short cores to be drilled in hard seafloor substrates, using a conventional research vessel rather than a specialist drill ship. Such tools offer an alternative mode of ocean drilling which complements that conducted using JOIDES Resolution and Chikyu, and offer enormous potential scientific opportunities if employed as mission-specific platform operations under the IODP/post-IODP umbrella. Seabed drills have the potential to penetrate 1-100m below seafloor and have previously been operated in water depths in excess of 5000m. They are ideal for exploring horizontal variability (in the x-y dimension) and perfectly complement deep drilling platforms, which optimally investigate the z dimension. Oriented coring is possible with some tools, opening many additional opportunities for innovative science. In this contribution we review the operations and, in particular, scientific results of previous seabed drilling expeditions with a number of different drills, with the aim of informing the ocean drilling community of the opportunities and future potential of such devices for science up to and post-2013.

MacLeod, C. J.; Freudenthal, T.; McInroy, D.; Smith, D. J.

2009-04-01

36

More on Scientific Research - Emotions and Conflicts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document comments upon a feature of scientific work which is the almost inevitable characteristic situations that are intertwined with research work and acquire the properties of peculiar inner conflicts. These conflicts are of three kinds: technical ...

V. Engelgardt

1970-01-01

37

Scientific Research in Education: A Socratic Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socrates and Admetus discuss the value of scientific research in education. They conclude that although RCTs have their place, they are not a panacea for education, and that the push for them by NCLB is not warranted.

Boody, Robert M.

2011-01-01

38

Government Funding of Scientific Research  

NSF Publications Database

The Board has studied the report, Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, issued in 1995 by a committee of the National Research Council chaired by Frank Press. The Press report pointed out that guidelines were offered in the 1993 report of the National Research Council's Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) Science, Technology and the Federal Government--National Goals for a New Era. 7 Definitions of "research" and "development" are congruent with ...

39

Bias and values in scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now

Torsten Wilholt

2009-01-01

40

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSIRO, an Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, is one of the world's largest and most diverse scientific research institutions. Spanning science and technology, CSIRO research projects cover an immense area, from Atmospheric Chemistry and Agriculture through Zoology. CSIRO's metasite organizes research activities by subject area and, within each area, by a host of subcategories (Information Sheets, What We Do, Recent Achievements, Media Releases, Scientific Contacts, and more). To find subject-specific materials, follow links from the broadest category (try several) to the most narrow; a helpful feature is that links to related sites are often provided in addition to links to CSIRO-specific sites. Educators and researchers will be rewarded with useful and current information here, although finding it may require some navigational patience and creativity.

41

Research ethics and scientific misconduct in biomedical research.  

PubMed

Scientists have the responsibility of judging what is best for the patient and the optimal conditions for the conduct of the study. All physicians should ensure that research they participate in is ethically conducted. Every clinician should learn and receive training in the responsible conduct of research and publication, and each project must be reviewed by an institutional review committee. Scientific misconduct is defined as any practice that deviates from those accepted by the scientific community and ultimately damages the integrity of the research process. "Sloppy Research" and "Scientific Fraud" include activities which can violate science, records and publication. Sloppy research is due to absence of appropriate training in research discipline and methodologies. In contrast, scientific fraud is defined as deliberate action during application, performance of research, and publication. It includes piracy, plagiarism and fraud. Research institutions should adopt rules and regulations to respond to allegations, start investigational operations and perform appropriate sanctions. PMID:12442615

Kansu, E; Ruacan, S

2002-01-01

42

Center for Research in Scientific Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Research in Scientific Computation (CRSC), based at North Carolina State University, aims to "foster research in scientific computing and provide a focal point for research in computational science, engineering and applied mathematics." The Center has developed a teaching experimental laboratory "where students are exposed to experimental design and data collection through demos and actual hands-on experience." The Center's multidisciplinary research addresses topics in scientific computation such as Numerical Optimization and Control, Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations, Mathematical Modeling and Analysis; Numerical Linear Algebra, and Parallel Computing. This website describes the Center's projects and offers links to the project websites. An online database makes available CRSC technical reports from 1992 to the present.

43

Doctoral Preparation of Scientifically Based Education Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding improved ways to train education researchers has taken on new urgency as federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 call for "scientifically based research in education." The authors of this article suggest an approach to socializing doctoral students to a common "culture…

Eisenhart, Margaret; DeHaan, Robert L.

2005-01-01

44

Spinal cord injury--scientific challenges for the unknown future.  

PubMed

The history of spinal cord injuries starts with the ancient Egyptian medical papyrus known as the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. The papyrus written about 2500 B.C.by the physician and architect of the Sakkara pyramids Imhotep, describes "crushed vertebra in his neck" as well as symptoms of neurological deterioration. An ailment not to be treated was the massage to the patients at that time. This fatalistic attitude remained until the end of World War II when the first rehabilitation centre focused on the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients was opened. Our knowledge of the pathophysiological processes, both the primary as well as the secondary, has increased tremendously. However, all this knowledge has only led to improved medical care but not to any therapeutic method to restore, even partially, the neurological function. Neuroprotection is defined as measures to counteract secondary injury mechanisms and/or limit the extent of damage caused by self-destructive cellular and tissue processes. The co-existence of several distinctly different injury mechanisms after trauma has provided opportunities to explore a large number of potentially neuroprotective agents in animal experiments such as methylprednisolone sodium succinate. The results of this research have been very discouraging and pharmacological neuroprotection for patients with spinal cord injury has fallen short of the expectations created by the extensive research and promising observations in animal experiments. The focus of research has now, instead, been transformed to the field of neural regeneration. This field includes the discovery of regenerating obstacles in the nerve cell and/or environmental factors but also various regeneration strategies such as bridging the gap at the site of injury as well as transplantation of foetal tissue and stem cells. The purpose of this review is to highlight selected experimental and clinical studies that form the basis for undertaking future challenges in the research field of spinal cord injury. We will focus our discussion on methods either preventing the consequences of secondary injury in the acute period (neuroprotection) and/or various techniques of neural regeneration in the sub-acute and chronic phase and finally expose some thoughts about future avenues within this scientific field. PMID:18484069

Anderberg, Leif; Aldskogius, Håkan; Holtz, Anders

2007-01-01

45

Scientific Research in Education: A Critical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay looks at governmental incursion into legislating scientific method in the realm of educational research. Using critical theory, I argue that the politics of the science of the U.S. accountability movement in public education is a backlash against efforts to open science up via cultural studies, feminist methodology, and social studies…

Lather, Patti

2004-01-01

46

Using Scientifically Based Research in Schools. Newsletter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use science to improve teaching. This idea has surfaced repeatedly in education literature since the passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), where the term "scientifically based research" appears more than 100 times. Yet despite all the attention that has been given to the idea of applying science in the classroom, principals and teachers often…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005

2005-01-01

47

Applications of artificial intelligence to scientific research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing field which is just beginning to make an impact on disciplines other than computer science. While a number of military and commercial applications were undertaken in recent years, few attempts were made to apply AI techniques to basic scientific research. There is no inherent reason for the discrepancy. The characteristics of the problem, rather than its domain, determines whether or not it is suitable for an AI approach. Expert system, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning programs are examples of theoretical topics which can be applied to certain areas of scientific research. Further research and experimentation should eventurally make it possible for computers to act as intelligent assistants to scientists.

Prince, Mary Ellen

1986-01-01

48

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

49

Cost Engineering for manufacturing: Current and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this article include Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk and Uncertainty management and Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the Academic Forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review

Y. Xu; F. Elgh; J. A. Erkoyuncu; O. Bankole; Y. Goh; W. M. Cheung; P. Baguley; Q. Wang; P. Arundachawat; E. Shehab; L. Newnes; R. Roy

2011-01-01

50

Cost Engineering for manufacturing: Current and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this article include Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk and Uncertainty management and Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the Academic Forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review

Y. Xu; F. Elgh; J. A. Erkoyuncu; O. Bankole; Y. Goh; W. M. Cheung; P. Baguley; Q. Wang; P. Arundachawat; E. Shehab; L. Newnes; R. Roy

2012-01-01

51

Animals in research. Council on Scientific Affairs.  

PubMed

This report of the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association (AMA) provides brief descriptions of a wide range of medical advances developed with the help of research done on animals. The report contends that to accept the moral reasoning of the animal rights movement would entail a complete cessation of the use of animals in research. The AMA supports the use of animals for biomedical research while also supporting regulatory policies that protect animals from inappropriate use. Animal experimentation benefits veterinary medicine as well as human medicine. A realistic appraisal of research with animals must be considered in terms of benefits and costs to humans. Animal experimentation must be included in the research process if advancement in medical knowledge is to continue. PMID:2724506

52

The United States of America and Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: “What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?”; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: “How will the US continue to foster its strengths?”

Hather, Gregory J.; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B. Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V.; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

2010-01-01

53

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me  

PubMed Central

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing.

Narlikar, Jayant V.

2008-01-01

54

Scientific Research: What it Means to Me.  

PubMed

This article gives a personal perception of the author, of what scientific research means. Citing examples from the lives of all time greats like Newton, Kelvin and Maxwell he stresses the agonies of thinking up new ideas, the urge for creativity and the pleasure one derives from the process when it is completed. He then narrates instances from his own life that proved inspirational towards his research career. In his early studenthood, his parents and maternal uncle had widened his intellectual horizons while in later life his interaction with Fred Hoyle made him take up research challenges away from the beaten path. He concludes that taking up an anti-Establishment stand in research can create many logistical difficulties, but the rewards of success are all the more pleasing. PMID:22013355

Narlikar, Jayant V

2008-01-01

55

Case Studies in Describing Scientific Research Efforts as Linked Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Web is growing with numerous scientific resources, prompting increased efforts in information management to consider integration and exchange of scientific resources. Scientists have many options to share scientific resources on the Web; however, existing options provide limited support to scientists in annotating and relating research resources resulting from a scientific research effort. Moreover, there is no systematic approach to documenting scientific research and sharing it on the Web. This research proposes the Collect-Annotate-Refine-Publish (CARP) Methodology as an approach for guiding documentation of scientific research on the Semantic Web as scientific collections. Scientific collections are structured descriptions about scientific research that make scientific results accessible based on context. In addition, scientific collections enhance the Linked Data data space and can be queried by machines. Three case studies were conducted on research efforts at the Cyber-ShARE Research Center of Excellence in order to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to create scientific collections. The case studies exposed the challenges and benefits of leveraging the Semantic Web and Linked Data data space to facilitate access, integration and processing of Web-accessible scientific resources and research documentation. As such, we present the case study findings and lessons learned in documenting scientific research using CARP.

Gandara, A.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Gates, A.

2013-12-01

56

Belgian Scientific Research Programme on the Antarctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1959 Antarctic Treaty set out to achieve "demilitarization, the ban on nuclear tests and on the disposal of radioactive waste material - the respect of which is guaranteed by a system of mutual inspection - and the promotion of international scientific cooperation. The approval in 1991 of the 'Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty' (Madrid Protocol), turned the area into a natural reserve dedicated to peace and science. The Protocol prohibits any non-scientific activity relating to mineral resources and otherwise, makes provision for the realization of environmental evaluations to be based upon scientific evidences." At this site, visitors can learn about the goals of the programme and also learn more about some of the many phases of its research projects. Also of interest are is the metadata section, including links to data from projects such as "The Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Cap." Overall, a very interesting site for those interested in the fruits of the Madrid Protocol and the science that has occurred in its wake.

57

Scientific research activities using balloons in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric Balloon activities in Brazil date back to 1969. At that time, the National Space Research Institute (INPE) created the Balloon Launching Center with supervision of the astrophysical group. Since 1987, the Balloon Launching Division (SLB) has been directly coordinated by the Scientific Space and Atmospheric Director of INPE. The southern latitudes, combined with the large continental area of Brazil in the east-west direction permit extended observations of important astrophysical sources (e.g. the Galactic Center region) and is also suitable for geophysical studies.

Dos Santos, Elisete Rinke; Abrahao, Carlos Alberto

58

Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research (PHASR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Habitat for Antarctic Scientific Research, PHASR, is designed as a versatile, general purpose habitat system that addresses the problem of functional space and environmental soundness in a partially fabric-covered shelter. PHASR is used for remote field site applications that can be quickly deployed. PHASR will also provide four scientists with a comfortable and efficient use of interior space. PHASR is a NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program project conducted at the University of Houston College of Architecture, Sasadawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA). This report is prepared for NASA/USRA.

Griswold, Samantha S.

1992-01-01

59

RESEARCH MISCONDUCT POLICIES OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to gather information on the misconduct policies of scientific journals. We contacted editors from a random sample of 399 journals drawn from the ISI Web of Knowledge database. We received 197 responses (49.4% response rate): 54.8% had a policy, and 47.7% had a formal (written) policy; 28.9% had a policy that only outlined procedures for handling misconduct, 15.7% had a policy that only defined misconduct, 10.2% had a policy that included both a definition and procedures; 26.9% of journals had a policy that was generated by the publisher, 13.2% had a policy that was generated by the journal, and 14.7% had a policy that was generated by another source, such as a professional association. We analyzed the relationship between having a policy and impact factor, field of science, publishing house, and nationality. Impact factor was the only variable with a statistically significant association with having a policy. Impact factor was slightly positively associated with whether or not the publisher had a policy, with an odds ratio of 1.49 (P < .0004) per 10 units increase in the impact factor, with a 95% confidence interval (1.20, 1.88). Our research indicates that more than half of scientific journals have developed misconduct policies, but that most of these policies do not define research misconduct and most of these policies were not generated by the journal.

RESNIK, DAVID B.; PEDDADA, SHYAMAL; BRUNSON, WINNON

2014-01-01

60

Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic Era (1.0 to 0.541 Ga) and earliest Cambrian (541 to ca. 520 Ma) records geologic changes unlike any other in Earth history: supercontinental tectonics of Rodinia followed by its breakup and dispersal into fragments that form the core of today's continents; a rise in oxygen that, perhaps for the first time in Earth history, resulted in the deep oceans becoming oxic; snowball Earth, which envisages a blanketing of global ice cover for millions of years; and, at the zenith of these combined biogeochemical changes, the evolutionary leap from eukaryotes to animals. Such a concentration of hallmark events in the evolution of our planet is unparalleled and many questions regarding Earth System evolution during times of profound climatic and geological changes remain to be answered. Neoproterozoic successions also offer insight into the genesis of a number of natural resources. These include banded-iron formation, organic-rich shale intervals (with demonstrated hydrocarbon source rocks already economically viable in some countries), base and precious metal ore deposits and REE occurrences, as well as industrial minerals and dimension stone. Developing our understanding of the Neoproterozoic Earth-system, combined with regional geology has the potential to impact the viability of these resources. Our understanding of the Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian, though, is overwhelmingly dependent on outcrop-based studies, which suffer from lack of continuity of outcrop and, in many instances, deep weathering profiles. A limited number of research projects study Precambrian strata have demonstrated the potential impact of scientific drilling to augment and complement ongoing outcrop based studies and advancing research. An ICDP and ECORD sponsored workshop, to be held in March 2014, has been convened to discuss the utility of scientific drilling for accelerating research of the Neoproterozoic through early Cambrian (ca. 0.9 to 0.52 Ga) rock record. The aim is to discuss the potential for establishing a collaborative, integrated, worldwide drilling programme to obtain the pristine samples and continuous sections needed to refine Neoproterozoic Earth history, inform assessment of resource potential, and address the major questions noted above. Such an initiative would be a platform to define complementary research and discovery between cutting-edge interdisciplinary scientific studies and synergistic collaborations with national agencies (Geological Surveys) and industry partners. A number of potential sites have been identified and discussed, along with identifying the mechanisms by which the Neoproterozoic research community can development data archives, open access data, sample archiving, and the approaches to multi-national funding. We will, amongst other things, present a summary of the workshop discussions. For more information visit: https://sites.google.com/site/drillingtheneoproterozoic/

Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

2014-05-01

61

The past, present and future of Scientific discourse.  

PubMed

The science journal is 346 years old in 2011, having evolved continuously but largely incrementally over that period. Its reinvention for an online presence has largely preserved its previously printed nature, in the sense that much of the increased functionality which is potentially offered by this new medium has yet to be exploited. In the present article an attempt is made to discuss two previously published papers, one in 1953 and the other in 2010, and to illustrate how additional functionality can be implemented in the form of accessible data sourced from quantum mechanical calculation and how subsequent discourse in the form of blogs may add to the process. In this sense, the reader of this article is invited to try for themselves whether these enhancements improve their scientific understanding, and whether such enhanced journals are good models for the future evolution of the genre. PMID:21999632

Rzepa, Henry S

2011-01-01

62

[AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow); a training model aimed at enhancement of clinical scientific research].  

PubMed

The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas. PMID:9380169

van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C

1997-06-21

63

The Impact of Collaborative Research on Scientific Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which collaborative research, conducted in partnerships between universities and the business sector, influences the nature of scientific production and the level of international scientific collaboration is examined. The more specific question of whether collaborative research reduces the number of scientific publications in general…

Godin, Benoit; Gingras, Yves

1999-01-01

64

Causal Explanation, Qualitative Research, and Scientific Inquiry in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Research Council report, Scientific Research in Education, has elicited considerable criticism from the education research community, but this criticism has not focused on a key assumption of the report—its Humean, regularity conception of causality. It is argued that this conception, which also underlies other arguments for “scientifically-based research,” is narrow and philosophically outdated, and leads to a misrepresentation

Joseph A. Maxwell

2004-01-01

65

75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and...

2010-07-13

66

75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and...

2010-01-21

67

The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

Krantz, Murray

2003-01-01

68

Research Training--Present & Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

69

Current and future commitment to hematology research.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) current and future commitment to hematology research. The paper comprises nine sections: (1) a brief history of how NHLBI incorporated blood research in its mission; (2) a summary of the traditional areas of research interest for blood diseases and resources; (3) a description of how NHLBI has assured and continues to assure a safe blood supply; (4) the current and future plans for transfusion medicine and cellular therapy research; (5) research support for hemoglobinopathies and red cell disorders; (6) research support for thrombosis and hemostatic disorders; (7) current and future research of hematopoietic stem cell biology, and aplastic and preneoplastic conditions; (8) future training for hematologists, and (9) a concluding summary. PMID:15511613

Peterson, Charles M; Harvath, Liana

2004-12-01

70

Mental health of scientific researchers I. Characteristics of job stress among scientific researchers working at a research park in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the characteristics of job stress in scientific researchers, a self-administered questionnaire survey\\u000a for 16,330 workers was carried out at Tsukuba Research Park City, Japan. The data of 7,063 (43%) workers aged 20–59?years\\u000a old were analyzed, and the characteristics of job stress in 3,290 scientific researchers were compared with those of 1,799\\u000a technicians and 1,849 clerks. The

Takayuki Kageyama; Ichiyo Matsuzaki; Nobuaki Morita; Shin-ichiro Sasahara; Shinji Satoh; Hiroyuki Nakamura

2001-01-01

71

Hail Control. Operative and Scientific Research Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Physical basis of artificial modification of clouds; Development of hail control in the world; Characteristics of the hail control system developed in the U.S.S.R.; Development of hail control in Yugoslavia; Professional-scientific definition of...

D. Radinovic

1972-01-01

72

Tacit knowledge management of scientific research work in universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge management represents a series of new management methods and management thinking. Based on the meaning of knowledge management and tacit knowledge, the paper makes an analysis of the relationship between tacit knowledge and scientific research. It makes sure there is association between tacit knowledge characteristics of the development of university scientific research and its sustainable development. Meanwhile, the paper

Yang Chun-zhou; Liu Hua-yu; Zhan Xi-chen; Wang Hui-jin

2011-01-01

73

Patterns of contact and communication in scientific research collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the influence of physical proximity on the development of collaborative relationships between scientific researchers and on the execution of their work. Our evidence is drawn from our own studies of scientific collaborators, as well as from observations of research and development activities collected by other investigators. These descriptions provide the foundation for a discussion of

Robert E. Kraut; Carmen Egido; Jolene Galegher

1988-01-01

74

Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

75

Scientific Research for Undergraduate Students: A Review of the Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engaging students in authentic scientific research has become an important component of undergraduate science education at many institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore authentic research experiences as contexts for learning. The authors revi

Mckinney, Lyle; Sadler, Troy D.

2010-05-01

76

Lasers - Present and future research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser research is reviewed in regards to applications and with particular attention to work in French laboratories. Inertial confinement fusion requires high energy deposition in 0.1-10 ns times, and efforts to devise suitable laser systems are outlined. Exciplex lasers are presented, including halogen and rare-gas halide lasers, rare gas and alkaline dimers, and trimer lasers. Optical and chemical pumping of iodine lasers are examined, and applications for photochemistry, isotope separation, and spectroscopy are discussed. Military uses of low energy CO2 waveguide lasers and chemical and CO2 lasers as weapons are mentioned, along with research intended for industrial applications of lasers. Finally, work in progress for optical telecommunications and free electron lasers, in addition to X ray and nuclear pumped lasers, is indicated.

Philippe, P.

1981-11-01

77

Evaluating the Management Implications of Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When doing scientific research, we collect some data, apply statistical analysis, and then discuss its management implications. These management implications generally consist of interpretations and/or calculations to make the inferred statistical statements meaningful to decision makers. As with any other simplification, a management implication is an imperfect representation, which can recommend management actions quite unlike those that would have been recommended by the data or statistical results. There is no rigorous framework however for evaluating management implications that is comparable to the use of experimental design in the collection of data or statistical inference in the evaluation of hypotheses. A framework for evaluating management implications can be constructed by noting that the goal of management implications is to guide management decisions. A good management implication can be defined as one that recommends management actions similar to those that would have been recommended by the data or statistical results. The true unsimplified management implication of the data can in turn be defined as, "the probability of alternate outcomes of a proposed action given the observed outcomes of past actions." This is know in statistics as the posterior predictive distribution and can be directly calculated. Applying the posterior predictive distribution to alternate management actions identifies the actions that are recommended by the data. These recommendations in turn can be compared to the recommendations of alternate simplified management implications to identify the best simplified management implication. A less rigorous framework can be created by simply trying to use the results of classical statistics to predict the consequences of proposed actions. The potential consequences of the non-rigorous approach (and the utility of this proposed framework) can be seen by revisiting the previous analyses of the impacts of timber harvest on peak streamflow in the H.J. Andrews experimental forest. Applying this framework to the same data and models shows that contrary to the previous management implications, there actually is strong evidence that timber harvest has large impact on peak streamflows and that this impact increases with larger floods. Similar results could also have been produced if the previous results had been used to predict the consequences of alternate actions.

Krogstad, F.

2004-12-01

78

Future directions for EPA Superfund research.  

PubMed

The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) identifies and prioritizes future research areas through a Waste Research Coordination Team. The team works together to plan the ORD Superfund research program, and it has members from each of the ORD laboratories as well as representatives from the Superfund office. Superfund scientists have identified several research topics in applied research areas to improve risk assessment methods and reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessments. Research areas include: dermal exposure models and toxicity values, improved methods for exposure factors, pharmaco-kinetic dose-response models, bioavailability and statistical methods. This paper presents ORD future research plans in response to these identified research areas. PMID:12018011

Wentsel, Randall S; Blaney, Ben; Kowalski, Lorelei; Bennett, David A; Grevatt, Peter; Frey, Sharon

2002-03-01

79

An appraisal of future space biomedical research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

Vinograd, S. P.

1975-01-01

80

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry ...

F. J. Sikora

1992-01-01

81

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

Nigg, Joel T.

2012-01-01

82

Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact

Joel T. Nigg

2012-01-01

83

Enabling Successful Submissions of Scientific Data for Preservation and Future Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing scientific data and research-related information for submission to a scientific data archive or digital repository for long-term preservation and dissemination is a critical task for data stewardship, but can be challenging for those who have produced data initially for their own use. We describe here a data submission system designed to assist data producers in preparing and describing their data in ways that balance the need for comprehensive information about the data with the practicalities of what data producers are willing and able to provide. The system is based on a model for web-based services that enables self-submission and supports the workflow needed for gathering the information required for long-term preservation and use by current and future research, education, and decision-making communities. To inform the design of the system for a range of data types, submissions of both Earth and social science data sets were analyzed to identify successful practices that could be implemented in a self-submission system. We describe these successful data submission practices along with the features of a self-submission system that should help encourage the submission of scientific data by both natural and social scientists.

Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

2009-12-01

84

Workshop on Scientific Foundations of Qualitative Research  

NSF Publications Database

... 310kb) General Guidance for Developing Qualitative Research Projects (PDF, 174kb) Recommendations ... Strengthening Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences (PDF, 174kb) Appendix 1: List of Workshop ...

85

Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned. Scientific uncertainties, sources, and consequences have been most widely discussed in the review papers. Research papers and mass media tend to emphasize more the certainty of their scientific results or the benefits of the nanotechnology applications. Neither the broad spectrum nor any specifications of uncertainties have been communicated. This indicates that there has been no effective dialogue over scientific uncertainty with the public so far.

Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

2014-05-01

86

Social Sleepwalkers. Scientific and Technological Research in California Agriculture. Research Monograph No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making a case for initiation of a systematic methodology that would predict and evaluate the potential social ramifications of scientific research, this monograph presents: (1) a review of the general lack of social concern among scientific researchers and rationale for utilization of scientific agricultural research as initiator of social…

Friedland, William H.

87

Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-08-01

88

The Myth of "Scientific Method" in Contemporary Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether educational research should employ the "scientific method" has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: "positivist" or "interpretivist". In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research

Rowbottom, Darrell Patrick; Aiston, Sarah Jane

2006-01-01

89

Future of Materials and Materials Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to summarize the presentations on porcelain materials, endodontic materials, casting metals, impression materials, armamentarium, amalgam, resins, composites, cements, bonding agents, adhesives, and calcium phosphate materials. Eight series of recommendations for future research are presented and include areas of basic research, animal models, biocompatibility, correlated laboratory and clinical testing procedures, epidemiological studies, workshops and conferences,

J. W. Stanford

1988-01-01

90

Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

91

The Frontiers of Resource-Related Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's and tomorrow's challenges with respect to energy rise beyond assessing the volume, type, distribution, and viability of various energy resources. Access to clean, reliable, and affordable energy supplies requires a much more comprehensive understanding of the full costs, benefits, and inherent risks encompassing the entire life cycle of both the energy commodity/capability itself, as well as those supplementary resources needed for energy production and use, such as water and minerals. Research and assessment science conducted by the US Geological Survey (USGS) spans this range from traditional energy resources such as oil, gas, and coal; to currently under utilized resources such as geothermal, wind, and uranium; as well as more long-term future resources such as gas hydrates. With mission space that includes energy and minerals, water, natural hazards, environmental health, ecosystems, and climate and land use change, increasingly USGS is taking advantage of its integrated science approach and its tradition of working with partners to conduct collaborative research developing methodologies that build on traditional energy-related research. The USGS is incorporating scientific information about geologic, geophysical, biologic, hydrologic, and in some cases socio-economic, trade-offs to be considered by decision makers regarding energy resource development and use. This basic resource information informs the Nation's decisions of how to manage a dynamically evolving energy mix in both an economically and environmentally sustainable manner.

McNutt, M. K.

2012-12-01

92

Should IACUCs review scientific merit of animal research projects?  

PubMed

Whether IACUCs should review animal research protocols for scientific merit is not addressed in the federal regulations, resulting in ongoing confusion on the subject. The authors examine this issue, discuss the pros and cons, suggest how IACUCs can go about reviewing protocols for scientific merit, and question what effect recent changes in regulations will have on this issue. PMID:14752528

Mann, Michael D; Prentice, Ernest D

2004-01-01

93

National Collaboratories: Applying Information Technology for Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on a National Collaboratory: Establishing the User-Developer Partnership was charged to study and report on the need for and potential of information technology to support collaboration in the conduct of scientific research. To do this, the committee focused on three discrete areas of scientific investigation: (1) oceanography, in…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.

94

Scientific Publishing in Developing Countries: Challenges for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I first refer to the center-periphery dichotomy in terms of scientific output, placing emphasis upon the relation that exists between science and technology development, on the one hand, and social and economic development, on the other. I then analyze the main problems faced by most peripheral journals and the role nation states…

Salager-Meyer, Francoise

2008-01-01

95

[Reporting of scientific misconduct in health care research].  

PubMed

The incidence of scientific dishonesty in the Netherlands is not known, yet experiences at both the NWO (the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research) and Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine) indicate that there must be several cases per year. For scientific fraud to be prevented students and researchers should receive thorough teaching, and in research laboratories an emphasis should be placed upon integrity. The Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam has published a research protocol which is perfect for internal use. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences publishes brochures on good research practice for researchers, teachers and students. The NWO and the Vereniging van Universiteiten (Dutch Association of Universities) have set up a committee for scientific integrity to function as a fallback mechanism and to assess the institutional procedures or to repeat the inquiries. As healthcare research institutions other than universities are involved since authorities are not always objective, an independent committee has been established to assess complaints about scientific dishonesty, the Scientific Integrity Health Research. Like the Committee on Publication Ethics it will publish its cases anonymously on an annual basis. Its judgments will be communicated to the people involved and the proper authorities. PMID:12233155

Klasen, E C; Overbeke, A J P M

2002-08-31

96

Scientific Research and Information Facilities in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growth of national income in Iran has led to the need for information and research in many areas. In order to provide for this demand, libraries and research organizations have proliferated. (Author)

Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

1976-01-01

97

Scientific and Technical Information Output of the Langley Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Public...

1984-01-01

98

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center 2007 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.

Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul

2008-10-23

99

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

100

Creating the Future: Research and Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

1998-01-01

101

[Organisation of scientific and research work of Navy medical service].  

PubMed

The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale. PMID:23808215

Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu

2013-03-01

102

Scientific Fraud: Definitions, Policies, and Implications for Nursing Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific fraud is often a result of misguided attempts to attain professional success. To prevent fraud in nursing research, researchers should be socialized in an atmosphere of professional integrity, have established researchers as role models, and be rewarded for quality rather than quantity. (SK)

Chop, Rose M.; Silva, Mary Cipriano

1991-01-01

103

Firm Utilization of University Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used publication statistics to investigate the collaboration and research use of scientists in the computer equipment and aircraft industries. Results reveal that these industries are using research generated by university scientists, and that collaboration between sectors is occurring. Geographic proximity is linked to increased…

Tornquist, Kristi M.; Hoenack, Stephen A.

1996-01-01

104

Use of the Virtual ITM Observatory for Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Ionosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) is now an operational system and this presentation will demonstrate how it can benefit Heliophysics research. VITMO enables coordinated research by allowing users to locate science of interest that overlap in time and space. VITMO provides tools to seamlessly locate simultaneous overlapping datasets from multiple satellites and satellite- and ground site conjunctions. Many of these tools are integrated into the search system allowing the user to find files automatically when certain geophysical conditions are present, a satellite observes a region at the same time a ground based radar system is operating, or other conditions are met. These and future enhanced capabilities such as selecting data sets for study based on model/data comparisons will be presented. Also included, will be examples of how these capabilities allow the scientist to perform "what-if" based searches of data for analysis will be presented along with and a discussion of the types of scientific analysis that may be feasible through VITMO. VITMO can be found at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/.

Weiss, M.; Morrison, D.; Immer, E.; Potter, M.; Patrone, D.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.; Barnes, R. J.

2009-12-01

105

Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

2014-05-01

106

Madness in our methods: nursing research, scientific epistemology.  

PubMed

This paper is a critique of some research methods evident in contemporary nursing literature. The arguments derive from critical-feminist, humanist and ethical perspectives. As a consequence of investigating specific aspects of scientific method, an approach to research that is congruent with values intrinsic to an holistic approach to nursing practice is articulated. Such methodologies also render problematic with status quo power relations between nurses and other health professionals, as well as between nurses and patients. The central themes in this paper are: the absence of overt conceptual frameworks; an avoidance of complex social contexts within which research subjects live; an apparent lack of empathy; and an apolitical articulation of research problems and data analyses. All four of these difficulties may be traced to scientific methodology by many researchers. Most nurse researchers may not actually adhere to this technique, but I propose that they have been informed by belief systems associated with scientific methodology and that these have dire consequences for the discipline of nursing. A key argument is that the apparent lack of conceptual frameworks in the majority of nursing research is due to the epistemology, which therefore provides a pre-existing, non-declared conceptual framework, that is incorporated into the research by drawing upon scientific methodology. A further argument is that scientific, or scientistic, ways of approaching situations are antithetical to nursing values and to constructive social change for the benefit of patients, nursing and nurses. PMID:7728590

Horsfall, J M

1995-03-01

107

Data Management Guide of Public Participation in Scientific Research. DataONE Public Participation in Scientific Research Working Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Data Management Guide for Public Participation in Scientific Research is a practitioner's reference for managing data, an important part of citizen science project design and sustainability. This 15-page guide highlights essential issues and processes...

2013-01-01

108

The Scientific Potential of the Far East, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dear Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, dear colleagues! It is a great honor for me to speak before you at the opening ceremony of the international Symposium on exotic nuclei. I welcome you in this beautiful hall, belonging to the Far Eastern Federal University and thank you that you have responded to our invitation and were able to arrive to our city in order to discuss the latest achievements in the field on nuclear physics. This is the first major scientific event, which takes place in the new University campus, where only a few weeks ago ended the APEC summit...

Sergienko, Valentin

2013-06-01

109

Tips for Preparing a Scientific Research Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tips prepared by the Woods Hole Sea Grant Program, with help from researchers, librarians, and teachers. Designed to help middle school or high school students organize their research papers from beginning to end, takes it step-by-step and week-by-week. Covers: how to start, identifying a topic; outlining the project, compiling resources, finding help; organizing resources, recognizing when you have enough; expanding the outline, writing clearly and logically; and reviewing the paper.

2010-08-03

110

Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research  

SciTech Connect

It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

Finkelstein, Noah (University of Colorado) [University of Colorado

2007-05-16

111

Distribution of scientific researchers in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the research activities of Japanese scientists internationally, the author researches organizations, institutions, and their locations, which Japanese scientists belong to, by analysing "Current Contents Address Directory - Science & Technology 1984". By the analysis of scientists in major cities and universities in Japan, it became obvious that the majority of Japanese scientists are concentrated in national universities and government-supported institutions. Such a concentration is traced back to the foundation of national universities (ex-Teidai) by the Meiji Government about 100 years ago.

Sawai, Kiyoshi

112

7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.  

... false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400.21 Section 3400...INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review...3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer...

2014-01-01

113

77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2012-04-10

114

77 FR 40412 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2012-07-09

115

76 FR 42167 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2011-07-18

116

78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

2013-01-31

117

78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

2013-02-22

118

78 FR 50144 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2013-08-16

119

75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2010-10-22

120

27 CFR 19.71 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...71 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...learning, or institution of scientific research to produce,...

2009-04-01

121

27 CFR 19.71 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...71 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...learning, or institution of scientific research to produce,...

2010-04-01

122

77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

2012-07-18

123

75 FR 72872 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2010-11-26

124

78 FR 9455 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review...and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

2013-02-08

125

Raising money for scientific research through crowdfunding.  

PubMed

In this article we discuss the utility of crowdfunding from the perspective of individual scientists or laboratory groups looking to fund research. We address some of the main factors determining the success of crowdfunding campaigns, and compare this approach with the use of traditional funding sources. PMID:23219380

Wheat, Rachel E; Wang, Yiwei; Byrnes, Jarrett E; Ranganathan, Jai

2013-02-01

126

Firm Utilization of University Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was done of the transfer of knowledge between academic and firm scientists. Beginning with theories of university and university scientist behavior and a theory of firm and firm scientist behavior, the research used a bibliometric analysis of articles prepared by firm-based scientists within the computer equipment and aircraft industries.…

Tornquist, Kristi; And Others

127

Can "Scientifically Based Research" Improve Teacher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, Professor Sonia Nieto of the University of Massachusetts-Amherst presented the results of her research on the factors that contribute to the sustainment of the professional vitality and commitment of quality teachers in urban high schools. Through her interactions with the teachers in her study, Professor Nieto identified seven themes…

Mason, Terrence C.

2005-01-01

128

Trends in research and development for future detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of novel detector concepts has always played a major role in supporting and enabling scientific research. In the forthcoming phase of high energy physics (HEP), the design and development of new detectors and detector concepts will be even more important than it was in the past owing to the harsh environmental conditions and the challenging requests imposed by the physicists' needs for: improved spatial and time resolution, innovative functions, acquisition speed, radiation tolerance, minimal power consumption, robustness and reliability, minimal material and more. This overview addresses the challenges that upgrades and future projects in HEP will impose in terms of novel technologies and stresses the detectors' potential and limitations in attempting to achieve the scientific goals. In addition the increasingly strong dependence on large-scale industrial production and industrial development, especially in the area of integrated electronics, sensors and large complex systems will be addressed.

Cattai, Ariella

2013-12-01

129

Basic research for future electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

Jahn, R. G.

1985-01-01

130

NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

1987-01-01

131

[Importance of the university library for scientific research and teaching].  

PubMed

The key features of a university library as a support for scientific research and for teaching activity are pointed out with special attention to affinities and differences. In any case, the library is of primary importance for the advance of science, in direct form as a research support and, indirectly, as a teaching support. PMID:3173761

Romano, G

1988-09-01

132

Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities 1998: An Overview  

NSF Publications Database

... at Colleges and Universities 1998 An Overview Hypertext Format Scientific and Engineering Research ... Universities 1998: An Overview Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientific and Engineering Research ...

133

List of Scientific Publications from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre of the Year 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific and technical-scientific publications from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre comprise books, original papers in scientific or technical journals, diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses, as well as papers held at scientific conference...

1978-01-01

134

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences); Margaret Eisenhart (University of Colorado); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2007-08-01

135

Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

2008-11-01

136

Scientific evidence and research in antimicrobial stewardship.  

PubMed

Evaluating the impact of antibiotic stewardship programs is challenging. There is evidence that they are effective in terms of reducing the consumption and cost of antibiotics, although establishing their impact on antimicrobial resistance (beyond restrictive policies in outbreaks caused by specific antimicrobial resistant organisms) and clinical outcomes is more difficult. Proper definitions of exposure and outcome variables, the use of advanced and appropriate statistical analyses and well-designed quasi-experimental studies would more accurately support the conclusions. Cluster randomized trials should be used whenever possible and appropriate, although the limitations of this approach should also be acknowledged. These issues are reviewed in this paper. We conclude that there are good research opportunities in the field of antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24129291

Almirante, Benito; Garnacho-Montero, José; Pachón, Jerónimo; Pascual, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

2013-09-01

137

Back to the Future: Contrasting Scientific Styles in Understanding Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this rejoinder to Willis, Smagorinsky, and Douglas, the authors discuss how many of the points raised by Willis and Smagorinsky regarding their original article, which appeared in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher, are concerned less with the methods themselves than with different styles of science. The authors of this rejoinder…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Schatschneider, Christopher; Morrison, Frederick J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry J.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.

2009-01-01

138

Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future  

PubMed Central

Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products.

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

2014-01-01

139

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment.

Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

2008-01-01

140

Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

2012-01-01

141

Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling  

SciTech Connect

The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

Not Available

1984-01-01

142

[Bad behaviors regarding research and scientific and medical publication].  

PubMed

Since a few years, the number of cases of fraud reported in the scientific and medical literature and retraction of articles has increased exponentially. Such fraud is due to fabrication, falsification, theft, embellishment or retention of data, plagiarism, incorrect list of authors or undisclosed conflicts of interest. This tendency has been explained by the need to publish for career advancement or the future of the department, the search for notoriety, the desire to grow rich and the lack of motivation to seek the truth. This crisis can be controlled by measures at different levels: society, universities, scientific institutions, study promoters, scientific and medical journals. A legal framework at EU level would allow to combat such fraud more efficiently. PMID:24505870

Sculier, J P

2013-01-01

143

Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

144

Benefits and pitfalls of scientific research during undergraduate medical education  

PubMed Central

Objective: The integration of scientific research into medical education is a widely discussed topic. Most research training programs are offered on a voluntary basis. In Germany, it is mandatory to complete a doctoral thesis to obtain the academic title “doctor”. The reasons why students start a dissertation project and the influence of this project on their undergraduate studies and later career choices are not well known. Method: This study was conducted at five German universities in 2003, with a total of 437 fifth-year students participating in it. A standardised questionnaire was used to ask participants about their current or finished dissertation (group A), a dissertation they had discontinued (group B) or why they had never started a dissertation project (group C). Results: The two most important reasons for students from group A to start a dissertation were “interest in the topic” and “advantage for job applications”. Compared with group B, they mentioned “improved ability to critically appraise scientific studies” and “doing scientific work independently” significantly more often as a result of working on their dissertation. Starting a dissertation project early during undergraduate studies was correlated with a less successful outcome. Moreover, working on a dissertation significantly reduced time spent on undergraduate studies. Students from group C named the "workload of undergraduate studies" and “no time” most frequently as reasons for not having started a dissertation. Conclusion: Students who have been working successfully on a dissertation rate items regarding the acquisition of scientific research skills significantly more positively, and participation in undergraduate studies seems to be negatively affected by working on a dissertation project. Therefore, basic training in scientific research methodology should become an integrated part of the medical undergraduate curriculum, while special programs should be offered for students with a particular interest in scientific research programs or an academic career.

Kuhnigk, Olaf; Bothern, Aenne M.; Reimer, Jens; Schafer, Ingo; Biegler, Astrid; Jueptner, Markus; Gelderblom, Mathias; Harendza, Sigrid

2010-01-01

145

Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

Brown, C. M.

2013-12-01

146

Elements of scientific research: Modeling discoveries in oxide superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a program, CER, which models the research tasks carried out in the process of the discovery of high-temperature superconductors in 1986 and 1987. The program simulates some of these research tasks through the activities of its autonomous operators. Each of these operators carries out a research task, applying several different learning methods at three different levels. In its knowledge organization and control of research tasks, CER constitutes a step towards developing a more comprehensive model of scientific research. The paper describes the system in terms of its knowledge representation and learning and discovery methods; examines its merits and shortcomings; and provides ideas for its improvement.

Kocabas, Sakir

1992-07-01

147

Translational research: current status, challenges and future strategies  

PubMed Central

Advances in translational research are expected to mitigate the recent drought in new drug development. Despite significant progress recently made in biological sciences, the results are decidedly mixed with significant breakthrough in some disease areas while extensive work remains to be completed in other areas. This review article provides a general survey of the current landscape of translational research so as to identify progress and areas of needs and the associated strategy. While significant advances in the development of translational tools have been made in all fronts, the availability of predictive preclinical models remains critical for the success of translational research. This is directly correlated with the success of translational research as illustrated by the recent approval of targeted drug therapies. By the same logic, unexpected side effects can also be explained by laboratory findings, thus completing the translational cycle. Because of this reason, further collaboration between preclinical and clinical scientists is essential. Non-scientific issues have important influence on the future of this endeavor cannot be underestimated either. Nonetheless, with definitive commitment of private industry and public resources, the future of translational research is promising.

Yu, Dale

2011-01-01

148

Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

2013-04-01

149

New Group of Researchers Focuses on Scientific Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article reports in late January 2006, a group of scholars announced the formation of a federally-backed professional society that will focus solely on advancing scientifically rigorous studies in education. The society, which is known as Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, has caused ripples of controversy among…

Viadero, Debra

2006-01-01

150

Federal Policies Regarding Scientific Integrity in Biomedical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing federal government policies and systems to protect against scientific misconduct in government-supported research projects are described, and additional considerations not covered in federal policy are enumerated. Misconduct inquiries and review procedures are outlined. Applicant and institutional responsibility and the role of prevention…

Gordon, Stephen L.

1992-01-01

151

The Use of Electric-Only Journals in Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of journals that are published exclusively in electronic format focuses on the way they affect the communication of scientific information to the research community. Highlights include the impermanence of electronic materials; access; indexing; library holdings; pricing; cataloging; citations; and considerations for further study.…

Llewellyn, Richard D.; Pellack, Lorraine J.; Shonrock, Diana D.

2002-01-01

152

Conducting and Reporting Integrative Research Reviews: Accumulating Scientific Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptualizes the process of conducting integrative research reviews as a data-gathering, empirically based procedure and offers guidelines for conducting such reviews. Introduces specific suggestions that were heretofore unaddressed. Maintains that efforts to standardize integrative review process and to ensure its scientific rigor in counselor…

Ellis, Michael V.

1991-01-01

153

Commentary on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's critique on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," by Anthony F. J. van Raan. It also presents a summary of recent work by the Leiden bibliometrics group, which van Raan has led so ably for more than 15 years. The group has established an excellent…

Lewison, Grant

2005-01-01

154

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1984-01-01

155

LEGAL ASPECTS OF REGULATION ON BIOMEDICAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The existence of numerous new relationships created upon the improvement of modern medico biological researches emphasized, during the last decades, the need of improvement of several normative regulators which are to assure the following of certain ethical and legal principles. Different scientific societies have been issuing ethical codes and regulations, in order to regulate their activities. The appliance of

M. Yaneva-Deliverska; G. Bekiarova

2010-01-01

156

Opening space research: Dreams, technology, and scientific discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 4 October 1957 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched Sputnik, the world's first man-made satellite. It may have been the dawn of humanity's toehold in space, but it was not the beginning of the story. In the AGU monograph Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George H. Ludwig describes the people, politics, and experiments that led

Colin Schultz

2011-01-01

157

The Promissory Future(s) of Education: Rethinking Scientific Literacy in the Era of Biocapitalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the biopolitical dimensions that have grown out of the union between biocapitalism and current science education reform in the US. Drawing on science and technology study theorists, I utilize the analytics of promissory valuation and salvationary discourses to understand how scientific literacy in the neo-Sputnik era has…

Pierce, Clayton

2012-01-01

158

Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee

Domenico Franco Merlo; Kirsi Vahakangas; Lisbeth E Knudsen

2008-01-01

159

Environmental Inquiry: Authentic Scientific Research for High School Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Inquiry (EI) features curriculum materials and online resources developed to help students conduct environmental science research and participate in communities of fellow student scientists. EI includes two levels of inquiry, modeled after professional scientific research. First, students learn specific research protocols, then conduct interactive research projects based on the protocols. Downloadable forms help them design experiments and then analyze, interpret, and present the results. Discussion boards and an online peer-review forum provide opportunities for interaction with fellow students. Topics include toxicology, invasive species, biodegradation, and watershed dynamics. Each of these topic areas is supported by a textbook and web-based resources.

160

Rock coast geomorphology: Recent advances and future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been considerable advances in rock coast research in the past decade, as measured in terms of the number of active researchers and in the number of research papers being produced. This review, although not exhaustive, highlights many of the improvements that have been made in our ability to identify and measure the processes shaping rock coasts, at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We review how researchers are experimenting with new techniques; grappling with quantifying the effects of multiple processes on resultant landforms; and exploring how well rock coast systems relate to wider geomorphological and earth science debates. Recent research, including those in this special issue, aptly demonstrate the scientific benefits that can be accrued by studying rock coasts at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, by considering the effect of the wide range of processes that operate on them, and by the application of new measurement techniques and approaches. Despite these advances, there is ample scope for future research, which could profit from increasing collaboration with other coastal geomorphologists and allied earth science disciplines in order to identify and quantify linkages between rock coasts and other coastal systems. It is also important that new research considers how rock coasts will respond to extreme events and to risks associated with changing climate, and to how rock coast geomorphology might contribute, beyond coastal science, to wider debates in theoretical geomorphology.

Naylor, L. A.; Stephenson, W. J.; Trenhaile, A. S.

2010-01-01

161

Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis.

Rogers, Peter A. W.; D'Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

2013-01-01

162

The globalization of health research: harnessing the scientific diaspora.  

PubMed

The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames. PMID:19318794

Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I

2009-04-01

163

A Perspective on Single/within Subject Research Methods and "Scientifically Based Research."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses concerns with the No Child Left Behind definition of scientifically based research and its preference for random-assignment experiments from a single/within subject research perspective. A comprehensive program of research that can focus on the bridging the gap between research and practice is proposed. (CR)

McDonnell, John; O'Neill, Rob

2003-01-01

164

The future of scientific communication in the earth sciences: The impact of the internet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Publication on paper of research results following peer-review and editing has been the accepted means of scientific communication for several centuries. Today, the continued growth in the volume of scientific literature, the increased unit costs of archiving paper publications, and the rapidly increasing power and availability of electronic technology are creating tremendous pressures on traditional scientific communication. The earth sciences are not immune from these pressures, and the role of the traditional publication as the primary means of communication is rapidly changing. Electronic publications and network technology are radically altering the relationship between interpretative result and the underlying data. Earth science research institutions, including the Kansas Geological Survey, are experimenting with new forms of on-line publication that assure broad access to research and data and improve application of research results to societal problems. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Carr, T. R.; Buchanan, R. C.; Adkins-Heljeson, D.; Mettille, T. D.; Sorensen, J.

1997-01-01

165

Alzforum and SWAN: the present and future of scientific web communities.  

PubMed

Scientists drove the early development of the World Wide Web, primarily as a means for rapid communication, document sharing and data access. They have been far slower to adopt the web as a medium for building research communities. Yet, web-based communities hold great potential for accelerating the pace of scientific research. In this article, we will describe the 10-year experience of the Alzheimer Research Forum ('Alzforum'), a unique example of a thriving scientific web community, and explain the features that contributed to its success. We will then outline the SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) project, in which Alzforum curators are collaborating with informatics researchers to develop novel approaches that will enable communities to share richly contextualized information about scientific data, claims and hypotheses. PMID:17510163

Clark, Tim; Kinoshita, June

2007-05-01

166

Fuzzy Assessment of Land Suitability for Scientific Research Reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the characteristics of a set of sites as potential scientific research reserves is an example of land suitability\\u000a assessment. Suitability in this case is based upon multiple criteria, many of which can be linguistically imprecise and often\\u000a incompatible. Fuzzy logic is a useful method for characterizing imprecise suitability criteria and for combining criteria\\u000a into an overall suitability rating. The

DAVID M. STOMS; JENNIFER M. McDONALD; FRANK W. DAVIS

2002-01-01

167

Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.  

SciTech Connect

Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

Choi, S. U.-S.

1998-10-20

168

Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation and Scientific Information Management  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation and scientific data management efforts and discuss frameworks to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researchers ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or ''tiers'' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the ''raw materials'' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the interpretation of often highly unpredictable event observations. Even partial automation of this second tier, through development of prototype tools to extract observations and make many thousands of scientific measurements, has significantly increased the efficiency of the scientists who construct and validate integrated calibration surfaces. This achieved gain in efficiency and quality control is likely to continue and even accelerate through continued application of information science and scientific automation. Data volume and calibration research requirements have increased by several orders of magnitude over the past decade. Whereas it was possible for individual researchers to download individual waveforms and make time-consuming measurements event by event in the past, with the Terabytes of data available today, a software automation framework must exist to efficiently populate and deliver quality data to the researcher. This framework must also simultaneously provide the researcher with robust measurement and analysis tools that can handle and extract groups of events effectively and isolate the researcher from the now onerous task of database management and metadata collection necessary for validation and error analysis. Lack of information management robustness or loss of metadata can lead to incorrect calibration results in addition to increasing the data management burden. To address these issues we have succeeded in automating several aspects of collection, parsing, reconciliation and extraction tasks, individually. Several software automation prototypes have been produced and have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products. Future software automation tasks will continue to leverage database and information management technologies in addressing additional scientific calibration research tasks.

Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Elliott, A B; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M

2005-07-12

169

Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Assessment Processes. Letter Report Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Assessment Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The committee finds that the scientific merit assessment process used by NASAs HRP for directed research is scientifically rigorous and is similar to the processes and merit criteria used by many other federal agencies and organizations for comparable typ...

A. M. Schultz C. T. Liverman J. A. Pawelczyk L. M. Strawbridge

2012-01-01

170

Opening space research: Dreams, technology, and scientific discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 October 1957 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched Sputnik, the world's first man-made satellite. It may have been the dawn of humanity's toehold in space, but it was not the beginning of the story. In the AGU monograph Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George H. Ludwig describes the people, politics, and experiments that led from weather balloons and leftover German V-2 rockets to a highly successful U.S. space research program. In this interview, Ludwig shares some insights with Eos.

Schultz, Colin

2011-10-01

171

Scientific and technical photography at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are incorporating ever greater imaging capabilities in their facilities. To some extent this could mean a reduced demand for traditional photographic services. (2) The photographic archive is seen as a Center resource. Archiving of images, as well as data, is a matter of concern to the investigators. The early holdings of the Photographic Archives are quickly deteriorating. The relative inaccessibility of the material held in the archives is problematic. (3) In certain cases delivery or preparation of digital image files instead of, or along with, hardcopy is already being perceived by the STPL's customers as desirable. The STPL should make this option available, and the fact that it has, or will have this capability widely known. (4) The STPL needs to continue to provide expert advice and technical imaging support in terms of application information to users of traditional photographic and new electronic imaging systems. Cooperative demo projects might be undertaken to maintain or improve the capabilities of the Lab. (5) STPL personnel do not yet have significant electronic imaging or electronic communication skills and improvements in this is an area could potentially have a positive impact on the Center. (6) High speed photographic or imaging services are often mentioned by the STPL as being of primary importance to their mission but the lab supports very few projects calling for high speed imaging services. Much high speed equipment is in poor state of repair. It is interesting to note that when the operation of lasers, digital imaging or quantitative techniques are requested these are directed to another NASA department. Could joint activities be initiated to solve problems? (7).

Davidhazy, Andrew

1994-12-01

172

[Confidentiality of data in medical-scientific research with humans].  

PubMed

The bill on Medical-Scientific Studies of Humans states that researchers should protect the privacy of test subjects to the extent possible. The right to privacy is also laid down in the Data Protection Act and the Medical Contract Act. Data gathered in the context of medical-scientific studies of humans should relate to the problem to be investigated, as set forth in the protocol. They must have been obtained legitimately-with the test subject's permission- and must as a matter of principle not be used for any other purpose than the study as a part of which they have been obtained. The data should be protected adequately, e.g. by encoding, and may be placed at other people's disposal only after permission from the test subject. Once research data have been processed in such a way that they can no longer reveal the test subject's identity, the latter's right to inspect them is cancelled. Furthermore, the test subject cannot assert his power of destruction regarding any parts of his file relating to the study. He must be so informed before-hand. Study results should be published in such a way that they cannot reveal individual identities. Every study protocol should include an 'information section' on the confidentiality of the data. It might be considered to draw up a code of behaviour regarding protection of privacy in medical-scientific studies of humans. PMID:9380138

Dute, J C

1997-05-31

173

Web Services Provide Access to SCEC Scientific Research Application Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote computer located elsewhere on the Internet. The value of a web service is that it can (1) run a scientific code without the user needing to install and learn the intricacies of running the code; (2) provide the technical framework which allows a user's computer to talk to the remote computer which performs the service; (3) provide the computational resources to run the code; and (4) bundle several analysis steps and provide the end results in digital or (post-processed) graphical form. Within an NSF-sponsored ITR project coordinated by SCEC, we are constructing web services using architectural protocols and programming languages (e.g., Java). However, because the SCEC community has a rich pool of scientific research software (written in traditional languages such as C and FORTRAN), we also emphasize making existing scientific codes available by constructing web service frameworks which wrap around and directly run these codes. In doing so we attempt to broaden community usage of these codes. Web service wrapping of a scientific code can be done using a "web servlet" construction or by using a SOAP/WSDL-based framework. This latter approach is widely adopted in IT circles although it is subject to rapid evolution. Our wrapping framework attempts to "honor" the original codes with as little modification as is possible. For versatility we identify three methods of user access: (A) a web-based GUI (written in HTML and/or Java applets); (B) a Linux/OSX/UNIX command line "initiator" utility (shell-scriptable); and (C) direct access from within any Java application (and with the correct API interface from within C++ and/or C/Fortran). This poster presentation will provide descriptions of the following selected web services and their origin as scientific application codes: 3D community velocity models for Southern California, geocoordinate conversions (latitude/longitude to UTM), execution of GMT graphical scripts, data format conversions (Gocad to Matlab format), and implementation of Seismic Hazard Analysis application programs that calculate hazard curve and hazard map data sets.

Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Okaya, D.; Kamb, L.; Maechling, P.

2003-12-01

174

Quantifying the Impact and Relevance of Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Qualitative and quantitative methods are being developed to measure the impacts of research on society, but they suffer from serious drawbacks associated with linking a piece of research to its subsequent impacts. We have developed a method to derive impact scores for individual research publications according to their contribution to answering questions of quantified importance to end users of research. To demonstrate the approach, here we evaluate the impacts of research into means of conserving wild bee populations in the UK. For published papers, there is a weak positive correlation between our impact score and the impact factor of the journal. The process identifies publications that provide high quality evidence relating to issues of strong concern. It can also be used to set future research agendas.

Sutherland, William J.; Goulson, David; Potts, Simon G.; Dicks, Lynn V.

2011-01-01

175

Neurosciences research in space Future directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

176

77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-12-05

177

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2013-11-22

178

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2012-05-24

179

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2013-07-09

180

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2011-04-06

181

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2011-11-29

182

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2010-12-20

183

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2011-10-24

184

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2010-05-21

185

78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-08-27

186

Evolution of scientific ballooning and its impact on astrophysics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we celebrate the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays on a manned balloon, it seems appropriate to reflect on the evolution of ballooning and its scientific impact. Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Ballooning was revolutionized in 1950 with the introduction of the so-called natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for more than a half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey report supports super-pressure balloon development and the giant step forward it offers with ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights at constant altitudes for about 100 days.

Jones, William Vernon

2014-05-01

187

PARC - Scientific Exchange Program (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

ScienceCinema

'PARC - Scientific Exchange Program' was submitted by the Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center (PARC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. PARC, an EFRC directed by Robert E. Blankenship at Washington University in St. Louis, is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

Blankenship, Robert E. (Director, Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center); PARC Staff

2011-11-03

188

50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the wild for the purpose of scientific research, the taking authorized...may be taken for purposes of scientific research only after issuance...Authorization: Photo-identification studies, behavioral observations...for purposes of bona fide scientific research under the...

2013-10-01

189

Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

2012-04-01

190

Does Action Research Count as Scientifically-Based Research? A Vygotskian Mediational Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the purpose, function, and legitimacy of action research as a methodology that encompasses a complex, authentic view of scientific inquiry. A historical account of action research is presented with a focus in how it merged theory with practice. Cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) is used as a theoretical rationale for…

Dixon-Krauss, Lisbeth A.

191

Women in Physics and Scientific Research in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines ``for women.'' If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.

Girata, Doris

2009-04-01

192

Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more diverse and complex. For revealing how the multi-facets of scientific inquiry are

Yi-Fen Yeh; Tsung-Hau Jen; Ying-Shao Hsu

2012-01-01

193

Shifts in guidelines for ethical scientific conduct: how public and private organizations create and change norms of research integrity.  

PubMed

We analyze the activities and actors involved in articulating and diffusing guidelines for ethical scientific conduct from 1975 to the present. We use a theoretical framework of institutional change at the organizational-field level to examine the co-evolution of the structure of the organizational field of 'scientific research' and its institutional logic. Public agencies have long provided funding to US universities to support faculty research, expecting that implicit norms of scientific conduct would guide behavior. Growing publicity about research fraud in the late 1960s and early 1970s triggered a shift from implicit norms to explicit behavioral proscriptions, with strong administrative oversight. As private sources of research funding exert new pressures on research behavior, public-private partnerships are emerging to articulate explicit, yet voluntary prescriptive norms of research integrity. The analysis demonstrates the co-evolution and co-dependence of changes in the identity and strength of influential actors in the field of scientific research and changes in the norms of scientific conduct. We examine how the normative guidelines have been constructed over time, illustrating the persistence of earlier norms as the foundation for current guidelines. We conclude with implications for future research conduct. PMID:19569428

Montgomery, Kathleen; Oliver, Amalya L

2009-02-01

194

Past, present and future of laser fusion research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong confidence to reach the ignition and burn in near future. The international collaboration is now highly expected.

Yamanaka, C.

1996-05-01

195

Designing to Support Collaborative Scientific Research Across Distances: The nanoManipulator Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of our research is to design and evaluate a distributed, collaborative virtual environment to support scientific research using a specialised scientific instrument, a nanoManipulator (nM). We began with an ethnographic study to develop an understanding of scientific collaboration, including current work practices using a nM. This understanding suggests that collaborative scientific research is cognitive work that is supported

Diane H. Sonnenwald; Ronald E. Bergquist; Kelly L. Maglaughlin; Eileen Kupstas Soo; Mary C. Whitton

2001-01-01

196

Scientific Research in a Democratic Culture: Or What's a Social Science For?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In attempting to guide both researchers and the federal government in the development of a stronger scientific culture for education research, the National Research Council report, Scientific Research in Education, falls short in its conception of research dissemination. Rather than considering the potential of new publishing technologies to…

Willinsky, John

2005-01-01

197

US computer research networks: Current and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

1989-01-01

198

Scientific Opportunities at OPAL, the New Australian Research Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australian physics is entering a new ``golden age,'' with the startup of bright new neutron and photon sources in Sydney and Melbourne, in 2006 and 2007 respectively. The OPAL reactor and the Australian Synchrotron can be considered the greatest single investment in scientific infrastructure in Australia's history. They will essentially be ``sister'' facilities, with a common open user ethos, and a vision to play a major role in international science. Fuel was loaded into the reactor in August 2006, and full power (20MW) achieved in November 2006. It is our plan to commence the formal user program in mid 2007, but commissioning experiments will have taken place well before then. The first three instruments in operation will be a high-resolution powder diffractometer (for materials discovery), single-crystal diffractometer (for small-molecule crystallography) and a strain scanner (for mechanical engineering and industrial applications). These will be closely followed by four more instruments with broad application in nanoscience, condensed- matter physics and other scientific disciplines. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere. To date there is committed funding for 9 instruments, with a capacity to install a total of ˜18 beamlines. An update will be given on the status of OPAL, its thermal and cold neutron sources, its instruments and hopefully the first data.

Robinson, Robert

2007-03-01

199

Future Scientific Digital Documents with MathML, XML, and SVG  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon State University Physics Department has recently initiated an undergraduate degree program in computational physics. Associated with that program is a National Science Foundation-funded project to develop curricula materials for introductory and advanced computational science classes. While we plan to publish traditional paper texts for these courses, we also are exploring ways to publish digital versions of these materials containing features that exploit new technologies. Specifically, we wish to advance digital books using multimodal and interactive elements to increase the access and understanding of mathematics and science. This installment of the education department describes the motivation behind, and the technologies needed for, the features we envision in future scientific documents.

Landau, Rubin; Vedliner, David; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat; Kyle, Kevin

2008-07-23

200

Water research to support society: past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years. Historical changes in focus areas clearly reflect the shifts in societal needs, going from industrialization to the information society and globalization. Present research needs will be illustrated in the on-going practical work to support water managers and decision makers with hydrological forecasts, climate change impact assessments, improved water status for biodiversity and statistics for dimensioning safe infrastructure. Different approaches to applied research and ways to implement new knowledge in society will be discussed. Future research is suggested to embrace the complexity of the water systems by linking scales, monitoring systems, processes, disciplines and various users. Some ingredients to achieve a coordinated effort in the scientific community will be suggested, based on new technology, multi-data, transparency and the principles of sharing. To handle the problems of the Antropocene, improved knowledge accumulation to advance science and interactions with other disciplines is absolutely necessary. These should be the basic elements of Panta Rhei.

Arheimer, Berit

2014-05-01

201

The Ethical Dimension of the Romanian Scientific Research for Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some elements related to the connection between scientific research and sustainable development, considering the ethical principles assumed by the scientific community. The Romanian laws concerning the National Sustainable Development Strategy 2013-2020-2030, as well as the objectives related to Science and Technology, are also presented. Responsible scientific research must be managed with respect towards the dignity and security

Brindusa Covaci

2009-01-01

202

IC-100 accelerator complex for scientific and applied research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial production of nuclear filters has been implemented at the IC-100 cyclotron complex of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. After the complete upgrade, the cyclotron was equipped with the superconducting ECR ion source and the system of external axial beam injection. The implantation complex was equipped with the special transportation channel with the beam scanning system and the setup for irradiation of polymer films. Intense beams of heavy ions Ne, Ar, Fe, Kr, Xe, I, and W with an energy of ˜1 MeV/nucleon were obtained. the properties of irradiated crystals were studied, different polymer films were irradiated, and several thousands of square meters of track membranes with pore densities varying in a wide range were produced. Other scientific and applied problems can be solved at the cyclotron complex.

Gikal, B. N.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gul'Bekyan, G. G.; Apel', P. Yu.; Bashevoi, V. V.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Borisov, O. N.; Buzmakov, V. A.; Ivanenko, I. A.; Ivanov, O. M.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kolesov, I. V.; Mironov, V. I.; Papash, A. I.; Pashchenko, S. V.; Skuratov, V. A.; Tikhomirov, A. V.; Khabarov, M. V.; Cherevatenko, A. P.; Yazvitskii, N. Yu.

2008-01-01

203

Scientific and statistical data management research at LBL  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a review of scientific and statistical data management research at LBL in recent years in the areas of: logical modeling and user interfaces, database operators, and physical organization and access methods. In the area of logical modeling and user interfaces we discuss: SUBJECT, a system for organizing multi-dimensional data, GUIDE, a graphical query system, and logical modeling of temporal data. In database operators we discuss sampling from relational databases, and transposition of compressed data. In the area of physical DB organization and access methods we discuss: header data compression, rearrangement of data arrays to enhance data compression, batched interpolation search, bit transposed file organization, techniques for controlling overflow from multi-dimensional data structures (e.g. grid files), and data structures for temporal data. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Olken, F.; Rotem, D.; Shoshani, A.; Wong, H.

1986-06-01

204

Spacelab Life Sciences 1 and 2 scientific research objectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pressurized Spacelab module was designed and built to allow investigators to conduct research in space in an environment approximating that of a ground-based laboratory. It is configured to allow multiple investigations employing both human and nonhuman subjects. This flexability is exemplified by the SLS-1, SLS-2, and SLS-3 experiment complement. A total of 21 experiments are scheduled for these missions; the areas to be investigated are renal/endocrine function, cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary function, hematology, immunology, metabolic activity of muscle, Ca metabolism, the vestibular system, and general biology. A plan for integration of measurements will allow each investigator to use data from other experiments. The experiments make up a scientifically balanced payload that addresses fundamental biomedical problems associated with space flight and provides the first opportunity to study the acute effects of weightlessness in a comprehensive, interrelated fashion.

Leach, Carolyn S.; Schneider, Howard J.

1987-01-01

205

The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

Danch, J. M.

2010-12-01

206

Project "phobos-grunt": Instruments for scientific research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the scientific objectives of the project Phobos-Grunt. The set of scientific instruments installed on board the spacecraft is discussed and the main problems to be resolved using these devices.

Zelenyi, L. M.; Zakharov, A. V.

2012-12-01

207

Directions in tropical agroforestry research: past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflections on the past two decades of organized research in tropical agroforestry raise several issues. Research efforts\\u000a started with an inductive and experiential approach but have subsequently followed a deductive and experimental approach that\\u000a includes hypothesis testing and the development of predictive capability; agroforestry research is thus being transformed\\u000a into a rigorous scientific activity. The research agenda, so far, has

P. K. R. Nair

1997-01-01

208

The Future of Higher Education and the Future of Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education research is closely linked to the debates on higher education policy and practice. It provides the information basis for decisions about the future of higher education. As the themes of the public debate on problems and reform needs in higher education change quickly, higher education research has to anticipate future problems and…

Teichler, Ulrich

2003-01-01

209

What Do Researchers Say about Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a thread of three pieces about scientific literacy. The first, written by Edgar Jenkins, provided an introduction to scientific literacy within the context of citizenship and the ways that scientific literacy might be interpreted by those with a concern about public understanding of science or the public engagement…

McGregor, Debbie; Kearton, Ginny

2010-01-01

210

Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BACKGROUND International Polar Year, which was launched in March 2007, is an international program of coordinated, interdisciplinary scientific research on Earth's polar regions. The northern regions of the eight Arctic States (Canada, Alaska (USA), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland. Iceland and Greenland (Denmark) have significant indigenous populations. The circumpolar Arctic is one of the least technologically connected regions in the world, although Canada and others have been pioneers in developing and suing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in remote areas. The people living in this vast geographic area have been moving toward taking their rightful place in the global information society, but are dependent on the outreach and cooperation of larger mainstream societies. The dominant medium of communication is radio, which is flexible in accommodating multiple cultures, languages, and factors of time and distance. The addition of newer technologies such as streaming on the Internet can increase access and content for all communities of interest, north and south. The Arctic Circle of Indigenous Communicators (ACIC) is an independent association of professional Northern indigenous media workers in the print, radio, television, film and Internet industries. ACIC advocates the development of all forms of communication in circumpolar North areas. It is international in scope. Members are literate in English, French, Russian and many indigenous languages. ACIC has proposed the establishment of a headquarters for monitoring IPY projects are in each area, and the use of community radio broadcasters to collect and disseminate information about IPY. The cooperation of Team IPY at the University of Colorado, Arctic Net at Laval University, and others, is being developed. ACIC is committed to making scientific knowledge gained in IPY accessible to those most affected - residents of the Arctic. ABSTRACT The meeting of the American Geophysical Union will be held in San Francisco on December 10 to 14, 2007. One component of this conference is entitled « Education, Outreach and Communications During IPY and Beyond ». ACIC proposes to present a discussion paper, « Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers », describing the status of IPY outreach and communications in the Arctic at this time. The paper will be complemented by photographs which illustrate the context of communication activity in these regions. ACIC has an existing international network of indigenous northern communicators. The IPY Northern Coordination Offices in Canada, and key informants in Alaska, RAIPON in the Russian Federation, and the Association of Sami Journalists, will be interviewed to determine involvement in IPY activities planned and/or undertaken. The level of community and professional awareness will be surveyed through interviews with community radio personnel. Aspirations and expectations for further cooperation with IPY reseearchers will be determined. Barriers and shortfalls will be identified. The usability and potential of current communications will be assessed. Endorsed IPY projects will be contacted to determine their Arctic communication plans and activities, barriers and opportunities. Information gained from the Joint Committee Assessment in October will be considered in the context of northern informant input. Conclusions and recommendations will reported, with the goal of optimizing opportunities to connect indigenous Arctic residents and IPY scientific research centres.

Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.

2007-12-01

211

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP: VOLUME 56 RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING.  

SciTech Connect

The sixth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on November 20-21, 2003, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present members of the Scientific Review Committee are Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (absent), Professor Stephen Sharpe, and Professor Jack Sandweiss, Committee Chair. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his research efforts. In addition, a special presentation was given jointly by our collaborators, Professors Norman Christ and Robert Mawhinney of Columbia University, on the progress and status of the IRBRC QCDSP/QCDOC Supercomputer program. A demonstration of a 64-node (64 Gflops peak speed) QCDOC machine in action followed. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

SAMIOS,N.P.LEE,T.D.

2004-01-06

212

Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

1980-01-01

213

Research Universities and the Future of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

Duderstadt, James J.

2012-01-01

214

Stem Cell Research and Applications: Scientific, Ethical, and Policy Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the face of extraordinary advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases, devastating illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease, continue to deprive people of health, independence, and well-being. Research in human developmental biology has led to the discovery of human stem cells (precursor cells that can give rise to multiple tissue types), including embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ (EG) cells, and adult stem cells. Recently, techniques have been developed for the in vitro culture of stem cells, providing unprecedented opportunities for studying and understanding human embryology. As a result, scientists can now carry out experiments aimed at determining the mechanisms underlying the conversion of a single, undifferentiated cell, the fertilized egg, into the different cells comprising the organs and tissues of the human body. Although it is impossible to predict the outcomes, scientists and the public will gain immense new knowledge in the biology of human development that will likely hold remarkable potential for therapies and cures. Derivation of ES cells from early human embryos, and EG stem cells from aborted fetal tissues raise ethical, legal, religious, and policy questions that are the subject of ongoing public debate. As a contribution to that debate AAAS and ICS produced a series of recommendations for conducting stem cell research in an ethical manner. AAAS and ICS recognize that there are varied social, political, ethical, and religious view points to be considered in discussions about the scientific use of tissue from human embryos and fetuses. Scientists do not presume to know all the answers and ramifications of basic research in human stem cells. Therefore, it is important to promote continued dialogue among all segments of society concerning the implications of human stem cell research.This resource includes the full stem cell report of this study and other resources for additional information on stem cells.

;

1999-11-01

215

Component research for future propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

1981-01-01

216

Transportation Research Circular: Future Aviation Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 12th International Workshop on Future Aviation Activities was held in September 2002, and this collection of presentation transcripts was released the following January. Many references to the September 11 terrorist attacks are made, especially concerning airport security measures and changes in the public's views of flying. Speakers also addressed long-term trends in air transportation, such as airspace capacity and general aviation growth. Nearly every kind of aviation was discussed; ranging from domestic to international activities and airports to manufacturers, the event had implications for the industry as a whole.

2003-01-01

217

The future of research in Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological condition first described by Georges Gilles de la Tourette in 1885. TS was largely thought of as a rare and bizarre condition until the 1960s, when the beneficial effects of neuroleptics on tic symptoms led to an exponential increase in neuroscientific research. Today TS is known to be a relatively common condition that is frequently misdiagnosed due to a combination of its variable manifestation and the waxing and waning of tic frequency and severity. Although there has been a paucity of research on TS compared to other movement disorders, in recent years TS has garnered increasing interest and has shown a number of novel and complex sides, about which much is yet to be learnt. The present article discusses where research has taken us thus far and where it is heading in all the major facets of this fascinating condition. PMID:23187142

Cavanna, Andrea E; Kavanagh, Conor; Robertson, Mary M

2013-01-01

218

50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered to be scientific research activity or recommend the applicant...or Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant...catch, to the appropriate Science and Research Director and Regional...

2013-10-01

219

Research and Development of Future Muon Collider  

SciTech Connect

Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01

220

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

221

Future of Energy Research in Switzerland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reproduction of the five contributions to a panel discussion at the meeting of the Swiss Energy Forum on 18th March 1982 and of the subsequent discussion. The main subject was the stock-taking of energy research and the importance, position and necessity ...

B. Hunziker K. Abegg M. Cosandey H. Graenicher D. Linder

1982-01-01

222

The future for stem cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have offered much hope by promising to greatly extend the numbers and range of patients who could benefit from transplants, and to provide cell replacement therapy to treat debilitating diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The issue of stem cell research is politically charged, prompting biologists to begin engaging in ethical debates, and generating in the

Robin Lovell-Badge

2001-01-01

223

The Zooniverse: Cutting Edge Scientific Research in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly scientists and researchers from a multitude of disciplines are finding themselves inundated with more data than they could possibly interpret in a lifetime. Computers can be used entirely or partially for some data analysis; but there are some tasks that are currently best suited to human eyes, ears and brains. Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org) invites members of the public to help researchers analyze and interpret data. To date, hundreds of thousands of volunteers have been involved in classifying images, interpreting sounds and transcribing texts. Zooniverse citizen scientists are providing valuable analyses across a variety of fields, from the hunt for exoplanets in Planet Hunters (planethunters.org) to the transcription of Greek papyri in Ancient Lives (ancientlives.org). Multiple academic publications have resulted from the combined efforts of the Zooniverse community and science teams demonstrating that citizen science is more than ever becoming a well-established method of doing research. Unlike most research projects the data, analysis and interactions with the science teams have an established and visible online presence through the project website and related discussion sites and blogs. These in themselves provide a valuable classroom resource, an opportunity for free and easy access to cutting edge scientific research. Anecdotal evidence exists that teacher can and already do use Zooniverse projects. By providing a rich and varied scaffolding to accompany the Zooniverse projects the opportunity exists for bringing citizen scientists to a wider classroom audience. An audience that may include non-specialist teachers, who require additional support to deliver challenging content, or time strapped educators who haven't the time to develop their own accompanying resources to weave Zooniverse projects into their lessons. During the session we will discuss the recent Zooniverse projects specifically designed to support and promote classroom adoption locally, within the Chicago Public School (CPS) system and nationally within the United States. Introducing ZooTeach, a website where educators may share and search for lesson plans, activities, and resources. Beyond a simple lesson plan repository, ZooTeach is a community where educators are encouraged to modify, comment on, and otherwise actively participate in the educational efforts of Zooniverse. Teacher workshops run at Adler have and will continue to have the dual effect of promoting the Zooniverse and it's educational effort while increasing the pool of resources available nationally via ZooTeach. In house developed teacher guides and interactive tools allowing for the collection and manipulation of data will further enhance the classroom education experience and further lower the bar for entry into the world of citizen science.

Borden, K. A.; Whyte, L. F.; Smith, A.; Tarnoff, A.; Schmitt, H.

2012-12-01

224

Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

225

A Review of Federal Aviation Administration Fatigue Research: Transitioning Scientific Results to the Aviation Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human fatigue remains a significant challenge in aviation. Basic scientific research has studied fatigue and created a solid scientific understanding. Current efforts seek to transfer the available research into operational environments. This document reviews the research and development conducted by the US Federal Aviation Administration over the past 50 years and focuses on studies that have led to the successful

Katrina Avers; William B. Johnson

2011-01-01

226

Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…

Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2012-01-01

227

The future of cometary plasma research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in the acquisition and analysis of cometary data are reviewed with attention given to current research and projects under development. The need for supplementing the present cometary data is underscored by discussing observational missions from the ground and earth orbit such as the Giotto Extended Mission and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby. The interpretation of Comet Halley data is characterized as advanced with respect to both complete observational data and sophisticated modeling.

Neugebauer, Marcia

1991-01-01

228

Results from the DIII-D scientific research program  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high {beta}), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. The authors have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with {beta}{sub N} H{sub 98y} {approximately} 6 for 5 {tau}{sub E} ({approximately}1 s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. They have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment.

Taylor, T.S.; Burrell, K.H.; Baker, D.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

1998-11-01

229

Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code. We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higher-quality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big-Data analysis environments.

Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

2014-05-01

230

Researching small firms and entrepreneurship: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to stimulate debate on the agendas, methodologies and methods used in the field of small business and entrepreneurship. The paper raises questions regarding the research agendas pursued and provides some pointers for the direction of future research. Integral to this is the argument that there is a need to reflect on the condition of small-business research and

Robert Blackburn; Anne Kovalainen

2009-01-01

231

Planning for future research participation: Ethical and practical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the concept of advance planning for future research participation during episodic or permanent decisional incapacity. First, the concept and its historical origins are described. Second, the concept's ethical justifications are presented. Third, commentary raising ethical and practical concerns about advance research planning is discussed. The paper concludes with the author's views on advance research planning and on

Rebecca Dresser

1999-01-01

232

Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed.

Puri, Anu

2013-01-01

233

A View of the Science Education Research Literature: Scientific Discovery Learning with Computer Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a review of research that addresses the effectiveness of simulations in promoting scientific discovery learning and the problems that learners may encounter when using discovery learning. (WRM)

Robinson, William R.

2000-01-01

234

PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

2007-12-01

235

Lack of Efficient Liaison Between Scientific Research Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In our scientific activities the scientific collectives are the main terrain for the growth of ideas and steps advocated by the Party and State. Therefore, I find it completely justified to be preoccupied with a further intensification of the activity of ...

G. Musca

1968-01-01

236

Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on

James O. Prochaska

2008-01-01

237

Study of the Future: An Agenda for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document addresses itself to the research goals that must be pursued in order to anticipate and cope with the future; perceive, evaluate and control the effects of our actions; and imagine and create more desirable futures. The report is concerned wi...

W. I. Boucher

1977-01-01

238

The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of ufology demonstrates that cultural packaging—a sort of once-removed indication of scientific authority—can be key in creating knowledge accepted as scientific. This adds a new dimension to the argument that scientific legitimacy is constructed, not just from scientific methodologies and institutional location, but also of language, culture, rhetoric, and symbols. Fringe researchers can make their cases for legitimacy

Anne Cross

2004-01-01

239

Neurosciences research in space - Future directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

1991-01-01

240

Wildland fire ash: future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-05-01

241

International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million teachers located in 49 countries have participated in some aspect of ISS educational activities. These activities include student-developed investigations, education competitions, and classroom versions of ISS investigations, participating in ISS investigator experiments, ISS hardware development, educational demonstrations, and cultural activities. Through the many inquiry-based educational activities, students and teachers are encouraged to participate in the ISS program thus motivating the next generation of students to pursue careers in STEM.

Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

2013-01-01

242

Future directions for research on youth with bipolar spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The past 25 years has witnessed significant advances in our knowledge of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BPSD) in youth. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are clarifying the unique features of its pediatric presentation, including continuities and discontinuities across the spectrum of severity. Advances have been made, both in the pharmacological and psychological management of BPSD in youth. Current investigations may ultimately shed light on new treatment strategies. Future research is anticipated to be influenced by NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). With this article, we summarize what is currently known about the basic phenomenology of pediatric BPSD, its clinical course, assessment and treatment, beginning with a summary of the major studies that have shed light on the topic. Next, we present a tally and content review of current research as an indicator of trends for the future. Then, we describe what we believe are important future directions for research. Finally, we conclude with implications for contemporary clinicians and researchers. PMID:23915232

Fristad, Mary A; Algorta, Guillermo Perez

2013-01-01

243

Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance.

Curfman McInnes, Lois; Dahlgren, Tamara; Nieplocha, Jarek; Bernholdt, David; Allan, Ben; Armstrong, Rob; Chavarria, Daniel; Elwasif, Wael; Gorton, Ian; Kenny, Joe; Krishan, Manoj; Malony, Allen; Norris, Boyana; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer

2007-07-01

244

Ethics and Scientific Integrity in Public Health, Epidemiological and Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we argue for a broader account of scientific integrity, one consistent with that defended by the United States Institute of Medicine, involving a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for one’s actions as a researcher and to practices consistent with the responsible conduct of research and protection of the research participants. Maintaining high standards of ethical and scientific integrity helps to maintain public trust in the research enterprise. An increasing number of authors have pointed to the importance of mentoring and education in relation to the responsible conduct of science in preventing transgressions of scientific integrity. Just like in clinical research and biomedicine, epidemiologists and other public health researchers have the responsibility to exhibit and foster the very highest standards of scientific integrity.

Coughlin, Steven S.; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus

2012-01-01

245

Evidence-Based Reading Policy in the United States: How Scientific Research Informs Instructional Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Representing a dramatic shift in education thinking, converging evidence now supports a reliance on findings from rigorous scientific research to guide education policy initiatives in the United States. Particularly for early reading instruction, scientific research has provided the framework for establishing the most effective measures for the…

Lyon, G. Reid; Shaywitz, Sally E.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.; Chhabra, Vinita

2005-01-01

246

Maladjustment and harmony of teaching and scientific research in the institutions of higher learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the institutions of higher learning, teaching and scientific research are the two main tasks which coexist in mutual development. However, in reality, the imbalanced relationship like partially emphasizing either of two does exist which needs to be coordinated to form a balanced relationship and ensure a commonly development. Keyword: teaching; scientific research; maladjustment; harmony

Junfeng Yan; Liu Zhenshen

2011-01-01

247

The Report on Scientific Research and Technical Work of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory in 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief summary is given on scientific research work of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory in 2001, including achievements obtained in knowledge innovation and basic research, observations and technical development, personal training and introducing, scientific management and service, international corporation and academic exchange, and so on. The main shortage on the work is also pointed out.

Zhao, Jun-Liang

2002-01-01

248

A Call for Evidence: Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spring 2003 issue of the "Learning Point," the North Central Regional Educational Lab's (NCREL) magazine, focuses on the theme "A Call for Evidence Responding to the New Emphasis on Scientifically Based Research." Articles and materials in the issue are: "Wake-Up Call: Facing the Challenge to Use Scientifically Based Research in Schools"…

NCREL's Learning Point, 2003

2003-01-01

249

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

250

Empirical research in environmental psychology: Past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have research interests in environmental psychology changed over the years? If so, in which direction? What can we learn from the past to direct future research? To answer these questions, empirical studies published in Environment & Behavior (E&B) and in Journal of Environmental Psychology (JEP), from their foundation to 2005, were reviewed. The articles were classified in relation to the

Maria Vittoria Giuliani; Massimiliano Scopelliti

2009-01-01

251

An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

2013-01-01

252

The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)

Taylor, Jack A.

1993-01-01

253

The future of performance?related sports biomechanics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of performance?related research in sports biomechanics is presented describing the relevant techniques of data analysis and data processing together with the methods used in experimental and theoretical studies. Advances in data collection and processing techniques which are necessary for the future development of sports biomechanics research are identified. The difficulties associated with experimental studies in sports biomechanics are

M. R. Yeadon; J. H. Challis

1994-01-01

254

Television and Violence: Methodological Issues for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies limitations of previous investigations of the relation between televised violence and viewer aggression and suggests a framework for future research concerning the effects of media viewing on child development. It is suggested that typical research is short-term, cross-sectional, and laboratory-based. Factors which mediate…

Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

255

How College Affects Students: Ten Directions for Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research literature on how college affects students is expanding at an exponential rate. This paper identifies and discusses ten directions for future research on college impact that have the potential to enhance the quality and importance of the evidence produced.

Pascarella, Ernest T.

2006-01-01

256

Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

2012-01-01

257

Future Research on Bituminous Materials at the Road Research Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper outlines the main operational and engineering requirements for bituminous road-making materials, summarises the present state of knowledge, and indicates the main lines of research needed in the next few years in Great Britain.

M. E. Burt J. H. Nicholas

1972-01-01

258

Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

2012-12-01

259

Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various scientific disciplines represented in investigations on ISS? Are there lessons specific to human research, technology development, life sciences, and physical sciences that can be used to increase future research accomplishments? Research has been conducted and completed on ISS under a set of challenging constraints during the past 7 years. The history of research accomplished on ISS during this time serves as an indicator of the value and potential of ISS when full utilization begins. By learning from our early experience in completing research on ISS, NASA and our partners can be positioned to optimize research returns as a full crew complement comes onboard, assembly is completed, and research begins in full.

Robinson, Julie A.

2007-01-01

260

How Might Research Inform Scientific Literacy in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific literacy is now seen as an essential component of informed citizenship and a key curriculum goal in many parts of the world. The relevant literature is vast and replete with a variety of definitions, descriptions, prescriptions, slogans and theoretical perspectives. It addresses not only formal education but also fields as diverse as…

Jenkins, Edgar

2010-01-01

261

Future Directions in Malignant Hyperthermia Research and Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care.

Hirshey Dirksen, Sharon J.; Larach, Marilyn Green; Rosenberg, Henry; Brandom, Barbara W.; Parness, Jerome; Lang, Robert Scott; Gangadharan, Meera; Pezalski, Tyler

2011-01-01

262

Diversity: Key to Success of Research Teams of The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A presentation from the invited speaker, Dr. Patricia Molina, given at the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellow Luncheon during EB 2008. Dr. Molina highlights studies showing that diversity in work environments improves the quality of research. She points out that APSÃÂs strategic directions to promote the advancement of underrepresented minority students, and encouraged those in attendance to recognize their essential role in the increasingly global scientific community.

2008-03-21

263

Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Briggs, R.S.

1990-10-01

264

Assessing the effects of fire disturbances on ecosystems: A scientific agenda for research and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A team of fire scientists and resource managers convened 17-19 April 1996 in Seattle, Washington, to assess the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems. Objectives of this workshop were to develop scientific recommendations for future fire research and management activities. These recommendations included a series of numerically ranked scientific and managerial questions and responses focusing on (1) links among fire effects, fuels, and climate; (2) fire as a large-scale disturbance; (3) fire-effects modeling structures; and (4) managerial concerns, applications, and decision support. At the present time, understanding of fire effects and the ability to extrapolate fire-effects knowledge to large spatial scales are limited, because most data have been collected at small spatial scales for specific applications. Although we clearly need more large-scale fire-effects data, it will be more expedient to concentrate efforts on improving and linking existing models that simulate fire effects in a georeferenced format while integrating empirical data as they become available. A significant component of this effort should be improved communication between modelers and managers to develop modeling tools to use in a planning context. Another component of this modeling effort should improve our ability to predict the interactions of fire and potential climatic change at very large spatial scales. The priority issues and approaches described here provide a template for fire science and fire management programs in the next decade and beyond.

Schmoldt, D. L.; Peterson, D. L.; Keane, R. E.; Lenihan, J. M.; McKenzie, D.; Weise, D. R.; Sandberg, D. V.

1999-01-01

265

A shifting mosaic of scholarly publishing, scientific delivery, and future impact changing the face of learned societies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonprofit scientific societies hope that their activities advance their particular mission and impact their profession and, in the broadest sense, humanity in positive ways. The digital age has provided unprecedented mechanisms to enhance the delivery of science to the world. The marketplace of scientific publishing is a rapidly shifting mosaic of challenges and opportunities, and the responses of nonprofit and commercial publishers vary widely, but their outcomes are still uncertain. The response of the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) provides an example of how a relatively small society has altered its scientific delivery to enhance member benefits while attempting to sustain its economic viability. Since 2000, ASM has moved from a self-publishing, break-even, print-only model to a copublishing agreement with a commercial publisher (Alliance Communications Group, a division of Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas), which now offers members various print and electronic options and generates a shared royalty. Although it is too early to gauge the economic impact of these changes, the ASM leadership clearly attempted to signal its desire for members to view their society as a package of opportunities for edification and involvement rather than just a provider of serial subscriptions. Future challenges facing nonprofit scientific societies include open access, fiscal realities, archiving of publications, and scientific and societal impact; future opportunities include a strengthening of member responsibilities and professionalism, development of data registries to enhance scientific progress, and bundling of like societies. The manner in which nonprofit scientific societies respond to these challenges and opportunities will no doubt affect their sustainability and future impact. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2007-01-01

266

Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students’ Development of Scientific Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in\\u000a science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame\\u000a the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of\\u000a tools in human activity, namely

Michiel van Eijck; Wolff-Michael Roth

2007-01-01

267

A View of the Science Education Research Literature: Scientific Discovery Learning with Computer Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their study, "Scientific Discovery Learning with Computer Simulations of Concept Domains", Ton de Jong and Wouter van Joolingen review research that addresses the effectiveness of simulations in promoting scientific discovery learning and the problems that learners may encounter as they use discovery learning. This review is important not only for the guidance it provides to designing simulations but also for what it says about students' ability to reason scientifically in general.

Robinson, William R.

2000-01-01

268

The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

Sowell, J.

1999-12-01

269

Pursuing Scientific Excellence Globally: Internationalising Research as a Policy Target  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International collaboration is a rapidly growing aspect of university research and a priority of research funding agencies. This article investigates the rationales that underlie Canadian federal research councils' support of international research collaborations. Such support has deep roots in Canadian science and technology policy but has…

Lasthiotakis, Helen; Sigurdson, Kristjan; Sá, Creso M.

2013-01-01

270

Leaders, leadership and future primary care clinical research  

PubMed Central

Background A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. Methods Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. Results Primary care research has benefited from a small group of passionate leaders and significant investment in recent decades in some countries. Emerging from this has been innovation in research design and focus, although less is known of the effect on research output. Conclusion Primary care research is now well placed to lead a broad re-vitalisation of academic medicine, answering questions of relevance to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include exposing undergraduates early to primary care research, integrating this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further expanding cross disciplinary approaches, and developing useful measures of output for future primary care research investment.

Furler, John; Cleland, Jennifer; Del Mar, Chris; Hanratty, Barbara; Kadam, Umesh; Lasserson, Daniel; McCowan, Colin; Magin, Parker; Mitchell, Caroline; Qureshi, Nadeem; Rait, Greta; Steel, Nick; van Driel, Mieke; Ward, Alison

2008-01-01

271

Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen on- and offshore science support infrastructure, recommended operational and scientific support structures and the relevance of AURORA BOREALIS for other present and future Antarctic science programmes and initiatives.

Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

2011-12-01

272

Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

2013-01-01

273

The Wireless World Research Forum and Future Smart Antenna Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) is a global organization, which was founded in August 2001. Members of the WWRF are typically manufacturers, network operators\\/service providers, R&D centers, universities and small and medium enterprises. In particular, the WWRF identify and scope research issues relevant to future mobile and wireless communications, including pre-regulatory impact assessments and invite world-wide participation. As such,

P. van Rooyen; A. Alexiou

2006-01-01

274

Remarks on the Communicative Functions of Hedging in Popular Scientific and Specialist Research Articles on Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 15 popular scientific journal articles and 15 specialist medical-research articles indicates that in medical discourse hedging, the expression of tentativeness and possibility by epistemic devices, can be applied in less specialized English- for-Special-Purposes (ESP) texts such as popular scientific articles, but in different…

Varttala, Teppo

1999-01-01

275

The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Omitted Research in the Context of GMO Use and Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessmentshave become apparent. The objective of this article is to discuss the policy and practical implementation of the Precautionary Principle. A major conclusion is that the void in scientific

Anne Ingeborg Myhr; Terje Traavik

2002-01-01

276

Methods of Science Investigation: A New Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Methods of Science Investigation Curriculum was designed to include students with special needs in participating in original scientific research. Based on techniques field tested in 2005, this new curriculum moves students from traditional teacher-facilitated presentations of what is often dubbed The Scientific Method, to a student-facilitated exploration and utilization of what is, in reality the many methods and environments

J. M. Danch; B. O'Lone; F. Darytichen

2006-01-01

277

Nutrition Education Research: Directions for the Future. [Proceedings].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Nutrition Education Research Conference was hosted by the National Dairy Council on December 4-6, 1978. Specific purposes of the conference were to: (1) examine historical foundations; (2) analyze governmental activities; (3) determine current status; and (4) identify priorities for future efforts. The conference's general sessions focused on…

Brun, Judy K., Ed.

278

Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

Clark-Kazak, Christina

2012-01-01

279

Future Directions for Structural Mechanics - Fundamental Research Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort had two goals: 1) to identify emerging research and development areas in the areas of flight structures and materials systems important to the future of the U.S. Air Force; and, 2) to define 'Grand Challenges' that, if pursued, will provide fu...

T. A. Weisshaar

2008-01-01

280

Future Directions in Research Applying Attitude Change Theories to Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights three sources that may have important implications for the future of social influence research in counseling. The first source presented is a major new literature review by P. Paul Heppner et al. that reviews the literature on social influence on counseling and updates earlier reviews. The discussion focuses on three main…

Heesacker, Martin

281

Future Directions in Sport and Juvenile Delinquency Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between sport and juvenile delinquency has been submitted to empirical evaluation only recently. The social facts, social definition, social behavior, and Marxian paradigms have all been used to explore this relationship. Future directions for research are explored. (Author/DF)

Segrave, Jeffrey O.; Hastad, Douglas N.

1984-01-01

282

Scientific Research and the Experimental Use Privilege in Patent Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress has identified research and development (R&D) as important contributors to technological progress. The performance of R&D may have intellectual property ramifications, however. To the extent that researchers use patented inventions without author...

J. R. Thomas

2004-01-01

283

SciDB: Open Source DMAS for Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SciDB is a DMAS (Data Management and Analytics Software System) optimized for data management of big data and for big analytics. SciDB is organized around multidimensional array storage, a generalization of relational tables, and is designed to be scalable up to petabytes and beyond. Complex analytics are simplified with SciDB because arrays and vectors are first-class objects with built-in optimized operations. Spatial operators and time-series analysis are easy to express. Interfaces to common scientific tools like R as well as programming languages like C++ and Python are provided.

SciDB Team

2013-11-01

284

Scientific Research in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains selected technical reports and publications resulting from scientific research and resources management studies carried out entirely or partly within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks in the southern Sierra Nevada of Calif...

D. J. Parsons V. V. King

1980-01-01

285

The role of ethnobotanics in scientific research. State of ethnobotanical knowledge in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution deals with the traditional use of plants of the Sicilian flora. Special attention is given to the species used in popular medicine. Moreover, the importance of ethnobotanics in scientific research and its role in toxicology are shown.

F Lentini

2000-01-01

286

Research Needs and Applications for Indicators Based on the Scientific and Technical Literature: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-day conference was held April 9-10, to bring together information scientists, analytical methods specialists, and members of the science studies research community. Participants discussed six papers dealing with characteristics of scientific and tec...

H. R. Coward

1980-01-01

287

Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

Witt, A. C.

2011-01-01

288

Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

1992-01-01

289

The Effects of University–Industry Relationships and Academic Research On Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates whether university–industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects\\u000a on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We\\u000a find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on scientific production are synergistic,\\u000a but only when the R&D contracts account for

Liney Manjarrés-Henríquez; Antonio Gutiérrez-Gracia; Andrés Carrión-García; Jaider Vega-Jurado

2009-01-01

290

The Heffter Research Institute: past and hopeful future.  

PubMed

This essay describes the founding of the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 and its development up to the present. The Institute is the only scientific research organization dedicated to scientific research into the medical value of psychedelics, and it has particularly focused on the use of psilocybin. The first clinical treatment study was of the value of psilocybin in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Next was a UCLA study of psilocybin to treat end-of-life distress in end-stage cancer patients. While that study was ongoing, a trial was started at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) to study the efficacy of psilocybin in treating anxiety and depression resulting from a cancer diagnosis. Following the successful completion of the UCLA project, a larger study was started at New York University, which is near completion. A pilot study of the value of psilocybin in treating alcoholism at the University of New Mexico also is nearing completion, with a larger two-site study being planned. Other studies underway involve the use of psilocybin in a smoking cessation program and a study of the effects of psilocybin in long-term meditators, both at JHU. The institute is now planning for a Phase 3 clinical trial of psilocybin to treat distress in end-stage cancer patients. PMID:24830182

Nichols, David E

2014-01-01

291

NASA's Plan for Improving Public Access to Federally Funded Scientific Research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February, 2013, OSTP issued a policy to all Federal agencies directing those that engage in $100 million or greater of federally funded research and development expenditures to develop an agency public access plan. The plan must consider both digital scientific data and scientific publications. This talk will review how NASA is currently complying with this OSTP directive, and NASA's plan for improving the public's ability to locate and access digital data and scientific publications resulting from NASA funded research. Updating NASA's policy will occur during FY 2014 and implementation of new policies and guidance will be in place by FY 2015.

Allen, G.

2013-12-01

292

Doctoral Research in Technical, Scientific, and Business Communication, 1989-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys doctoral research in technical, scientific, and business communication from 1989-1998. Finds a robust theoretical, historical, and practical scholarly production of knowledge occurring across a broad range of departments and institutions. Identifies what academic institutions sponsor such research, and what methods researchers employ.…

Rainey, Kenneth T.

1999-01-01

293

Revisiting four scientific debates in ocean acidification research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, ocean acidification has gained continuously increasing attention from scientists and a number of stakeholders and has raised serious concerns about its effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. With the increase in interest, funding resources, and the number of scientific investigations focusing on this environmental problem, increasing amounts of data and results have been produced, and a progressively growing and more rigorous understanding of this problem has begun to develop. Nevertheless, there are still a number of scientific debates, and in some cases misconceptions, that keep reoccurring at a number of forums in various contexts. In this article, we revisit four of these topics that we think require further thoughtful consideration including: (1) surface seawater CO2 chemistry in shallow water coastal areas, (2) experimental manipulation of marine systems using CO2 gas or by acid addition, (3) net versus gross calcification and dissolution, and (4) CaCO3 mineral dissolution and seawater buffering. As a summation of these topics, we emphasize that: (1) many coastal environments experience seawater pCO2 that is significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere and is strongly linked to biological processes; (2) addition of acid, base or CO2 gas to seawater can all be useful techniques to manipulate seawater chemistry in ocean acidification experiments; (3) estimates of calcification or CaCO3 dissolution based on present techniques are measuring the net of gross calcification and dissolution; and (4) dissolution of metastable carbonate mineral phases will not produce sufficient alkalinity to buffer the pH and carbonate saturation state of shallow water environments on timescales of decades to hundreds of years to the extent that any potential negative effects on marine calcifiers will be avoided.

Andersson, A. J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

2012-03-01

294

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research

L. Rowell Huesmann

2007-01-01

295

Documentation in Evaluation Research: Managerial and Scientific Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of documentation in the planning and control functions of project management is reviewed. The importance of documentation in the assessment of research quality with respect to objectivity, validity, and replicability is discussed. An outline of documentation required in different phases of research projects is provided. (Author/DWH)

Pollard, William E.; And Others

1985-01-01

296

A Diagnostic Reading of Scientifically Based Research for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay offers a diagnosis of what may be at stake in the current preoccupation with defining science-based educational research. The diagnosis unfolds in several readings: The first is a charitable and considerate appraisal that draws attention to the fact that advocating experimental methods as important to a science of educational research

Schwandt, Thomas A.

2005-01-01

297

Industry Funding of University Research and Scientific Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research conducted by university researchers for industry constitutes one of the main channels through which knowledge and technology are transferred from science to the private sector. Since the value of such inputs for the innovation performance of firms has been found to be considerable, it is not surprising that firms increasingly seek direct access to university knowledge. In particular, industry

Hanna Hottenrott; Susanne Thorwarth

2011-01-01

298

Superfund research program--accomplishments and future opportunities.  

PubMed

This special issue of the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health provides extensive background on the Superfund programs, findings of specific research studies and future directions. Three federal agencies are leading the effort in this program. They are the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. As a result of their collaboration, a comprehensive program has been developed that ranges from basic to applied research with the aim of improving public health services and protection. This paper highlights the research within areas of toxicological investigation, exposure assessment, risk evaluation and engaging communities. Each of the agencies has developed strategies and initiatives to enhance the effectiveness of the Superfund research program. The continuation of research will contribute significantly towards achieving the Healthy People 2010 goals that have been set for the United States. PMID:12018012

Au, William W; Falk, Henry

2002-03-01

299

The Impact of Research Grant Funding on Scientific Productivity*  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we estimate the impact of receiving an NIH grant on subsequent publications and citations. Our sample consists of all applications (unsuccessful as well as successful) to the NIH from 1980 to 2000 for standard research grants (R01s). Both OLS and IV estimates show that receipt of an NIH research grant (worth roughly $1.7 million) leads to only one additional publication over the next five years, which corresponds to a 7 percent increase. The limited impact of NIH grants is consistent with a model in which the market for research funding is competitive, so that the loss of an NIH grant simply causes researchers to shift to another source of funding.

Jacob, Brian A.; Lefgren, Lars

2011-01-01

300

Double Dipping for Research: An Introduction to the Scientific Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends that teachers avoid cookbook-type exercises and predescribed protocols for laboratory work and instead engage students in research that can teach critical thinking, problem solving, and analytical skills. (DDR)

Favero, Terry

1998-01-01

301

Scientific models and ethical issues in hybrid bionic systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on hybrid bionic systems (HBSs) is still in its infancy but promising results have already been achieved in laboratories.\\u000a Experiments on humans and animals show that artificial devices can be controlled by neural signals. These results suggest\\u000a that HBS technologies can be employed to restore sensorimotor functionalities in disabled and elderly people. At the same\\u000a time, HBS research raises

Pericle Salvini; Edoardo Datteri; Cecilia Laschi; Paolo Dario

2008-01-01

302

Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

2002-01-01

303

C-IMAGE Teachers at Sea Maiden Voyages: Promoting Authentic Scientific Research in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Integrated Modeling & Analysis of Gulf Ecosystems (C-IMAGE) is one of eight consortia participating in the BP/Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. C-IMAGE is a comprehensive research consortium of 13 national and international universities tasked with evaluating the environmental impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) on coastal ecosystems, the water column and the sea floor. The associated C-IMAGE research cruises provide a unique opportunity for Florida's K12 science educators to participate in the data collection and collaboration process alongside marine scientists as a member of the scientific crew. The mission of the C-IMAGE cruises is to help to answer several fundamental questions about the DWH event and subsequent impacts on the plankton population, reef and fish communities and the microbial communities. Deep sea sediment samples, plankton and fishes collected during these expeditions are the data sources. Sampling activities include the use of the SIPPER plankton sampler, multi-core sediment system and long line surveys to assess fish health. While at sea teachers participate in the at sea research and serve as the ship to shore communicator via social media (FB, Twitter, daily blogs) and LIVE video conferencing with formal and informal classrooms. Marine scientists, post-docs and graduate students participating in the C-IMAGE cruises collaborate with the teacher on board to communicate the science, technology and life at sea experiences to educational and general audiences. Upon return to shore, teachers will translate their At Sea learning experience to understandable inquiry-based lessons about the science and technology encompassing the northern Gulf of Mexico ecology, the DWH event and subsequent impacts. Lessons developed from the cruises will inform a future series of C-IMAGE Teacher Professional Developments during Phase 2 of Outreach activities. The results from three Gulf of Mexico expeditions (Aug-Nov) will be presented: related to teachers' working knowledge of research and sampling procedures as well as metrics for the potential value-added of social media as a mechanism for communicating research with formal and informal audiences. C-IMAGE teachers will engage in research with experts in biological and chemical modeling, marine resource assessment, sedimentary geochemistry and toxicology. This research is made possible by a grant from BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. Contract #SA 12-10/GoMRI-007;

Hine, A. C.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.

2012-12-01

304

Scientific Drivers for a Future Polarimetric Mode for the VLTI: VISPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific drivers and the concept of a polarimetric instrument for the VLTI, VISPER (Vlti Imaging Spectro-PolarimetER)\\u000a will be presented. Many scientific programs in stellar physics as well as in extra-galactic astronomy would benefit from interferometric\\u000a high-resolution imaging combined with polarimetry. For instance, we can study scattering phenomena in the extended atmospheres\\u000a of hot stars, the circumstellar environment of young

F. Vakili; O. Chesneau; F. Delplancke; S. Jankov; K. Perraut; C. Stehle; J. Stenflo

2002-01-01

305

Status of muon collider research and development and future plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of the research on muon colliders is discussed and plans are outlined for future theoretical and experimental studies. Besides work on the parameters of a 3-4 and 0.5 TeV center-of-mass (COM) energy collider, many studies are now concentrating on a machine near 0.1 TeV (COM) that could be a factory for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. We

Charles M. Ankenbrandt; Muzaffer Atac; Bruno Autin; Valeri I. Balbekov; Vernon D. Barger; Odette Benary; J. Scott Berg; Michael S. Berger; Edgar L. Black; Alain Blondel; S. Alex Bogacz; T. Bolton; Sholomo Caspi; Christine Celata; Weiren Chou; David B. Cline; John Corlett; Lucien Cremaldi; H. Thomas Diehl; Alexandr Drozhdin; Richard C. Fernow; David A. Finley; Yasuo Fukui; Miguel A. Furman; Tony Gabriel; Juan C. Gallardo; Alper A. Garren; Stephen H. Geer; Ilya F. Ginzburg; Michael A. Green; Hulya Guler; John F. Gunion; Ramesh Gupta; Tao Han; Gail G. Hanson; Ahmed Hassanein; Norbert Holtkamp; Colin Johnson; Carol Johnstone; Stephen A. Kahn; Daniel M. Kaplan; Eun San Kim; Bruce J. King; Harold G. Kirk; Yoshitaka Kuno; Paul Lebrun; Kevin Lee; Peter Lee; Derun Li; David Lissauer; Laurence S. Littenberg; Changguo Lu; Alfredo Luccio; Joseph D. Lykken; Kirk T. McDonald; Alfred D. McInturff; John R. Miller; Frederick E. Mills; Nikolai V. Mokhov; Alfred Moretti; Yoshiharu Mori; David V. Neuffer; King-Yuen Ng; Robert J. Noble; James H. Norem; Yasar Onel; Robert B. Palmer; Zohreh Parsa; Yuriy Pischalnikov; Milorad Popovic; Eric J. Prebys; Zubao Qian; Rajendran Raja; Claude B. Reed; Pavel Rehak; Thomas Roser; Robert Rossmanith; Ronald M. Scanlan; Andrew M. Sessler; Brad Schadwick; Quan-Sheng Shu; Gregory I. Silvestrov; Alexandr N. Skrinsky; Dale Smith; Panagiotis Spentzouris; Ray Stefanski; Sergei Striganov; Iuliu Stumer; Don Summers; Valeri Tcherniatine; Lee C. Teng; Alvin V. Tollestrup; Yagmur Torun; Dejan Trbojevic; William C. Turner; Sven E. Vahsen; Andreas van Ginneken; Tatiana A. Vsevolozhskaya; Weishi Wan; Haipeng Wang; Robert Weggel; Erich H. Willen; Edmund J N Wilson; David R. Winn; Jonathan S. Wurtele; Takeichiro Yokoi; Yongxiang Zhao; Max Zolotorev

1999-01-01

306

A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

2012-01-01

307

Conclusions, reflections, and prospects for future research, policy, and programming.  

PubMed

This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the vulnerability-agency binary. The author encourages more research into how power relations, relationships, and networks shape migration decisions and suggests the need to analyze comparative experiences of families and siblings who are "left behind." Finally, the chapter draws attention to the need for mixed methodological and disciplinary approaches and greater analysis of the intersection of social age and gender issues. PMID:22689526

Clark-Kazak, Christina

2012-01-01

308

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists.

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2011-01-01

309

Relationship education research: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the article is the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy, and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the coauthors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and the couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K

2012-01-01

310

Workshops without Walls: Sharing Scientific Research through Educator Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discoveries, large and small, are constantly being made. Whether it is the discovery of a new species or a new comet, it is a challenge to keep up. The media provide some assistance in getting the word out about the discoveries, but not the details or the challenges of the discovery. Professional development is essential for science educators to keep them abreast of the fascinating discoveries that are occurring. The problem is that not every educator has the opportunity to attend a workshop on the most recent findings. NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Education and Public Outreach program has offered a series of multi-site professional development workshops that have taken place at four physical locations sites: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Arizona, as well as over the internet. All sites were linked via the Digital Learning Network, on which scientists and educator specialists shared information about their missions and activities. Participants interacted with speakers across the country to learn about Discovery and New Frontiers class missions. The third such annual workshop without walls, 'Challenge of Discovery,' was held on 9 April 2013. Educators from across the country delved into the stories behind some amazing NASA missions, from conception to science results. They learned how scientists, engineers, and mission operators collaborate to meet the challenges of complex missions to assure that science goals are met. As an example of science and engineering coming together, an Instrument Scientist and a Payload Operations Manager from the MESSENGER mission discussed the steps needed to observe Mercury's north polar region, gather data, and finally come to the conclusion that water ice is present in permanently shadowed areas inside polar impact craters. The participating educators were able to work with actual data and experience how the conclusion was reached. This example and others highlight the potential of such workshops to inform and engage educators.

Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K.; Asplund, S. E.; Cobb, W. H.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

2013-12-01

311

Choir acoustics –an overview of scientific research published to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Choir acoustics is but one facet of choir-related research, yet it is one of the most tangible. Several aspects of sound can be measured objectively, and such results can be related to known properties of voices, rooms, ears and musical scores. What follows is essentially an update of the literature overview in my Ph.D. dissertation from 1989 of empirical

Sten Ternström

312

Online mentoring to induct junior researchers into scientific literacy practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An evaluation study was conducted on the impact of this programme over two conferences. Survey

Gurmit Singh

2010-01-01

313

Word recognition: The interface of educational policies and scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a tremendous amount of research in educational, cognitive and developmental psychology on the nature and acquisition of reading skills, practitioners have a goldmine of evidence upon which to design effective educational programs for beginning and problem readers. This evidence is highly consistent in terms of delineating different stages of reading that young children pass through, the

Marilyn J. Adams; Maggie Bruck

1993-01-01

314

PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable

M. Christiansen; E. Sevre; S. M. Wang; D. A. Yuen; S. Liu; M. D. Lyness; M. Broten

2007-01-01

315

Online Mentoring to Induct Junior Researchers into Scientific Literacy Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report results from an evaluation of an online abstract mentoring programme to support early career and less experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers improve their chances of acceptance to International HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conferences. Design/methodology/approach: An…

Singh, Gurmit

2010-01-01

316

Image Galleries of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)  

DOE Data Explorer

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the flagship scientific computing facility for the Office of Science in the U.S. Department of Energy. As one of the largest facilities in the world devoted to providing computational resources and expertise for basic scientific research, NERSC is a world leader in accelerating scientific discovery through computation. NERSC is located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. The more than 3,000 computational scientists who use NERSC perform basic scientific research across a wide range of disciplines. These disciplines include climate modeling, research into new materials, simulations of the early universe, analysis of data from high energy physics experiments, investigations of protein structure, and a host of other scientific endeavors. NERSC provides three image galleries: the vizualizations image gallery (visualizations produced at NERSC from datasets resulting from experiments, simulations, or data analysis), the NERSC systems gallery (images and videos of the systems that undergird all NERSC work), and a collection of NERSC logos.

317

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

SciTech Connect

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

1987-01-01

318

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

319

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1960s research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated. Finally, the size of the “media violence effect” is compared with some other well known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered.

Huesmann, L. Rowell

2009-01-01

320

Accurate Scientific Visualization in Research and Physics Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate visualization is key in the expression and comprehension of physical principles. Many 3D animation software packages come with built-in numerical methods for a variety of fundamental classical systems. Scripting languages give access to low-level computational functionality, thereby revealing a virtual physics laboratory for teaching and research. Specific examples will be presented: Galilean relativistic hair, energy conservation in complex systems, scattering from a central force, and energy transfer in bi-molecular reactions.

Wendler, Tim

2011-10-01

321

Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

Horta, Hugo

2013-01-01

322

Cross-border reproductive care: a future research agenda.  

PubMed

Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is a rapidly growing phenomenon of interest to governments and regulators, professionals working within the field of assisted reproductive technologies and men and women seeking to use their services. However, to date, discussions have been dominated by media debates and scholarly commentary, with only partial and fragmentary evidence from empirical research studies. This article identifies the pressing gaps in the literature, elucidates the main theoretical and methodological challenges for investigating CBRC and outlines a future research agenda. Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is a rapidly growing phenomenon of interest to governments and regulators, professionals working within the field of assisted reproductive technologies and men and women seeking to use their services. However, to date, discussions have been dominated by media debates and scholarly commentary, with only partial and fragmentary evidence from empirical research studies. This article identifies the pressing gaps in the literature, elucidates the main theoretical and methodological challenges for investigating CBRC and outlines a future research agenda. PMID:21978923

Inhorn, Marcia C; Gürtin, Zeynep B

2011-11-01

323

An Analysis of the Actual Processes of Physicists' Research and the Implications for Teaching Scientific Inquiry in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of scientists' actual processes of conducting research can provide us with more realistic aspects of scientific inquiry. This study was performed to identify three aspects of scientists' actual research: their motivations for scientific inquiry, the scientific inquiry skills they used, and the main types of results obtained from…

Park, Jongwon; Jang, Kyoung-Ae; Kim, Ikgyun

2009-01-01

324

Alzheimer's Disease Research: Scientific Productivity and Impact of the Top 100 Investigators in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online availability of scientific-literature databases and natural-language-processing (NLP) algorithms has enabled large-scale bibliometric studies within the field of scientometrics. Using NLP techniques and Thomson ISI reports, an initial analysis of the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the neurosciences as well as a summary of the various research foci within the AD scientific community are presented. Citation analyses and

Aaron A. Sorensen

2009-01-01

325

Scientometrical approach of the definition of a research domain using scientific journals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first par...

A. Signogneau

1995-01-01

326

1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

NONE

1993-12-31

327

Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

2009-01-01

328

SYMPOSIUM ON NEW SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH RELATED TO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

On February 26-27th, 2004, the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development, held a two-day public symposium on recently published scientific research related to the health effec...

329

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.

1981-01-01

330

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

331

The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

2009-01-01

332

Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs  

SciTech Connect

The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-02-01

333

National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research  

PubMed Central

The “h index” proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569–16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities.

Kinney, A. L.

2007-01-01

334

National scientific facilities and their science impact on nonbiomedical research.  

PubMed

The "h index" proposed by Hirsch [Hirsch JE (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569-16573] is a good indicator of the impact of a scientist's research and has the advantage of being objective. When evaluating departments, institutions, or laboratories, the importance of the h index can be further enhanced when it is properly calibrated for the size of the group. Particularly acute is the issue of federally funded facilities whose number of actively publishing scientists frequently dwarfs that of academic departments. Recently, Molinari and Molinari [Molinari JF, Molinari A (2008) Scientometrics, in press] developed a methodology that shows that the h index has a universal growth rate for large numbers of papers, allowing for meaningful comparisons between institutions. An additional challenge when comparing large institutions is that fields have distinct internal cultures, with different typical rates of publication and citation; biology is more highly cited than physics, for example. For this reason, the present study has focused on the physical sciences, engineering, and technology and has excluded biomedical research. Comparisons between individual disciplines are reported here to provide a framework. Generally, it was found that the universal growth rate of Molinari and Molinari holds well across the categories considered, testifying to the robustness of both their growth law and our results. The goal here is to set the highest standard of comparison for federal investment in science. Comparisons are made of the nation's preeminent private and public institutions. We find that many among the national science facilities compare favorably in research impact with the nation's leading universities. PMID:17991781

Kinney, A L

2007-11-13

335

Future directions in focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers is discussed. Significant improvement in image quality and consequent scientific return may be enabled through the utilization of focal-plane signal processing techniques. The possible application of focal-plane signal processing to readout noise reduction, cosmic ray circumvention, non-uniformity correction, and throughput enhancement is described. On-focal-plane analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion and micromotion stabilization are also discussed. It is the intention of this paper to stimulate further thought and efforts in this field.

Fossum, Eric R.

1991-01-01

336

Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

Sever, Thomas L.

2003-01-01

337

Scientific visualization in computational aerodynamics at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visualization methods used in computational fluid dynamics research at the NASA-Ames Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation facility are examined, including postprocessing, tracking, and steering methods. The visualization requirements of the facility's three-dimensional graphical workstation are outlined and the types hardware and software used to meet these requirements are discussed. The main features of the facility's current and next-generation workstations are listed. Emphasis is given to postprocessing techniques, such as dynamic interactive viewing on the workstation and recording and playback on videodisk, tape, and 16-mm film. Postprocessing software packages are described, including a three-dimensional plotter, a surface modeler, a graphical animation system, a flow analysis software toolkit, and a real-time interactive particle-tracer.

Bancroft, Gordon V.; Plessel, Todd; Merritt, Fergus; Walatka, Pamela P.; Watson, Val

1989-01-01

338

Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

1994-01-01

339

eCAT: Online electronic lab notebook for scientific research  

PubMed Central

Background eCAT is an electronic lab notebook (ELN) developed by Axiope Limited. It is the first online ELN, the first ELN to be developed in close collaboration with lab scientists, and the first ELN to be targeted at researchers in non-commercial institutions. eCAT was developed in response to feedback from users of a predecessor product. By late 2006 the basic concept had been clarified: a highly scalable web-based collaboration tool that possessed the basic capabilities of commercial ELNs, i.e. a permissions system, controlled sharing, an audit trail, electronic signature and search, and a front end that looked like the electronic counterpart to a paper notebook. Results During the development of the beta version feedback was incorporated from many groups including the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital Boston, Alex Swarbrick's lab at the Garvan Institute in Sydney and Martin Spitaler at Imperial College. More than 100 individuals and groups worldwide then participated in the beta testing between September 2008 and June 2009. The generally positive response is reflected in the following quote about how one lab is making use of eCAT: "Everyone uses it as an electronic notebook, so they can compile the diverse collections of data that we generate as biologists, such as images and spreadsheets. We use to it to take minutes of meetings. We also use it to manage our common stocks of antibodies, plasmids and so on. Finally, perhaps the most important feature for us is the ability to link records, reagents and experiments." Conclusion By developing eCAT in close collaboration with lab scientists, Axiope has come up with a practical and easy-to-use product that meets the need of scientists to manage, store and share data online. eCAT is already being perceived as a product that labs can continue to use as their data management and sharing grows in scale and complexity.

2009-01-01

340

A Classroom-Based Distributed Workflow Initiative for the Early Involvement of Undergraduate Students in Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish several scientific objectives. Students take part in a classroom-based, distributed workflow project that aims to produce high-quality data on the physical dimensions of chondrules, mm-sized spherules contained in primitive meteorites called chondrites. Such data are needed to test astrophysical models for processes acting in the early solar system. Student investigators process X-ray microtomography data with resources contained on portable USB flash drives distributed to them. Students are exposed to data collection, data quality evaluation, interpretation, and presentation of their results. Herein, an introduction to the scientific objectives is given along with an evolutionary history of the project. A description of the current implementation of the course is presented, and future directions are discussed. Anonymous student evaluations of the course are used to demonstrate the educational and engaging nature of the project. Finally, we reflect on the possible benefits of such a project for first- and second-year students within STEM disciplines.

Friedrich, Jon M.

2013-05-01

341

Hemostasis research in India: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Hemostasis research in India has a long history considering the fact that it is one of the youngest specialities in the world. If we take creation of prothrombin time (PT) test as one of the beginning of modern hemostsis research, then the specialty is no older than 60 years. School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, Banaras Hindu University, All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Delhi, Christian Medical College at Vellore, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research at Chandigarh, and KEM Hospital at Mumbai contributed substantially in defining various bleeding disorders in our country. Unfortunately, some of these institutes are no longer as active in the field as they used to be. Currently, the Institute of Immunohaematology at Mumbai, Chrstian medical College at Vellore, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Delhi are actively engaged in hemostsis research in India. Developing prenatal diagnostic technologies, mutation detection of various hemostatic disorders, developing low-cost management technologies for hemophilia, and other bleeding disorders are becoming important present day research activity in the area of hemostasis in addition to age old areas of prevalence and unusual case description studies. Entry of many new corporate hospitals, development of structured postgraduate training program in hematology, and easy availability of instruments and reagents are likely to foster further growth in this area of medical research in India in future. PMID:21890571

Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka; Shetty, Shrimati

2012-01-01

342

Challenges and future directions for tailored communication research.  

PubMed

As informatics technology advances, a growing number of research trials on tailored communications provide an accumulation of promising evidence to support their efficacy. These trials also reveal gaps and opportunities for future research. The scope and boundaries of tailoring must be redefined in terms of both new technology and the trade-offs between complexity, demand burden on participants, and the minimal information required for effective and efficient tailoring. Basic and methods research is needed to broaden theory, develop a common language, standardize measures, and isolate the key mediating mechanisms that facilitate tailored communications. Applied research must consider more rigorous research designs for efficacy trials and conduct more effectiveness trials to investigate the mechanisms of technology transfer to enhance large-scale diffusion of tailored communications. The role of contextual variables needs to be examined, as well as their interaction with different population groups, and also the channels, modes, and methods of tailored message delivery. Research is also needed on the feasibility of tailoring across clusters of multiple risk factors to identify the commonalities, differences, and interrelations among diverse behaviors. The potential cost-effectiveness of tailored communications must also be examined. No matter how efficacious, tailored communications delivered to large populations (i.e. mass-customization) will not make a public health impact unless proven to be practical and cost-efficient. PMID:10721436

Abrams, D B; Mills, S; Bulger, D

1999-01-01

343

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

2007-01-01

344

Knowledge and Attitudes of Future Schoolteachers in the Scientific-Mathematical Sphere: Some Evidences for Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the university careers of students who are training to become primary school teachers has shown that a certain number have real difficulty in passing examinations in the scientific and methodological fields. This paper uses both objective and subjective data to analyse the levels of competence in this cultural field, and the propensity…

Clerici, Renata

2008-01-01

345

Scientific Needs for Future X-Ray Sources in the U.S.: A White Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale

Roger Falcone; Joachim Stohr; Uwe Bergmann; John Corlett; John Galayda; Jerry Hastings; Zahid Hussain Robert Hettel; Janos Kirz; Bill McCurdy; Tor Raubenheimer; John Seeman Fernando Sannibale; Z.-X. Shen; Robert Schoenlein; Alexander Zholents

2008-01-01

346

Scientific Needs for Future X-ray Sources in the U.S. -- A White Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving heath, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale

Roger Falcone; Joachim Stohr; Uwe Bergmann; John Corlett; John Galayda; Jerry Hastings; Bob Hettel; Zahid Hussain; Janos Kirz; Bill McCurdy; Tor Raubenheimer; Fernando Sannibale; John Seeman; Z.-X. Shen; Bob Schoenlein; Alexander Zholents

2008-01-01

347

Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for

D. G. Perry; J. S. Dahmann

1987-01-01

348

A meta analysis of ISO 9001:2000 research – findings and future research proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review and classify the main findings of the studies undertaken on ISO 9001:2000 certified companies and to present future research proposals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive literature review is carried out focusing on research papers published in academic literature. Both, the most recently published papers as well as those concerned only with

Evangelos L. Psomas; Christos V. Fotopoulos

2009-01-01

349

Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

2011-12-01

350

Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ?20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

2011-07-01

351

Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research  

PubMed Central

Abstract There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ?20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype–phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as ‘genotype scores’. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been indentified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics.

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, Jose; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

2011-01-01

352

Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.  

PubMed

Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. PMID:20398161

High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E

2010-04-01

353

Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

2005-01-01

354

Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2013-08-01

355

Scientific Research Database of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 5 years after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake stroke 70km away along the same fault system. Given the tremendous life loss and property damages as well as the short time and distance intervals between the two large magnitude events, the scientific probing into their causing factors and future seismic activities in the nearby region will continue to be in the center of earthquake research in China and even the world for years to come. In the past five years, scientists have made significant efforts to study the Wenchuan earthquake from various aspects using different datasets and methods. Their studies cover a variety of topics including seismogenic environment, earthquake precursors, rupture process, co-seismic phenomenon, hazard relief, reservoir induced seismicity and more. These studies have been published in numerous journals in Chinese, English and many other languages. In addition, 54 books regarding to this earthquake have been published. The extremely diversified nature of all publications makes it very difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible, to sort out information needed by individual researcher in an efficient way. An information platform that collects relevant scientific information and makes them accessible in various ways can be very handy. With this mission in mind, the Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology has developed a website www.wceq.org to attack this target: (1) articles published by major journals and books are recorded into a database. Researchers will be able to find articles by topics, journals, publication dates, authors and keywords e.t.c by a few clicks; (2) to fast track the latest developments, researchers can also follow upon updates in the current month, last 90days, 180 days and 365 days by clicking on corresponding links; (3) the modern communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter and their Chinese counterparts are accommodated in this site to share favorite research information with friends; (4) This site also serves as a bridge between readers and authors by providing messaging boards in many forms; (5) we also track relevant meeting presentations, ongoing researches as well as earthquake-related news; (6) furthermore, we also collect publications of earthquakes in the eastern Tibetan plateau and selected ones from other regions for comparison purpose. After nearly one year of operation, the database has been growing steadily with time and the major functionalities have been well developed and stabilized. Up to August 6 2013, totally 847 papers have been collected in our database. Among them 673, 21 and 153 papers are of Wenchuan, Lushan and Tohoko earthquake in interest, respectively. For the Wenchuan earthquake articles, nearly 10%, 20%, 25%,15%, 15% are of studies in seismogenic environment, precursors, rupture process, hazard relief and aftershocks & coseismic events, respectively. Built upon the ever growing database, the next move would be to do more analysis. One ongoing project would be to collect figures from articles that are of special interest to people in the field. A parallel project will also start to extend the database to include Tibetan Plateau studies.

Liang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.

2013-12-01

356

Scientific Production of Research Fellows at the Zagreb University School of Medicine, Croatia  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate scientific production among research fellows employed at the Zagreb University School of Medicine and identify factors associated with their scientific output. Method We conducted a survey among research fellows and their mentors during June 2005. The main outcome measure was publication success, defined for each fellow as publishing at least 0.5 articles per employment year in journals indexed in the Current Contents bibliographic database. Bivariate methods and binary logistic regression were used in data analysis. Results A total of 117 fellows (response rate 95%) and 83 mentors (100%) were surveyed. The highest scientific production was recorded among research fellows employed in public health departments (median 3.0 articles, interquartile range 4.0), compared with those from pre-clinical (median 0.0, interquartile range 2.0) and clinical departments (median 1.0, interquartile range 2.0) (Kruskal-Wallis, P?=?0.003). A total of 36 (29%) research fellows published at least 0.5 articles per employment year and were considered successful. Three variables were associated with fellows’ publication success: mentor’s scientific production (odds ratio [OR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.53), positive mentor’s assessment (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.10-9.05), and fellows’ undergraduate publication in journals indexed in the Current Contents bibliographic database (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.07-15.34). Conclusion Undergraduate publication could be used as one of the main criteria in selecting research fellows. One of the crucial factors in a fellow’s scientific production and career advancement is mentor’s input, which is why research fellows would benefit most from working with scientifically productive mentors.

Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana; Buneta, Zoran; Cikes, Nada; Pecina, Marko

2006-01-01

357

Linking organ donors and the medical\\/scientific research community: a US perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Institute for the Advancement of Medicine (IIAM) provides non-transplantable organs and tissues for medical\\u000a and scientific research, education, and drug & device development. The benefits of using human organs and tissues for research\\u000a are vast, and donating for research provides donor families with a valuable option if their loved one’s organs are unsuitable\\u000a for transplantation. The use of

Dolores Baldasare

2011-01-01

358

National medical research ranking and scientific productivity: Where do we stand?  

PubMed Central

Background: Continuous evaluation of research performance is an effective tool for financial and human resource allocation to promote knowledge production by academic institutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific performance of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) from April 2010 to April 2011 in the national medical research ranking. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out through running advanced searches in the national, local and international information databases and other websites. Then the data were analyzed in order to demonstrate IUMS scientific production and research status at a national level. Results: From April 2010 to April 2011, about 9% of total Iranian medical articles, 6% of total Iranian ISI indexed articles in medical science and 12% of Iranian PubMed indexed articles affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Although Isfahan University of Medical Sciences stood at the third place in the annual national research ranking, but it was first in the scientific growth among Iranian medical universities. Conclusions: The study indicated that Isfahan University of Medical Sciences witnessed striking improvement in scientific productivity, research performance and national research grade during 2010-2011.

Aminpour, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

359

Development of an Expert Resource Network for Students and Advisors Engaging in Authentic Scientific Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to increase the the number of secondary students engaging in authentic scientific research and to improve the quality of that research, an online network of scientists and educators is being established. The Network will be assessable to students and advisors participating in the 2012 Monmouth Junior Science Symposium (MJSS), a scientific forum for New Jersey students, but is intended to serve as a model for use by participants in the additional 47 regional science symposia of which the MJSS is part. Hosted on the MJSS website, the Network will consist of contact information and profiles of scientists, educators and other research professionals willing to assist secondary students and their teacher/advisors perform authentic scientific research. Profiles will include area(s) of expertise and level of participation to which the individual is capable. The set of participating experts will have the potential to expand continually as additional professionals with a variety of backgrounds are recruited over time. The Network will also be made available to members of the New Jersey Science Supervisors Association to encourage school districts not currently participating in the MJSS to involve secondary students in conducting authentic scientific research. The Network's effectiveness will be evaluated by surveys completed by MJSS participants and their teacher/advisors included with their research paper submissions.

Danch, J. M.; Aker-bolin, K.

2011-12-01

360

[Essence of scientific and technical achievements and the nature of the effect of veterinary medical research].  

PubMed

An attempt is made at elucidating the essence of veterinary scientific and technological achievements and the character of the effect of their implementation. On the basis of a structural analysis veterinary scientific investigations are grouped as: theoretical-fundamental, scientific-applicative and scientific-technological elaborations. Starting out from the character of the effect that is achieved through their application, the scientific works, as well as the scientific and technological achievements in the field of veterinary medicine, are categorized as follows: cognitive (New knowledge), technical and technological (medico-biological), socio-sanitary, economic and those having a mixed effect (cognitive- medico-biological, medico-biological-socio-sanitary, socio-sanitary and economic, etc. The identification of the various types of effects requires the elaboration of respective criteria, as well as a system of indexes for their characterization, a qualitative and a quantitative determination, as necessary conditions for determining the effectiveness of research veterinary works and that of research technological achievement. PMID:7233814

Iliev, I; Kostadinov, I

1980-01-01

361

Breast motion and sports brassiere design. Implications for future research.  

PubMed

Exercise usually results in a large displacement of the breasts, often leading to breast pain. Although breast pain is a common concern of exercising females, little research has been conducted in the area of breast pain. It has been suggested that a cause of breast pain is excessive breast motion. As the female breast does not contain strong intrinsic structural support, this breast motion is difficult to reduce. It is suggested that the primary anatomical support for the breast is the Cooper's ligaments; however, their true functional properties are unknown. Because of the lack of internal breast support it has been suggested that the skin covering the breast may also act as a support structure for the breast, but this has not been quantified. In an attempt to reduce breast motion, external breast supports (brassieres) have been developed. This article discusses components of current sports brassieres with implications for future research required to improve brassiere design and performance. PMID:10367331

Page, K A; Steele, J R

1999-04-01

362

Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.  

PubMed

Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information. PMID:21538033

Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

2011-08-01

363

Current hepatitis B treatment guidelines and future research directions.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes a tremendous clinical burden across the world with more than half a million people dying annually from HBV related disease. Significant advances have been made in HBV treatment in the past decade and several guidelines have been published by professional societies and expert panels. Although these recommendations have been valuable to help optimize HBV treatment, there is discordance in treatment criteria and many patients infected with HBV may fall outside of these recommendations. This paper systematically reviews the natural history of the disease and compares and contrasts the recommendations for initiation of treatment from the various societies. There is also discussion of special groups that require particular consideration and some of the open research questions and future research directions within the field. PMID:24871443

Skupsky, Jonathan; Hu, Ke-Qin

2014-06-01

364

Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.  

PubMed

Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. PMID:24607673

Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

2014-04-01

365

Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these special campaigns benefit through direct engagement in science. This form of researcher partnership has now been successfully pilot-tested and implemented in several instances, and provides a template for future research project campaigns.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Huete, Alfredo; Keller, Stephen; Levetin, Estelle; Luvall, Jeffrey; Meyers, Orrin; Stylinski, Cathlyn D.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Vukovic, Ana

2013-01-01

366

Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.  

PubMed

Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions. PMID:24944543

Masic, Izet

2014-04-01

367

Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It  

PubMed Central

Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal can re-publish the article already published. In that case, that is not plagiarism, because the journal states that the article was re-published with the permission of the journal in which the article is primarily released. The original can be only one, and the copy is a copy, and plagiarism is stolen copy. The aim of combating plagiarism is to improve the quality, to achieve satisfactory results and to compare the results of their own research, rather than copying the data from the results of other people's research. Copy leads to incorrect results. Nowadays the problem of plagiarism has become huge, or widespread and present in almost all spheres of human activity, particularly in science. Scientific institutions and universities should have a center for surveillance, security, promotion and development of quality research. Establishment of rules and respect the rules of good practice are the obligations of each research institutions, universities and every individual researchers, regardless of which area of science is being investigated. There are misunderstandings and doubts about the criteria and standards for when and how to declare someone a plagiarist. European and World Association of Science Editors (EASE and WAME), and COPE - Committee on Publishing Ethics working on the precise definition of that institution or that the scientific committee may sanction when someone is proven plagiarism and familiarize the authors with the types of sanctions. The practice is to inform the editors about discovered plagiarism and articles are withdrawn from the database, while the authors are put on the so-called black list. So far this is the only way of preventing plagiarism, because there are no other sanctions.

Masic, Izet

2014-01-01

368

Child and adolescent psychiatry: past scientific achievements and challenges for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide history of scientific achievements in child and adolescent psychopathology is reviewed from the mid-twentieth\\u000a century onwards. Attention is drawn, e.g., to diagnostic distinctions, measures of psychopathology, the several roles of epidemiological\\u000a longitudinal studies, temperament and personality, developmental psychopathology, the use of ‘natural experiments’ to test\\u000a causal inferences, environmental risks, the importance of gene–environment interplay, the relative coming together

Michael Rutter

2010-01-01

369

The future is yours--Get ready! Career options in scientific and technical fields. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This 50 page brochure was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory to encourage high school students to begin considering careers in the scientific and technical fields. The topics of the brochure include career selection, career options, a review of training required for each occupation, a collection of profiles of BNL employees describing how they chose and prepared for their careers, a description of BNL educational programs for high school students, and profiles of some of the students participating in these programs.

Not Available

1992-10-01

370

A scientific role for Space Station Freedom: Research at the cellular level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific importance of Space Station Freedom is discussed in light of the valuable information that can be gained in cellular and developmental biology with regard to the microgravity environment on the cellular cytoskeleton, cellular responses to extracellular signal molecules, morphology, events associated with cell division, and cellular physiology. Examples of studies in basic cell biology, as well as their potential importance to concerns for future enabling strategies, are presented.

Johnson, Terry C.; Brady, John N.

1993-01-01

371

Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, H? emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

2012-10-01

372

Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.  

PubMed

Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

2014-05-01

373

Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Research  

PubMed Central

Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled “Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease” on September 21–22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene–environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease.

Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J.; Boucher, Richard C.; Cutting, Garry R.; Engelhardt, John F.; Guggino, William B.; Karp, Christopher L.; Knowles, Michael R.; Kolls, Jay K.; LiPuma, John J.; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

2012-01-01

374

Strategies for Using the Views on Scientific Inquiry VOSI Instrument for Astronomy Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronomy education research, AER, becomes more sophisticated, so increases the number of assessment instruments available to the community. We are finding significant success with the "Views on Scientific Inquiry,” or VOSI, instrument for targeting how students’ understanding of science's model for progress. Initially developed by Rene Schwartz, Norman Lederman and colleagues, the VOSI is an open-ended written or interview instrument focusing on eliciting elements of scientific inquiry. The VOSI team examined how a number of cross-disciplinary scientists viewed scientific inquiry to create the VOSI. The underlying hope was to find a way to measure enhancements in how students could learn more about scientific inquiry and understand more about how students are apt to go into STEM fields or, at least, become more science literate citizens who value science. The VOSI measures as many as eight categories of science attributes aligned with the goals of education including: descriptive, conceptualization, problem solving, ethical reasoning, scientific values and attitudes, communication, collaboration, and self-assessment. Surprisingly, these categories seem to receive the only a scant amount of attention in a conventional ASTRO 101 class. We propose that a parallel direction for fruitful research and development in astronomy education research is enhanced VOSI scores rather than only enhanced astronomy content knowledge.

Slater, Stephanie; Lyons, D. J.; Slater, T. F.; for Astronomy, Center; Physics Education ResearchCAPER Team

2011-01-01

375

Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 29. Current and Future Utilization of Scientific and Technical Personnel in Energy-Related Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This National Science Foundation (NSF) bulletin summarizes the NSF program of energy manpower studies that assessed the impact of past energy developments and future options for scientific and technical manpower. This document summarizes the utilization of scientific personnel in energy-related activities in private industry in 1975 and shortages…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

376

Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with key scientists who had conducted research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), together with analysis\\u000a of media reports, documentaries and other literature published during and after the SARS epidemic, revealed many interesting\\u000a aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry in contemporary scientific research in the rapidly growing field\\u000a of molecular biology. The story of SARS

Siu Ling Wong; Jenny Kwan; Derek Hodson; Benny Hin Wai Yung

2009-01-01

377

Preventing HIV among Young People: research priorities for the future  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them.

Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances

2013-01-01

378

ASAS Centennial Paper: Future needs of research and extension in forage utilization.  

PubMed

Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs in forage utilization, financial support for the discipline, and changing status and number of scientists. A survey questionnaire returned from 25 land-grant universities in the eastern half of the United States rated the top 4 research needs as 1) pasture systems and efficiency of production; 2) interfacing with energy concerns; 3) forage cultivar evaluations and persistence; and 4) environment impacts. Plant-animal future research needs at 11 USDA-ARS regional locations are targeted at sustainable management and improved livestock performance, ecophysiology and ecology of grasslands, environment impacts, and improved technologies for nutritive value assessments. Extension scientists from 17 southern and northeastern states listed the top 3 needs as forage persistence, soil fertility and nutrient management, and pasture systems and efficiency of production. Grant funds currently provide more than 40% of land-grant university research and extension efforts in forage utilization, and scientists estimate that this support base will increase to 55 to 60% of the funding total by 2013. Reduced allocation of state and federal funding has contributed to a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) scientists engaged in forage utilization research and extension activities. The current 25 state FTE conducting research number about 2.8 per state. This includes 10 states with >3, 11 states with <2, and 3 states with <1 FTE. Increased interest in cellulosic energy, climate change, and environmental impact may offer new opportunities for these FTE to participate in integrated cross-discipline research Extension programming, and technology transfer methods will change to accommodate reduced funding but with increasing numbers of novice, recreation-oriented landowners. PMID:18820155

Rouquette, F M; Redmon, L A; Aiken, G E; Hill, G M; Sollenberger, L E; Andrae, J

2009-01-01

379

Responding to the Challenge of Co-Occurring Disorders: Suggestions for Future Research  

PubMed Central

This special issue consolidates some recent research findings and scientific thought on co-occurring disorders from both the substance abuse and mental health fields. This summary article recaps and synthesizes the main findings and themes, then considers additional issues in the field today to arrive at an agenda for future co-occurring disorders research. Future plans must: (1) encourage and assist further development of treatment programs that respond to the array of types and severities of co-occurring disorders, while taking into account the limited resources typically available; (2) continue development and testing of continuing care models, exploring strategies that will sustain the recovery of treated individuals who remain vulnerable to relapse; and (3) contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that enable new interventions and practices to be adopted, implemented, and sustained. Co-occurring disorders is a relatively new area of research; this special issue illustrates the productivity of the work to date, and indicates the potential for advances to come.

SACKS, STANLEY; CHANDLER, REDONNA; GONZALES, JUNIUS

2008-01-01

380

June 14-16 2004: NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop Meeting Dates June 14-16 2004 Meeting Site One Bethesda Metro Center Bethesda, Maryland 20814 This workshop addressed the biology and the methods of pre-clinical cancer detection.

381

Statutory sex crime relationships between juveniles and adults: A review of social scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the social scientific literature about non-forcible, voluntary sexual relationships between adults and juveniles, what we have termed “statutory sex crime relationships” or “statutory relationships.” In the available literature, the topic is poorly defined and the research weak, but there are clearly a diverse variety of contexts and dynamics to such relationships. We detail a wide-ranging set of

Denise A. Hines; David Finkelhor

2007-01-01

382

Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to and sharing of data are essential for the conduct and advancement of science. This article argues that publicly funded research data should be openly available to the maximum extent possible. To seize upon advancements of cyberinfrastructure and the explosion of data in a range of scientific disciplines, this access to and sharing of publicly funded data must be

Peter W. Arzberger; Peter Schroeder; Anne Beaulieu; Geoffrey C. Bowker; Kathleen Casey; Leif Laaksonen; David Moorman; Paul Uhlir; Paul Wouters

2004-01-01

383

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Fuzzy Assessment of Land Suitability for Scientific Research Reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the characteristics of a set of sites as potential scientific research reserves is an example of land suitability assessment. Suitability in this case is based upon multiple criteria, many of which can be linguistically imprecise and often incompatible. Fuzzy logic is a useful method for characterizing imprecise suitability criteria and for combining criteria into an overall suitability rating. The

DAVID M. STOMS; JENNIFER M. MCDONALD; FRANK W. DAVIS

2002-01-01

384

March 20 - 22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop - Agenda  

Cancer.gov

4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA Agenda Monday, March 20, 2006 7:00-8:00 a.m. Registration (Continental Breakfast) 7:30-8:00 a.m. Welcome Sudhir Srivastava, Ph.D., National Cancer Institute

385

Optimizing State Policy Implementation: The Case of the Scientific Based Research Components of the NCLB Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hypothesized model of state implementation of federal policy was extracted from empirical studies to discover the strategies states can use to gain compliance more cost effectively. Sixteen factors were identified and applied to the implementation of the Scientific Based Research provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act. Data collected from…

Mohammed, Shereeza; Pisapia, John; Walker, David A.

2009-01-01

386

Bibliometrics of a controversial scientific literature: Polywater research, 1962-1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study examines the bibliometrics of the controversial scientific literature of Polywater research, focusing on publication types (books, journal publications, conference proceedings, and technical reports). Publication (P) frequency is used to measure publication “shape' or pattern and output, citations per publication (CPP) for impact, author self-citations (SC) and uncited publications (UP) for their effect on P and CPP. Findings

Eric G. Ackermann

2005-01-01

387

Attitude, Certainty and Allusions to Common Knowledge in Scientific Research Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptance of claims made in scientific research articles depends on the "stance" authors take and their resources for "appraisal" (Martin and White, http://www.grammatics.com/appraisal). "Stance" has been defined as "the ways authors project themselves into their texts to communicate their relationship to subject matter and the readers",…

Koutsantoni, Dimitra

2004-01-01

388

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for Calendar Year 1985  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1985 is presented. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1986-01-01

389

The paradox of scientific excellence and the search for productivity in pharmaceutical research and development.  

PubMed

Scientific advances in specialty areas are proceeding at a rapid rate, but the research and development enterprise seems unable to take full advantage. Harnessing the steady stream of knowledge and inventions from different disciplines is the critical management issue of our time. This article suggests a framework for a management-directed effort to improve productivity by enhancing interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:24458012

Grasela, T H; Slusser, R

2014-05-01

390

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1986. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Techncial Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

1987-01-01

391

The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

2004-01-01

392

Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1984 is compiled. Approximately 1650 citations are included comprising formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.

1985-01-01

393

Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.  

PubMed

There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial interests; 6) not participate in undisclosed paid authorship arrangements in industry-sponsored publications or presentations; 7) guarantee accessibility to all data and control of statistical analysis by investigators and appropriate auditors/reviewers; 8) require that academic researchers, when they work in contract research organizations (CRO) or act as contract researchers, make clear statements of their affiliation; and require that such researchers publish only under the auspices of the CRO. PMID:19357216

Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

2009-05-01

394

Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.  

PubMed

There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines, regarding industry funding, for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. The Guiding Principles are as follows. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall: 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively; according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) prior to the commencement of studies, ensure that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time-frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial interests; 6) not participate in undisclosed paid authorship arrangements in industry-sponsored publications or presentations; 7) guarantee accessibility to all data and control of statistical analysis by investigators and appropriate auditors/reviewers; and 8) require that academic researchers, when they work in contract research organizations (CRO) or act as contract researchers, make clear statements of their affiliation; require that such researchers publish only under the auspices of the CRO. PMID:19386030

Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus; Applebaum, Rhona; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard; Dwyer, Johanna; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne; Miller, Sanford; Tancredi, Doris; Weaver, Connie; Woteki, Catherine; Wedral, Elaine

2009-05-01

395

Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International Ocean Discovery Programme in October 2013. Key successes encompass technological development, operational procedures in sensitive areas and research into palaeoclimate and shoreline responses to sea level change amongst others. Increased operational flexibility in the new programme only serves to make the future an exciting one for ocean drilling in Europe.

Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

2013-04-01

396

An analysis of scientific self-efficacy as a benefit of summer research participation for underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low participation and performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields by U.S. citizens are widely recognized as major problems with substantial economic, political, and social ramifications. Studies of collegiate interventions designed to broaden participation in STEM fields suggest that participation in undergraduate research is a key program component that enhances such student outcomes as undergraduate GPA, graduation, persistence in a STEM major, and graduate school enrollment. However, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for these positive effects. The current study hypothesizes that undergraduate research participation increases scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. This hypothesis was tested using data obtained from a survey of minority students from several STEM intervention programs that offer undergraduate research opportunities. Students were surveyed both prior to and following the summer of 2010. Factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of participants' responses on scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency scales. Difference-in-difference analysis was then applied to the resulting factor score differences to estimate the relationship of summer research participation with scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. Factor analytic results replicate and further validate previous findings of a general scientific self-efficacy construct (Schultz, 2008). While the factor analytic results for the exploratory scientific research proficiency scale suggest that it was also a measureable construct, the factor structure was not generalizable over time. Potential reasons for the lack of generalizability validity for the scientific research proficiency scale are explored and recommendations for emerging scales are provided. Recent restructuring attempts within federal science agencies threaten the future of STEM intervention programs. Causal estimates of the effect of undergraduate research participation on specific and measurable benefits can play an important role in ensuring the sustainability of STEM intervention programs. Obtaining such estimates requires additional studies that, inter alia, incorporate adequate sample sizes, valid measurement scales, and the ability to account for unobserved variables. Political strategies, such as compromise, can also play an important role in ensuring the sustainability of STEM intervention programs.

Carter, Frances D.

397

Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

2014-02-01

398

Back to the future: transition from operations to research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful transition into a (robust and vibrant) enterprise realization of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS), and the Integrated Earth Observations System (IEOS) as the US component, spans a domain that includes: (1) the transition from research to operations across the "valleys of death and lost opportunities"; (2) the linkage of observations, analysis and modeling systems through data assimilation and the global forecast system; (3) stakeholders aligned along an "axis of good" that includes NSF, NASA, NOAA and its Cooperative Institutes, and end users who deliver socioeconomic benefits. An often-overlooked, yet critical, element of this enterprise is the bidirectional nature of the interfaces; specifically, the transition from operations to research. It is this return path that empowers the iterative and continuously improving nature of the enterprise. This paper evaluates three "best of breed" systems that are designed to exploit and enable the operations-to-research transition: the University of Wisconsin- Madison's Man computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) V, the NOAA/National Weather Service's Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) II, and the Air Force's Joint Environmental Toolkit (JET). From these, lessons learned and common attributes are identified. These provide a set of demonstrated and success-oriented best practices that future environmental systems may consider for incorporation into their objectives and requirements.

Ardanuy, Philip E.; Santek, David A.; Tarro, Andre; Wegiel, Jerry

2007-09-01

399

Future Directions of Sickle Cell Disease Research: The NIH Perspective  

PubMed Central

Efforts to enhance therapy for children and adults with sickle cell disease have proven more challenging than might have been predicted from the fact that an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis antedated that of many other diseases for which good treatments presently exist. The multi-organ injury that occurs with sickle cell disease certainly contributes to this clinical reality. Research over decades indicates that the primary defect in hemoglobin that results in polymerization of the protein under low oxygen conditions and resultant cellular deformity of the red blood cell initiates a complex downstream pathogenesis associated with vascular injury and organ ischemia. Deciphering this in a manner that informs successful therapies that improve all target organs continues to challenge hematologists. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is dedicated to support research across the basic science, translational a clinical spectrum to achieve these clinical outcomes. The following provides a brief summary of the research strategies which NHLBI is presently supporting and will support in the future to enhance care and ultimately, to effect cure of this hemoglobin disease that causes such suffering to those who inherit this monogenic disease.

Hoots, W. Keith; Shurin, Susan B.

2012-01-01

400

Clinical Pharmacokinetic Service and Research--Present Status and Future Goals at SUNY-Buffalo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)

Koup, Jeffrey R.

1976-01-01

401

Social Scientific Research and Societal Practice: Action Research and Cultural-Historical Research in Methodological Light from Kurt Lewin and Lev S. Vygotsky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main interest is the relationship between social scientific research and societal practice, with specific attention on action research and cultural-historical research. To provide a productive way to engage with these research traditions, a historically-grounded, superordinate perspective is formulated that places practice in the centre. This perspective, which is more general than and historically prior to action research and cultural-historical

Seth Chaiklin

2011-01-01

402

High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective  

PubMed Central

High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

2012-01-01

403

The organization of scientists and its relation to scientific productivity: Perceptions of Chinese stem cell researchers  

PubMed Central

Chinese government funding of R&D ranks third in the world. Yet China ranks only 17th in terms of scientific productivity per unit of investment. The author recently conducted fieldwork on the team structure of 22 Chinese stem cell research groups. Interview data suggest that although Chinese research groups closely resemble their international counter-parts in many respects, there are also significant differences which are perceived by interviewees to affect levels of scientific productivity. One characteristic of Chinese research teams is a common deficiency in middle-layer positions. This shortage of experienced professionals is perceived by scientists participating in this study to have led to two consequences. First, inexperienced student researchers often form the backbone of scientific teams in China, which leads to frequent interruptions of research and extended laboratory training. Second, research teams consist of a relatively small number of personnel. These structural features are seen to create excessive social boundaries, which impede the exchange of information and further worsens the segmentation of resources. This article engages the question of the extent to which interviewees’ local ‘embedded’ understandings of these difficulties may make a productive contribution to the analysis of the structural, and infra-structural, organization of Chinese professional bioscience teams.

Zhang, Joy Yueyue

2013-01-01

404

A web-based tool to engage stakeholders in informing research planning for future decisions on emerging materials.  

PubMed

Prioritizing and assessing risks associated with chemicals, industrial materials, or emerging technologies is a complex problem that benefits from the involvement of multiple stakeholder groups. For example, in the case of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), scientific uncertainties exist that hamper environmental, health, and safety (EHS) assessments. Therefore, alternative approaches to standard EHS assessment methods have gained increased attention. The objective of this paper is to describe the application of a web-based, interactive decision support tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in a pilot study on ENMs. The piloted tool implements U.S. EPA's comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach to prioritize research gaps. When pursued, such research priorities can result in data that subsequently improve the scientific robustness of risk assessments and inform future risk management decisions. Pilot results suggest that the tool was useful in facilitating multi-stakeholder prioritization of research gaps. Results also provide potential improvements for subsequent applications. The outcomes of future CEAWeb applications with larger stakeholder groups may inform the development of funding opportunities for emerging materials across the scientific community (e.g., National Science Foundation Science to Achieve Results [STAR] grants, National Institutes of Health Requests for Proposals). PMID:24176714

Powers, Christina M; Grieger, Khara D; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Meacham, Connie A; Gurevich, Gerald; Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Money, Eric S; Lloyd, Jennifer M; Beaulieu, Stephen M

2014-02-01

405

Chinese villages and their sustainable future: the European Union-China-Research Project "SUCCESS".  

PubMed

China has 800,000 villages-one person out of seven on the globe is living in a Chinese rural settlement. Yet the global discussions about the situation in China is currently characterised by a disproportionate focus on the development of towns and until now circumstances have generally been neglected in the rural areas, where 70% of the Chinese population is still living. Within the 5 years of the SUCCESS project research, this set of actual problems has been considered and analysed under the principle of sustainability: "What to maintain?" "What to change?" were the overall research questions asked in the SUCCESS project; the researchers were looking for answers under a sustainability regime, respecting the need to raise the quality of life in the villages. Several interweaving processes were used to achieve results: the inter-disciplinary research process between many areas of expertise, the trans-disciplinary process between the researchers and the Chinese villagers, and a negotiation process that made the connection between these two processes. The introduction describes the basic sustainability definition that was orienting the whole study. The innovation lays mostly in the methodology: the inter-disciplinary research co-operation related to practice and to involving the affected communities is needed to manage the significant and growing imbalances between urban and rural areas regarding their sustainability. In the transdisciplinary work, the project developed "village future sentences" that describe the local outcome of the research as one step towards better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms that could lead to a sustainable future, and they also managed to start sustainability processes in the case study sites. The integrated approach of the project helped generating future scenarios for these villages covering all aspects of their development, including urban design issues. Out of these scenarios, the villages developed small projects that could be implemented during the research period. This work made an important impact on community thinking within these villages. However, it can also be seen as contributing to the dramatically changing development process in China, by finding a balance between traditional and contemporary approaches. In particular, the approach demonstrated a new, inter-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary negotiation processes whereby the local knowledge and the expert knowledge find common ground and outcomes. The article follows the hypothesis that only comprehensive concepts can contribute to an upgraded living standard, where living spaces and rural life should be recognised and esteemed in the future as a complement to urban lifestyles within the Chinese society. Innovative knowledge generation-such as the "systemic structure constellation" technique or the systems model approach-helped to bring out latent needs, hopes and potential of the villagers. Besides the practical usage of these implemented projects, the process leading there showed the stakeholders their own fields of action. One major impact of these projects is the visibility of the results, which is crucial for villagers' awareness, their self-confidence and their experience with a successful participation in decision-making processes. Another impact is the potential for replicating results of sustainability-oriented patterns throughout China, especially as three of the villages have been nominated official model villages. Scenarios of a sustainable future for Chinese villages were the objective of the SUCCESS project. The first condition for this future is the question whether they can persist into the future-and to picture the importance of the rural environment and living space as a relevant element of Chinese life that needs to get a better image and more attention from the authorities and from the public opinion. Therefore, the final sentence that the whole research consortium, composed of 17 scientific institutions from European Union and China, agreed upon as a common

Dumreicher, Heidi

2008-04-01

406

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several different stages of community-based participatory research, including research design, data interpretation, and publication, and makes some suggestions for practice and policy. To manage potential conflicts between scientific and community interests, investigators and community partners should enter into written agreements at the beginning of the study. In some cases, it may be necessary for a third party, such as a review committee from a supporting institution, the community, or a funding agency, to help investigators and community partners resolve disagreements. It may also be useful, in some situations, to publish a dissenting opinion when investigators and community partners cannot agree on how to interpret findings resulting from a study. These strategies may help address some of the challenges of implementing community-based participatory research.

Resnik, David B.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

2011-01-01

407

Future developments in brain-machine interface research  

PubMed Central

Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition.

Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2011-01-01

408

The Focal Dystonias: Current Views and Challenges for Future Research  

PubMed Central

The most common forms of dystonia are those that develop in adults and affect a relatively isolated region of the body. Although these adult-onset focal dystonias are most prevalent, knowledge of their etiologies and pathogenesis has lagged behind some of the rarer generalized dystonias, where the identification of genetic defects has facilitated both basic and clinical research. This summary provides a brief review of the clinical manifestations of the adult-onset focal dystonias, focussing attention on less well-understood clinical manifestations that need further study. It also provides a simple conceptual model for the similarities and differences among the different adult-onset focal dystonias, as a rationale for lumping them together as a class of disorders while at the same time splitting them into subtypes. The concluding section outlines some of the most important research questions for the future. Answers to these questions are critical for advancing our understanding of this group of disorders, and for developing novel therapeutics.

Jinnah, H. A.; Berardelli, Alfredo; Comella, Cynthia; Defazio, Giovanni; DeLong, Mahlon; Factor, Stewart; Galpern, Wendy R.; Hallett, Mark; Ludlow, Christy L.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Rosen, Ami

2013-01-01

409

Clinical Research Training: Scientific Literacy for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the vitality and future of clinical research, including the rapid translation of findings to benefit patients, have been the focus of considerable debate and discussion within and beyond general internal medicine. Challenges to the current enterprise include constraints on research funding, financial pressures on academic medical centers that have diminished institutional support for protected time, and the intrinsic

Carolyn M. Clancy

2008-01-01

410

A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Health game research has flourished over the last decade. The number of peer-reviewed scientific publications has surged as the clinical application of health games has diversified. In response to this growth, several past literature reviews have assessed the effectiveness of health games in specific clinical subdomains. The past literature reviews, however, have not provided a general scope of health games independent of clinical context. The present systematic review identified 149 publications. All sources were published before 2011 in a peer-reviewed venue. To be included in this review, publications were required (1) to be an original research, (2) to focus on health, (3) to utilize a sound research design, (4) to report quantitative health outcomes, and (5) to target healthcare receivers. Initial findings showed certain trends in health game publications: Focus on younger male demographics, relatively low number of study participants, increased number of controlled trials, short duration of intervention periods, short duration and frequency of user–game interaction, dominance of exercise and rehab games, lack of underlying theoretical frameworks, and concentration on clinical contexts such as physical activity and nutrition. The review concludes that future research should (1) widen the demographics to include females and elderly, (2) increase the number of participants in controlled trials, (3) lengthen both the intervention period and user–game interaction duration, and (4) expand the application of health games in new clinical contexts.

Kharrazi, Hadi; Lu, Amy Shirong; Gharghabi, Fardad; Coleman, Whitney

2013-01-01

411

From genetic discovery to future personalized health research  

PubMed Central

During the past ten years the field of human disease genetics has made major leaps, including the completion of the Human Genome Project, the HapMap Project, the development of the genome-wide association (GWA) studies to identify common disease-predisposing variants and the introduction of large-scale whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing studies. The introduction of new technologies has enabled researchers to utilize novel study designs to tackle previously unexplored research questions in human genomics. These new types of studies typically need large sample sizes to overcome the multiple testing challenges caused by the huge number of interrogated genetic variants. As a consequence, large consortia-studies are at present the default in disease genetics research. The systematic planning of the GWA-studies was a key element in the success of the approach. Similar planning and rigor in statistical inferences will probably be beneficial also to future sequencing studies. Already today, the next-generation exome sequencing has led to the identification of several genes underlying Mendelian diseases. In spite of the clear benefits, the method has proven to be more challenging than anticipated. In the case of complex diseases, next-generation sequencing aims to identify disease-associated low-frequency alleles. However, their robust detection will require very large study samples, even larger than in the case of the GWA-studies. This has stimulated study designs that capitalize on enriching sets of low-frequency alleles, for example, studies focusing on population isolates such as Finland or Iceland. One example is the collaborative SISu Project (Sequencing Initiative Suomi) that aims to provide near complete genome variation information from Finnish study samples and pave the way for large, nationwide genome health initiative studies.

Palotie, Aarno; Widen, Elisabeth; Ripatti, Samuli

2013-01-01

412

Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

2014-05-01

413

Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research.

Taylor, Jacqui

2012-01-01

414

Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research  

PubMed Central

The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti?oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega?3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti?oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega?3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

2013-01-01

415

Research and Development of Future Space Robotics in NASDA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space robotics is a key technology for future space activities. The space robotics will support and extend manned capability in orbit. NASDA, recognizing that the space automation and robotics are key issues for future space activities, is making every ef...

T. Iwata M. Oda T. Nakamura

1990-01-01

416

An Inquiry Approach to Fostering Stronger Earth Science Backgrounds in Current and Future Middle and High School Science Teachers: Research Techniques as Mechanisms of Teaching Time Scales and Systems Interactions in the Earth System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth science provides an ideal opportunity to integrate authentic research into middle and high school curricula by providing a context for teaching scientific content, promoting a sense of intrigue through the inquiry process, and sharpening skills needed for future scientific endeavors. The University of New Hampshire's offerings as part of the Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project provide for

J. G. Bryce; E. Finkel; E. Froburg; K. Graham; S. Hale; J. E. Johnson; R. K. Varner; K. L. von Damm; T. Fellows

2008-01-01

417

Alzheimer's disease research: scientific productivity and impact of the top 100 investigators in the field.  

PubMed

The online availability of scientific-literature databases and natural-language-processing (NLP) algorithms has enabled large-scale bibliometric studies within the field of scientometrics. Using NLP techniques and Thomson ISI reports, an initial analysis of the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the neurosciences as well as a summary of the various research foci within the AD scientific community are presented. Citation analyses and productivity filters are applied to post-1984, AD-specific subsets of the PubMed and Thomson ISI Web-of-Science literature bases to algorithmically identify a pool of the top AD researchers. From the initial pool of AD investigators, top-100 rankings are compiled to assess productivity and impact. One of the impact and productivity metrics employed is an AD-specific H-index. Within the AD-specific H-index ranking, there are many cases of multiple AD investigators with similar or identical H-indices. In order to facilitate differentiation among investigators with equal or near-equal H indices, two derivatives of the H-index are proposed: the Second-Tier H-index and the Scientific Following H-index. Winners of two prestigious AD-research awards are highlighted, membership to the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences is acknowledged, and an analysis of highly-productive, high-impact, AD-research collaborations is presented. PMID:19221406

Sorensen, Aaron A

2009-01-01

418

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

2007-01-01

419

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of the most

Robert J. Gatchel; Yuan Bo Peng; Madelon L. Peters; Perry N. Fuchs; Dennis C. Turk

2007-01-01

420

Knowledge - The Master Resource; The Future of Scientific and Technical Information in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the means to improve the overall flow of knowledge, the relationship of research and development to economic prosperity, problems of keeping managers up-to-date and providing greater coordination on a national scale, and improving the information flow to developing countries. (Editor/JB)

Tyas, J. P. I.

1970-01-01

421

Sexual Violence and HIV Transmission: Summary Proceedings of a Scientific Research Planning Meeting  

PubMed Central

This summarizes proceedings of a Scientific Research Planning Meeting on Sexual Violence and HIV transmission, convened by the Social Science Research Council on 19–20 March 2012 at the Greentree Foundation in New York. The Meeting brought together an interdisciplinary group of basic, clinical, epidemiological and social science researchers and policy makers with the aim of: (1) examining what is known about the physiology of sexual violence and its role in HIV transmission, acquisition and pathogenesis; (2) specifying factors that distinguish risks throughout the maturation of the female genital tract, the reproductive cycle and among post-menopausal women; and (3) developing a research agenda to explore unanswered questions. The Meeting resulted in a consensus Research Agenda and White Paper that identify priorities for HIV research, policy and practice as it pertains to the role of sexual violence and genital injury in HIV transmission, acquisition and pathogenesis, particularly among women and girls.

Klot, Jennifer F.; Auerbach, Judith D.; Berry, Miranda R.

2013-01-01

422

The importance of an introduction to scientific methodology and research evaluation in the nursing curriculum: an Icelandic experience.  

PubMed

This article briefly presents a total academic program for preparing professional nurses at the University of Iceland and discusses the reasons for teaching an introductory course in scientific methodology and research evaluation in its curriculum. It is argued that scientific methodology and research evaluation adds a necessary component to the qualification of the nursing graduate and an ability to participate in clinical research and advancement of research-based practice. PMID:2047616

Kristjánsdóttir, G

1991-01-01

423

Identifying future directions for subsurface hydrocarbon migration research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface hydrocarbon migration is important for understanding the input and impacts of natural hydrocarbon seepage on the environment. Great uncertainties remain in most aspects of hydrocarbon migration, including some basic mechanisms of this four-phase flow of tar, oil, water, and gas through the complex fracture-network geometry particularly since the phases span a wide range of properties. Academic, government, and industry representatives recently attended a workshop to identify the areas of greatest need for future research in shallow hydrocarbon migration.Novel approaches such as studying temporal and spatial seepage variations and analogous geofluid systems (e.g., geysers and trickle beds) allow deductions of subsurface processes and structures that remain largely unclear. Unique complexities exist in hydrocarbon migration due to its multiphase flow and complex geometry, including in-situ biological weathering. Furthermore, many aspects of the role of hydrocarbons (positive and negative) in the environment are poorly understood, including how they enter the food chain (respiration, consumption, etc.) and “percolate” to higher trophic levels. But understanding these ecological impacts requires knowledge of the emissions' temporal and spatial variability and trajectories.

Leifer, I.; Clark, J. F.; Luyendyk, B.; Valentine, D.

424

Killing Me Softly--Future Challenges in Apoptosis Research  

PubMed Central

The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. In this review we focus on three aspects of apoptosis research which we believe are the most crucial and most exciting areas currently investigated and that will need to be better understood in order to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic measures. First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. Second, the complexity of combination therapy is elucidated using the PI3-K-mediated signaling network as a specific example. Here we show that the current clinical approach to sensitize malignancies to apoptosis by maximal, prolonged inhibition of so-called survival pathways can actually be counter productive. Third, we propose that under certain conditions which will need to be clearly defined in future, chronification of a tumor might be preferable to the attempt at a cure. Finally, we discuss further problems with utilizing apoptosis induction in cancer therapy and propose a novel potential therapeutic approach that combines the previously discussed features.

Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Bruhl, Oliver; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

2014-01-01

425

Future Research Directions for Understanding Neighborhood Contributions to Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes several promising future directions for neighborhood research to address health inequalities. First, there is a need to apply a Geography of Opportunity framework to understand how vast spatial (neighborhood, regional) inequality translates into health inequality. Such a framework highlights inequality that unfolds across an entire region, as well as the continuing significance of race/ethnicity for producing disparities in health and in the social determinants of health. The Geography of Opportunity framework also points to some of the methodological limitations of current neighborhood health studies, given the structure of neighborhood racial inequality in the US for estimating how important neighborhoods are for producing racial health disparities. Second, there is a need to incorporate life course concepts, data, and methods, including to model residential histories, neighborhood temporal change and residential mobility, starting early in life. A life course focus would help inform when in life neighborhoods matter most for health and health inequalities, as well as improve exposure assessment of residential contexts. Third, we must model mechanisms linking neighborhoods and health, including the role of individual and household socioeconomic status (SES). Lastly, we need to more meaningfully integrate social determinants of health, including drawing on policy evaluations that aim to improve neighborhood environments or that aim to expand household neighborhood choice. Doing so would inform how specific modifiable neighborhood exposures stimulated by policy may influence health and health disparities.

Osypuk, Theresa L.

2013-01-01

426

40 Years of the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute for Physical Optics Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented of the activities of the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute for Physical Optics Measurements\\u000a in the area of setting up and upgrading the system for unifying measurements in optical radiometry, which have been obtained\\u000a in the 40 years of the existence of the Institute. Development lines for this area of measurement are considered in relation\\u000a to the latest

V. S. Ivanov

2005-01-01

427

Scientific positivism and the controversy over research into lesbian and gay parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in developmental psychology have concluded that no significant differences exist between children raised by lesbians\\u000a and gay men and those raised by heterosexuals. Although these scientific studies have attracted criticism, scrutiny has shown\\u000a that they are actually epistemologically sounder than the body of knowledge that the critics themselves have developed in\\u000a order to mount their case against lesbian and

Aleardo Zanghellini

2007-01-01

428

Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.  

PubMed

There has been substantial public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. PMID:19403704

Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

2009-06-01

429

Scientific institutions and effective governance: a case study of Chinese stem cell research  

PubMed Central

In terms of stem cell research, China appears both as a “powerhouse” armed with state-of-the-art facilities, internationally trained personnel and permissive regulation and as a “bit player,” with its capability for conducting high quality research still in question. The gap between China’s assiduous endeavors and the observed outcome is due to a number of factors. Based on interviews with 48 key stakeholders active in Chinese stem cell research, this article examines how the structure of scientific institutions has affected effective governance in China. It is demonstrated that despite China’s recent efforts to attract highly competent researchers and to launch new regulatory initiatives, the effects of these attempts have been diminished by an absence of middle-layer positions within research teams and by the uncoordinated administrative structures among regulatory bodies.

Zhang, Joy Yueyue

2013-01-01

430

Animal Research.Info: The global resource for scientific evidence in Animal research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides reliable information from scientists worldwide about the contribution of animal research to medical advances. Includes a timeline of medical science, a list of diseases and research, nobel prizes, articles, and lectures.

Animal Research.Info (Animal Research.Info)

2013-12-01

431

Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research

Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

2011-01-01

432

American Diabetes Association--70th scientific sessions--research on novel therapeutics: part 2.  

PubMed

The American Diabetes Association 70th Scientific Sessions, held in Orlando, FL, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of diabetes research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on new research with novel agents. Investigational drugs discussed include the glucokinase activator SKL-19014 (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co Ltd), the GPR119 agonist AS-1535907 (Astellas Pharma Inc), the apical sodium-dependent bile transporter (ASBT) inhibitor SC-435 (Satiogen Pharmaceuticals Inc), the VEGF-A activator SB-509 (Sangamo BioSciences Inc), and the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP-1b) antisense inhibitor ISIS-113715 (ISIS Pharmaceuticals Inc). PMID:20799137

Croasdell, Gary

2010-09-01

433

Research on fission induced plasmas and nuclear pumped lasers at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of research on gaseous uranium and uranium plasmas is being conducted at The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the proof of principle of a gaseous uranium fueled reactor, and (2) pursue fundamental research on nuclear pumped lasers. The relevancy of the two parallel programs is embodied in the possibility of a high-performance uranium plasma reactor being used as the power supply for a nuclear pumped laser system. The accomplishments in the two above fields are summarized

Helmick, H. H.

1979-01-01

434

Abductive reasoning and the formation of scientific knowledge within nursing research.  

PubMed

Peirce's notion of abductive reasoning and the way this reasoning can enhance forming of scientific knowledge within nursing research is of great importance. Abduction is the first stage of inquiry within which hypotheses are invented; they are then explicated through deduction and verified through induction. In an abductive model, new ideas emerge by taking various clues and restrictions into account, and by searching and combining existing ideas in novel ways. Thus, abduction can be developed further as a 'pure' form of inference and this gives means for analysing and organizing the abductive search explicitly within the research community. PMID:20840137

Råholm, Maj-Britt

2010-10-01

435

Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by fires, floods, and vegetation and soil removal that can result in rapid local degradation of permafrost by thermokarst or thermo-erosion involving both vertical and lateral thaw. Though local in nature, disturbance processes are widespread in permafrost regions and their occurrence and magnitude are likely to increase with climate warming in the Arctic. Permafrost research is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary, involving geophysicists, hydrologists, terrestrial and aquatic ecologists, geochemists, geologists, engineers, modelers, and sociologists. During IPY, large, int