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1

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers: Effective Professional Development Experiences for Future Members of Lunar Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) group is a grass roots effort devoted to growing the community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. Recent lunar missions, along with an increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, have resulted in a substantial increase in the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers in recent years. With plans for future US and international lunar missions, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific study. The lunar community is fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar researchers and engineers with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of lunar knowledge and expertise. Established informally in 2008 by early career scientists and education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, the NGLSE group has since grown tremendously. With over 190 current members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The group's founders have received funding to formally design and implement experience-building and networking activities for group members, such as professional development workshops and other community-building events. The professional development opportunities provided to the NGLSE group enable the members to become better equipped to contribute to the current and future success of the lunar program. The NGLSE has received NASA funding, as well as support from the NASA Lunar Science Institute, to host workshops and meetings for its members, including providing small travel stipends for student participants, in association with major lunar conferences, such as the NASA Lunar Science Forum (LSF) and the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). The goals of the workshops are to provide attendees with professional development, to familiarize them with best practices for communicating their science to different audiences, to provide an opportunity for them to network with each other, and to provide opportunities for them to meet, collaborate with, and receive training from established members of the lunar science and engineering community. Three NGLSE workshops have been held since 2009 in addition to numerous community-building events. Feedback from workshop participants indicates that they highly value both the professional development aspects of the workshop, such as learning effective science communication techniques, and also the aspect of hearing from and networking with the established generation of lunar scientists and engineers. A recent needs assessment indicated that NGLSE members would like for future workshops to focus on professional development topics like tips for getting hired by academia, the government, or industry, tips for getting research funding, effective proposal writing, and others. We will report on the lessons learned from building and leading the NGLSE group and planning and implementing associated events, such as our professional development workshops.

Santiago, D.; Bleacher, L.; Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Noble, S. K.

2011-12-01

2

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... 1999 Profiles Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles ...

3

Scientists vs. Engineers  

SciTech Connect

In the past, I have heard there was conflict between the “two cultures” of science and the humanities. I don’t see a lot of evidence for that type of conflict today, mostly because my scientific friends all are big fans of the arts and literature. However, the two cultures that I do see a great deal of conflict between are those of science and engineering.

Wiley, H. S.

2010-07-01

4

Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93  

NSF Publications Database

... Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Federal Scientists and ... 1989-93 Text Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 Appendix Tables This document was last ...

5

Profiles of Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science 360 Knowledge Network works to bring visitors "the latest wonders of science, engineering, technology and math." Among other things, the Network encourages young people to get involved in STEM careers, and these profiles are an important part of that mission. This site includes a dozen profiles of various individuals, including a virtual reality scientist, a biogeoscientist, and a marine biologist. Each short film features these scientists in their working environments. Each video is done with a bit of good humor, which makes the whole thing quite enjoyable. First-time visitors to the site shouldn't miss the profile of Yael Maguire, an electrical engineer who clearly has a great deal of fun on the job. After watching the videos, visitors can also sign up to receive notices when new profiles are added to the site.

2012-09-07

6

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.

Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

2009-02-01

7

Transformation of Scientists and Engineers Into Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical factors in the phenomenon of scientist's and engineer's transition from working as specialists to working as supervisors or managers were studied among 489 employees of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Institutes of Health to discover ways of avoiding or overcoming transition problems. Bench scientists

Bayton, James A.; Chapman, Richard L.

8

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public. Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers was developed by the AAAS Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology, in partnership with the National Science Foundation, to provide science-communication tools for use by scientists and engineers. Communicating Science resources are available both online and via in-person workshops, to help researchers communicate more broadly with the public.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-05-30

9

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

... Tables Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables ... Table 26; it now includes the occupations of the second job. Three new tables have been added. Table ...

10

Business planning for scientists and engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspe...

J. C. Servo P. D. Hauler

1992-01-01

11

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Trade and Regulated Industries: 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers, and Technicians in Trade and Regulated Industries: 1994 Hypertext Format Scientists ... Regulated Industries: 1994 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians ...

12

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 1995 Profile Hypertext Format Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States ... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication ...

13

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public.Includes links to webinars, how-to tips for media interviews, strategies for identifying public outreach opportunities, and more.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-07-07

14

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional reports in the Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page.

15

Scientist and Engineer Shortage: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With clockwork regularity, the real or perceived shortage of scientists and engineers in the US pops up as a topic of debate in academic and industry circles. Discussions of an imminent shortage have deep impact for education, career prospects, immigration, and "The American Dream." The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it poses a…

Post, Jan F.

2006-01-01

16

Characteristics of Scientists and Engineers in the United States, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about employment, education, and demographic characteristics of scientists and engineers in the United States. It is intended to provide ...

2011-01-01

17

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2000  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2000 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext ... Technicians in the United States: 2000 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and ...

18

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1998  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1998 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... Technicians in the United States: 1998 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and ...

19

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 2001 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States ... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001 This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

20

Business planning for scientists and engineers  

SciTech Connect

Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

1992-03-01

21

The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

2003-12-01

22

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... 1999 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999 Portable ... and Technicians in the United States: 1999 This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and ...

23

Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

24

MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

Kantak, A. V.

1994-01-01

25

The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

26

Science and Technology Review. Tomorrow's Scientists and Engineers, June 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Maintaining Excellence through Intellectual Vitality--Commentary by Cherry A. Murray; (2) Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab's Resources--University of California Ph.D. candidates work with ...

2006-01-01

27

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies offers its assessment of the postdoctoral experience and provides principles, action points, and recommendations for enhancing that experience.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences); NAE (National Academy of Engineering); Institute of Medicine (Institute of Medicine)

2000-01-01

28

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Nonmanufacturing Industries: 1993  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Nonmanufacturing Industries

29

Engineering the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative effort to strengthen the U.S. power and energy workforce. Some of us are old, some of us are young, and some of us refuse to acknowledge the difference. At any age, electric power and energy engineers contribute to the sustainability of life on this planet and the future growth of technology and society on all fronts. At a

Wanda Reder; Anjan Bose; Alex Flueck; Mark Lauby; Dagmar Niebur; Ann Randazzo; Dennis Ray; Gregory Reed; Peter Sauer; Frank Wayno

2010-01-01

30

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext ... Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Characteristics ...

31

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2001  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2001 Detailed Statistical Tables ... Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2001 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Characteristics ...

32

Age distribution among NASA scientists and engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loss of technical expertise through attrition in NASA and the aerospace industry is discussed. This report documents historical age-related information for scientific and engineering personnel in general and the NASA Lewis Research Center in particular, for 1968 through 1987. Recommendations are made to promote discussion and to establish the groundwork for action.

Ciancone, Michael L.

1989-01-01

33

A Recipe for Invention Scientist (and Engineer) Biographies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, designed to help break down stereotypes about scientists and engineers, students research the personal and professional lives of researchers in their field. The case was designed for use in high school to graduate courses in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular biology, biochemistry, geology, chemistry, psychology, mathematics, computer science, engineering, and anthropology. In the teaching notes, the authors provide lists of scientists for each of these disciplines as well as suggestions for classroom activities that can be used in various combinations to build on the students’ biographical research.

Morris, Traci E.; Gal, Susannah

2003-01-01

34

Business planning for scientists and engineers [3rd edition  

SciTech Connect

This combination text/workbook is intended for use by scientists or engineers actively engaged in developing a product or technology to commercial production. The 'how' of planning is a central theme with special emphasis on development of operational plans and strategic thinking.

Servo, Jenny C.

1999-09-01

35

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report profiles the demographic and employment characteristics of doctorate-level scientists and engineers in the United States. The data presented were collected through the 1995 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR). The purpose of the SDR is to estimate the number of people holding research doctorates from U.S. institutions in science and…

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

36

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional reports in the Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page.

37

Survey of Continuing Education Activities for Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was done to provide baseline data on the continuing education opportunities that colleges, universities, and professional societies offer engineers and scientists and to determine how programs and courses are developed. Although degree credit courses were included, the focus was on noncredit education designed to increase or update…

Klus, John P.; Jones, Judy A.

38

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995  

NSF Publications Database

... publications in different formats. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineersin the United ... Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Portable Document ...

39

Healthy Economy Yields Even Lower Unemployment Rate for Doctoral Scientists and Engineers  

NSF Publications Database

... data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the Nation's doctoral scientists and ... available in the forthcoming report, Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 ...

40

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

2007-01-01

41

SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States  

NSF Publications Database

... Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States Hypertext Format SESTAT: A Tool for Studying ... Document Format (.pdf) SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States ...

42

Educating the Future Engineer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new course in engineering science for pre-university students in England and Wales. The course outline, laboratory work, and evaluation procedures are discussed. The new course has been accepted by British universities as an entry qualification for degree courses in engineering and physics. (LC)

Sayer, Michael

1970-01-01

43

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1999 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... Engineers in the United States: 1999 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Characteristics of Doctoral ...

44

Citation Analysis: A Case Study of Korean Scientists and Engineers in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the citation patterns of publications by scientists and engineers in electrical and electronics engineering in Korea. Citation behavior of personnel in government, universities, and industry is compared; and citation patterns from articles in Korean and non-Korean publications are contrasted. (Contains 27…

Rieh, Hae-young

1993-01-01

45

The future of complexity engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

2012-06-01

46

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers Group: EPO for the NextGen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent lunar missions and increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers has grown substantially in the last few years. With plans for future US and international orbital and landed spacecraft, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific scrutiny. The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) is a grass-roots effort at fostering the growing community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. We are fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar enthusiasts with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of a base of lunar knowledge. The need to foster the next generation of lunar scientists is recognized within NASA and the international community (e.g., International Lunar Exploration Working Group, Lunar Explorers Society, and the Canadian Lunar Research Network). A primary goal of the NASA Lunar Science Institute is to support “...the development of the lunar science community and training the next generation of lunar science researchers.” Additionally, NASA’s Optimizing Science and Exploration Working Group, which is comprised of representatives from several NASA Directorates and Centers, is tasked with the integration of science and engineering for the successful exploration of the Moon. In much the same way, the NGLSE aims to bring early career scientists and engineers together in order to create and support a network of next generation lunar scientists and engineers who will be able to work effectively together. Currently with over 150 members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The NGLSE has received NASA funding to host workshops in association with major lunar conferences, most recently the 2010 NLSI Lunar Science Forum. At this workshop, participants worked with science educators on how to effectively craft presentations for students and how to effectively communicate our exciting science and engineering endeavors to the public. The workshop also provided opportunities for participants to network, to communicate their science and engineering to each other, and to interact with NASA leaders and established members of the science and engineering communities. Building a community of active participants who are not only dedicated to becoming productive members of the lunar science and engineering communities but also trained in effective science communication to their peers and the public, writing winning proposals, and leading effective education and public outreach efforts is fundamentally important in building a sustainable, long-lived, and publicly supported lunar science and exploration program. We will report on the progress of the NGLSE group and our workshops, including the needs and interests of this community as identified through our efforts.

Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, L.; Bleacher, J. E.; Santiago, D.; Noble, S. K.

2010-12-01

47

Outreach to Scientists and Engineers at the Hanford Technical Library  

SciTech Connect

Staff at the Hanford Technical Library has developed a suite of programs designed to help busy researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) make better use of library products and services. Programs include formal training classes, one-on-one consultations, and targeted email messages announcing new materials to researchers in specific fields. A staple of outreach has been to teach classes to library clients covering research tools in their fields. These classes started out in the library classroom and then expanded to other venues around PNNL. Class surveys indicated that many researchers desired a practical approach to learning rather than the traditional lecture format. The library instituted “Library Learning Day” and hosted classes in the PNNL computer training room to provide lab employees with a hands-on learning experience. Classes are generally offered at noon and lab staff attends classes on their lunch hour. Many just do not have time to spend a full hour in training. Library staff added some experimental half-hour mini classes in campus buildings geared to the projects and interests of researchers there to see if this format was more appealing. As other programs have developed librarians are teaching fewer classes but average attendance figures has remained fairly stable from 2005-2007. In summer of 2004 the library began the Traveling Librarian program. Librarians call-on groups and individuals in 24 buildings on the Richland Washington campus. Five full-time and two part-time librarians are involved in the program. Librarians usually send out email announcements prior to visits and encourage scientists and engineers to make appointments for a brief 15 minute consultation in the researcher’s own office. During the meeting lab staff learn about products or product features that can help them work more productively. Librarians also make cold calls to staff that do not request a consultation and may not be making full use of the library. Scientists and engineers who require longer sessions can arrange half-hour training appointments in the researcher’s own office or at the library. Since the program was implemented staff made 165 visits to 1249 laboratory staff including some repeat consultation requests. New acquisitions lists are sent to individuals and groups that would be interested in recent journal, database, and books purchases. These lists are topic specific and targeted to groups and individuals with an interest in the field. For example newly acquired engineering resources are targeted at engineering groups. The new acquisitions list for engineering began mid year in 2005. An analysis of circulation statistics for engineering books in fiscal year 2005, 2006, and 2007 show that circulation increased each year with 2007 circulation nearly double that of 2005. This took place when overall circulation rose in FY06 but fell slightly in FY07. Outreach strategies tailored and individualized can be effective. Offering multiple outreach options offers researchers different ways to interact with library staff and services.

Buxton, Karen A.

2008-06-17

48

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) -engaging students in research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) during the past 18 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space sciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students' preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel; Reiff, Patricia

49

Students Engaged in Research - Young Engineers and Scientists (YES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including geosciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel C.

2009-09-01

50

Young engineers and scientists - a mentorship program emphasizing space education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel; Asbell, Elaine; Reiff, Patricia

51

Engaging Students in Space Research: Young Engineers and Scientists 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI and a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their professional mentors during the academic year. During the summer workshop, students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

2008-12-01

52

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) - A Science Education Partnership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 15 years and YES 2K7 continued this trend. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES 2K7 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) from the perspective of 20 high school students (yesserver.space.swri.edu). Over the past 15 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

2007-12-01

53

YES 2K5: Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 13 years, and YES 2K5 continued this trend. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES 2K5 consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES 2K5 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) from the perspective of a high school student. Over the past 13 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from the NASA MMS Mission, the NASA E/PO program, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.

2005-12-01

54

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The typical postsecondary academic career follows a well-ordered path with several discrete milestones. The first of these is securing a tenure-track position at an academic institution, at which point the individual is usually assigned to a junior rank, such as assistant professor. Junior faculty members ordinarily are employed on probation and are given a specified number of years to earn tenure. The second milestone, the tenure decision, is perhaps the most critical point on the academic career path. Earning tenure usually means lifetime employment and arrival at another milestone, promotion to the rank of associate professor. Failing to earn tenure often results in termination of employment at the institution. Some doctorate holders, presumably those who establish distinguished records, reach a final milestone with promotion to the rank of full professor.1 This study uses data from a nationally representativesample of recipients of doctorates in science and engineering (S&E). With these data we examined gender differences for four critical outcomes that reflect successful movement along the postsecondary academic career path. These four critical outcomes are tenure track placement, earning tenure, promotion to the rank of associate professor, and promotion to the rank of full professor. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Scientists,Technicians

2010-01-27

55

Semiconductors: Still a Wide Open Frontier for Scientists/Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1995 Business Week article described several features of the explosive use of semiconductor chips today: ``Booming'' personal computer markets are driving high demand for microprocessors and memory chips; (2) New information superhighway markets will `ignite' sales of multimedia and communication chips; and (3) Demand for digital-signal-processing and data-compression chips, which speed up video and graphics, is `red hot.' A Washington Post article by Stan Hinden said that technology is creating an unstoppable demand for electronic elements. This ``digital pervasiveness'' means that a semiconductor chip is going into almost every high-tech product that people buy - cars, televisions, video recorders, telephones, radios, alarm clocks, coffee pots, etc. ``Semiconductors are everywhere.'' Silicon and compound semiconductors are absolutely essential and are pervasive enablers for DoD operations and systems. DoD's Critical Technologies Plan of 1991 says that ``Semiconductor materials and microelectronics are critically important and appropriately lead the list of critical defense technologies.'' These trends continue unabated. This talk describes some of the frontiers of semiconductors today and shows how scientists and engineers can effectively contribute to its advancement. Cooperative, multidisciplinary efforts are increasing. Specific examples will be given for scanning capacitance microscopy and thin-film metrology.

Seiler, David G.

1997-10-01

56

Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1977  

SciTech Connect

Information is compiled about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data are for the year 1977 and are part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Data on mathematics, physics, chemistry, environmental engineering, engineering, life sciences, psychology, and social sciences doctoral degree specialties are included.

Not Available

1980-04-01

57

The Regional Distribution of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976. Research Memorandum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are several factors related to regional variations in the number of energy-related scientists and engineers and how this subgroup differs from the base group of scientists and engineers. The emphasis of this research project was to determine the influence of regional differences in industry mix and in staffing patterns within industries…

Finn, Michael G.; Blair, Philip

58

Senior scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small task force of volunteer senior scientists and engineers was organized recently under the aegis of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) “to utilize its collective talents for the betterment of society and to provide opportunities for individual personal accomplishment and enrichment.” Among the projects under consideration are assisting the Washington, D.C., school system to improve its science and mathematics instruction and assessing the impact of technology on older persons.One of the task force's first projects is to develop a roster of retired scientists and engineers in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to garner volunteer talent for future projects.

59

Inspiring the Next Generation of Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are usually not excited about abstract concepts, and teachers struggle to inject "pizzazz" into many of their lessons. K-12 teachers need opportunities and the associated pedagogical training to bring meaningful and authentic learning to their students. The professional educator community needs to develop a learning environment which connects desired content knowledge with science and engineering practices that students need to be successful future technology leaders. Furthermore, this environment must foster student exploration and discovery by encouraging them to use their natural creativity with newly acquired technical skills to complete assigned projects. These practices are explicitly listed in the US "Next Generation Science Standards" document that is due for final publication in the very near future. Education in America must unleash students' desires to create and make with their hands, using their intellect, and growing academic knowledge. In this submission I will share various student projects that I have created and implemented for middle and high school. For each project, students were required to learn and implement engineering best practices while designing, building, and testing prototype models, according to pre-assigned teacher specifications. As in all real-world engineering projects, students were required to analyze test data, re-design their models accordingly, and iterate the design process several times to meet specifications. Another key component to successful projects is collaboration between student team members. All my students come to realize that nothing of major significance is ever accomplished alone, that is, without the support of a team. I will highlight several projects that illustrate key engineering practices as well as lessons learned, for both student and teacher. Projects presented will include: magnetically levitated vehicles (maglev) races, solar-powered and mousetrap-powered cars and boats, Popsicle stick catapults and bridges, egg drop "lunar landers", egg-passenger car crashes, cardboard boat races (with human passengers), and working roller coasters made with only paper and tape. Each project requires minimal, low-cost materials commonly found at home or in local stores. I will share the most common student misperceptions about inquiry and problem-solving I have observed while working alongside my students during these projects.

Tambara, Kevin

2013-04-01

60

Young Engineers & Scientists (YES) - Engaging Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, C++ programming, the Internet, careers, science ethics, social impact of technology, and other topics; and select their individual research project with their mentor (SwRI staff member) to be completed during the academic year; and 2) A collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and teachers during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past nineteen (19) years. A total of 258 students have completed or are currently enrolled in YES. Of these students, 38% are females and 57% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local diversity of the San Antonio area. All YES graduates have entered college, several work or have worked for SwRI, two businesses have formed, and three scientific publications have resulted. Sixteen (16) teacher participants have attended the YES workshop and have developed classroom materials based on their experiences in research at SwRI in the past three (3) years. In recognition of its excellence, YES received the Celebrate Success in 1996 and the Outstanding Campus Partner-of-the-Year Award in 2005, both from Northside Independent School District (San Antonio, Texas). Acknowledgments: We are grateful for support from the NASA MMS Mission E/PO Grant, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2011-12-01

61

The MY NASA DATA Project: Preparing Future Earth and Environmental Scientists, and Future Citizens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 5 years, the MY NASA DATA (MND) project at NASA Langley has developed and adapted tools and materials aimed at enabling student access to real NASA Earth science satellite data. These include web visualization tools including Google Earth capabilities, but also GPS and graphing calculator exercises, Excel spreadsheet analyses, and more. The project team, NASA scientists, and over 80 classroom science teachers from around the country, have created over 85 lesson plans and science fair project ideas that demonstrate NASA satellite data use in the classroom. With over 150 Earth science parameters to choose from, the MND Live Access Server enables scientific inquiry on numerous interconnected Earth and environmental science topics about the Earth system. Teachers involved in the project report a number of benefits, including networking with other teachers nationwide who emphasize data collection and analysis in the classroom, as well as learning about other NASA resources and programs for educators. They also indicate that the MND website enhances the inquiry process and facilitates the formation of testable questions by students (a task that is typically difficult for students to do). MND makes science come alive for students because it allows them to develop their own questions using the same data scientists use. MND also provides educators with a rich venue for science practice skills, which are often overlooked in traditional curricula as teachers concentrate on state and national standards. A teacher in a disadvantaged school reports that her students are not exposed to many educational experiences outside the classroom. MND allows inner city students to be a part of NASA directly. They are able to use the same information that scientists are using and this gives them inspiration. In all classrooms, the MND microsets move students out of their local area to explore global data and then zoom back into their homes realizing that they are a part of the global Earth System. These armchair explorers learn to unite datasets in a region to learn about places like and unlike where they live. In a world that's becoming smaller and smaller with the aid of technology, projects like MND prepare our students for their global future. A teacher located in an area of California strongly impacted by pollution and potential climate changes noted that this project makes available data that are very relevant to issues that will affect her students' lives. She points out that not all scientific information they currently see is in a form that is understandable to an educated citizen, and that the experience with MND will enable her students to have better than average skills not only for deciphering scientific maps and graphs; but also for creating maps and graphics that successfully convey information to others.

Chambers, L. H.; Phelps, C. S.; Phipps, M.; Holzer, M.; Daugherty, P.; Poling, E.; Vanderlaan, S.; Oots, P. C.; Moore, S. W.; Diones, D. D.

2008-12-01

62

Massive Internet Data Available to Environmental Engineers and Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Business and Commerce; Chemistry, Engineering, Computer and Software; Databases for Research; E Commerce and Web Site Promotions; Education Information; Environmental Employment Search; Environmental Science and Engineering; General Reference an...

L. K. Wang

1999-01-01

63

Toward a Career-Based Theory of Job Involvement: A Study of Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple regression analyses are used to determine the relative importance of 49 factors to job involvement in a study of 441 scientists and engineers. Of particular importance are career and personality factors. (Author)

McKelvey, Bill; Sekaran, Uma

1977-01-01

64

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Private Industry, 1980 (Detailed Statistical Tables).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents detailed estimates of employment of scientists, engineers, and technicians in private industry in August 1980. More disaggregated industry detail is included--at the 3-digit SIC level--than has ever before been published. In 1980...

1981-01-01

65

The Attitudes of Federally Employed Scientists and Engineers: A Follow-on Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of scientists and engineers toward federal government employee unions and to compare those findings to a similar study conducted two years previously. A questionnaire consisting of 39 demographic-type ...

R. H. Agnew R. O. Jennings

1976-01-01

66

Major Declines in Admissions of Immigrant Scientists and Engineers in Fiscal Year 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientists and Engineers in Fiscal Year 1994(June 18, 1997) This Data Brief presents newly released ... technicians admitted to the United States in 1994 on permanent visas. Hypertext Format Portable ...

67

International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers to the United States - Brain Drain or Brain Circulation?  

NSF Publications Database

... of Scientists and Engineers to the United States - Brain Drain or Brain Circulation? (June 22, 1998 ... doctoral recipients who remain in the United States for postdoctoral study as well as long-term ...

68

Doubling Up: A Profile of U.S. Scientists and Engineers Who Hold Second Jobs  

NSF Publications Database

Doubling Up: A Profile of U.S. Scientists and Engineers Who Hold Second Jobs (March 27, 2001) This ... several factors related to the decision to hold a second job. Hypertext Format Portable Document ...

69

The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs for Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs at The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), instituted in 1978, is an award-winning exemplar in the liberal arts which provides a select number of CSM engineering students an opportunity to cross the boundaries of their technical expertise in engineering and applied science, and to gain the understanding and appreciation of the contexts in which engineering and applied science and all human systems reside, and specifically to explore and integrate the social, cultural, ethical and environmental implications of their future professional judgments and their roles as citizens in varied and complex settings. The 27 semester-hour program of seminars, courses, and off-campus activities features small seminars; a cross-disciplinary approach; and opportunities for one-on-one faculty tutorials, instruction and practice in oral and written communication, a Washington, D.C. public policy seminar, a practicum experience (internship or foreign study). Circumstances external to the McBride Program itself, which include the development and growth of the field of Public Affairs nationally and the persistence of legacy courses, have created the need to revitalize and refocus the historically cross-departmental Program. A recent curriculum reform effort has achieved a more thoroughly interdisciplinary learning experience to educate engineers and scientists who, as called for in the National Academy of Engineering's The Engineer of 2020 "will assume leadership positions from which they can serve as positive influences in the making of public policy and in the administration of government and industry". In this presentation we showcase best practices in curriculum reform, exemplified by a seminar in National policy analysis where students and faculty have recently investigated federal science funding decisions in support of natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildland fires, and pandemic disease.

Harrison, W. J.; Miller, R. L.; Olds, B. M.; Sacks, A. B.

2006-12-01

70

Graduate Education Reform in Asia, Europe, and the Americas and International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers: Proceedings of an NSF Workshop  

NSF Publications Database

... in Europe, Asia, and the Americas and International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers ... in Europe, Asia and the Americas and International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers: Proceedings ...

71

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the nation's doctoral scientists and engineers. Data were developed as part of the Longitudinal Doctorate Project. Current information on the supply and utilization of doctoral personnel in science and engineering reflects the results of the 1995 Survey of Doctorate…

Wilkinson, R. Keith

72

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the nation's doctoral scientists and engineers. Data were developed as part of the Longitudinal Doctorate Project. Current information on the supply and utilization of doctoral personnel in science and engineering reflects the results of the 1997 Survey of Doctorate…

Kang, Kelly H.

73

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on women in science and engineering is extensive and addresses such issues as early education, decision to study and pursue careers in science, and how women fair in their jobs. This review used the literature on the careers of women scientists and engineers employed in academia to examine how women in these disciplines fare…

Bentley, Jerome T.; Adamson, Rebecca

74

Lived Experiences and Perceptions on Mentoring among Latina Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to reveal the lived mentoring experiences of Latinas in science and engineering. The study also sought to understand how Latina scientists and engineers achieved high-level positions within their organizations and the impediments they encountered along their professional journey. The theoretical framework…

San Miguel, Anitza M.

2010-01-01

75

Scientist to Scientist Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of its mission to enhance collaboration between scientists and engineers from the US and other countries, the International Directorate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) placed the newsletter Scientist to Scientist online. Past issues of the newsletter (back to April 1992) report on funding opportunities and other programs (such as conferences, workshops, etc.) that "promote scientific cooperation in East Central Europe and the NIS."

76

The MY NASA DATA Project: Preparing Future Earth and Environmental Scientists, and Future Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 5 years, the MY NASA DATA (MND) project at NASA Langley has developed and adapted tools and materials aimed at enabling student access to real NASA Earth science satellite data. These include web visualization tools including Google Earth capabilities, but also GPS and graphing calculator exercises, Excel spreadsheet analyses, and more. The project team, NASA scientists, and

L. H. Chambers; C. S. Phelps; M. Phipps; M. Holzer; P. Daugherty; E. Poling; S. Vanderlaan; P. C. Oots; S. W. Moore; D. D. Diones

2008-01-01

77

Understanding the INTERNET: A guide for materials scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newspapers and magazines are full of stories about the Internet and the coming "information superhighway." Predictions for the future range from on-line video rentals and 500 channels of cable television to video telephones and global electronic libraries. Unfortunately, "infobahn" metaphors and hyperbole have obscured the fact that the the Internet is useful now and that it connects a significant fraction of the United States and the world. This article describes, without too many metaphors, the current and near-future capabilities of the Internet and provides basic information about access methods, popular services, and planned changes. In addition, the article also offers a brief introduction to "Net" culture and etiquette.

Meltsner, Kenneth J.

1995-04-01

78

Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

2012-12-01

79

Future of Software Engineering Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

Poon, Peter T.

1997-01-01

80

Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. PMID:23438464

McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

2013-03-01

81

Midlife Career Transitions of Men Who Are Scientists and Engineers: A Narrative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the results of a qualitative study of career transition experiences of middle-aged male scientists and engineers in the current socioeconomic environment in the United States. The study addresses the effects of the transitions from psychosocial perspectives. The authors selected participants from research organizations,…

Liu, Yosen; Englar-Carlson, Matt; Minichiello, Victor

2012-01-01

82

Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See  

ScienceCinema

Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

John Lienhard

2010-09-01

83

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2001. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the nation.s doctoral scientists and engineers. The goal of the 2001 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) is to provide policymakers and researchers with high-quality data and ...

K. H. Kang

2003-01-01

84

Coordination of NSF Projects in the Area of Continuing Education for Scientists and Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 1978, the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated five studies of the continuing education of scientists and engineers employed in small, geographically dispersed industry. Following the award of these studies NSF requested Battelle, one of the award recipients, to assist in coordinating the five projects. This report briefly…

Welling, Lawrence G.

85

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents detailed statistical tables that reflect the demographic and employment characteristics of doctoral degree holding scientists and engineers in the United States. The data were collected from the 1999 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) with the purpose of providing information to researchers and policymakers in their decision…

Kang, Kelly H.

86

Older Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: Selected Labor Force Characteristics. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the labor force characteristics of older doctoral scientists and engineers using data from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) from 1997. The information presented in the report includes employment, education, and demographic data on all graduate degrees considering the age factor. (YDS)

Morgan, Robert P.

87

Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See  

SciTech Connect

Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

Lienhard, John (NPR) [NPR

2004-07-12

88

Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

1997-01-01

89

Should the Government Subsidize Supply or Demand in the Market for Scientists and Engineers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that innovation policy in the United States has erred by subsidizing the private sector demand for scientists and engineers without asking whether the educational system provides that supply response necessary for these subsidies to work. It suggests that the existing institutional arrangements in higher education limit this supply response. To illustrate the path not taken, the paper

Paul M. Romer

2000-01-01

90

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature on women in science and engineering is extensive and deals with such issues as early education, decisions to study and pursue in science, and how women fare in their jobs. This review used the literature on the careers of women scientists a...

A. I. Rapport J. T. Bentley R. Adamson

2003-01-01

91

Citizenship Ceremony for Dr. von Braun and German-Born Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a swearing-in ceremony held at Huntsville High School, one hundred and three German-born scientists and engineers, along with family members, took the oath of citizenship to become United States citizens. Among those taking the oath was Dr. Wernher von Braun, located in the second row, right side, third from the end.

1955-01-01

92

Inspiring the Next Generation of Naval Scientists and Engineers in Mississippi and Louisiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the American Institute of Physics ranked Mississippi 50th out of 50 states in preparing students for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) careers. Louisiana placed 48th on the list. [1] The Naval Research Laboratory - Stennis Space Center detachment (NRL-SSC) is located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, approximately 2 miles from the Louisiana state line. In response to a growing need for NRL-SSC to sustain recruitment and retention of the best and brightest scientists and engineers (S&Es), NRL-SSC became a National Defense Education Program (NDEP) site in August 2009. NDEP's mission is to support a new generation of S&Es who will apply their talents in U.S. Defense laboratories. As an NDEP site, NRL-SSC receives funding to promote STEM at K-12 institutions geographically local to NRL-SSC. NDEP funding allows present Department of Defense civilian S&Es to collaborate with teachers to enrich student learning in the classroom environment through various programs, events, training and activities. Since NRL-SSC's STEM program's inception, more than 30 S&Es have supported an array of STEM outreach activities in over 30 different local schools. An important part of the K-12 outreach from NRL-SSC is to provide professional development opportunities for local teachers. During the summer of 2012, in collaboration with STEM programs sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), we provided a series of professional development opportunities for 120 local science and mathematics teachers across K-12. The foundation of NRL-SSC STEM programs includes MATHCOUNTS, FIRST and SeaPerch—all nationally recognized, results-driven programs. We will discuss the breadth of participation in these programs and how these programs will support NRL-SSC future recruitment goals.

Breland-Mensi, S.; Calantoni, J.

2012-12-01

93

Primary-School Children's Attitudes towards Science, Engineering and Technology and Their Images of Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of Year 5 primary-school children towards science, engineering and technology (SET) were examined prior to studying the effects of the Horsham Greenpower Goblin Challenge (HGGC), a hands-on SET project. The data collection centred on pupil, parent and teacher questionnaires using Likert scales and picture/word images of scientists

Silver, Anne; Rushton, Brian S.

2008-01-01

94

Future Prospects of Low Compression Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a review and analysis of the effects of compression ratio and inlet air preheating on engine performance in order to assess the future prospects of low compression ignition engines. Regulation of the inlet air preheating allows some control over the combustion process in compression ignition engines. Literature shows that low compression ratio and inlet air preheating are more beneficial to internal combustion engines than detrimental. Even the disadvantages due to low compression ratio are outweighed by the advantages due to inlet air preheating and vice versa.

Azim, M. A.

2014-01-01

95

PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Retrospective views on our planet's future' - This was the theme of a tandem of meetings held by Past Global Changes (PAGES; http://www.pages-igbp.org), a project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). It reflects the philosophy of PAGES and its community of scientists that the past holds the key to better projections of the future. Climatic and environmental evidence from the past can be used to sharpen future projections of global change, thereby informing political and societal decisions on mitigation and adaptation. Young scientists are critical to the future of this endeavour, which we call 'paleoscience'. Their scientific knowledge, interdisciplinarity, international collaboration, and leadership skills will be required if this field is to continue to thrive. Meanwhile, it is also important to remember that science develops not only by applying new strategies and new tools to make new observations, but also by building upon existing knowledge. Modern research in paleoscience began around fifty years ago, and one could say that the third generation of researchers is now emerging. It is a wise investment to ensure that existing skills and knowledge are transferred to this generation. This will enable them to lead the science towards new accomplishments, and to make important contributions towards the wider field of global change science. Motivated by such considerations, PAGES organized its first Young Scientists Meeting (YSM), held in Corvallis (Oregon, USA) in July 2009 (http://www.pages-osm.org/ysm/index.html). The meeting took place immediately before the much larger 3rd PAGES Open Science Meeting (OSM; http://www.pages-osm.org/osm/index.html). The YSM brought together 91 early-career scientists from 21 different nations. During the two-day meeting, PhD students, postdoctoral researchers, and new faculty met to present their work and build networks across geographical and disciplinary borders. Several experienced and well-recognized researchers tutored this conference, and gave assistance to young scientists by offering advice on publication, promotion, outreach processes, and data management. At the subsequent OSM, the young scientists had the opportunity to present their results to a larger community, and to build networks with their senior colleagues. In a friendly and classroom-like atmosphere, the research presented during the YSM was of a remarkably high quality, and merited publication in this special issue. The 23 short proceedings papers are first-authored by YSM attendees, and based on their presented work and the associated discussions. Consistent with the spirit of the YSM, the core of the guest editor team consisted of YSM early-career scientists, while members of the wider scientific community reviewed the papers. Studies presented in this issue cover a large range of topics. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental research is always seeking new natural archives and improved proxies, and so some papers focus on reconstruction methodologies and the interpretation and calibration of proxies. Other papers present a variety of modeling approaches, such as climate system modeling, forward modeling, or ecosystem modeling. Still others focus on reconstructions from marine (foraminifera, diatoms, corals) or continental (tree rings, speleothems, ice cores) archives, or on understanding the dynamics of the Earth system and the feedbacks between its various components. The studies presented span timescales ranging from the past 200,000 years to the last few decades, and consider changes in natural phenomena such as the hydrological cycle and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, as well as local- and regional-scale interaction of humans with the environment. The papers presented in this special issue therefore reflect current challenges in paleoscience research: understanding natural variability on both long and short time scales, and monitoring anthropogenic impacts which range from historic landscaping to more recent pollution. The concept and format of the 1st PAGES YSM worked very well, and

Margrethe Basse, Ellen

2010-03-01

96

Engineering the Future: Cell 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), explaining the development using a systems engineering methodology. Included are slides showing the organizational chart, the JWST Science Goals, the size of the primary mirror, and full scale mockups of the JSWT. Also included is a review of the JWST Optical Telescope Requirements, a review of the preliminary design and analysis, the technology development required to create the JWST, with particular interest in the specific mirror technology that was required, and views of the mirror manufacturing process. Several slides review the process of verification and validation by testing and analysis, including a diagram of the Cryogenic Test Facility at Marshall, and views of the primary mirror while being tested in the cryogenic facility.

Stahl, P. H.

2010-01-01

97

Some Future Software Engineering Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper provides an update and extension of a 2006 paper, “Some Future Trends and Implications for Systems and Software\\u000a Engineering Processes,” Systems Engineering, Spring 2006. Some of its challenges and opportunities are similar, such as the need to simultaneously achieve high levels\\u000a of both agility and assurance. Others have emerged as increasingly important, such as the challenges of dealing

Barry Boehm

2011-01-01

98

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of US doctoral scientists and engineers based on the 1995 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. Examples of available information include citizenship, place of birth, field of degree, occupation, sector of employment, median salary, and various labor force rates. The bulk of the report is composed of 59 Excel spreadsheets. It is also available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

National Science Foundation (U.S.) Division of Science Resources Studies.

1997-01-01

99

Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

1985-01-01

100

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Careers for Electrical Engineers and Computer Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Careers Website is an excellent jobs resource. Sections provided include Engineering Careers, Finding a Job, Career Planning, Salaries and Compensation, and Employer Database, among a host of others.

101

The journey of a science teacher: Preparing female students in the Training Future Scientists after school program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed through a constructivist perspective, using dialogic engagement, coinciding with Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory. This action research project used mixed methods research design, targeted urban adolescent females who were members of Boys & Girls Club of Greater St. Louis (BGCGSTL) after-school program. The data collection measures were three qualitative instruments (semi-structured interviews, reflective journal entries and attitudinal survey open-ended responses) and two quantitative instruments (pre-test and posttests over the content from the Buckle-down Curriculum and attitudinal survey scaled responses). The goal was to describe the impact the Training Future Scientist (TFS) after-school program has on the girls' scientific content knowledge, attitude toward choosing a science career, and self-perception in science. Through the TFS after-school program participants had access to a secondary science teacher-researcher, peer leaders that were in the 9th--12th grade, and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) role models from Washington University Medical School Young Scientist Program (YSP) graduate and medical students and fellows as volunteers. The program utilized the Buckle-down Curriculum as guided, peer-led cooperative learning groups, hands-on labs and demonstrations facilitated by the researcher, trained peer leaders and/or role models that used constructivist science pedagogy to improve test-taking strategies. The outcomes for the TFS study were an increase in science content knowledge, a positive trend in attitude change, and a negative trend in choosing a science career. Keywords: informal science programs, urban girls, self-efficacy, cooperative learning, peer learning, female adolescents, and after-school urban education This dissertation study was funded by two grants, the 2013 spring dissertation grant from the University of Missouri St. Louis and a philanthropic grant from Dr. Courtney Crim.

Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

102

Some Future Software Engineering Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an update and extension of a 2006 paper, “Some Future Trends and Implications for Systems and Software Engineering Processes,” Systems Engineering, Spring 2006. Some of its challenges and opportunities are similar, such as the need to simultaneously achieve high levels of both agility and assurance. Others have emerged as increasingly important, such as the challenges of dealing with ultralarge volumes of data, with multicore chips, and with software as a service. The paper is organized around eight relatively surprise-free trends and two “wild cards” whose trends and implications are harder to foresee. The eight surprise-free trends are:

Boehm, Barry

103

The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

1999-01-01

104

A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Careers in action  

SciTech Connect

This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

Not Available

1991-12-31

105

A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

Not Available

1991-01-01

106

An Exploratory Study of Perceived Career Progress Among Civil Service Scientists and Engineers Assigned to Air Force Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental study was conducted on scientists and engineers to determine the perceptions they had concerning their career progression. The data for the research was obtained through the use of a questionnaire which was distributed to a random sample o...

T. J. Mackey J. C. Totten

1969-01-01

107

National Advanced Manufacturing Testbed: A Distributed Testbed Enabling Collaborative Research between Scientists and Engineers at Remote Locations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Advanced Manufacturing Testbed (NAMT) is a distributed testbed enabling collaborative research between scientists and engineers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), remote industry locations, and government and univer...

D. C. Stieren R. J. Densock M. E. Luce

1999-01-01

108

The Relationship between Doctoral Completion Time, Gender, and Future Salary Prospects for Physical Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding physical scientists, we present evidence that doctoral completion time is a strong predictor of future salary prospects: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a substantially lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for typical measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication rates) and several other structural and career factors expected to influence salaries. Extending this picture to include gender effects, we show that women earn significantly less than men overall and experience no effect of doctoral completion time on their salaries, while men see a significant gain in salary stemming from earlier completion times. Doctoral completion time is shown to be largely unconnected to measures of prior academic success, research independence, and scientific merit suggesting that doctoral completion time is, to a great extent, out of the control of individual graduate students. Nonetheless, it can be influential on an individual's future career prospects, as can gender-related effects.

Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.

2012-03-01

109

Knowledge Engineering for Preservation and Future use of Institutional Knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Project has two main thrusts-preservation of special knowledge and its useful representation via computers. NASA is losing the expertise of its engineers and scientists who put together the great missions of the past. We no longer are landing men on the moon. Some of the equipment still used today (such as the RL-10 rocket) was designed decades ago by people who are now retiring. Furthermore, there has been a lack, in some areas of technology, of new projects that overlap with the old and that would have provided opportunities for monitoring by senior engineers of the young ones. We are studying this problem and trying out a couple of methods of soliciting and recording rare knowledge from experts. One method is that of Concept Maps which produces a graphical interface to knowledge even as it helps solicit that knowledge. We arranged for experienced help in this method from John Coffey of the Institute of Human and Machine Technology at the University of West Florida. A second method which we plan to try out in May, is a video-taped review of selected failed missions (e.g., the craft tumbled and blew up). Five senior engineers (most already retired from NASA) will, as a team, analyze available data, illustrating their thought processes as they try to solve the problem of why a space craft failed to complete its mission. The session will be captured in high quality audio and with at least two video cameras. The video can later be used to plan future concept mapping interviews and, in edited form, be a product in itself. Our computer representations of the amassed knowledge may eventually, via the methods of expert systems, be joined with other software being prepared as a suite of tools to aid future engineers designing rocket engines. In addition to representation by multimedia concept maps, we plan to consider linking vast bodies of text (and other media) by hypertexting methods.

Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John

1996-01-01

110

AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base. The OS28 Communicating Broadly: Perspectives and Tools for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists Session would provide an ideal platform for Fellowship management to share lessons learned about science communication and to offer insight as to the challenges scientists face when communicating with the general public or media.

Pasco, S.

2006-12-01

111

NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on various E/PO topics, and an E/PO proposal writing workshop. SCWG members have also worked to incorporate information about E/PO, including what it is, points of contact, and opportunities for participation, into ongoing training sessions at GSFC, such as New Employee Orientation, Road to Mission Success, and Project Scientist Training. In addition, SCWG members have met with GSFC's upper management to voice barriers and concerns raised by scientists and engineers. We will expand on the barriers, efforts to address them, and the results of those efforts.

Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

2011-12-01

112

Biomanufacturing for tissue engineering: Present and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering, often referred to as regenerative medicine and reparative medicine, is an interdisciplinary field that necessitates the combined effort of cell biologists, engineers, material scientists, mathematicians, geneticists, and clinicians toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. It has emerged as a rapidly expanding approach to address the organ shortage problem and comprises tissue

P. J. Bártolo; C. K. Chua; H. A. Almeida; S. M. Chou; A. S. C. Lim

2009-01-01

113

Role of military scientists and engineers in space (1980-2000)  

SciTech Connect

The Space Transportation System provides military scientists and engineers exciting new capabilities to conduct a variety of pioneering experiments on orbit, taking unique advantage of the space environment itself or observing the planet firsthand from the vantage point of space. The reusable Shuttle/Spacelab configuration permits a more effective use of the human and material resources being committed to the space program in the next decade, and ensures the presence of man in space on a routine basis. However, full-scale exploitation of space for national defense will depend to a great extent on the skillful and successful utilization of the military payload specialists, who will fly and operate various Shuttle-based DoD experiments. This paper explores the doctrine, role, function, and training requirements for DoD payload specialists. The unique advantage of man-in-the-loop activities and the orbiting military scientist conducting experiments in situ is addressed in light of previous US manned space flight experience and the projected capabilities of the Shuttle. 4 figures.

Angelo, J.A. Jr

1981-01-01

114

Statistics for nuclear engineers and scientists. Part 1. Basic statistical inference  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended for the use of engineers and scientists working in the nuclear industry, especially at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. It serves as the basis for several Bettis in-house statistics courses. The objectives of the report are to introduce the reader to the language and concepts of statistics and to provide a basic set of techniques to apply to problems of the collection and analysis of data. Part 1 covers subjects of basic inference. The subjects include: descriptive statistics; probability; simple inference for normally distributed populations, and for non-normal populations as well; comparison of two populations; the analysis of variance; quality control procedures; and linear regression analysis.

Beggs, W.J.

1981-02-01

115

An Investigation of Factors Affecting How Engineers and Scientists Seek Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be primarily a function of the perceived importance of the carrier's information to a person's work. Task uncertainty and task complexity were found to be significant, but not the primary nor a totally consistent criteria. The perceived quality and accessibility of written carriers were not found significant. The findings reinforce the need for firms to hire knowledgeable employees, to provide them with comprehensive training programs, and to develop formal and informal communication networks.

Anderson, Claire J; Glassman, Myron; McAfee, R. Bruce; Pinelli, Thomas

2001-01-01

116

Ohio State scientists develop model for future prostate cancer treatments guided by math:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have designed a first draft of a mathematical model that someday could guide treatment decisions for advanced prostate cancer, in part by helping doctors predict how individual patients will respond to therapy based on the biology of their tumors.

117

Teaching the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers the NASA Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Product Team (IPT) program, led by The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), is a multidisciplinary, multi-university, multi-level program whose goal is to provide opportunities for high school and undergraduate scientists and engineers to translate stakeholder needs and requirements into viable engineering design solutions via a distributed multidisciplinary team environment. The current program supports three projects. The core of the program is the two-semester senior design experience where science, engineering, and liberal arts undergraduate students from UAH, the College of Charleston, Southern University at Baton Rouge, and Ecole Suprieure des Techniques Aronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA) in Paris, France form multidisciplinary competitive teams to develop system concepts of interest to the local aerospace community. External review boards form to provide guidance and feedback throughout the semester and to ultimately choose a winner from the competing teams. The other two projects, the Innovative Student Project for the Increased Recruitment of Engineering and Science Students (InSPIRESS) Level I and Level II focus exclusively on high school students. InSPIRESS Level I allows high schools to develop a payload to be accommodated on the system being developed by senior design experience teams. InSPIRESS Level II provides local high school students first-hand experience in the senior design experience by allowing them to develop a subsystem or component of the UAH-led system over the two semesters. This program provides a model for NASA centers to engage the local community to become more involved in design projects.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Justice, Stefanie H.

2011-01-01

118

YES 2K6: A mentorship program for young engineers and scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists 2006 YES 2K6 Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute SwRI and local high schools in San Antonio Texas USA YES has been highly successful during the past 14 years and YES 2K6 continues this trend This program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world research experiences in physical sciences including space science and astronomy and engineering YES 2K6 consists of two parts 1 an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics computers and the Internet careers science ethics and other topics and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year and 2 a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit At the end of the school year students publicly present and display their work acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers YES 2K6 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission MMS from the perspective of high school students Over the past 14 years all YES graduates have entered college several have worked for SwRI and three scientific publications have resulted Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.

119

Italy's contribution, from a medical standpoint, to the space safety of payload scientists, and perspectives for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, the selection of the Italian payload scientists has been performed according to the Spacelab Program of ESA. Twenty-four subjects underwent a screening performed by the Health Service of Italian Air Force. They were requested to pass an exercise test on treadmill and another ten-minute test on centrifuge, subject to the effect of + 3 G z. The authors briefly describe the results of the test. Noteworthy is the determination of Central Flicker Fusion Frequency. This parameter makes it possible to assess the endurance level of the subject, much earlier than other techniques (e.g. EKG). The importance of an accurate preliminary screening is emphasized as well as of successive training periods. Future studies will be undertaken to compare evoked cortical potentials with behaviour parameters of space safety, with a view to setting up a subtle tool of evaluation for both future candidates and payload scientists.

Rotondo, G.; Ramacci, G. A.; Meineri, G.; Modugno, G. C.; Monesi, F.

120

Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full

J. H. Ramsthaler; T. K. Sulmeisters

1988-01-01

121

Engineering Model of Future Motor Vehicles. Volume II. Data Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Engineering Model of Future Motor Vehicles, previously reported in February 1977 in DOT-HS-802209 provided the safety engineer with a computerized data base including passenger car information such as configuration, geometric, weight, performance, and...

H. W. Grove

1978-01-01

122

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) - Engaging Students and Teachers in Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for the past 20 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including astronomy), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Twenty-one YES 2012 students developed a website for the Dawn Mission (yesserver.space.swri.edu) and five high school science teachers are developing space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel C.; Reiff, P.

2012-10-01

123

Preparing a New Generation of Citizens and Scientists to Face Earth's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the research interests and the focus of traditional earth scientists are transformed, so too must education in earth system science at colleges and universities across the country change. The required change involves not only the methods used to teach this new science, but also the essential place of the earth sciences in the panoply of…

Bralower, Timothy J.; Feiss, P. Geoffrey; Manduca, Cathryn A.

2008-01-01

124

From Science to Business: Preparing Female Scientists and Engineers for Successful Transitions into Entrepreneurship--Summary of a Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…

Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria

2012-01-01

125

YES 2K7: A Mentorship Program for Young Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists 2007 (YES 2K7) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 15 years, with YES 2K7 continuing this trend. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES 2K7 consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES 2K7 developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) from the perspective of 20 high school students (yesserver.space.swri.edu). Over the past 15 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel C.; Asbell, E.; Reiff, P.

2007-10-01

126

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES 2K6): Independent and Group Mentorship Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). YES has been highly successful during the past 14 years, and YES 2K6 continued this trend. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences and engineering. YES 2K6 consists of two parts: 1) a three-week summer workshop and 2) a mentorship where students complete individual research projects during their academic year. The intensive workshop is held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand. They also develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. YES 2K6 students developed a website for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission from the perspective of a high school student. The collegial mentorship takes place during their academic year where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work at their schools. This acknowledges their accomplishments and spreads career awareness to other students and teachers. Over the past 14 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the benefits of YES for their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge E/PO funding from the NASA MMS Mission and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.

2006-12-01

127

1990 National Compensation Survey of Research and Development Scientists and Engineers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.

Not Available

1990-11-01

128

Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions  

SciTech Connect

The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full capability to assist in the development of the nuclear engine. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has formed a team of experts with Martin Marietta for mission analysis. Science Applications International (SAIC) for flight safety analysis, Westinghouse for the nuclear subsystem, and Rocketdyne for the engine system. INEL is the overall program manager and manager for test facility design, construction and operation. The INEL team has produced plans for both the engine system and the ground test facility. AFAL has funded the INEL team to perform mission analyses to evaluate the cost, performance and operational advantages for a nuclear rocket engine in performing Air Force Space Missions. For those studies, the Advanced Nuclear Rocket Engine (ANRE), a scaled down NERVA derivative, was used as the baseline nuclear engine to compare against chemical engines and nuclear electric engines for performance of orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. 3 tabs.

Ramsthaler, J.H.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

1988-01-01

129

The Role of the Adjunct Faculty in Future Engineering Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adjunct engineering faculty are being utilized to a greater extent in engineering education for a variety of reasons. When utilized properly, they can be a valuable asset to engineering programs in their efforts to prepare future engineers for professional engineering practice. Adjunct faculty from industry typically possess an abundance of real world experiences which can enhance student learning. Recent changes in ABET accreditation criteria and educational initiatives by professional societies like ASCE have provided justification for the use of adjunct faculty to provide a more complete educational experience for engineering students. This paper discusses the use of adjunct faculty in engineering education and provides recommendations regarding adjunct faculty as a way to better prepare future engineers for engineering practice.

Rose, Andrew; Voigt, Norman

2009-08-13

130

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2009 - Engaging Students and Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 218 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 37% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 20 students and 3 teachers enrolled in the YES 2009/2010 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was NASA's MMS Mission) and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2009-12-01

131

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2010 - Engaging Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 18 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 239 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 38% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 21 students and 9 secondary school teachers enrolled in the YES 2010/2011 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was ESA's Rosetta Mission) and high school STEM teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share their developed classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2010-12-01

132

Cost Engineering for manufacturing: Current and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this article include Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk and Uncertainty management and Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the Academic Forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review

Y. Xu; F. Elgh; J. A. Erkoyuncu; O. Bankole; Y. Goh; W. M. Cheung; P. Baguley; Q. Wang; P. Arundachawat; E. Shehab; L. Newnes; R. Roy

2011-01-01

133

Cost Engineering for manufacturing: Current and future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this article include Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk and Uncertainty management and Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the Academic Forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review

Y. Xu; F. Elgh; J. A. Erkoyuncu; O. Bankole; Y. Goh; W. M. Cheung; P. Baguley; Q. Wang; P. Arundachawat; E. Shehab; L. Newnes; R. Roy

2012-01-01

134

The future of computational modelling in reaction engineering.  

PubMed

In this paper, we outline the future of modelling in reaction engineering. Specifically, we use the example of particulate emission formation in internal combustion engines to demonstrate what modelling can achieve at present, and to illustrate the ultimately inevitable steps that need to be taken in order to create a new generation of engineering models. PMID:20603373

Kraft, Markus; Mosbach, Sebastian

2010-08-13

135

Technological Innovation and Technical Communications: Their Place in Aerospace Engineering Curricula. A Survey of European, Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on results from 260 aerospace engineers and scientists in United States, Europe, and Japan regarding their opinions about professional importance of technical communications; generation and utilization of technical communications; and relevant content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The fields of cryogenics,…

Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

1991-01-01

136

Snecma Liquid Rocket Engine Concepts for Future ELV and RLV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snecma is the prime contractor for the development of the storable and cryogenic liquid rocket engines of the Ariane launcher, including the Viking storable engine, HM7 cryogenic engine, Vulcain and Vulcain 2 cryogenic engines. The new cryogenic engine Vinci is under development and qualification is planned by 2006. This paper presents the results of a study which has been performed over the last 2 years to define the most suitable engines for the future versions of expendable launchers as well as future reusable vehicles. A family of new engines is introduced including LOX/LH2 engines and LOX/CH4 engines. Particularly, a cryogenic staged combustion fuel-rich engine has been designed and optimized in two versions. The first one is dedicated to an expendable launcher and could be developed first. It offers high performance and reliability at the minimum cost. The second version is a derivative which offers reusability and increased performance for future RLV application. The development and production of the expandable version will allow to achieve and demonstrate high reliability and to better evaluate the potential for reusability through the development test campaigns which usually requires as many as 20 tests with the same engines. Only some critical components would be changed to achieve reusability. This approach allows to minimize the development cost and to keep the production cost low for both versions by using a learning curve over a large number of engines.

Excoffon, Tony; de Spiegeleer, Guy

2002-01-01

137

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs presents viewpoints on the fields of Mechanical Engineering Technology (MET), Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MfgET), and Industrial Engineering Technology (IET). The authors are highly knowledgeable in their own right. In addition, each sought input from colleagues to gain a broad perspective. Each part begins with an overview of innovations in the field, covering both technical and educational issues. Then the future directions for the educational programs are explored, considering industry needs, curriculum design, laboratory experiences, pedagogy, accreditation, and interfaces with other fields.

Mott, Robert L.; Neff, Gregory; Stratton, Mark J.; Summers, Donna

2009-10-29

138

Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

2000-01-01

139

Genetic Engineering of Allergens: Future Therapeutic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of allergens for specific immunotherapy should aim at the production of modified molecules with reduced IgE-binding epitopes (hypoallergens), while preserving structural motifs necessary for T cell recognition (T cell epitopes) and for induction of IgG antibodies reactive with the natural allergen (blocking antibodies). Common approaches for engineering of hypoallergens usually require knowledge of T and B cell epitopes

Fátima Ferreira; Michael Wallner; Heimo Breiteneder; Arnulf Hartl; Josef Thalhamer; Christof Ebner

2002-01-01

140

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

141

Wind Energy Status and Future Wind Engineering Challenges: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the current status of wind energy technology, the potential for future wind energy development and the science and engineering challenges that must be overcome for the technology to meet its potential.

Thresher, R.; Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.; Veers, P.

2008-08-01

142

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements tha...

F. Jue F. Kuck

2002-01-01

143

Impact of Future Developments in Electronic Technology on Cockpit Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers the issue of how advances in Electronic Technology are expected to impact cockpit engineering for future airborne weapon systems. It briefly surveys aircrew functions in an effort to isolate peak periods of operator workload, and sugg...

R. Eggleston

1987-01-01

144

UCS-PROMOVE: The Engineer of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called "The engineer of the future", with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a…

Villas-Boas, V.

2010-01-01

145

Science Sampler: Engineering-A-Future for tomorrow's young women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering-A-Future (EAF) is an outreach program for middle school age girls. Through a collaborative effort of the Colleges of Engineering and Education at Tennessee Tech University (TTU), the participants experience hands-on activities to foster an interest in career options that are still considered nontraditional for females among elementary and middle school girls.

Gore, Susan

2006-11-01

146

The Black Engineer: Is There Hope for the Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the past and future level of participation for African Americans in the engineering profession. Looks specifically at trends in higher education, levels of academic preparedness, and the effects of social and environmental conditions on engineering participation levels. Concludes by presenting overview of University of Pittsburgh's…

Berardi, Linda; Harris, Tracy

1992-01-01

147

A Model Preparing Future Faculty Program for Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the need for more qualified faculty in engineering programs and to improve the overall educational environment, the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering has established a college-wide Preparing Future Faculty program. The program maintains strong ties with a well-established university-level program but is specifically focused on engineering and computer science disciplines. It is based on the best practices

C. Purdy; P. Bishop; J. Fried; A. Kukreti; Gary Lewandowski

2003-01-01

148

Challenges in engineering education: A view towards the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion about the impact of future developments at undergraduate and postgraduate level of engineering education in the current adverse economic downturn can diverge widely. Thus, predicting the exact nature of the future of this education with any certainty is difficult. Certainly, the current economic situation and the consequent uncertainties in the global market are going to affect a wide spectrum

Mohamad Saleh

2009-01-01

149

Current and future opportunities in aeronautical engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current demand for aeronautical engineers is approximately balanced with supply, with some shortfall in certain specialties. In the near term (5 years), demand will exceed supply of new graduates. A number of factors have brought on the state of imbalance: (1) the cyclic nature of the demand of our defense requirements; (2) drastic changes in DOD aircraft procurement; (3) the emergence of the space age; (4) evolution of social attitudes toward technology with resultant decline in enrollments; and (5) the universities themselves through their influences in the direction of careers selected by engineers. These factors have been counteracted somewhat by increased DOD emphasis on aircraft development programs but more importantly by the favorable growth in civil aircraft requirements.

Brizendine, J. C.

1975-01-01

150

Engineering the Future: The Social Necessity of Communicative Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a long and winding road from invention to innovation. Starting from this observation, this paper presents a historical perspective on the capabilities engineers should possess to do their work. The importance of the "communicative competence" involved in creating a social base for innovation is underpinned. We will present a theoretical…

Ravesteijn, Wim; De Graaff, Erik; Kroesen, Otto

2006-01-01

151

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.

Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

152

Employment of Academic Scientists and Engineers Increases from January 1974 to January 1975. Science Resources Studies Highlights. NSF 75-331.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of scientists and engineers employed at universities and colleges has shown an increase in each of six consecutive surveys conducted between 1965 and 1975. Since 1965 the number of those employed full-time has expanded from 142,700 to 239,000 or 68 percent, while the number of part-time scientists and engineers grew from 36,200 to…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

153

Twenty NSF-Nominated Scientists and Engineers Receive Top Presidential Honor  

NSF Publications Database

... HOMEFUNDINGAWARDSDISCOVERIESNEWSPUBLICATIONSSTATISTICSABOUTFastLane News News For the News ... jsp Science and Engineering Statistics: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/ Awards Searches: http://www ...

154

Designing and Evaluating a Climate Change Course for Upper-Division Engineers and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

AOSS 300, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, was created to provide a mechanism for scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation with emphasis on issues of the atmosphere and oceans. The course is specifically designed to contribute to the desired Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) outcomes that engineering and science graduates possess

P. J. Samson

2002-01-01

155

Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

Chinn, Pauline W. U.

2002-04-01

156

Ceramic coatings for heat engine materials: status and future needs  

SciTech Connect

The current status and future potential for application of ceramic coatings to diesel and turbine engine components was assessed. Properties are tabulated for numerous materials from the oxide, carbide, nitride, and boride families. Several coating deposition processes are described and compared, including plasma spraying, electron beam evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel, ion, and laser techniques. We emphasize zirconia thermal-barrier coatings, but coatings for wear and erosion resistance, lubrication, chemical protection, seals, and interfaces were also addressed. Coating characterization methods, particularly those for measuring adherence and defects, are reviewed. We conclude that the use of coatings will expand in the future, permitting higher performance and more reliable heat engines.

Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Cerny, G.A.; Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Schaffhauser, A.C.

1984-12-01

157

Ceramic coatings for heat engine materials - status and future needs  

SciTech Connect

The current status and future potential for application of ceramic coatings to diesel and turbine engine components were assessed. Properties were tabulated for numerous materials from the oxide, carbide, nitride, and boride families. Promising new deposition methods and in-situ gas and solid phase characterization techniques are identified. Emphasis was placed on zirconia thermal barrier coatings, but coatings for reducing wear, erosion, and friction were also addressed. The use of coatings will expand in the future and permit higher performance and more reliable heat engines.

Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Cerny, G.A.; Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Schaffhauser, A.C.

1983-01-01

158

Study of the scientific reasoning methods: Identifying the salient reasoning characteristics exhibited by engineers and scientists in an R&D environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the core of what it means to be a scientist or engineer is the ability to think rationally using scientific reasoning methods. Yet, typically if asked, scientist and engineers are hard press for a reply what that means. Some may argue that the meaning of scientific reasoning methods is a topic for the philosophers and psychologist, but this study believes and will prove that the answers lie with the scientists and engineers, for who really know the workings of the scientific reasoning thought process than they. This study will provide evidence to the aims: (a) determine the fundamental characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists working in R&D projects, (b) sample the engineer/scientist community to determine their views as to the importance, frequency, and ranking of each of characteristics towards benefiting their R&D projects, (c) make concluding remarks regarding any identified competency gaps in the exhibited or expected cognitive reasoning methods of engineer/scientists working on R&D projects. To drive these aims are the following three research questions. The first, what are the salient characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists in an R&D environment? The second, what do engineer/scientists consider to be the frequency and importance of the salient cognitive reasoning methods characteristics? And the third, to what extent, if at all, do patent holders and technical fellows differ with regard to their perceptions of the importance and frequency of the salient cognitive reasoning characteristics of engineer/scientists? The methodology and empirical approach utilized and described: (a) literature search, (b) Delphi technique composed of seven highly distinguish engineer/scientists, (c) survey instrument directed to distinguish Technical Fellowship, (d) data collection analysis. The results provide by Delphi Team answered the first research question. The collaborative effort validated presented characteristic and most importantly presents ten additional novel or new reasoning characteristics. These characteristics were then presented and evaluated by the Technical Fellows. Their findings answered the second and third research question. With interesting results including the data indicating "imagination" as highest in importance and frequency, and comparison analysis of the patent holders showing those having five or more patents significantly valued "intuition (independent).

Kuhn, William F.

159

A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1996-01-01

160

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997  

NSF Publications Database

... See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional ... Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page. Contact SRS

161

Number of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Grows by 6 Percent Between 1993 and 1995  

NSF Publications Database

... Ph.D.s. Among the sciences, doctorate holders in chemistry (not including biochemistry) showed the ... doctorate holders, on the other hand, were more likely to be engineers. Doctorate holders from ...

162

Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

Dowdy, M. W.

1981-01-01

163

Work Activities of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Show Substantial Change Between 1973 and 1977. Science Resources Studies Highlights, October 4, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973, 1975, and 1977 surveys of the doctorate-holding scientists and engineers in the United States were conducted by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. The science and engineering (S/E) population surveyed consisted of individuals who held S/E doctorates or who had received doctorates in non-S/E fields but were…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

164

Suborbital Platforms as a Tool for a Symbiotic Relationship Between Scientists, Engineers, and Students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sounding rockets started in-situ space experimentation over 60 years ago with scientific experiments replacing warheads on captured V- 2 German rockets. Prior to this, and still today, suborbital platforms such as airplanes and high-altitude balloons have provided advantageous remote sensing observations advancing many areas of Earth and Space science. There is still a place for first-rate science in both stand-alone missions as well as providing complimentary measurements to the larger orbital missions. Along with the aforementioned science, the cost effectiveness and development times provided by sub-orbital platforms allows for perfect hands-on and first rate educational opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students. This talk will give examples and discuss the mutually beneficial opportunities that scientists and students obtain in development of suborbital missions. Also discussed will be how the next generation of space vehicles should help eliminate the number one obstacle to these programs - launch opportunities.

Chamberlin, Phillip C.

2011-01-01

165

Overview of USPAS and its role in educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerators are essential engines of discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and chemistry. Particle beam based instruments in medicine, industry and national security constitute a multi-billion dollar per year industry. More than 55,000 peer-reviewed papers having accelerator as a keyword are available on the Web. Yet only a handful of universities offer any formal training in accelerator science. Several reasons can be cited: 1) The science and technology of particle beams and other non-neutral plasmas cuts across traditional academic disciplines. 2) Electrical engineering departments have evolved toward micro- and nano-technology and computing science. 3) Nuclear engineering departments have atrophied at many major universities. 4) With few exceptions, interest at individual universities is not extensive enough to support a strong faculty line. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Governed and supported by a consortium of nine DOE laboratories and two NSF university laboratories, USPAS offers a responsive and balanced curriculum of science, engineering, computational and hands-on courses. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

Barletta, William

2008-04-01

166

THE CURRENT EMPLOYMENT MARKET FOR ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND TECHNICIANS, DECEMBER 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FIELD REPORTS ON JUNE 1966 CONDITIONS IN 30 MAJOR LABOR AREAS FOR ENGINEERING, SCIENTIFIC, AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS, PROVIDED BY AFFILIATES OF THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY, WERE THE BASIS FOR THIS SEMIANNUAL REPORT. THE NUMBER OF APPLICANTS HAD DECLINED 48 PERCENT TO A NEW 8-YEAR LOW, WHILE OPENINGS HAD RISEN TO 9,600, 58 PERCENT OVER THE…

AUSMUS, NORMA F.; AND OTHERS

167

Pathways to space: A mission to foster the next generation of scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first education project funded under the Australian Government?s Australian Space Research Program (ASRP), Pathways to Space was a unique project combining education, science communication research and research in astrobiology and robotics. It drew upon the challenges of space exploration to inspire students to consider study and careers in science and engineering.

Dougherty, Kerrie; Oliver, Carol; Fergusson, Jennifer

2014-06-01

168

Unemployment Among Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Increased But Remained Below the National Average.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2010, an estimated 805,500 individuals in the United States held research doctoral degrees in science, engineering, and health (SEH) fields, an increase of 6.2% from 2008. Of these individuals, 709,700 were in the labor force, which includes those empl...

C. Milesi L. A. Selfa L. M. Milan

2014-01-01

169

Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows participation at WM has resulted in three Best Student Poster Awards (WM09, WM10, and WM11) and one Best Professional Poster Award (WM09). DOE Fellows have also presented their research at ANS DD and R and ANS Robotics Topical meetings. Moreover, several of our DOE Fellows have already obtained employment with DOE-EM, other federal agencies, DOE contractors. This paper will discuss how DOE Fellows program is training and mentoring FIU STEM students in Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management technical challenges and research. This training and mentoring has resulted in the development of well trained and polished young scientists and engineers that will become the future workforce in charge of carrying on DOE-EM's environmental cleanup mission. The paper will showcase FIU's DOE Fellows model and highlight some of the applied research the DOE Fellows have conducted at FIU's Applied Research Center and across the Complex by participating in summer internship assignments. This paper will also present and highlight other Fellowships and internships programs sponsored by National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), DOE-EM, NRC, Energy (NE), and other federal agencies targeting workforce development. (authors)

Lagos, L. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

170

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 16: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1993-01-01

171

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 17: A comparison of the technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

172

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 29: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third; to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists in Japan and at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Japanese and U.S. surveys were 85 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Japanese and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

173

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

174

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

175

Designing and Evaluating a Climate Change Course for Upper-Division Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AOSS 300, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, was created to provide a mechanism for scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation with emphasis on issues of the atmosphere and oceans. The course is specifically designed to contribute to the desired Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) outcomes that engineering and science graduates possess "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of solutions in a global and societal context." To facilitate this new course a new suite of coupled Flash/PHP/MySQL tools have been created that allow personalization of the students' learning space and interaction with faculty. Using these tools students are challenged to actively participate in the construction of knowledge through development of on-line portfolios that influence course content. This paper reports on lessons learned in the first semester that will guide further course development.

Samson, P. J.

2002-12-01

176

Twenty NSF-Supported Young Scientists and Engineers Receive Presidential Early Career Awards  

NSF Publications Database

The 2004 PECASE awards announced today include six engineers: Jennifer A. Jay, University of California, Los Angeles; Michael J. Garvin II, Columbia University; Michael A. Bevan, Texas A&M University; Martin L. Culpepper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Wei Li, University of Washington; and Jun Jiao, Portland State University. In the mathematical and physical sciences, Frank L.H. Brown, University of California, Santa Barbara; Oscar D. Dubon Jr., University of California, Berkeley; ...

177

Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

1990-01-01

178

Those Pesky Side-Reactions A Case Study on Ethics for Scientists and Engineers Developing Data in the Private Sector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The characters in this dilemma case must balance personal financial considerations, their professional futures, and time constraints against ensuring that the new product they are proposing is safe. The case explores the issues surrounding ethical decision-making and asks students to decide what the central characters in the story should do. The case was designed to be used in mid- or upper-level chemistry and chemical engineering college courses.

Seames, Wayne

2001-01-01

179

The Future Scientists and Engineers Conferences: Using Community Resources to Enhance the Science Fair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conference attendees arrive at the registration desk at 9:00 a.m. sharp, eager to start their day. While standing in line, they talk excitedly about the sessions they've chosen to see, the original investigation they'll be presenting, off-site field trips for which they've registered, and the businesses scheduled to have booths in the Exhibitor's…

Sinsel, Jennifer

2008-01-01

180

Web Guide to Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on September 11, this new 212-page report from the National Academies describes postdoctoral scholars, especially at universities, as "neglected, even exploited." After studying the employment conditions for the 52,000 postdocs currently working in the United States, a joint committee of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine determined that a number of reforms are badly needed. These include limiting postdoctoral appointments to five years, raising salaries, and strengthening the mentor system. At the National Academies site, users can access the full text of the report, read the opening statement and news release, and listen to the archived Webcast in RealPlayer format.

181

Engineering firm has designed refinery of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four years ago, JGC Corp. organized a project team called ``Refinery Engineering for the Future in the Twenty-First Century,`` or REF-21. The purpose of the team was to forecast the environment facing the refining industry in Japan, long-range energy supply and demand, population and economic growth, traffic system trends, and technology and science progress through the middle of the twenty-first

Makoto Inomata; Kyohei Sato; Yu Yamada; Hajime Sasaki

1997-01-01

182

The fraying web of life and our future engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence abounds that we are reaching the carrying capacity of the earth -- engaging in deficit spending. The amount of crops, animals, and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds wth the earth can replace by an estimated 20%. Additionally, signs of climate change are precursors of things to come. Global industrialization and the new technologies of the 20th century have helped to stretch the capacities of our finite natural system to precarious levels. Taken together, this evidence reflects a fraying web of life. Sustainable development and natural capitalism work to reverse these trends, however, we are often still wedded to the notion that environmental conservation and economic development are the 'players' in a zero-sum game. Engineering and its technological derivatives can also help remedy the problem. The well being of future generations will depend to a large extent on how we educate our future engineers. These engineers will be a new breed -- developing and using sustainable technology, benign manufacturing processes and an expanded array of environmental assessment tools that will simultaneously support and maintain healthy economies and a healthy environment. The importance of environment and sustainable development cosiderations, the need for their widespread inclusion in engineering education, the impediments to change, and the important role played by ABET will be presented.

Splitt, Frank G.

2004-07-01

183

Key Barriers for Academic Institutions Seeking to Retain Female Scientists and Engineers: Family-Unfriendly Policies. Low Numbers, Stereotypes, and Harassment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of a special meeting held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in January 2001, a statement released on behalf of the most prestigious U. S. research universities suggested that institutional harriers have prevented viomen from having a level playing field in science and engineering. In 2001, the National Science Foundation initiated a new awards program, ADVANCE, focusing on institutional rather than individual solutions to empower women to participate fully in science and technology. In this study, the authors evaluate survey responses from almost 400 Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education awardees from fiscal years 1997 to 2000 to elucidate problems and opportunities identified by female scientists and engineers. Besides other issues, the respondents identified balancing a career and a family as the most significant challenge facing female scientists and engineers today. Institutions must seek to remove or at least lower these and other harriers to attract and retain female scientists and engineers. Grouping the survey responses into four categories forms the basis for four corresponding policy areas, which could be addressed at the institutional level to mitigate the difficulties and challenges currently experienced by female scientists and engineers.

Rosser, Sue V.; Lane, Eliesh O'neil

184

Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

2010-05-01

185

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

186

Manufacturing Industries with High Concentrations of Scientists and Engineers Lead in 1965-77 Employment Growth. Science Resources Studies Highlights, April 20, 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a survey of over 100,000 manufacturing establishments, conducted for the National Science Foundation by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, covering average annual employment for calendar year 1977. Industries whose relative concentration of scientists and engineers was high in 1977, such as petroleum refining, chemicals,…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

187

The Birth of a Notion: The Windfalls and Pitfalls of Tailoring an SoTL-Like Concept to Scientists, Mathematicians, and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite calls for greater agreement in defining the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), terms that resemble SoTL are proliferating. An NSF-sponsored center for teaching and learning coined its own term, "teaching-as-research" (TAR), believing it would resonate better with research-active scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. To…

Connolly, Mark R.; Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana L.; Clifford, Matthew A.

2007-01-01

188

Software architecture and engineering for patient records: current and future.  

PubMed

During the "The National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," a track focusing on "Systems Architecture and Software Engineering" included eight presenters. These presenters identified three key areas of interest in this field, which include the need for open enterprise architecture and a federated database design, net centrality based on service-oriented architecture, and the need for focus on software usability and reusability. The eight panelists provided recommendations related to the suitability of service-oriented architecture and the enabling technologies of grid computing and Web 2.0 for building health services research centers and federated data warehouses to facilitate large-scale collaborative health care and research. Finally, they discussed the need to leverage industry best practices for software engineering to facilitate rapid software development, testing, and deployment. PMID:19562959

Weng, Chunhua; Levine, Betty A; Mun, Seong K

2009-05-01

189

Future market for ceramics in vehicle engines and their impacts  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic engine components have potential to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some recent tests have also shown their environmental benefits, particularly in reducing particulate emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The authors used the data from a survey of the US vehicle engine and component manufacturers relating to ceramic engine components to develop a set of market penetration models. The survey identified promising ceramic components and provided data on the timing of achieving introductory shares in light and heavy-duty markets. Some ceramic components will penetrate the market when the pilot-scale costs are reduced to one-fifth of their current values, and many more will enter the market when the costs are reduced to one-tenth of the current values. An ongoing ceramics research program sponsored by the US Department of Energy has the goal of achieving such price reductions. The size and value of the future ceramic components market and the impacts of this market in terms of fuel savings, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and potential reduction in other criteria pollutants are presented. The future ceramic components market will be 9 million components worth $29 million within 5 years of introduction and will expand to 692 million components worth $3,484 million within 20 years. The projected annual energy savings are 3.8 trillion Btu by 5 years, increasing to 526 trillion Btu during the twentieth year. These energy savings will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 41 million tons during the twentieth year. Ceramic components will help reduce particulate emissions by 100 million tons in 2030 and save the nation`s urban areas $152 million. The paper presents the analytical approach and discusses other economic impacts.

Vyas, A.; Hanson, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-02-01

190

Human hypertrophic and keloid scar models: principles, limitations and future challenges from a tissue engineering perspective.  

PubMed

Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and understand why some individuals will form adverse scars even after relatively minor injury. Currently, many different models exist to study scar formation, ranging from simple monolayer cell culture to 3D tissue-engineered models even to humanized mouse models. Currently, these high-/medium-throughput test models avoid the main questions referring to why an adverse scar forms instead of a normotrophic scar and what causes a hypertrophic scar to form rather than a keloid scar and also, how is the genetic predisposition of the individual and the immune system involved. This information is essential if we are to identify new drug targets and develop optimal strategies in the future to prevent adverse scar formation. This viewpoint review summarizes the progress on in vitro and animal scar models, stresses the limitations in the current models and identifies the future challenges if scar-free healing is to be achieved in the future. PMID:24750541

van den Broek, Lenie J; Limandjaja, Grace C; Niessen, Frank B; Gibbs, Susan

2014-06-01

191

A life scientist, an engineer and a social scientist walk into a lab: challenges of dual-use engagement and education in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

The discussion of dual-use education is often predicated on a discrete population of practicing life scientists exhibiting certain deficiencies in awareness or expertise. This has lead to the claim that there is a greater requirement for awareness raising and education amongst this population. However, there is yet to be an inquiry into the impact of the 'convergent' nature of emerging techno-sciences upon the prospects of dual-use education. The field of synthetic biology, although often portrayed as homogeneous, is in fact composed of various sub-fields and communities. Its practitioners have diverse academic backgrounds. The research institutions that have fostered its development in the UK often have their own sets of norms and practices in engagement with ethical, legal and social issues associated with scientific knowledge and technologies. The area is also complicated by the emergence of synthetic biologists outside traditional research environments, the so called 'do-it-yourself' or 'garage biologists'. This paper untangles some of the complexities in the current state of synthetic biology and addresses the prospects for dual-use education for practitioners. It provides a short overview of the field and discusses identified dual-use issues. There follows a discussion of UK networks in synthetic biology, including their engagement with ethical, legal, social and dual-use issues and limited educational efforts in relation to these. It concludes by outlining options for developing a more systematic dual-use education strategy for synthetic biology. PMID:22606757

Edwards, Brett; Kelle, Alexander

2012-01-01

192

Preparing the Future Workforce: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Policy in K-12 Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last December, the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Coalition--a national organization of more than 600 groups representing knowledge workers, educators, scientists, engineers, and technicians--wrote to President-elect Obama urging him to "not lose sight of the critical role that STEM education plays in enabling…

Dickman, Anneliese; Schwabe, Amy; Schmidt, Jeff; Henken, Rob

2009-01-01

193

Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

194

Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is organised together with civil engineering students from the University of Rijeka. The aims of this field visit are: to learn about traditional water supply from an underground storage of rain water called cisterna; and to find out from inhabitants about their current water usage habits and expectations, and how these might change when they get water from the main water supply system. This joint activity has been beneficial for both groups of students. The engineering students become aware of the importance of the social aspects in designing the water supply system, while the geography students learn about the engineering challenges entailed. Both groups learn that water consumption increases with the provision of water through pipeline systems and that this needs to be taken into account in the design of water supply and management of water resources. Importantly, they learn the benefits of traditional sustainable water supply methods, which could be implemented as primary or additional sources of water supply in other areas.In summary, both groups of students develop their professional knowledge and skills as well as generic and transferable skills, which are very important for those who will continue to a career in the design and management of water systems.

Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

2010-05-01

195

Finding a new continent versus mapping all the rivers: Recognition, ownership, and the scientific epistemological development of practicing scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional skills associated with being competent and conscientious scientists and engineers. In the attempts to understand the best strategies to teach these skills, research during the past few decades has shown a steadily increasing interest in improving the scientific literacy of students in science and engineering disciplines. Researchers agree that fostering this literacy---particularly with respect to understanding the nature of science, i.e., scientific epistemology---is an important component in developing students' abilities to become successful practitioners of science and engineering. This research was motivated by the need to further elucidate the formative experiences that contribute to science and engineering faculty members' personal epistemologies of science. To examine the development of these epistemologies, a phenomenographical study was designed to elucidate academic scientists' and engineers' understandings of contributions, collaborations, and credit assignment. The results and inductive, grounded-theory analysis of interviews with faculty members in the College of Engineering and Science at a large, southeastern institution revealed a model of scientific epistemological development and its possible ties to professional identity development. This model can help inform changes in mentorship and training practices to better prepare students to manage the challenges posed by being scientists and engineers in the 21st-century.

Verdan, Andrea Marie

196

WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers  

NASA Video Gallery

Some of the next generationâ??s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

197

Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

Griego, Regina M.

2010-12-01

198

Engineering brain-computer interfaces: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Electricity governs the function of both nervous systems and computers. Whilst ions move in polar fluids to depolarize neuronal membranes, electrons move in the solid-state lattices of microelectronic semiconductors. Joining these two systems together, to create an iono-electric brain-computer interface, is an immense challenge. However, such interfaces offer (and in select clinical contexts have already delivered) a method of overcoming disability caused by neurological or musculoskeletal pathology. To fulfill their theoretical promise, several specific challenges demand consideration. Rate-limiting steps cover a diverse range of disciplines including microelectronics, neuro-informatics, engineering, and materials science. As those who work at the tangible interface between brain and outside world, neurosurgeons are well placed to contribute to, and inform, this cutting edge area of translational research. This article explores the historical background, status quo, and future of brain-computer interfaces; and outlines the challenges to progress and opportunities available to the clinical neurosciences community. PMID:24819489

Hughes, M A

2014-06-01

199

Reinventing Manufacturing Engineering: Refocusing and Exploring Future Opportunities for Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open any newspaper today, search current news service websites, or turn on the television and one finds negative images of outsourcing, the closure of factories, and the loss of manufacturing jobs in our country. Many corporations find it profitable to move operations overseas seeking less expensive labor. There is outrage in our nation as we see manufacturing and product design careers and opportunities disappear. In addition, many Manufacturing Engineering and Technology programs in this country are seeing an alarming decline in enrollments. In most cases (if not all), the remaining twenty five ABET accredited manufacturing engineering programs in the U.S are shrinking as the numbers of incoming students dwindle. If our students are indeed basing their academic choices on negative information and images promoted by mass media, it is up to educators to appeal to students and revitalize the image by promoting the positive future of manufacturing education and prepare for the opportunities of outsourcing. Educators must be prepared for this phenomenon and prepare students adequately for the new world that faces them. Moreover, we must revise our programs to reflect the new reality of manufacturing as a global enterprise where our graduates are likely to design products locally to be produced in another part of the world.

Davis, Beverly; Jack, Hugh

2009-07-16

200

The mobility of corporate scientists and engineers between civil and defense activities: Implications for economic competitiveness in the post?cold war era  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that mobility patterns of technical personnel between defense and civil activities can shed light on the impact of projected cutbacks in defense R&D spending. Using panel survey data compiled between 1982 and 1986, the movement of private sector?employed U.S. scientists and engineers into and out of defense activities is examined. Consistent with industrial organization studies emphasizing the

Joshua Lerner

1992-01-01

201

Engineering firm has designed refinery of the future  

SciTech Connect

Four years ago, JGC Corp. organized a project team called ``Refinery Engineering for the Future in the Twenty-First Century,`` or REF-21. The purpose of the team was to forecast the environment facing the refining industry in Japan, long-range energy supply and demand, population and economic growth, traffic system trends, and technology and science progress through the middle of the twenty-first century. The REF-21 team also was charged with developing a conceptual design for the future refinery. The team proposed four types of configurations for the so-called new-generation refineries. These schemes included some new technologies that it deemed commercializable by 2000. JGC evaluated these new-generation refinery schemes in terms of overall yields, energy efficiencies, emissions, and economics, as compared with existing refineries. JGC also has developed an amenity design program (ADP), and is applying it to a refinery in Japan to produce a new-concept operation center. Through amenity design, JGC intends to improve the operating environment for employees in order to enhance overall productivity.

Inomata, Makoto; Sato, Kyohei; Yamada, Yu; Sasaki, Hajime [JGC Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1997-04-28

202

Diversity and Equity in the Lab: Preparing Scientists and Engineers for Inclusive Teaching in Courses and Research Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite high attrition rates in college-level science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses, with even higher rates for women and underrepresented minorities, not enough attention has been given to higher education STEM classroom practices that may limit the retention of students from diverse backgrounds. The Professional Development Program (PDP) has developed a range of professional development activities aimed at helping participants learn about diversity and equity issues, integrate inclusive teaching strategies into their own instructional units, and reflect on their own teaching practices. In the PDP, all participants develop and teach a STEM laboratory activity that enables their students to practice scientific inquiry processes as they gain an understanding of scientific concepts. In addition, they are asked to consider diversity and equity issues in their activity design and teaching. The PDP supports participants in this challenging endeavor by engaging them in activities that are aligned with a PDP-defined Diversity & Equity Focus Area that includes five emphases: 1) Multiple ways to learn, communicate and succeed; 2) Learners' goals, interests, motivation, and values; 3) Beliefs and perceptions about ability to achieve; 4) Inclusive collaboration and equitable participation; 5) Social identification within STEM culture. We describe the PDP Diversity & Equity focus, the five emphases, and the supporting activities that have been designed and implemented within the PDP, as well as future directions for our diversity and equity efforts.

Hunter, L.; Seagroves, S.; Metevier, A. J.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Raschke, L.; Jonsson, P.; Porter, J.; Brown, C.; Roybal, G.; Shaw, J.

2010-12-01

203

The Stirling Engine: A Wave of the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video describes the Stirling engine, an external combustion engine which creates heat energy to power the motor, and can use many types of fuel. It can be used for both stationary and propulsion purposes and has advantages of better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust than internal combustion engines. The engine is shown being road tested at Langley Air Force Base.

1992-01-01

204

Assessment in Engineering Education: Evolution, Approaches and Future Collaborations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the current state of assessment in engineering education in the United States as reflected in the Journal of Engineering Education. We begin with a brief review of recent developments in the assessment of engineering education and the events that have inspired change. Next, we explore assessment methodologies that have been used repeatedly in the evaluation of engineering

BARBARA M. OLDS; BARBARA M. MOSKAL; RONALD L. MILLER

205

Engineering the future with America's high school students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The number of students enrolled in engineering is declining while the need for engineers is increasing. One contributing factor is that most high school students have little or no knowledge about what engineering is, or what engineers do. To teach young students about engineering, engineers need good tools. This paper presents a course of study developed and used by the authors in a junior college course for high school students. Students learned about engineering through independent student projects, in-class problem solving, and use of career information resources. Selected activities from the course can be adapted to teach students about engineering in other settings. Among the most successful techniques were the student research paper assignments, working out a solution to an engineering problem as a class exercise, and the use of technical materials to illustrate engineering concepts and demonstrate 'tools of the trade'.

Farrance, M. A.; Jenner, J. W.

1993-01-01

206

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Tissue and organ repair still represents a clinical challenge. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) is an emerging field focused on the development of alternative therapies for tissue/organ repair. This highly multidisciplinary field, in which bioengineering and medicine merge, is based on integrative approaches using scaffolds, cell populations from different sources, growth factors, nanomedicine, gene therapy, and other techniques to overcome the limitations that currently exist in the clinics. Indeed, its overall objective is to induce the formation of new functional tissues, rather than just implanting spare parts. This chapter aims at introducing the reader to the concepts and techniques of TERM. It begins by explaining how TERM have evolved and merged into TERM, followed by a short overview of some of its key aspects such as the combinations of scaffolds with cells and nanomedicine, scaffold processing, and new paradigms of the use of stem cells for tissue repair/regeneration, which ultimately could represent the future of new therapeutic approaches specifically aimed at clinical applications. PMID:24083429

Salgado, António J; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Martins, Albino; Teixeira, Fábio G; Silva, Nuno A; Neves, Nuno M; Sousa, Nuno; Reis, Rui L

2013-01-01

207

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

208

Medical Scientists  

MedlinePLUS

... little supervision, forming their own hypotheses and developing experiments, accordingly. They often lead teams of technicians, and ... prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs ...

209

Technologies for Thrust Chambers of Future Launch Vehicle Liquid Rocket Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Astrium (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle rocket engines are presently being performed within the frame of German national technology programs sponsored by the German Aerospace Center. The main focus of these technology developments is on thrust chamber technologies for future, reusable or semi-reusable high performance launch vehicle liquid rocket engines. This

Hans Immich; Jan Alting; Joachim Kretschmer; Dieter Preclik

2002-01-01

210

J-2X, The Engine of the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

My project was two-fold, with both parts involving the J-2X Upper Stage engine (which will be used on both the Ares I and V). Mainly, I am responsible for using a program called Iris to create visual represen tations of the rocket engine's telemetry data. Also, my project includes the application of my newly acquired Pro Engineer skills in develo ping a 3D model of the engine's nozzle.

Smith, Gail

2009-01-01

211

The Current State and Future of Search Based Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work on the application of optimization techniques in software engineering. These optimization techniques come from the operations research and metaheuristic computation research communities. The paper briefly reviews widely used optimization techniques and the key ingredients required for their successful application to software engineering, providing an overview of existing results in eight software engineering application domains. The paper

Mark Harman

2007-01-01

212

Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality

Z. Ujang; M. Henze; T. Curtis; R. Schertenleib; L. L. Beal

2004-01-01

213

The Future of Engineering: A Study of the Gender Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are under-represented in the engineering field. Although more than 50% of Canadian university students are female, they represent less than 25% of students enrolled nationally in engineering programs. This study found that female high school students are as aware of engineering as a discipline as their male counterparts but are significantly…

Anderson, Lisa; Gilbride, Kimberley

2007-01-01

214

Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

2007-01-01

215

The spark-ignition aircraft piston engine of the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each time of required advanced technology into the engine design.

Stuckas, K. J.

1983-01-01

216

Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

Caplan, R. D.

1971-01-01

217

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

218

Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

219

ENIFAIR — EU research into engine integration on future transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following on from previous EU research programmes, ENIFAIR has extended the study of engine-airframe aerodynamic integration problems to the cases of Very High- and Ultra High-Bypass Ratio engine installations on representative modern aircraft. This article provides an overview of the work carried out and presents examples of the results achieved.

Wolfgang Burgsmüller; Heinz Hoheisel

2000-01-01

220

Jet engine diagnostics and trending: roadmap for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard for US Air Force engine diagnostics and trending has been developed and fielded. The Comprehensive Engine Management System increment IV (CEMS IV) will be enhanced and fielded under the functional umbrella of the Core Automated Maintenance System. The methodology by which CEMS IV supports the philosophy of on-condition maintenance is discussed. The operational implementation of portable decision support

T. G. Jellison; C. B. Suehs; R. L. De Hoff

1988-01-01

221

The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

Mummolo, Giovanni

2007-01-01

222

New opportunities for future, small, General-Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of four independent contracted studies to explore the opportunities for future small turbine engines are summarized in a composite overview. Candidate advanced technologies are screened, various cycles and staging arrangements are parametrically evaluated, and optimum conceptual engines are identified for a range of 300 to 600 horsepower applications. Engine improvements of 20 percent in specific fuel consumption and 40 percent in engine cost were forecast using high risk technologies that could be technically demonstrated by 1988. The ensuing economic benefits are in the neighborhood of 20 to 30 percent for twin-engine aircraft currently powered by piston engines.

Strack, W. C.

1980-01-01

223

[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from pilot surveys on the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. and NATO-nation aerospace scientists and engineers, undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey procedures and the demographic characteristics of the 67 scientists and engineers who responded to the survey are summarized, and the results are presented in a series of tables and discussed in detail. Findings emphasized include: (1) both U.S. and NATO respondents spend around 60 percent of their work week producing or using STI products; (2) NATO respondents are more likely than their U.S. counterparts to use 'formal' STI products (like technical reports and papers) and the services of librarians and online data bases; (3) most of the respondents use computers and information technology in preparing STI products; and (4) respondents who had taken courses in technical communication agreed on the value and ideal subject matter of such courses.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

1990-01-01

224

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

225

Engineering the Future of Full-Scale Propulsion Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Year 2000 has been an active one for rocket propulsion testing at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. This paper highlights several major test facilites for large-scale propulsion devices, and summarizes the varied nature of the recent test projects conducted at the Stennis Space Center (SSC) such as the X-33 Aerospike Engine, Ultra Low Cost Engine (ULCE) thrust chamber program, and the Hybrid Sounding Rocket (HYSR) program. Further, an overview of relevant engineering capabilities and technology challenges in conducting full-scale propulsion testing are outlined.

Ryan, H. M.; Solano, W.; Holland, R.; Saint Cyr, W.; Rahman, S.

2001-01-01

226

Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

Petersen, D. R.

1986-01-01

227

Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 1: Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was investigated. Two approaches are studied: (1) to determine how the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and (2) to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Because synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are particularly suited to medium speed diesel engines, the first commercial application of these fuels may be by the railroad industry.

Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.; Stallkamp, J. A.

1981-01-01

228

Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed 1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2002-09-01

229

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

1992-01-01

230

The Future of Engineering Education IV: Learning How to Teach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses approaches to equipping current and future faculty members with teaching skills. Examples are given of successful courses and workshops on teaching and mentorship programs. Target Audience: 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

Felder, Richard M., 1939-; Rugarcia, Armando; Stice, James E. (James Edward); Woods, D. R. (David R.)

2009-12-17

231

Growth in Employment of Science and Engineering Doctorates Continues, Led by Computer Scientists. Science Resources Studies Highlights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doctorate holders who received their degrees in science or other fields between 1930 and 1972 and who held jobs in the sciences and engineering (S/E) were surveyed. Findings include the following: employment of doctorates in S/E activities continued to grow between 1979 and 1981 at the same rate since 1975, about 5 percent per year, reaching a…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

232

Access and Success for African American Engineers and Computer Scientists: A Case Study of Two Predominantly White Public Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, three rationales have emerged for emphasizing the reinforcement of the United States' science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. The first rationale pertains to U.S. global competitiveness, the second revolves around the benefits of a diverse workforce, and the third argument points to social justice…

Newman, Christopher Bufford

2011-01-01

233

For 1993, Doctoral Scientists & Engineers Report 1.6 Percent Unemployment Rate But 4.3 Percent UnderEmployment  

NSF Publications Database

... rate for doctoral S&Es in 1993 was 1.6 percent. This rate compares with a 1993 unemploy- ment rate ... rate (2.9 percent). On the other hand, me- chanical and civil engineers have unemploy- ment rates of ...

234

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2006. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 09-317  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data from the 2006 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR). The SDR is a panel survey that collects longitudinal data, biennially, on demographic and general employment characteristics of individuals who have received a doctorate in a science, engineering, or health field from a U.S. academic institution. Sampled individuals are…

Foley, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

235

Mechatronics: the future of mechanical engineering; past, present, and a vision for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechatronics is the synergistic integration of precision mechanical engineering, electronics, computational hardware and software in the design of products and processes. Mechatronics, the term coined in Japan in the '70s, has evolved to symbolize what mechanical design engineers do today worldwide. The revolutionary introduction of the microprocessor (or microcontroller) in the early '80s and ever increasing performance-cost ratio has changed

M. K. Ramasubramanian

2001-01-01

236

A Strategic Approach for Supporting the Future of Civil Engineering Education in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new strategic vision of the extensively debated European higher education is proposed with focus on civil engineering. Civil engineering education for the future is considered with relevance to potential world-wide trends and anticipated societal requirements and, therefore, required employee qualifications of the construction-related providers…

Angelides, Demos C.; Loukogeorgaki, Eva

2005-01-01

237

Engineering the future of military tactical vehicles and systems with modeling and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stewart & Stevenson has developed a Modeling and Simulation approach based on Systems Engineering principles for the development of future military vehicles and systems. This approach starts with a requirements analysis phase that captures and distills the design requirements into a list of parameterized values. A series of executable engineering models are constructed to allow the requirements to be transformed

Matthew Loew; Brock Watters

2005-01-01

238

Scaffold-based articular cartilage repair - Future prospects wedding gene therapy and tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future prospects wedding gene therapy and tissue engineering. In this article, current clinical procedures for articular cartilage repair are reviewed in the context of the contributions that tissue engineering approaches can make in improving the outcome. Specific attention is directed toward the promising effects of growth factors and the potential advantages of employing gene therapy techniques in combination with three-dimensional

RAMILLE M. CAPITO; MYRON SPECTOR

2003-01-01

239

Investing in the Best and Brightest: Increased Fellowship Support for American Scientists and Engineers. Discussion Paper 2006-09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread concern that the United States faces a problem in maintaining its position as the scientific and technological leader in the world and that loss of leadership threatens future economic well-being and national security. Business, science, and education groups have issued reports that highlight the value to the country of…

Freeman, Richard B.

2006-01-01

240

Preventing future brownfields engineering solutions and pollution prevention policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems methodology for identifying, characterizing, and evaluating engineering solutions and policies that prevent the formation of brownfields is presented. Brownfields exist in very large numbers and pose serious environmental and health risks in developed countries around the world. As industries abandon unprofitable sites and development spreads to other parts of the globe, potential brownfield creation abounds which will further

Bruce Taylor; Lloyd Hipel; Keith W. Hipel; Liping Fang; Michele Heng

2009-01-01

241

Creativity Training for Engineers Its Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant fact about creativity training for engineers in the past is that it was retarded by the widely held concept that creative aptitude could only be born, not developed. This attitude was largely dispelled by Osborn's intensive campaign to promote \\

Hyman Olken

1964-01-01

242

Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

Filipkowski, A.

2011-01-01

243

Foreign-born academic scientists and engineers: producing more and getting less than their U.S.-born peers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chronicle of Higher Education recently reported that the number of doctoral degrees awarded in the U.S. rose 3.4 percent in 2004, largely because of an\\u000a increase in foreign students [Smallwood (2005). Doctoral degrees rose 3.4% in 2004, survey finds. The Chronicle of Higher\\u000a Education, December 9, 2005]. Currently, 20.9 percent [National Science Board (2003). The science and engineering workforce

Elizabeth A. Corley; Meghna Sabharwal

2007-01-01

244

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

245

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

246

Futurity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Futurity website features "the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada and Australia." Currently, some of the participating universities include Boston University, Duke University, McGill University, and the University of Sheffield. Visitors to the homepage will note that there are four areas on the site: Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Technology, and Society & Culture. Recently profiled news items include a compelling new discovery from New York University about the reality of a tractor beam that can pull microscopic particles. The Society & Culture section is a real find, as it contains engaging pieces like "Is zero tolerance too hard on students?" and "Big banks loom over finance 'ecosystem'." Also, visitors can browse news items by school or by topic area. Finally, the Week's Most Discussed area is a great way to learn about compelling new stories from around the globe.

247

Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: (1) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; (2) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; (3) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor); Sato, Yuko (Editor); Barclay, Rebecca O. (Editor); Kennedy, John M. (Editor)

1997-01-01

248

Engineer Support to Future Full-Spectrum Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Afghanistan and Iraq has shown that current warfare is a brigade commander's fight. With the transformation to modularized BCTs, it is clear that future combat will continue to be executed at the BCT level. The nature of full spectrum combat also points t...

T. O'Hara

2008-01-01

249

Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating

David Gordon Wilson

2012-01-01

250

The diesel engine for cars--is there a future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine is known as the most fuel efficient combustion engine.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Its acceptance for use in passengers cars, however, varies geographically.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Today, the diesel car plays an important role in Europe; in France,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009for instance, it is achieving a remarkable market share of about\\u000d\\u000a\\u000942 percent, while in the US its market penetration can be neglected.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Many questions are

F. F. Pischinger

1998-01-01

251

The spark-ignition aircraft piston engine of the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Areas of advanced technology appropriate to the design of a spark-ignition aircraft piston engine for the late 1980 time period were investigated and defined. Results of the study show that significant improvements in fuel economy, weight and size, safety, reliability, durability and performance may be achieved with a high degree of success, predicated on the continued development of advances in combustion systems, electronics, materials and control systems.

Stuckas, K. J.

1980-01-01

252

Bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future trends.  

PubMed

Although several major progresses have been introduced in the field of bone regenerative medicine during the years, current therapies, such as bone grafts, still have many limitations. Moreover, and in spite of the fact that material science technology has resulted in clear improvements in the field of bone substitution medicine, no adequate bone substitute has been developed and hence large bone defects/injuries still represent a major challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgeons. It is in this context that TE has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. In contrast to classic biomaterial approach, TE is based on the understanding of tissue formation and regeneration, and aims to induce new functional tissues, rather than just to implant new spare parts. The present review pretends to give an exhaustive overview on all components needed for making bone tissue engineering a successful therapy. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on bone biology, followed by an exhaustive description of all the relevant components on bone TE, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies, that will lead to "engineered" bone. Scaffolds processed by using a methodology based on extrusion with blowing agents. PMID:15468269

Salgado, António J; Coutinho, Olga P; Reis, Rui L

2004-08-01

253

Engineering Lessons Learned and Technical Standards Integration: Capturing Key Technologies for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capturing engineering lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies, then integrating them with technical standards, provides a viable process for enhancing engineering capabilities. The development of future space missions will require ready access, not only to the latest technical standards, but also to lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies. The integration of this information such that it is readily accessible by engineering and programmatic personnel is a key aspect of enabling technology. This paper addresses the development of a new and innovative Lessons Learned/Best Practices/Applications Notes--Standards Integration System, including experiences with its initial implementation as a pilot effort within the NASA Technical Standards Program. Included are metrics on the Program, feedbacks from users, future plans, and key issues that are being addressed to expand the System's utility. The objective is the enhancement of engineering capabilities on all aspects of systems development applicable to the success of future space missions.

Mellen, Daniele P.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

2003-01-01

254

Recruiting Future Engineers Through Effective Guest Speaking In Elementary School Classrooms  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the author describes how engineers can increase the number of future engineers by volunteering as guest speakers in the elementary school classroom. The paper is divided into three main subjects. First, the importance of engineers speaking directly with young students is discussed. Next, several best practice techniques for speaking with young students are described. Finally, information on getting started as a guest speaker is presented, and a list of resources available to guest speakers is provided. The guest engineer speaking to an elementary school audience (ages 6-11) performs a critical role in encouraging young students to pursue a career in engineering. Often, he or she is the first engineer these students meet in person, providing a crucial first impression of the engineering career field and a positive visual image of what an engineer really looks like. A dynamic speaker presenting a well-delivered talk creates a lasting, positive impression on students, influencing their future decisions to pursue careers in engineering. By reaching these students early in life, the guest speaker will help dispel the many prevailing stereotypes about engineers which discourage so many students, especially young women, from considering this career. The guest speaker can ensure young students gain a positive first impression of engineers and the engineering career field by following some best practice techniques in preparing for and delivering their presentation. The author, an electrical engineer, developed these best practice techniques over the past 10 years while presenting over 350 talks on engineering subjects to elementary school students as a volunteer speaker with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory’s Speakers Bureau. Every engineer can make a meaningful contribution toward reversing the predicted shortfall of future engineers by volunteering to speak with young students at the elementary school level. Elementary school teachers typically have a limited education in engineering and are eager to have career engineers speak with their students. As an engineer, there are many opportunities to get involved with guest speaking at the elementary school level. If you have a young child, start by meeting with her or his teacher and volunteering to give a presentation on engineering to the class. Many organizations have formal speakers bureaus. If your organization does not have one, consider starting one. There are several excellent resources on the Internet, such as the IEEE Center for Pre-University Engineering Education’s TryEngineering.org Web site. This site is designed for young students, teachers and parents, giving information on engineering careers and engineering activities the guest speaker can use to prepare a dynamic and informative presentation. Young students who have experienced a positive interaction with an engineer are more likely to pursue a career in engineering. Effective guest speaking by engineers in elementary school classrooms today will increase the likelihood these young students will become the desperately needed engineers of our future.

Kevin Young

2007-11-01

255

Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.  

PubMed

The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically. PMID:22788100

Wilson, David Gordon

2012-06-01

256

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

257

'Create the future': an environment for excellence in teaching future-oriented Industrial Design Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the University of Twente started a new course on Industrial Design Engineering. This paper describes the insights that have been employed in developing the curriculum, and in developing the environment in which the educational activities are facilitated. The University of Twente has a broad experience with project-oriented education [1], and because one of the goals of the curriculum

A. O. Eger; D. Lutters; Houten van F. J. A. M

2004-01-01

258

Thiopeptide Engineering: A Multidisciplinary Effort towards Future Drugs.  

PubMed

The recent development of thiopeptide analogues of antibiotics has allowed some of the limitations inherent to these naturally occurring substances to be overcome. Chemical synthesis, semisynthetic derivatization, and engineering of the biosynthetic pathway have independently led to complementary modifications of various thiopeptides. Some of the new substances have displayed improved profiles, not only as antibiotics, but also as antiplasmodial and anticancer drugs. The design of novel molecules based on the thiopeptide scaffold appears to be the only strategy to exploit the high potential they have shown in?vitro. Herein we present the most relevant achievements in the production of thiopeptide analogues and also discuss the way the different approaches might be combined in a multidisciplinary strategy to produce more sophisticated structures. PMID:24861213

Just-Baringo, Xavier; Albericio, Fernando; Alvarez, Mercedes

2014-06-23

259

Whichever way the wind blows, scientists and engineers try to find ways to protect people and property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timothy Marshall, a failure and damage consultant with the Haag Engineering Company in Dallas, Texas, possesses a passion for storm chasing. On the afternoon of May 3, 1999, with atmospheric conditions creating a potentially explosive situation, Marshall drove several hours north to central Oklahoma to spot tornadoes. A storm started blowing up near Lawton and moved parallel to Interstate 44, with Marshall ahead of it in his Chevy pickup. He parked on the Newcastle overpass bridge, videotaping the long-tracked twister for later study At 7:04 p.m. local time, with the vortex now just one mile away and moving straight toward him, it started appearing three-dimensional, debris and projectiles flying about, the tornado roaring like freight trains, wind howling, red mud raining down, and things “getting a little out of hand,” Marshall recalled. He drove out of its path, only to watch the tornado tear through the suburban streets and houses of Moore, on its way to Oklahoma City.

Showstack, Randy

260

The Scientist: The News Journal for the Life Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided with the cooperation of the Institute for Science Information (ISI) and the University of Pennsylvania, The Scientist (last discussed in the September 15, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a free newsletter for life scientists. Each issue features a variety of science news stories, focusing on recent developments, as well as commentary, opinion, "Hot Papers," professional information, commercial products and services, and jobs. Users can browse and search back issues and also subscribe to a free email notification service.

261

Technologies for Thrust Chambers of Future Launch Vehicle Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Astrium (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle rocket engines are presently being performed within the frame of German national technology programs sponsored by the German Aerospace Center. The main focus of these technology developments is on thrust chamber technologies for future, reusable or semi-reusable high performance launch vehicle liquid rocket engines. This paper shows the present status and the results of the following thrust chamber technologies investigated experimentally on subscale chamber level: - Development of technologies for increased heat transfer to the thrust chamber wall for - Developments of thermal barrier coatings for the thrust chamber hot gas wall for - For future staged combustion cycle engines a subscale chamber program with a new

Immich, Hans; Alting, Jan; Kretschmer, Joachim; Preclik, Dieter

2002-01-01

262

SAB Report: Future Issues in Environmental Engineering. Report on Future Issues and Challenges in Environmental Engineering and Technology by the Environmental Engineering Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1992, the Science Advisory Board (SAB) began an initiative, termed the Environmental Futures Project, to advise the Agency on ways to identify future environmental problems and provide the SAB's perspective on emerging environmental issues. The En...

1995-01-01

263

Engineering for a Changing World: Introduction The Future of Engineering Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The changing workforce and technology needs of a global knowledge economy are changing engineering practice demanding far broader skills. Importance of technological innovation to economic competitiveness and national security is driving a new priority for application-driven basic engineering research. Challenges such as out sourcing and off shoring, decline of student interest in STEM careers, inadequate social diversity, and immigration constraints are raising serious questions about the adequacy of current national approach to engineering. This resource is a supplemental presentation to MERE Online resources S0800661 and S0800664.

2009-10-21

264

Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

2013-06-01

265

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

266

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

267

SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

Bederson, Benjamin

2006-04-01

268

Future Critical Issues and Problems Facing Technology and Engineering Education in the Commonwealth of Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to determine the future critical issues and problems facing the K-12 technology and engineering education profession in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This study was based on the Wicklein nationwide studies (1993a, 2005). Even though this study did not exactly replicate the Wicklein studies--since it was limited to…

Katsioloudis, Petros; Moye, Johnny J.

2012-01-01

269

On the Training of Radio and Communications Engineers in the Decades of the Immediate Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A list of 11 statements relating to the change in training programs for radio and communications engineers is presented in this article, in preparation for future developments in the field. Semiconductors, decimeter and centimeter radio frequency ranges, and a statistical approach to communications systems are analyzed as the three important…

Klyatskin, I.G.

270

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.

1990-01-01

271

Developing Global Scientists and Engineers  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. For International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) proposals, indirect costs are allowable, consistent with NSF?s general policy (see Grant Proposal Guide, Section II.C.2.g). More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on ...

272

CIVIL ENGINEERS AT THE CROSSROADS - HOW CONSULTING ENGINEERS CAN DRAW ON THE PAST TO FURTHER OUR EXPERTISE FOR THE FUTURE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper first discusses the role of civil engineers in the development of Japan's infrastructure during the period of post-war reconstruction and subsequent high economic growth. The paper highlights the importance of practical skills in a world where the role of civil engineers is expected to become increasingly diverse, and emphasizes the importance of seizing opportunities to further develop international competitiveness. In the post-war era, civil engineers raised their expertise and acquired advanced technologies from overseas and made further improvements through the course of applying those technologies. By adopting many state-of-the-art technologies civil engineers helped develop the infrastructure that now serves as Japan's social and economic backbone. Current trends such as the shrinking and aging population and globalization are destined to have large-scale impacts on Japan's social systems. In the context of such dynamics, this paper discusses civil engineers' perception of our current position in history, and how we will raise the standards of our profession for the future.

Hirotani, Akihiko

273

Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future  

SciTech Connect

Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

274

Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

Evans, Brenda

275

Future higher performance O2/H2 engine combustion cycle alternatives. [design for rocket boosters and spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of current and projected advanced O2/H2 rocket engine configurations for high-efficiency engine designs is examined. Particular attention is given to engine cycle configurations, operating pressures, and performance characteristics which can be foreseen for the engine configurations past the 1980 era for single-stage-to-orbit boosters and advanced space engines. The discussion covers potential O2/H2 performance gains achievable, engine cycle improvements, and projected O2/H2 engine component efficiency, weight, and other improvements foreseen through future development.

Wagner, W. R.

1976-01-01

276

Structural integrity and durability for Space Shuttle main engine and future reusable space propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is conducting a program which will establish a technology base for the orderly evolution of reusable space propulsion systems. As part of that program, NASA initiated a Structural Integrity and Durability effort for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket engine technology. That effort focuses on the development of: (1) accurate analytical models to describe flow fields; aerothermodynamic loads; structural responses; and fatigue/fracture, from which life prediction codes can be evolved; and (2) advanced instrumentation with capabilities to verify the codes in an SSME-like environment as well as the potential for future use as diagnostic sensors for real-time condition monitoring of critical engine components.

Marsik, S. J.; Gawrylowicz, H. T.

1986-01-01

277

Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

1999-07-01

278

NewScientist.com: Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NewScientist magazine archive features articles on a variety of science topics. The search engine accepts a keyword or title. Quick links to back issues are provided, and magazines can also be browsed by selecting one of ten predetermined subject categories.

279

Long-term land use future scenarios for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to facilitate decision regarding environmental restoration activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the United States Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) conducted analyses to project reasonable future land use scenarios at the INEL for the next 100 years. The methodology for generating these scenarios included: review of existing DOE plans, policy statements, and mission statements pertaining to the INEL; review of surrounding land use characteristics and county developments policies; solicitation of input from local, county, state and federal planners, policy specialists, environmental professionals, and elected officials; and review of environmental and development constraints at the INEL site that could influence future land use.

NONE

1995-08-01

280

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 17: The relationship between seven variables and the use of US government technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and seven selected sociometric variables. Data were collected by means of a self-administered mail survey which was distributed to a randomly drawn sample of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) members. Two research questions concerning the use of conference meeting papers, journal articles, in-house technical reports, and U.S. government technical reports were investigated. Relevance, technical quality, and accessibility were found to be more important determinants of the overall extent to which U.S. government technical reports and three other information products were used by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Nanci; Demerath, Loren

1991-01-01

281

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1991-01-01

282

Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative identification of future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) is presented. These needs are assessed relative to the similar needs of the tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection, redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed here for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids.

Krakowski, R.A.

1982-01-01

283

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) delivers space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides U.S. capability for both crew and cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010, as outlined in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. I In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle/Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle/Altair Lunar Lander. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability, coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration over a multi-decade schedule. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity against predictions made by modern modeling and simulation analysis. It also will give information about the work in progress for the Ares I-X developmental test flight planned in 2009 to provide key data before the Ares I Critical Design Review. Activities such as these will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development tasks being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, the work performed will lead to the fielding of a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads for sustainable scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

284

100-LBF LO2/LCH4 - Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

2008-01-01

285

Role and Contribution of Foreign-Born Scientists and Engineers to the Public U.S. Nanoscience and Technology Research Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign-born scientists and researchers have long been a fixture in the U.S. R&D system. This paper examines a key indicator of scientific performance - individual research productivity. In a large sample of public sector researchers in nanoscience and technology, it was found that foreign-born scientists are consistently more productive than their native-born counterparts across different organizational settings and within a

Dirk P. Libaers

2007-01-01

286

[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

1990-01-01

287

Intestinal Tissue Engineering: Current Concepts and Future Vision of Regenerative Medicine in the Gut  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Functional tissue engineering of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex process aiming to aid the regeneration of structural layers of smooth muscle, intrinsic enteric neuronal plexuses, specialized mucosa and epithelial cells as well as interstitial cells. The final tissue engineered construct is intended to mimic the native GI tract anatomically and physiologically. Physiological functionality of tissue engineered constructs is of utmost importance while considering clinical translation. The construct comprises of cellular components as well as biomaterial scaffolding components. Together, these determine the immune-response a tissue engineered construct would elicit from a host upon implantation. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made to mitigate adverse host reactions. These include a quest for identifying autologous cell sources like embryonic and adult stem cells, bone marrow-derived cells, neural crest-derived cells and muscle-derived stem cells. Scaffolding biomaterials have been fabricated with increasing biocompatibility and biodegradability. Manufacturing processes have advanced to allow for precise spatial architecture of scaffolds in order to mimic in vivo milieu closely and achieve neovascularization. This review will focus on the current concepts and the future vision of functional tissue engineering of the diverse neuromuscular structures of the GI tract from the esophagus to the internal anal sphincter.

Bitar, Khalil N.; Raghavan, Shreya

2011-01-01

288

Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. PMID:24319010

Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

2014-01-01

289

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 15: Technical uncertainty and project complexity as correlates of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of an exploratory investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory study was conducted that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty and project complexity on information use by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists. The study utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list served as the study population. The adjusted response rate was 67 percent. The survey instrument is appendix C to this report. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and information use. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and the use of federally funded aerospace R&D. The results of this investigation are relevant to researchers investigating information-seeking behavior of aerospace engineers. They are also relevant to R&D managers and policy planners concerned with transferring the results of federally funded aerospace R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1993-01-01

290

Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for this discussion.

DeVore, E. K.

2004-05-01

291

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 45; The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 3 US Aerospace Engineering Educators Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. Little is also known about the intermediary-based system that is used to transfer the results of federally funded R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports, present a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and identified themselves as educators.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1996-01-01

292

The MAD Scientist Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mad Scientist Network, provided by Washington University at St. Louis Medical School, is a Web based "ask a scientist" forum. You ask a question, and a scientist answers it. Answers are usually concise. The expert scientists include high school teachers, university faculty, and others. Both questions and answers are submitted via Web forms. A browsable and searchable question and answer archive is maintained. Scientists interested in joining the Mad Scientist Network will find information at the site. The Mad Scientist Network is part of the St. Louis Science Education Network. http://medinfo.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/ Scientists interested in participating: http://medicine.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/join/ List of "Mad Scientists": http://medicine.wustl.edu/cgi/cgiwrap.cgi/~ysp/mad/mad.scilist

1997-01-01

293

Fluvial geomorphology and river engineering: future roles utilizing a fluvial hydrosystems framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River engineering is coming under increasing public scrutiny given failures to prevent flood hazards and economic and environmental concerns. This paper reviews the contribution that fluvial geomorphology can make in the future to river engineering. In particular, it highlights the need for fluvial geomorphology to be an integral part in engineering projects, that is, to be integral to the planning, implementation, and post-project appraisal stages of engineering projects. It should be proactive rather than reactive. Areas in which geomorphologists will increasingly be able to complement engineers in river management include risk and environmental impact assessment, floodplain planning, river audits, determination of instream flow needs, river restoration, and design of ecologically acceptable channels and structures. There are four key contributions that fluvial geomorphology can make to the engineering profession with regard to river and floodplain management: to promote recognition of lateral, vertical, and downstream connectivity in the fluvial system and the inter-relationships between river planform, profile, and cross-section; to stress the importance of understanding fluvial history and chronology over a range of time scales, and recognizing the significance of both palaeo and active landforms and deposits as indicators of levels of landscape stability; to highlight the sensitivity of geomorphic systems to environmental disturbances and change, especially when close to geomorphic thresholds, and the dynamics of the natural systems; and to demonstrate the importance of landforms and processes in controlling and defining fluvial biotopes and to thus promote ecologically acceptable engineering. Challenges facing fluvial geomorphology include: gaining full acceptance by the engineering profession; widespread utilization of new technologies including GPS, GIS, image analysis of satellite and airborne remote sensing data, computer-based hydraulic modeling and geophysical techniques; dovetailing engineering approaches to the study of river channels which emphasize reach-scale flow resistance, shear stresses, and material strength with catchment scale geomorphic approaches, empirical predictions, bed and bank processes, landform evolution, and magnitude-frequency concepts; producing accepted river channel typologies; fundamental research aimed at producing more reliable deterministic equations for prediction of bed and bank stability and bedload transport; and collaboration with aquatic biologists to determine the role and importance of geomorphologically and hydraulically defined habitats.

Gilvear, David J.

1999-12-01

294

Educating the Next Generation of Agricultural Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Level was established to analyze issues related to the next generation of agricultural scientists. This report contains the findings, conclusions, and recommendations regarding the status and future needs of agricultural scientists. This report focuses…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

295

The software engineering journey: From a naieve past into a responsible future  

SciTech Connect

All engineering fields experience growth, from early trial & error approaches, to disciplined approaches based on fundamental understanding. The field of software engineering is making the long and arduous journey, accomplished by evolution of thinking in many dimensions. This paper takes the reader along a trio of simultaneous evolutionary paths. First, the reader experiences evolution from a zero-risk mindset to a managed-risk mindset. Along this path, the reader observes three generations of security risk management and their implications for software system assurance. Next is a growth path from separate surety disciplines to an integrated systems surety approach. On the way, the reader visits safety, security, and dependability disciplines and peers into a future vision which coalesces them. The third and final evolutionary path explored here transitions the software engineering field from best practices to fundamental understanding. Along this road, the reader observes a framework for developing a {open_quotes}science behind the engineering{close_quotes}, and methodologies for software surety analysis.

Chapa, S.K.

1997-08-01

296

Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

297

Computational Intelligence and Its Impact on Future High-Performance Engineering Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Intelligence held at the Virginia Consortium of Engineering and Science Universities, Hampton, Virginia, June 27-28, 1995. The presentations addressed activities in the areas of fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary computations. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, industry, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the Computational intelligence area and to provide guidelines for future research.

Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

298

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on Tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic beatings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2000-01-01

299

Engineering the future of military tactical vehicles and systems with modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stewart & Stevenson has developed a Modeling and Simulation approach based on Systems Engineering principles for the development of future military vehicles and systems. This approach starts with a requirements analysis phase that captures and distills the design requirements into a list of parameterized values. A series of executable engineering models are constructed to allow the requirements to be transformed into systems with definable architectures with increasing levels of fidelity. Required performance parameters are available for importation into a variety of modeling and simulation tools including PTC Pro/ENGINEER (for initial engineering models, mechanisms, packaging, and detailed 3-Dimensional solid models), LMS International Virtual.Lab Motion (for vehicle dynamics and ride analysis) and AVL Cruise (Powertrain simulations). Structural analysis and optimization (performed in ANSYS, Pro/MECHANICA, and Altair OptiStruct) is based on the initial geometry from Pro/ENGINEER. Spreadsheets are used for requirements analysis, design documentation and first-order studies. Collectively, these models serve as templates for all design activities. Design variables initially studied within a simplified system model can be cascaded down as the new requirements for a sub-system model. By utilizing this approach premature decisions on systems architectures can be avoided. Ultimately, the systems that are developed are optimally able to meet the requirements by utilizing this top-down approach. Additionally, this M&S approach is seen as a life-cycle tool useful in initially assisting with project management activities through the initial and detail design phases and serves as a template for testing and validation/verification activities. Furthermore, because of the multi-tiered approach, there is natural re-use possible with the models as well.

Loew, Matthew; Watters, Brock

2005-05-01

300

Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: A protein engineering perspective  

SciTech Connect

Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class of protein therapeutics. The rationale for developing better protein therapeutics with enhanced efficacy, greater safety, reduced immunogenicity or improved delivery comes from the convergence of clinical, scientific, technological and commercial drivers that have identified unmet needs and provided strategies to address them. Future protein drugs seem likely to be more extensively engineered to improve their performance, e.g., antibodies and Fc fusion proteins with enhanced effector functions or extended half-life. Two old concepts for improving antibodies, namely antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, have advanced to the cusp of clinical success. As for newer protein therapeutic platform technologies, several engineered protein scaffolds are in early clinical development and offer differences and some potential advantages over antibodies.

Carter, Paul J., E-mail: pjc@gene.com

2011-05-15

301

Precision engineering for astronomy: historical origins and the future revolution in ground-based astronomy.  

PubMed

Since the dawn of civilization, the human race has pushed technology to the limit to study the heavens in ever-increasing detail. As astronomical instruments have evolved from those built by Tycho Brahe in the sixteenth century, through Galileo and Newton in the seventeenth, to the present day, astronomers have made ever more precise measurements. To do this, they have pushed the art and science of precision engineering to extremes. Some of the critical steps are described in the evolution of precision engineering from the first telescopes to the modern generation telescopes and ultra-sensitive instruments that need a combination of precision manufacturing, metrology and accurate positioning systems. In the future, precision-engineered technologies such as those emerging from the photonics industries may enable future progress in enhancing the capabilities of instruments, while potentially reducing the size and cost. In the modern era, there has been a revolution in astronomy leading to ever-increasing light-gathering capability. Today, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is at the forefront of this revolution, building observatories on the ground that are set to transform our view of the universe. At an elevation of 5000 m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) is nearing completion. The ALMA is the most powerful radio observatory ever and is being built by a global partnership from Europe, North America and East Asia. In the optical/infrared part of the spectrum, the latest project for ESO is even more ambitious: the European Extremely Large Telescope, a giant 40 m class telescope that will also be located in Chile and which will give the most detailed view of the universe so far. PMID:22802494

Cunningham, Colin; Russell, Adrian

2012-08-28

302

LOX-Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines and Thrust Chamber Technologies for Future Launch Vehicle Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations into the use of hydrocarbon fuels for launcher propulsion and in-orbit propulsion show the potential to satisfy the market's performance and cost requirements. The main expected advantages compared to current cryogenic and storable propellants are reduced handling effort and reduced safety precautions. Large liquid boosters or first stages for expendable and reusable vehicles are seen today as major application areas. Engine and stage concepts have been compared assuming various possible propellant combinations with hydrocarbon fuels. The expected characteristics like performance, dry mass, and development status are compared. Both expendable as well as reusable vehicle stages were considered. Investigations aiming at identifying the optimum hydrocarbon propellant in view of thrust chamber performance and engine system have been performed. System studies were performed to conclude on propellant selection, the propulsion system configuration, and the most economic engine cycle for the considered applications. The chamber cooling was assessed for envisaged chamber operational conditions in view of cooling limitations by propellant dissociation and coking. Since 1993 injector and combustion chamber technologies for the applications of different hydrocarbon propellant combinations are investigated by Astrium Space Infrastructure. The operation with hydrocarbon propellants was already demonstrated with an existing Aestus engine in cooperation with Boeing Propulsion and Power. Test have been performed with a subscale combustion chamber with the selected propellants LOX-methane and LOX-kerosene to confirm operation feasibility, cooling, and performance in a cooperation of Astrium with Chemieautomatics Design Bureau in Russia. Several injection concepts have been studied to allow a comparison and down-selection for future application. A continuation of this program is currently under preparation.

Haeseler, Dietrich; Mäding, Chris

2002-01-01

303

Politics and scientific expertise: Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the homogeneity and influences on scientists' perspectives of environmental risks, the authors have examined similarities and differences in risk perceptions, particularly regarding nuclear wastes, and policy preferences among 1011 scientists and engineers. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the patterns of beliefs among scientists from different fields of research. In contrast to physicists, chemists, and engineers, life scientists

Richard P. Barke; Hank C. Jenkins-Smith

1993-01-01

304

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

305

Expectancy Theory as a Predictive Model of Career Intent, Job Satisfaction, and Institution-Occupation Orientation among Air Force Officer Scientists and Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research study examines career intent, job satisfaction, and institution-occupation orientation among members of the scientific and engineering career fields (26XX and 28XX, respectively) using a model of behavioral choice and motivation known as Exp...

L. M. Lewis

1978-01-01

306

Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

1992-01-01

307

Fluidization science, its development and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

By revisiting the three stage theory for the progress of science proposed by Taketani in 1942, the footmarks of fluidization research are examined. The bubbling and fast fluidization issues were emphasized so that the future of fluidization research can be discussed among scientists and engineers in a wider perspective. The first cycle of fluidization research was started in the early

Masayuki Horio

2010-01-01

308

MAD Scientist Network: Ask  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MAD Scientist Network is a collection of scientists from all over the country available to answer any of your science questions. Search the archive of over 25,000 questions, explore the MadSci Library for resources, demos and science fair project ideas, or read the FAQ that answers common questions, like why is the sky blue? Scientists will not answer homework questions, medical questions, or science fair project questions.

309

Just Like Real Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

2009-01-01

310

Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2005-04-01

311

Mathematical modeling and analysis in biochemical engineering: past accomplishments and future opportunities.  

PubMed

This is a personal commentary on the history and future prospects of mathematical modeling and analysis in biochemical engineering. Major transitions in these fields were driven by the appearance of the Aiba, Humphrey, and Millis text, Fredrickson's guidance on conceptualizing mathematical representations of cell populations, and Ramkrishna's development of the cybernetic modeling approach. The value of mathematical models to organize data, to consider interactions in complex systems in a rational way, to correct the conventional wisdom, and to understand essential qualitative features of biological systems has been clearly documented in prior research. The impact of this research in biotechnology discovery has so far been limited, but this will change in the future if we are adept in recognizing emerging opportunities and in integrating new concepts and tools into our research. Mathematical structures and methods, allied with extraordinary contemporary computing power, are essential to the emerging field of functional genomics. Important in this quest is a hierarchy of powerful modeling, analysis, and computational tools which can capture essential quantitative features of available experimental data and use these effectively for analysis and design of metabolism. PMID:9496667

Bailey, J E

1998-01-01

312

Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management, and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be shown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

Ballard, Richard O. [Liquid Engine and Main Propulsion Systems Branch, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

2008-01-21

313

Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP. turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management; and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be $hown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

Ballard, Richard O.

2008-01-01

314

Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management, and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be shown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

Ballard, Richard O.

2008-01-01

315

Scientists Shaping the Discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

2011-12-01

316

Mentoring Among Scientists: Implications of Interpersonal Relationships within a Formal Mentoring Program  

SciTech Connect

Mentoring is an established strategy for learning that has its root in antiquity. Most, if not all, successful scientists and engineers had an effective mentor at some point in their career. In the context of scientists and engineers, mentoring has been undefined. Reports addressing critical concerns regarding the future of science and engineering in the U.S. mention the practice of mentoring a priori, leaving organizations without guidance in its application. Preliminary results from this study imply that formal mentoring can be effective when properly defined and operationalized. Recognizing the uniqueness of the individual in a symbiotic mentor-protégé relationship significantly influences a protégé’s learning experience which carries repercussions into their career intentions. The mentor-protégé relationship is a key factor in succession planning and preserving and disseminating critical information and tacit knowledge essential to the development of leadership in the science and technological industry.

Bryan D. Maughan

2006-11-01

317

Scientists as Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishes an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines, and contrasts this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. Assesses scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions of…

Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

2002-01-01

318

Collaborating with WISE Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an interactive partnership, fifth-grade students collected data on plants and joined an active scientific community of working scientists. This Web-based Integrated Science Environment (WISE) project involved asking questions about plants, growing plants in the classroom, and discussing their data with scientists online. (Contains 5…

Williams, Michelle; Linn, Marcia C.

2003-01-01

319

Stories of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

Mascazine, John R.

2001-01-01

320

Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

1999-01-01

321

The History of Winter: teachers as scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned veterans in the field, is a unique experience for many of the teachers. Here we present lessons learned throughout the lifetime of the program, including successes and improvements made, and present our vision for the future of HOW.

Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

2013-12-01

322

Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

2010-08-01

323

Women Life Scientists: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase student's exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach and problem-solving science activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Each module contains a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Modules drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula. The book may be purchased from the American Physiological Society or the individual chapters may be downloaded for free from the Archive. To access all of the chapters, click the "All in This Collection" link to the left.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

324

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even

Dunn

2003-01-01

325

Educating Engineers: Designing for the Future of the Field. Book Highlights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multi-year study of undergraduate engineering education in the United States initiated questions about the alignment of engineering programs with the demands of current professional engineering practice. While describing engineering education from within the classroom and the lab, the report on the study offers new possibilities for teaching…

Sheppard, Sheri D.; Macatangay, Kelly; Colby, Anne; Sullivan, William M.

2008-01-01

326

Graphic Analysis of American and British Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine Performance Trends (Current and Future)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a compilation of static sea-level data on existing or designed American and British axial-flow turbojet engines in terms of basic engine parameters such as thrust and air flow. In the data presented, changes in the over-U engine performance with time sre examined as well as the relation of the various engine parameters to each other.

Cesaro, Richard S.; Lazar, James

1951-01-01

327

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace Research and Development (R&D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present exploration of the diffusion of federally-funded R&D via the information-seeking behavior of scientists and engineers proceeds under three assumptions: (1) that knowledge transfer and utilization is as important as knowledge production; (2) that the diffusion of knowledge obtained through federally-funded R&D is necessary for the maintenance of U.S. preeminence in the aerospace field; and (3) that federally-funded NASA and DoD technical reports play an important, albeit as-yet undefined, role in aerospace R&D diffusion. A conceptual model is presented for the process of knowledge diffusion that stresses the role of U.S. government-funded technical reports.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1991-01-01

328

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 64: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: 1.) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; 2.) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; 3.) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1997-01-01

329

Present Challenges, Critical Needs, and Future Technological Directions for NASA's GN and C Engineering Discipline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently undergoing a substantial redirection. Notable among the changes occurring within NASA is the stated emphasis on technology development, integration, and demonstration. These new changes within the Agency should have a positive impact on the GN&C discipline given the potential for sizeable investments for technology development and in-space demonstrations of both Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) systems and Autonomous Precision Landing (APL) systems. In this paper the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) provides a summary of the present technical challenges, critical needs, and future technological directions for NASA s GN&C engineering discipline. A brief overview of the changes occurring within NASA that are driving a renewed emphasis on technology development will be presented as background. The potential benefits of the planned GN&C technology developments will be highlighted. This paper will provide a GN&C State-of-the-Discipline assessment. The discipline s readiness to support the goals & objectives of each of the four NASA Mission Directorates is evaluated and the technical challenges and barriers currently faced by the discipline are summarized. This paper will also discuss the need for sustained investments to sufficiently mature the several classes of GN&C technologies required to implement NASA crewed exploration and robotic science missions.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.

2010-01-01

330

Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

2012-09-01

331

Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

The repair and regeneration of large bone defects resulting from disease or trauma remains a significant clinical challenge. Bioactive glass has appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, but the application of glass scaffolds for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is often limited by their low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. This paper provides an overview of recent developments in the fabrication and mechanical properties of bioactive glass scaffolds. The review reveals the fact that mechanical strength is not a real limiting factor in the use of bioactive glass scaffolds for bone repair, an observation not often recognized by most researchers and clinicians. Scaffolds with compressive strengths comparable to those of trabecular and cortical bones have been produced by a variety of methods. The current limitations of bioactive glass scaffolds include their low fracture toughness (low resistance to fracture) and limited mechanical reliability, which have so far received little attention. Future research directions should include the development of strong and tough bioactive glass scaffolds, and their evaluation in unloaded and load-bearing bone defects in animal models.

Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

332

The Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems: Present Challenges and Future Promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are used in the SE community to address the need for managing the development of complex systems. A key feature of the MBSE approach is the use of a model to capture the requirements, architecture, behavior, operating environment and other key aspects of the system. The focus on the model differentiates MBSE from traditional SE techniques that may have a document centric approach. In an effort to assess the benefit of utilizing MBSE on its flight projects, NASA Langley has implemented a pilot program to apply MBSE techniques during the early phase of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X). MISSE-X is a Technology Demonstration Mission being developed by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist i . Designed to be installed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS), MISSE-X will host experiments that advance the technology readiness of materials and devices needed for future space exploration. As a follow-on to the highly successful series of previous MISSE experiments on ISS, MISSE-X benefits from a significant interest by the

Bloebaum, Christina L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

2012-01-01

333

Scientists 'Examine' Tofik Dadashev.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The First International Conference on Psychotronics, held in 1973 in Prague is reported. Four hundred scientists from fifteen countries took part in the conference. Invited to the conference were two USSR countrymen, artist Tofik Dadashev and journalist V...

V. Sergeev

1974-01-01

334

Scientist as Problem Solver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our exploration of the histories of scientific discoveries have made it eminently clear to us that scientists set themselves many different kinds of tasks. These include tasks of formulating significant scientific problems, of discovering interesting phen...

H. A. Simon

1989-01-01

335

COSEE Southeast: Scientist's Niche  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists can get help engaging in K-16 education efforts from this resource. It provides information and publications on how researchers can get involved in education, and contains a link to the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories (SAML).

336

Talk Like a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

2010-04-01

337

Scientist in Residence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a secondary school visitation program by scientists in Australia. The program was designed to increase students' motivation related to science, especially physics. Discusses the effects of the program. (YP)

Thiel, David V.

1990-01-01

338

Scientists Discover Smallest Frog  

NSF Publications Database

... br/>Press Release 96-086Scientists Discover Smallest Frog December 18, 1996 This material is ... the smallest in the Northern Hemisphere, and is tied for the world record with the smallest frog in ...

339

Ask a Climate Scientist  

NASA Video Gallery

Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

340

Scientists as writers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre, strategies, target audiences, and expectations for their writing.

Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

2002-09-01

341

Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

2013-01-01

342

Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

Jones, M.

2004-12-01

343

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1996-01-01

344

Reconciling Scientists and Journalists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

Rosner, H.

2006-12-01

345

Goddard Visiting Scientist Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

2000-01-01

346

Future Directions for Biomedical Engineering Research: Recommendations of an Evaluation Workshop for the NIGMS Physiology and Biomedical Engineering Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the recommendations of participants in a workshop held to evaluate the content of the Physiology and Biomedical Engineering Program of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). On the basis of a systematic review of the field, a number of promising areas were identified in which further work is needed.

P. H. Abbrecht; J. R. Cox; F. P. Ferguson

1978-01-01

347

Associate Scientist Andres Berrio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, looks at Andres Berrio and his current job as an associate scientist. This video examines what someone can do with experience and education in laboratory science, what skills are needed to succeed in this field, and what employees can do to shine to employers. This video is helpful for anyone interested in biotechnology or working as a laboratory associate scientist or assistant. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:53.

2010-10-11

348

Report to the President: Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The President's Council of Adviser's on Science and Technology (PCAST) present the report Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for Americaâs Future. This report provides a strategy for improving K-12 STEM education that responds to the tremendous challenges and historic opportunities facing the Nation. The reports recommends further use of standards and extensive increases in teacher recruiting. The report also advises greater use of partnerships and improvement in diversity.

Technology, Presidentâs C.

2011-04-04

349

100-Lb(f) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

2008-01-01

350

Goddard Visiting Scientist Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at th...

2000-01-01

351

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

352

Naked Scientists Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Naked Scientists are "a media-savvy group of physicians and researchers from Cambridge University who use radio, live lectures, and the Internet to strip science down to its bare essentials, and promote it to the general public." They have a weekly radio program on BBC radio and this is available via a weekly podcast as well. Visitors to this site can learn more about the Naked Scientists as well as subscribe to their podcasts which include: Naked Scientists Podcast (and an enhanced version with images), Ask the Naked Scientists, and Question of the week. Subscriptions are available via iTunes, Yahoo, or Google or they can be downloaded as MP3 or MP4 from the site. Recent topics have included: Flu and Viruses; Combating Climate Change; and Memory and Learning. Anybody with a desire to learn about science in an accessible and entertaining way will find these podcasts useful. These podcasts could also be used in a classroom or for homework - as a way to integrate technology and fundamentals.

2008-02-14

353

Nurturing the Child Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

2011-01-01

354

ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REPORTED ARE FACTORS WHICH HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE AT THE UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL IN INFLUENCING MEN TO ENTER CAREERS IN SCIENCE. THE RESEARCH IS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART 1 ASSESSES STATISTICALLY THE SCIENTIST PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF 490 UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES BY DETERMINING WHAT PROPORTION OF THEIR GRADUATES ENTERED CAREERS IN…

KNAPP, R.H.; GOODRICH, H.B.

355

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

Porter, Diana

2009-01-01

356

Women Scientists. American Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

Veglahn, Nancy, J.

357

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

358

Scientists in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students ‘think like a scientist’, through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and their classes for the year. To help students gain a familiarity and understanding of how scientists approach research, I will (1) utilize technology, including youtube, powerpoint, and research modeling applications; (2) bring in experts from the University to demonstrate the diversity of the science community; (3) connect with the classroom research from meetings, journals and reports. The goal is to broaden the scope of how research science is conducted, but also to allow individual students to be involved in projects, from developing a hypothesis to presenting their data. A survey at the beginning of the academic year and a survey before the AGU Fall meeting will be compared to assess the influence of having a research scientist present. Results will include how students view of science and scientists has changed, feedback on how successfully technology has improved students’ comprehension, and ideas for making science approachable for diverse high school learners.

Lundin, J.

2009-12-01

359

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

360

Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

2001-01-01

361

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

362

Scientists as Correspondents: Exploratorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the 2007-2009 International Polar Year (IPY), an educational outreach developed by the Exploratorium science museum of San Francisco builds on prior high latitude programs to: 1) create public awareness of IPY research; 2) increase public understanding of the scientific process; and, 3) stimulate a new relationship between scientists and outreach. Funded by the National Science Foundation, a

P. A. McGillivary; K. R. Fall; M. Miller; R. Higdon; M. Andrews; K. O'Donnell

2008-01-01

363

Reading as Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

Shanahan, Marie-Claire

2010-01-01

364

Mechanical Engineering Curricula: A Follow-up Study for the Future Effects of ABET EC2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the sole agency responsible for accreditation of educational programs leading to degrees in engineering, engineering technology, and related engineering areas. In the late 1990s, engineering programs began transitioning to a new Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC2000). By 2001, all engineering programs were required to be accredited under the new criteria. The philosophy of Engineering Criteria 2000 is to allow institutions and programs to define their mission and objectives to meet the needs of their constituents and enable program differentiation. Emphasis is placed on continuous improvement of programs based on the input of constituents and a process that links outcomes and assessment to program objectives. This current paper is a follow-up study to a preliminary study conducted by the author in 2000 that looked at the initial effects of ABET EC2000. The earlier study examined selected mechanical engineering programs to discern the impact of EC2000 on curriculum development during the initial implementation phase of the new criteria. Data on the layout and composition of mechanical engineering curricula for nine schools in the United States with Ph.D. programs and nine schools without Ph.D. programs was presented and is updated in this current work. Current results are also compared to a study by Robert E. Mates from the State University of New York at Buffalo entitled a Survey of Undergraduate ME Programs, conducted in 1987. The conclusions identify changes that have occurred in mechanical engineering curricula as the EC2000 assessment process has matured.

Whiteman, Wayne

2009-09-09

365

The Amateur Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments using fluidyne engines. These engines (which have liquid pistons), started by external heat sources, are used primarily for pumping water. Examples of various engines built from U-shaped tubes or from coiled tubes in fruit jars are provided. (DH)

Walker, Jearl

1985-01-01

366

Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) - its Impact on Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an overview of our "Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for Mars" ( "BEES for Mars") project. The BEES approach distills selected biologically inspired strategies utilizing motion cues/optic flow, bioinspired pattern recognition, biological visual and neural control systems, bioinspired sensing and communication techniques, and birds of prey inspired search and track algorithmic systems. Unique capabilities so enabled, provide potential solutions to future autonomous robotic space and planetary mission applications. With the first series of tests performed in September 2003, August 2004 and September 2004, we have demonstrated the BEES technologies at the El Mirage Dry Lakebed site in the Mojave Desert using Delta Wing experimental prototypes. We call these test flyers the "BEES flyer", since we are developing them as dedicated test platform for the newly developed bioinspired sensors, processors and algorithmic strategies. The Delta Wing offers a robust airframe that can sustain high G launches and offers ease of compact stowability and packaging along with scaling to small size and low ReynOld's number performance for a potential Mars deployment. Our approach to developing light weight, low power autonomous flight systems using concepts distilled from biology promises to enable new applications, of dual use to NASA and DoD needs. Small in size (0.5 -5 Kg) BEES Flyers are demonstrating capabilities for autonomous flight and sensor operability in Mars analog conditions. The BEES project team spans JPL, NASA Ames, Australian National University (ANU), Brigham Young University(BYU), DC Berkeiey, Analogic Computers Inc. and other institutions. The highlights from our recent flight demonstrations exhibiting new Mission enabling capabilities are described. Further, this paper describes two classes of potential new missions for Mars exploration: (1) the long range exploration missions, and (2) observation missions, for real time imaging of critical ephemeral phenomena, that can be enabled by use of BEES flyers. For example, such flyers can serve as a powerful black-box for critical descent and landing data and enablers for improved science missions complementing and supplementing the existing assets like landers and rovers by providing valuable exploration and quick extended low-altitude aerial coverage of the sites of interest by imaging them and distributing instruments to them. Imaging done by orbiters allows broad surface coverage at limited spatial resolution. Low altitude air-borne exploration of Mars offers a means for imaging large areas, perhaps up to several hundred kilometers, quickly and efficiently, providing a close-up birds-eye view of the planetary terrain and close-up approach to constrained difficult areas like canyons and craters. A novel approach to low-mass yet highly capable flyers is enabled by small aircraft equipped using sensors and processors and algorithms developed using BEES technology. This project is focused towards showing the direct impact of blending the best of artificial intelligence attributes and bioinspiration to create a leap beyond existing capability for our future Missions.

Thakoor, Sarita; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steve

2004-01-01

367

Genetically engineered bacteria: An emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less

Jay Shankar Singh; P. C. Abhilash; H. B. Singh; Rana P. Singh; D. P. Singh

2011-01-01

368

Common ground in engineering geology, soil mechanics and rock mechanics: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering geology, together with soil mechanics and rock mechanics, is commonly considered to be one of the three fundamental scientific disciplines in ground engineering. Historically, the interrelation between these three disciplines has never been free of ambiguity. This, for instance, is highlighted by the fact that both Karl von Terzaghi, the founder of soil mechanics, and Leopold Müller, the founder

Helmut Bock; Peter Blümling; Heinz Konietzky

2006-01-01

369

Scientists' and Teachers' Perspectives about Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is resulting in more opportunities for scientists and teachers to collaborate. The relationships can result in failed collaborations or success. We recently completed a 6-year regional project that used several approaches to develop scientist-teacher relationships.…

Munson, Bruce H.; Martz, Marti Ann; Shimek, Sarah

2013-01-01

370

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

371

Enzyme Engineering at the Industrial Level: Present Status and Future Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Industrial Development Organization's publication on industrial enzymes engineering covers production of high-fructose syrups by immobilized glucose isomerase, optically active d-amino acids by immobilized hydantoinase, l-aspartic acid b...

A. A. Klyosov

1989-01-01

372

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled 'Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines' held on September 15-1...

C. DellaCorte O. Pinkus

2002-01-01

373

Educating the compassionate water engineer–a remedy to avoid future water management failures? \\/ Former des spécialistes de l’eau citoyens–une solution pour éviter de futurs échecs en gestion de l’eau?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of local and regional-scale water management failures appears steadily to increase despite an apparently higher level of engineering solutions at hand. The objective of this paper is to examine the challenges the existing education system needs to meet in order to produce water engineers capable of responding to the complexity of contemporary and future water problems in relation

Ronny Berndtsson; Malin Falkenmark; Gunnar Lindh; Akiça Bahri; Kenji Jinno

2005-01-01

374

Engaging Scientists in Educator Professional Development Workshops: Lessons Learned from E/PO Professionals, and Tips for Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are often asked to speak at workshops for educators, because Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) professionals and other facilitators who organize and lead professional development workshops really like to include them. Scientists are an incredibly valuable asset to workshops - when they come prepared. We will present tips for E/PO professionals who would like to include scientists in their next workshop, and tips for scientists who have been asked or would like to give presentations at educator workshops, in order to make sure the science presentations are as valuable and enjoyable to both the scientist and the audience as possible. These recommendations come from lessons learned by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) E/PO team after years of including scientists and engineers in the highly successful teacher professional development program, the Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs). Talks by scientists and engineers are consistently reported as a highlight of the workshops in participant surveys. We will present tips along with examples and relevant evaluation data from the LWEs, which we will use as a case study for how scientists can be effectively integrated into educator workshops. Noah Petro, an Associate Project Scientist for LRO, discusses the formation and evolution of the Moon with middle school science teachers participating in LRO's Lunar Workshops for Educators. John Keller, LRO's Project Scientist, discusses the latest science results from LRO with LWE teachers.

Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.

2013-12-01

375

Women Scientists and Engineers in Burma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of women in Burmese society and the quality of women within the scientific community. Data are given on the numbers of students in Burmese professional schools and the distribution of sexes among the teaching staff of the science departments of the Arts and Sciences University in Rangoon. (Author/SA)

Thein, Mya Mya

1980-01-01

376

Advanced mathematical methods for scientists and engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book gives a self-contained presentation of the methods of asymptotics and perturbation theory, methods useful for obtaining approximate analytical solutions to differential and difference equations. Parts and chapter titles are as follows: fundamentals - ordinary differential equations, difference equations; local analysis - approximate solution of linear differential equations, approximate solution of nonlinear differential equations, approximate solution of difference equations,

C. M. Bender; S. A. Orszag

1978-01-01

377

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Man's Responsibility to His Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological evolution can be carried out in the laboratory. With new knowledge available in genetics, possibilities are raised that genetic characters can be transferred in the future to embryos according to a predetermined plan. (PS)

Hoagland, Hudson

1972-01-01

378

CHO microRNA engineering is growing up: Recent successes and future challenges?  

PubMed Central

microRNAs with their ability to regulate complex pathways that control cellular behavior and phenotype have been proposed as potential targets for cell engineering in the context of optimization of biopharmaceutical production cell lines, specifically of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. However, until recently, research was limited by a lack of genomic sequence information on this industrially important cell line. With the publication of the genomic sequence and other relevant data sets for CHO cells since 2011, the doors have been opened for an improved understanding of CHO cell physiology and for the development of the necessary tools for novel engineering strategies. In the present review we discuss both knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs obtained from other biological models and proof of concepts already performed on CHO cells, thus providing an outlook of potential applications of microRNA engineering in production cell lines.

Jadhav, Vaibhav; Hackl, Matthias; Druz, Aliaksandr; Shridhar, Smriti; Chung, Cheng-Yu; Heffner, Kelley M.; Kreil, David P.; Betenbaugh, Mike; Shiloach, Joseph; Barron, Niall; Grillari, Johannes; Borth, Nicole

2013-01-01

379

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of VOCs [2], and that lubricating oil is a major contributor. Fitting an oxidation catalyst to the natural gas engine leads to a reduction in nanoparticles emissions in comparison to engines without aftertreatment [2,3,4]. In 2001, the Cummins Westport Plus technology was introduced with the C Gas Plus engine, a popular choice for transit bus applications. This incorporates drive by wire, fully integrated, closed loop electronic controls and a standard oxidation catalyst for all applications. The B Gas Plus and the B Propane Plus engines, with application in shuttle and school buses were launched in 2002 and 2003. The gas-specific oxidation catalyst operates in concert with an optimized ring-pack and liner combination to reduce total particulate mass below 0.01g/bhphr, combat ultrafine particles and control VOC emissions.

Dunn, M

2003-08-24

380

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a key cell factory platform for future biorefineries.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast. PMID:22388689

Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

2012-08-01

381

Peace dividends. Past, present, and future impacts on employment of engineers and technicans  

SciTech Connect

This article provides information on the challenges of redirecting decades of U.S. military spending policies toward regaining economic greatness in the world. New reports conclude that the coming cutbacks may hit engineers especially hard. Roughly 37 percent of the nation's 342,000 defense engineering positions may evaporate within the next four years. Inevitably, [open quotes]politics[close quotes] will play a confusing role in any transition program undertaken, and success will only result if all of the involved parties are willing to compromise. 20 refs., 1 fig.

Morrison, R.D. (MK Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company, TN (United States))

1993-11-01

382

Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

Stephens, G. E.

1980-01-01

383

Adaptation and development of software simulation methodologies for cardiovascular engineering: present and future challenges from an end-user perspective  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective.

Diaz-Zuccarini, V.; Narracott, A.J.; Burriesci, G.; Zervides, C.; Rafiroiu, D.; Jones, D.; Hose, D.R.; Lawford, P.V.

2009-01-01

384

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial, and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic bearings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2002-01-01

385

Talking Science, Modeling Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you want your students to share their investigation findings in a meaningful way? Or to communicate like real scientists do--beyond conducting investigations in the classroom? Fourth-grade students in the Upstate of South Carolina are doing just that as they log onto the Experimental Reflection Portal, or XRePort an online system that pairs students and teachers from different schools and allows them to "talk" about their common science investigations. In this way, students communicate their science knowledge and experience firsthand the benefits of the collaborative nature of science.

Baldwin, Anna O.; Peters, Chris; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Leonard, William H.

2006-07-01

386

The Dismal Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.

1997-01-01

387

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. Charlotte's Web is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's book defines vocabulary words and incorporates scientific facts concerning arachnids. However, some of the spider information in the book is not accurate. Therefore, Charlotte's Web can also be used to teach students to become better informed readers.

Getz, Angela; Patrick, Patricia

2008-11-01

388

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

389

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v*s-a-v*s that of the Russians. On October 15, President Dwight D. Eisenhower called "his scientists" to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an "unforgettable hour." At this meeting, I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee, made several proposals to President Eisenhower that the President accepted immediately. We are still living with the legacy of the proposals that Eisenhower adopted that day.

Rigden, John S.

2006-12-01

390

The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

2012-01-20

391

Field models: Their present and future application in fire safety engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different field models for calculating heat load, fire development, and smoke concentrations have been developed for use in fire safety engineering work. The field model versions of KAMELEON are based on a finite difference solution of the basic equations from fluid dynamics together with different mathematical models. The most important of these models are the kappa-epsilon model of turbulence, the

K. S. Pedersen; B. F. Magnussen

1992-01-01

392

Women and Men in Engineering Technology: Shaping the Future. Findings of the ETD/DEC Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed engineering technology (ET) students (N=1306) to determine the percentage and characteristics of men and women enrolled in ET programs. Areas examined included: (1) recruitment; (2) family background; (3) academic background, attitudes, achievement, expectations, and goals; (4) extracurricular and cultural activities; and (5) choice of…

Rudnick, Diane Tarmy

1984-01-01

393

Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book, presented by the National Science Foundation and the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College offers innovative ideas and suggested standards for education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The needs of a broad range of students are considered. The companion to this book is available online.

2008-07-07

394

K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for America's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of the United States in the 21st century will depend on the ideas and skills of its population. These have always been the nation's most important assets. As the world becomes increasingly technological, the value of these national assets will be determined by the effectiveness of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

395

Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for America's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of the United States in the 21st century will depend on the ideas and skills of its population. These have always been the nation's most important assets. As the world becomes increasingly technological, the value of these national assets will be determined by the effectiveness of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

2010-01-01

396

Concise Review: Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts for Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

In surgical repair for heart or vascular disease, it is often necessary to implant conduits or correct tissue defects. The most commonly used graft materials to date are (a) artificial grafts; (b) autologous tissues, such as pericardium and saphenous vein; (c) allografts; and (d) xenografts. However, none of these four options offer growth potential, and all are associated with varying levels of thrombogenicity and susceptibility to infection. The lack of growth potential of these four options is particularly important in pediatric cardiac surgery, where patients will often outgrow their vascular grafts and require additional operations. Thus, developing a material with sufficient durability and growth potential that will function as the child grows older will eliminate the need for reoperation and significantly reduce morbidity and mortality of some types of congenital heart defects. Vascular tissue engineering is a relatively new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neo-organ tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. Once the seeded autologous cells have deposited an extracellular matrix and the original scaffold is biodegraded, the tissue resembles and behaves as native tissue. When tissue-engineered vascular grafts are eventually put to use in the clinical arena, the quality of life in patients after surgery will be drastically improved.

Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Maxfield, Mark W.; Breuer, Christopher K.

2012-01-01

397

Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final report of an intensive review of the state of undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SME&T) in America. It was conducted by a committee of the Advisory Committee to the Education and Human Resources Directorate of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The year-long review has revealed that…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

398

Closed-Loop Modeling in Future Automation System Engineering and Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new framework for design and validation of industrial automation systems based on systematic application of formal methods. The engineering methodology proposed in this paper is based on the component design of automated manufacturing systems from intelligent mechatronic components. Foundations of such componentspsila information infrastructure are the new IEC 61499 architecture and the automation object concept. It

Valeriy Vyatkin; Hans-Michael Hanisch; Cheng Pang; Chia-Han Yang

2009-01-01

399

Review Article: Tissue Engineering of Semilunar Heart Valves: Current Status and Future Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart valve replacement represents the most com- mon surgical therapy for end-stage valvular heart diseases. One major drawback that all heart valve replacements have in common is the lack of growth, repair, and remodeling capability once implanted into the body. The emerging field of tissue engineer- ing is focusing on the in-vitro generation of func- tional, living semilunar heart valve

Anita Mol; Carlijn V. C. Bouten; Frank P. T. Baaijens; Gregor Zünd; Marko I. Turina; Simon P. Hoerstrup

2004-01-01

400

Our Timber Engineering Heritage and a Sustainable Vision for the Future of Timber Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native and plantation forests have provided materials for a vast array of engineered structures in New Zealand. Industrial, agricultural and construction demands of the 19th century depleted native forests and by the middle of the 20th century managed plantation forests were essential for wood products and building. Some of the more significant built timber structures of our colonial past identify

H. Bier

401

Engineering Education for International Sustainability: Curriculum Design Under the Sustainable Futures Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, the global community has been striving to meet the Millennium Development Goals, a blueprint for improving the quality of life and health of the world's poorest. These goals specifically address poverty, education, health, gender equality, environmental sustainability and global partnerships. The engineering profession must be able to participate and provide leadership

Valerie J. Fuchs; James R. Mihelcic

402

Present and future of CFD on the aero-engine development in IHI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in aircraft engine performance and economy are achieved by a fusion of many individual advances in technology. Especially striking advances in the evolution of aerodynamic technology have appeared in the development and utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD already may have attained the level and continues to demonstrate extraordinarily valuable possibilities, in which it is an essential complement

Atsushige Tanaka

1990-01-01

403

Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

Saia, S. M.

2013-12-01

404

RISE (Resources for Involving Scientists in Education)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, RISE conducts workshops and publishes materials to help scientists and engineers play effective roles in improving science education, from kindergarten through high school. Site provides information to help potential volunteers determine how they can best make a positive contribution to their local schools and community. Background information and project examples are provided.

405

Social Scientists still Poor Cousins  

Microsoft Academic Search

``It is viewed now as `natural' that the head of NSF be a natural scientist ; that the Office of Science and Technology in the White House will be dominated by natural scientists; that the scientific academies will include only a few social scientists, and so on. But now, as our prime business shifts, physics and chemistry must learn to

1971-01-01

406

CloudSat system engineering: techniques that point to a future success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past three years the CloutSat Project, a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder mission to provide from space the first global survey of cloud profiles and cloud physical properties, has implemented a successful project system engineering approach. Techniques learned through heuristic reasoning of past project events and professional experience were applied along with select methods recently touted to increase effectiveness without compromising effiency.

Basilio, R. R.; Boain, R. J.; Lam, T.

2002-01-01

407

Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 2: Technical document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was studied. The study takes two approaches: to determine the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, probably derived from oil shale, will be needed if present diesel-electric locomotives continue to be used.

Liddle, S. G.

1981-01-01

408

Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper\\u000a proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates\\u000a as sensitive and relevant test organisms. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20\\u000a peer-reviewed papers

A. Baun; N. B. Hartmann; K. Grieger; K. O. Kusk

2008-01-01

409

Space Engineering Model Cryogen Free ADR for Future ESA Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an engineering model ADR system to cool cryogenic detectors to 50-30 mK is presented which is designed to be cooled via a 4-5 K space cryocooler. The system will be subjected to vibration qualification suitable for an Ariane 5 launch. The ADR is of a double ADR form comprising a chromic potassium alum (CPA) low temperature stage

I. D. Hepburn; C. Brockley-Blatt; P. Coker; E. Crofts; B. Winter; S. Milward; R. Stafford-Allen; R. Hunt; M. Brownhill; N. Rando; M. Linder

2004-01-01

410

Science Sampler: Hire a scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hire a scientist is an activity that asks students to review the qualifications of a scientist who has applied for a job at a research facility. During this review, students learn about the scientist's job skills, education, and work experience by conducting their own research on the Internet and at the library, through interviews conducted by email, and during conversations with visiting scientists. Once the research is completed, the student assumes the role of the scientist to complete a job application and answer some interview questions. This role-playing activity helps bring science to life.

Mesmer, Karen

2003-03-01

411

Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

1990-01-01

412

Ask a Scientist!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet offers many opportunities to find quality answers to a host of important questions, ranging from the fields of the humanities to those in the hard sciences. One important resource that offers answers to a number of thorny questions is the Ask a Scientist! website created and maintained by the Centers for Materials Research at Cornell University. The site had its debut on September 17, 1998, when Professor Neil Ashcroft answered the timely question, "What is Jupiter made of?". Visitors to the site can browse or search for previously answered questions, and of course, they are also welcome to submit their own questions for consideration. Visitors will definitely want to view the "Frequently Viewed Questions", which feature responses to such favorites queries as "How can you tell if a diamond is real or fake?" or "How is glass made?"

2005-11-03

413

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 6: The relationship between the use of US government technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists and selected institutional and sociometric variables. Ph.D. Thesis - Indiana Univ., Nov. 1990 No. 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and selected institutional and sociometric variables was investigated. The methodology used for this study was survey research. Data were collected by means of a self-administered mail questionnaire. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronauts (AIAA) served as the study population. The response rate for the survey was 70 percent. A dependent relationship was found to exist between the use of U.S. government technical reports and three of the institutional variables (academic preparation, years of professional aerospace work experience, and technical discipline). The use of U.S. government technical reports was found to be independent of all of the sociometric variables. The institutional variables best explain the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.

1991-01-01

414

Future development programs. [for emission reduction and production of aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A company program was planned which has a main drive to develop those emission reduction concepts that have the promise of earliest success. These programs were proposed in an attempt to enhance existing engine systems, exploiting their potential for emission reduction as far as is compatible with retaining the well established features in them that are well understood and in current production. The intended programs identified in the area of new concepts were: (1) upgrading the TCM fuel system, (2) evaluation of accelerator pump, (3) reduced cooling requirement, and (4) variable spark timing.

Waters, L.

1976-01-01

415

Challenges and future prospects for tissue engineering in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery.  

PubMed

With advances in material engineering there is now a wide array of new materials for augmentation of tissue repairs in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). However, clinical outcomes are discrepant and long term complications debilitating. In this manuscript, we describe the molecular and cellular host environments and biomechanical considerations that affect optimal integration of implant materials. There is growing interest in biodegradable scaffolds with cellular implants. It is thought that the cellular component could regenerate host tissue while the scaffold provides temporary mechanical properties. Current findings are promising, but detailed in vivo and long term testing is needed before clinical applications. PMID:24993035

Chen, Bertha; Dave, Bhumy

2014-08-01

416

Current and future regenerative medicine -- Principles, concepts, and therapeutic use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering in equine medicine  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a bird’s-eye perspective of the general principles of stem-cell therapy and tissue engineering; it relates comparative knowledge in this area to the current and future status of equine regenerative medicine. The understanding of equine stem cell biology, biofactors, and scaffolds, and their potential therapeutic use in horses are rudimentary at present. Mesenchymal stem cell isolation has been proclaimed from several equine tissues in the past few years. Based on the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy, most of these cells are more correctly referred to as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, unless there is proof that they exhibit the fundamental in vivo characteristics of pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. That said, these cells from various tissues hold great promise for therapeutic use in horses. The 3 components of tissue engineering — cells, biological factors, and biomaterials — are increasingly being applied in equine medicine, fuelled by better scaffolds and increased understanding of individual biofactors and cell sources. The effectiveness of stem cell-based therapies and most tissue engineering concepts has not been demonstrated sufficiently in controlled clinical trials in equine patients to be regarded as evidence-based medicine. In the meantime, the medical mantra “do no harm” should prevail, and the application of stem cell-based therapies in the horse should be done critically and cautiously, and treatment outcomes (good and bad) should be recorded and reported. Stem cell and tissue engineering research in the horse has exciting comparative and equine specific perspectives that most likely will benefit the health of horses and humans. Controlled, well-designed studies are needed to move this new equine research field forward.

Koch, Thomas G.; Berg, Lise C.; Betts, Dean H.

2009-01-01

417

The Amateur Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student investigation of a reverse flame in a atmosphere of methane that won second place in the physics division of the International Science and Engineering Fair. Includes a discussion of falling and fracturing behavior, specifically dealing with chimneys, trees, pencil point, stirring rods, and chalk. (BT)

Walker, Jearl

1979-01-01

418

Earth's future in the Anthropocene: Technological interventions between piecemeal and utopian social engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive discussion in the academic and policy communities is developing around the possibility of climate engineering through stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI). In this contribution, we develop a perspective on this issue in the context of the wider setting of societal development in the Anthropocene. We draw on Karl Popper's concepts of piecemeal and utopian social engineering to examine how different visions of societal development relate to SAI. Based on this reflection, we argue that the debate on SAI is fueled not only by the inequitable distribution of its effects and potential atmospheric and climatic side effects, as disconcerting as some of these effects and side effects may be, but also, and perhaps primarily, by its apparent privileging of the status quo and incremental change over a more immediate and radical change in societal organization. Although differing ideological orientations might thus help explain the intensity of parts of the debate, the understanding from which they follow, in which societal development is deduced from postulated technological characteristics and assumptions about a technology's use, hides from view a more subtle understanding of the relationship between technology and politics.

Schäfer, Stefan; Stelzer, Harald; Maas, Achim; Lawrence, Mark G.

2014-04-01

419

The Future of Carbon Dioxide for Polymer Processing in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

The use of CO2 for scaffold fabrication in tissue engineering was popularized in the mid-1990s as a tool for producing polymeric foam scaffolds, but had fallen out of favor to some extent, in part due to challenges with pore interconnectivity. Pore interconnectivity issues have since been resolved by numerous dedicated studies that have collectively outlined how to control the appropriate parameters to achieve a pore structure desirable for tissue regeneration. In addition to CO2 foaming, several groups have leveraged CO2 as a swelling agent to impregnate scaffolds with drugs and other bioactive additives, and for encapsulation of plasmids within scaffolds for gene delivery. Moreover, in contrast to CO2 foaming, which typically relies on supercritical CO2 at very high pressures, CO2 at much lower pressures has also been used to sinter polymeric microspheres together in the presence of cells to create cell-seeded scaffolds in a single step. CO2 has a number of advantages for polymer processing in tissue engineering, including its ease of use, low cost, and the opportunity to circumvent the use of organic solvents. Building on these advantages, and especially now with the tremendous precedent that has paved the way in defining operating parameters, and making the technology accessible for new groups to adapt, we invite and encourage our colleagues in the field to leverage CO2 as a new tool to enhance their own respective unique capabilities.

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Scurto, Aaron M.

2013-01-01

420

Marshall Space Flight Center Engineering Directorate Overview: Launching the Future of Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Small Business Association (MSBA) serves as a central point of contact to inform and educate small businesses interested in pursuing contracting and subcontracting opportunities at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The MSBA meets quarterly to provide industry with information about how to do business with Marshall and to share specific information about Marshall s mission, which allows private businesses to envision how they might contribute. For the February 19 meeting, the Engineering Directorate will give an overview of its unique capabilities and how it is organized to provide maximum support for the programs and projects resident at Marshall, for example, the Space Shuttle Propulsion Office, Ares Projects Office, and Science and Mission Systems Office. This briefing provides a top-level summary of the work conducted by Marshall s largest organization, while explaining how resources are deployed to perform the volume of work under Marshall s purview.

Miley, Steven C.

2009-01-01

421

Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

2004-01-01

422

Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery  

PubMed Central

We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.

2010-01-01

423

Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Injectors for Potential Future Mars Ascent Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary mission studies for human exploration of Mars have been performed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These studies indicate that for chemical rockets only a cryogenic propulsion system would provide high enough performance to be considered for a Mars ascent vehicle. Although the mission is possible with Earth-supplied propellants for this vehicle, utilization of in-situ propellants is highly attractive. This option would significantly reduce the overall mass of launch vehicles. Consequently, the cost of the mission would be greatly reduced because the number and size of the Earth launch vehicle(s) needed for the mission would decrease. NASA/Johnson Space Center has initiated several concept studies of in-situ propellant production plants. Liquid oxygen (LOX) is the primary candidate for an in-situ oxidizer. In-situ fuel candidates include methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and methanol (CH3OH). MSFC initiated a technology development program for a cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars human exploration mission in 1998. One part of this technology program is the effort described here: an evaluation of propellant injection concepts for a LOX/liquid methane Mars Ascent Engine (MAE) with an emphasis on light-weight, high efficiency, reliability, and thermal compatibility. In addition to the main objective, hot-fire tests of the subject injectors will be used to test other key technologies including light-weight combustion chamber materials and advanced ignition concepts. This paper will address the results of the liquid methane/LOX injector study conducted at MSFC. A total of four impinging injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure varied from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were performed. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability.

Trinh, Huu Phuoc

1999-01-01

424

Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

Coroneos, Rula M.

2012-01-01

425

The Neurolab mission and biomedical engineering: a partnership for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last five years, with the advent of flights of U.S. Shuttle/Spacelab missions dedicated entirely to life sciences research, the opportunities for conducting serious studies that use a fully outfitted space laboratory to better understand basic biological processes have increased. The last of this series of Shuttle/Spacelab missions, currently scheduled for 1998, is dedicated entirely to neuroscience and behavioral research. The mission, named Neurolab, includes a broad range of experiments that build on previous research efforts, as well as studies related to less mature areas of space neuroscience. The Neurolab mission provides the global scientific community with the opportunity to use the space environment for investigations that exploit microgravity to increase our understanding of basic processes in neuroscience. The results from this premier mission should lead to a significant advancement in the field as a whole and to the opening of new lines of investigation for future research. Experiments under development for this mission will utilize human subjects as well as a variety of other species. The capacity to carry out detailed experiments on both human and animal subjects in space allows a diverse complement of studies that investigate functional changes and their underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms. In order to conduct these experiments, a wide array of biomedical instrumentation will be used, including some instruments and devices being developed especially for the mission.

Liskowsky, D. R.; Frey, M. A.; Sulzman, F. M.; White, R. J.; Likowsky, D. R.

1996-01-01

426

Environmental Problems and the Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that any environmental problem can be traced at biosphere, technosphere, sociosphere, and noosphere level. Scientists have generally ignored the latter two spheres in making scientific discoveries. New social ethics need to be recognized that are based on progress, and scientists must consider how these ethics are influenced by their…

Batisse, Michel

1973-01-01

427

Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.

428

Frontier Scientists use Modern Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

O'connell, E. A.

2013-12-01

429

Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

2004-06-01

430

CSBF Engineering Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) at Palestine, Texas provides operational and engineering support for the launch of NASA Scientific Balloons. Over the years with the support of the NASA Balloon Program Office, CSBF has developed unique flight systems with the focus of providing a highly reliable, cost effective medium for giving Scientist's access to a near space environment. This paper will provide an overview of the CSBF flight systems with an emphasis on recent developments and plans for the future including: RIP Stitch -Parachute Shock Attenuation system, MIP -Micro Instrumentation Package, GAPR -Gondola Automatic Parachute Release system, NASA TDRSS High Gain Antenna system, Superpressure flight video systems

Orr, Dwayne

431

Scientists Involved in K-12 Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping-in pre-existing programs to contribute right away without having to re-invent the wheel is a good approach. Education and outreach sessions are expanding at professional, scientific meetings such as AGU, and provide an excellent start for those in search of new educational experiences. Contacting a regional COSEE is also a very effective way to get involved.

Robigou, V.

2004-12-01

432

The Computer Scientist: Computer Languages for the Amateur Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews diverse types of computer programing languages and provides examples of representative programs from the most significant languages in use. Matches programing languages most suitable for various types of experimental applications for the amateur scientist. (JJK)

Barden, William, Jr.

1991-01-01

433

Helicopters for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology needed to provide the basis for creating a widening rotary wing market include: well defined and proven design; reductions in noise, vibration, and fuel consumption; improvement of flying and ride quality; better safety; reliability; maintainability; and productivity. Unsteady transonic flow, yawed flow, dynamic stall, and blade vortex interaction are some of the problems faced by scientists and engineers in the helicopter industry with rotorcraft technology seen as an important development for future advanced high speed vehicle configurations. Such aircraft as the Boeing Vertol medium lift Model 360 composite aircraft, the Sikorsky Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) aircraft, the Bell Textron XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft, and the X-wing rotor aircraft are discussed in detail. Even though rotorcraft technology has become an integral part of the military scene, the potential market for its civil applications has not been fully developed.

Ward, J. F.

1984-01-01

434

Maximizing the potential of scientists in Japan: promoting equal participation for women scientists through leadership development.  

PubMed

In order to examine the current status of gender equality in academic societies in Japan, we inquired about the number of women involved in leadership activities at society conferences and annual meetings, as these activities are critical in shaping scientific careers. Our findings show a clear bias against female scientists, and a need to raise consciousness and awareness in order to move closer to equality for future generations. PMID:23758164

Homma, Miwako Kato; Motohashi, Reiko; Ohtsubo, Hisako

2013-07-01

435

How Do Scientists Determine Earthquake Probabilities?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This provides many links to articles, graphics, scientific papers and podcasts to help students understand how scientists determine probabilities for earthquake occurrences. Topics include the locations of faults and how much they need to move in order to release the strain that accumulates; the study of past earthquakes on each fault to predict the size of possible earthquakes that could occur in the future; and using information on how long it's been since the last earthquake to estimate the probability that an earthquake will occur in the next few years. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

436

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

437

Developing Nurse Scientist Course Login  

Cancer.gov

Privacy  |   Disclaimer  |   Help  |   Logout      Developing Nurse Scientist Course User Login / Registration Returning Users Email: Password: Having trouble logging in? New User Registration If you are entering the course for the first time, you must

438

Current treatment limitations in age-related macular degeneration and future approaches based on cell therapy and tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world. With an ageing population, it is anticipated that the number of AMD cases will increase dramatically, making a solution to this debilitating disease an urgent requirement for the socioeconomic future of the European Union and worldwide. The present paper reviews the limitations of the current therapies as well as the socioeconomic impact of the AMD. There is currently no cure available for AMD, and even palliative treatments are rare. Treatment options show several side effects, are of high cost, and only treat the consequence, not the cause of the pathology. For that reason, many options involving cell therapy mainly based on retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells as well as stem cells are being tested. Moreover, tissue engineering strategies to design and manufacture scaffolds to mimic Bruch's membrane are very diverse and under investigation. Both alternative therapies are aimed to prevent and/or cure AMD and are reviewed herein. PMID:24672707

Fernández-Robredo, P; Sancho, A; Johnen, S; Recalde, S; Gama, N; Thumann, G; Groll, J; García-Layana, A

2014-01-01

439

Current Treatment Limitations in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Future Approaches Based on Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world. With an ageing population, it is anticipated that the number of AMD cases will increase dramatically, making a solution to this debilitating disease an urgent requirement for the socioeconomic future of the European Union and worldwide. The present paper reviews the limitations of the current therapies as well as the socioeconomic impact of the AMD. There is currently no cure available for AMD, and even palliative treatments are rare. Treatment options show several side effects, are of high cost, and only treat the consequence, not the cause of the pathology. For that reason, many options involving cell therapy mainly based on retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells as well as stem cells are being tested. Moreover, tissue engineering strategies to design and manufacture scaffolds to mimic Bruch's membrane are very diverse and under investigation. Both alternative therapies are aimed to prevent and/or cure AMD and are reviewed herein.

Fernandez-Robredo, P.; Sancho, A.; Johnen, S.; Recalde, S.; Gama, N.; Thumann, G.; Groll, J.; Garcia-Layana, A.

2014-01-01

440

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional climate model MAR (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of estimating the sea level rise (SLR) coming from Surface Mass Balance (SMB) changes over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we report future projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs). Our results indicate that in warmer climates, the mass gained due to increased winter snowfall over GrIS does not compensate the mass lost through increased meltwater run-off in summer. All the MAR projections shows similar non-linear melt increases with rising temperatures as a result of the positive surface albedo feedback, because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. Nevertheless, MAR exhibits a large range in its future projections. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from CMIP5 GCMs outputs, we show that the uncertainty coming from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a SLR, resulting from a GrIS SMB decrease, estimated to be 4±2 cm and 9±4 cm for the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. However, these future projections do not consider the positive melt-elevation feedback. Sensitivity MAR experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes highlight the importance of coupling climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow to consider the future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes, and their mutual feedbacks to rising temperatures.

Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; van den Broeke, Michiel; Tedesco, Marco; van Angelen, Jan; Lenaerts, Jan; Erpicum, Michel

2013-04-01

441

Invisible Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

Ohashi, Hideo

442

Identity Matching to Scientists: Differences that Make a Difference?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists. Adolescents' educational choices are important aspects of their identity work, and recent theories link individual choice to the perceived match between self and prototypical persons associated with that choice. In the present study, we have investigated images of scientists among the segment of the upper secondary school students (20 % of the cohort) from which future Danish scientists are recruited. Their images were rather realistic, only including vague and predominantly positive stereotypical ideas. With a particular Science-and-Me (SAM) interview methodology, we inquired into the match between self- and prototypical-scientists ( N = 30). We found high perceived similarity within a core of epistemological characteristics, while dissimilarities typically related to a social domain. However, combining interview data with survey data, we found no significant statistical relation between prototype match and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Importantly, the SAM dialogue revealed how students negotiate perceived differences, and we identified four negotiation patterns that all tend to reduce the impact of mismatches on educational aspirations. Our study raises questions about methodological issues concerning the traditional use of self-to-prototype matching as an explanatory model of educational choice.

Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva

2014-06-01

443

Chemical Engineering Curricula for the Future: Synopsis of Proceedings of a U.S.-India Conference, January, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a summary of a seminar for changing the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum in India. Identifies and describes biotechnology, materials for structural and microelectronic catalysis, and new separation processes as emerging areas. Evaluates the current curriculum, including basic science, engineering lore, chemical engineering,…

Ramkrishna, D.; And Others

1989-01-01

444

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-07-01

445

(Executive Summary) REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The President's Council of Adviser's on Science and Technology (PCAST) present the report Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for Americaâs Future. This report provides a strategy for improving K-12 STEM education that responds to the tremendous challenges and historic opportunities facing the Nation. The reports recommends further use of standards and extensive increases in teacher recruiting. The report also advises greater use of partnerships and improvement in diversity.

Technology, Presidentâs C.

2011-04-04

446

NRAO Scientists on Team Receiving International Astronautics Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is presenting an award to a pioneering team of scientists and engineers who combined an orbiting radio-astronomy satellite with ground-based radio telescopes around the world to produce a "virtual telescope" nearly three times the size of the Earth. The team, which includes two scientists from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), will receive the award in a ceremony Sunday, October 16, in Fukuoka, Japan. VSOP Satellite and Ground Telescopes Artist's conception of HALCA satellite and ground observatories together making "virtual telescope" (blue) about three times the size of Earth. CREDIT: ISAS, JAXA (Click on image for larger version) The IAA chose the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), an international collaboration, to receive its 2005 Laurels for Team Achievement Award, which recognizes "extraordinary performance and achievement by a team of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of Astronautics to foster its peaceful and international use." VSOP team members named in the IAA award include NRAO astronomers Edward Fomalont, of Charlottesville, Virginia, and Jonathan Romney, of Socorro, New Mexico. "This is a well-deserved award for an international team whose hard work produced a scientific milestone that yielded impressive results and provides a foundation for more advances in the future," said Dr. Fred K.Y Lo, NRAO Director. The VSOP program used a Japanese satellite, HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), that included an 8-meter (26-foot) radio telescope. HALCA was launched in 1997 and made astronomical observations in conjunction with ground-based radio telescopes from 14 countries. Five tracking stations, including one at NRAO's Green Bank, West Virginia, facility, received data from HALCA which later was combined with data from the ground-based telescopes to produce images more detailed than those that could have been made by ground-based systems alone. The NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide system of radio telescopes ranging from Hawaii to the Caribbean, was one of the principal ground-based networks working with HALCA. The VLBA's powerful special-purpose computer, called a correlator, was a prime workhorse for processing the data from VSOP astronomical observations. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance, or "baselines" between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. The IAA award citation notes that the VSOP team "realized the long-held dream of radio astronomers to extend those baselines into space, by observing celestial radio sources with the HALCA satellite, supported by a dedicated network of tracking stations, and arrays of ground radio telescopes from around the world." The VSOP team was able to approximately triple the resolving power available with only ground-based telescopes. The first experiment in such space-ground observation was made in 1986, using a NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. The VSOP project grew as an international effort after that experiment, and provided observing time to astronomers from around the world. During the VSOP observational program, the combined space-ground system made more than 780 individual astronomical observations and also made an all-sky survey of the cores of active galaxies. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In addition to providing large amounts of observing time on the VLBA and building and operating the Green Bank tracking station, NRAO staff also modified existing hardware and software and aided astronomers from around the world in analyzing VSOP data. On behalf of the entire VSOP Team, the IAA highlighted "the astronomers and engineers who made key contributions to