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1

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers: Effective Professional Development Experiences for Future Members of Lunar Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) group is a grass roots effort devoted to growing the community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. Recent lunar missions, along with an increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, have resulted in a substantial increase in the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers in recent years. With plans for future US and international lunar missions, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific study. The lunar community is fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar researchers and engineers with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of lunar knowledge and expertise. Established informally in 2008 by early career scientists and education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, the NGLSE group has since grown tremendously. With over 190 current members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The group's founders have received funding to formally design and implement experience-building and networking activities for group members, such as professional development workshops and other community-building events. The professional development opportunities provided to the NGLSE group enable the members to become better equipped to contribute to the current and future success of the lunar program. The NGLSE has received NASA funding, as well as support from the NASA Lunar Science Institute, to host workshops and meetings for its members, including providing small travel stipends for student participants, in association with major lunar conferences, such as the NASA Lunar Science Forum (LSF) and the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). The goals of the workshops are to provide attendees with professional development, to familiarize them with best practices for communicating their science to different audiences, to provide an opportunity for them to network with each other, and to provide opportunities for them to meet, collaborate with, and receive training from established members of the lunar science and engineering community. Three NGLSE workshops have been held since 2009 in addition to numerous community-building events. Feedback from workshop participants indicates that they highly value both the professional development aspects of the workshop, such as learning effective science communication techniques, and also the aspect of hearing from and networking with the established generation of lunar scientists and engineers. A recent needs assessment indicated that NGLSE members would like for future workshops to focus on professional development topics like tips for getting hired by academia, the government, or industry, tips for getting research funding, effective proposal writing, and others. We will report on the lessons learned from building and leading the NGLSE group and planning and implementing associated events, such as our professional development workshops.

Santiago, D.; Bleacher, L.; Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Noble, S. K.

2011-12-01

2

Looking out for future scientists  

PubMed Central

Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257

2014-01-01

3

Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1998-2002  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers: 1998?2002 Hypertext Format Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1998?2002 Portable Document ... Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1998?2002 This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and ...

4

NASA Space Science Days: An Out of School Program Using National Partnerships to Further Influence Future Scientists and Engineers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Math and Science Initiative states that American students are falling behind in the essential subjects of math and science, putting our position in the global economy at risk a foreboding statement that has caused the U.S. to re-evaluate how we view STEM education. Developing science and engineering related out of school programs that expose middle school students to math and science in a nontraditional university environment has the potential to motivate young students to look at the physical sciences in an exciting out of the norm environment.

Galindo, Charles; Allen, Jaclyn; Garcia, Javier; Hrrera, Stephanie

2012-01-01

5

Transformation of Scientists and Engineers Into Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical factors in the phenomenon of scientist's and engineer's transition from working as specialists to working as supervisors or managers were studied among 489 employees of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Institutes of Health to discover ways of avoiding or overcoming transition problems. Bench scientists

Bayton, James A.; Chapman, Richard L.

6

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

... Tables Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables ... Table 26; it now includes the occupations of the second job. Three new tables have been added. Table ...

7

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public.Includes links to webinars, how-to tips for media interviews, strategies for identifying public outreach opportunities, and more.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-07-07

8

Future Climate Engineering Solutions  

E-print Network

Future Climate Engineering Solutions Joint report 13 engineering participating engeneering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Engineering Solutions ­ A Climate call from engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Summaries of National Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Summary of The Climate Plan

9

Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program  

SciTech Connect

The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

Sharlin, H.I.

1992-09-01

10

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional reports in the Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page.

11

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers Group: EPO for the NextGen  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent lunar missions and increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers has grown substantially in the last few years. With plans for future US and international orbital and landed spacecraft, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific scrutiny. The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers

N. E. Petro; L. Bleacher; J. E. Bleacher; D. Santiago; S. K. Noble

2010-01-01

12

Engineers Week: Future City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides âÂÂa fun and exciting educational engineering program for seventh- and eighth-grade students that combines a stimulating engineering challenge with a âÂÂhands-onâ application to present their vision of a city of the future.â The competition is intended to foster engineering skills, such as teamwork, communication and problem solving skills, as well as to inspire students to explore future careers in engineering. Using the commercial software SIMCITY to design their ideal city, students interact with each other, and with teachers and engineer mentors and also learn about the multi-disciplines within the engineering profession. The website has more information about the competition, as well as a handbook providing helpful tips and techniques. Examples of accomplishments from previous competitions are posted and CD-ROM video is available from regional coordinators to give more background on the competition.

13

Business planning for scientists and engineers  

SciTech Connect

Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

1992-03-01

14

Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

15

Future scientists advance to national April 3, 2012  

E-print Network

- 1 - Future scientists advance to national level April 3, 2012 Science Bowl winners represent NM Mexico Regional Science Bowl, held recently at Albuquerque Academy. The team went on to represent New Mexico in the 22nd Annual Department of Energy (DOE) National Science Bowl. In addition to their travel

16

The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

17

Engineering hydro's future  

SciTech Connect

In this challenging hydropower market, hydropower engineering services are in high demand. The number of new hydropower projects entering the pipeline may have slowed in recent years but that does not mean work is not being done. Independent developers, utilities and municipalities are carrying out a considerable amount of hydropower activity. Whatever the work involves - preliminary planning, licensing and relicensing, environmental mitigation, plant rehabilitation or new-plant startup - engineering firms are finding a brisk market for their services. The complexity of the regulatory framework makes hydropower facility and other water resource work more important then ever. Executives of three engineering firms - Acres International, Harza Engineering and Black and Veatch - active in these areas discuss their views on the future of the hydropower engineering market.

Anderson, J.L.

1992-04-01

18

When Software Engineers Met Research Scientists: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a case study of software engineers developing a library of software components for a group of research scientists, using a traditional, staged, document-led methodology. The case study reveals two problems with the use of the methodology. The first is that it demands an upfront articulation of require- ments, whereas the scientists had experience, and hence expectations, of

Judith Segal; Marvin Zelkowitz

2005-01-01

19

Training scientists and engineers for the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a transcript of testimony by Alvin W. Trivelpiece, director of ORNL, before Congressional Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space. Dr. Trivelpiece discusses the importance of training scientist and engineers for the year 2000. (FSD)

Trivelpiece, A.W.

1990-05-08

20

A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

Edwards, William R.

2001-12-10

21

Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists  

PubMed Central

The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

2015-01-01

22

The Study of Women Scientists/Engineers in Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic employment and graduate enrollment trends of women scientists/engineers in eight scientific fields were studied, and the dynamics of their occupational choice and career stability were assessed. The eight fields were engineering, physical sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, psychology, and social sciences. The principal…

Rose, Clare; And Others

23

The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

Allison, Simon

2010-01-01

24

Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

25

Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An engineer scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eiffel is best remembered for engineering the tower that is a Paris landmark and bears his name. However, Eiffel has many\\u000a other firsts to his credit. He was one of the first to experimentally obtain material properties of wrought iron that permitted\\u000a him to proportion structural members in bridges and buildings that he built to sustain the service loads experienced

Ananth Ramaswamy

2009-01-01

26

Educational and Demographic Characteristics of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an analysis of the education, training, and age distribution of experienced scientists, engineers, energy-related scientists, and energy-related engineers. Data are from the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, which is one of a series of longitudinal studies of 50,000 scientists in the labor force at…

Finn, Michael G.; Bain, Trevor

27

Handbook of applied mathematics for engineers and scientists  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended to be reference for applications of mathematics in a wide range of topics of interest to engineers and scientists. An unusual feature of this book is that it covers a large number of topics from elementary algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to computer graphics and cybernetics. The level of mathematics covers high school through about the junior level of an engineering curriculum in a major univeristy. Throughout, the emphasis is on applications of mathematics rather than on rigorous proofs.

Kurtz, M.

1991-12-31

28

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Academies' Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy has been concerned with many aspects of the education and training of scientists in the US. Its most recent effort was an intensive study of the experience of postdocs across all fields. The report concluded that postdocs have become essential in many research settings. It is largely they who carry

M. Singer

2001-01-01

29

The Information Needs of Scientists and Engineers in Aerospace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information seeking and use habits of more than 600 scientists and engineers on staff at the European Space Agency (ESA) were studied and compared with those of staff at five European organizations with similar missions: the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in France; the International Atomic Energy…

Raitt, D. I.

30

Sage: Unifying Mathematical Software for Scientists, Engineers, and Mathematicians  

E-print Network

Sage: Unifying Mathematical Software for Scientists, Engineers, and Mathematicians 1 Introduction The goal of this proposal is to further the development of Sage, which is comprehensive unified open source and tools. Sage [12] uses Python, one of the world's most popular general-purpose interpreted programming

Stein, William

31

Sage: Unifying Mathematical Software for Scientists, Engineers, and Mathematicians  

E-print Network

Sage: Unifying Mathematical Software for Scientists, Engineers, and Mathematicians Sage-quality mainstream methodologies and tools. This proposal would further the development of Sage by funding a series of three Sage Days workshops per year. The primary thrust of these workshops would be to improve

Stein, William

32

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional reports in the Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page.

33

TOUGH Short Course for Scientists and Engineers  

SciTech Connect

The TOUGH family of codes is a suite of computer programs for the simulation of multiphase fluid and heat flows in porous and fractured media with applications to geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal in geologic formations, geologic carbon sequestration, gas hydrate research, vadose zone hydrology, environmental remediation, oil and gas reservoir engineering, and other mass transport and energy transfer problems in complex geologic settings. TOUGH has been developed in the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Many modifications and enhancements have been made to TOUGH (at LBNL and elsewhere) from the time it was first released in 1987. TOUGH and its various descendants (such as iTOUGH2, T2VOC, TMVOC, EWASG, TOUGHREACT, TOUGH+ and many more) are currently in use in approximately 300 research laboratories, private companies, and universities in 33 countries. The LBNL group, headed by Karsten Pruess, serves as custodian of the code. The TOUGH simulators were developed for problems involving strongly heat-driven flow. To describe these phenomena a multi-phase approach to fluid and heat flow is used, which fully accounts for the movement of gaseous and liquid phases, their transport of latent and sensible heat, and phase transitions between liquid and vapor. TOUGH takes account of fluid flow in both liquid and gaseous phases--and, in certain modules, a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)--occurring under pressure, viscous, and gravity forces according to Darcy's law. Interference between the phases is represented by means of relative permeability functions. The code includes Klinkenberg effects and binary diffusion in the gas phase, and capillary and phase adsorption effects for the liquid phase. Heat transport occurs by means of conduction (with thermal conductivity dependent on water saturation), convection, and binary diffusion, which includes both sensible and latent heat. The goal of this training course is to teach participants with limited numerical modeling experience the fundamental concepts of modeling with the TOUGH family of codes. The material to be covered includes the following: Introduction to the TOUGH family of codes and applications; Underlying physics, mathematical models, and numerical approaches; Program structure and code installation; and Explanation of input and output files. The course will revolve around sample problems that are meant to familiarize users with TOUGH modeling concepts, such as grid generation, specification of material properties, initial and boundary conditions, and program control The most common equation of state (EOS) modules will be considered for a variety of applications and levels of complexity (ranging from isothermal problems with a single component and phase, to non-isothermal problems with multiple components and phases) Examples of advanced applications from the TOUGH family of codes, will be presented.

Kowalsky, Michael B.; Finsterle, Stefan

2006-08-01

34

THE FUTURE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: ONE SCIENTIST'S PERSPECTIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent explosion of information, especially in digital form, is revolutionizing many fields of scientific endeavor, including the assorted venues scientists use to disseminate their research results. Scientists should take a keen interest in this nascent paradigm shift ­ it is already having a p...

35

SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States  

NSF Publications Database

... Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States Hypertext Format SESTAT: A Tool for Studying ... Document Format (.pdf) SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States ...

36

Engineering hydro's future  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this challenging hydropower market, hydropower engineering services are in high demand. The number of new hydropower projects entering the pipeline may have slowed in recent years but that does not mean work is not being done. Independent developers, utilities and municipalities are carrying out a considerable amount of hydropower activity. Whatever the work involves - preliminary planning, licensing and

1992-01-01

37

Citation Analysis: A Case Study of Korean Scientists and Engineers in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the citation patterns of publications by scientists and engineers in electrical and electronics engineering in Korea. Citation behavior of personnel in government, universities, and industry is compared; and citation patterns from articles in Korean and non-Korean publications are contrasted. (Contains 27…

Rieh, Hae-young

1993-01-01

38

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers Group: EPO for the NextGen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent lunar missions and increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers has grown substantially in the last few years. With plans for future US and international orbital and landed spacecraft, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific scrutiny. The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) is a grass-roots effort at fostering the growing community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. We are fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar enthusiasts with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of a base of lunar knowledge. The need to foster the next generation of lunar scientists is recognized within NASA and the international community (e.g., International Lunar Exploration Working Group, Lunar Explorers Society, and the Canadian Lunar Research Network). A primary goal of the NASA Lunar Science Institute is to support “...the development of the lunar science community and training the next generation of lunar science researchers.” Additionally, NASA’s Optimizing Science and Exploration Working Group, which is comprised of representatives from several NASA Directorates and Centers, is tasked with the integration of science and engineering for the successful exploration of the Moon. In much the same way, the NGLSE aims to bring early career scientists and engineers together in order to create and support a network of next generation lunar scientists and engineers who will be able to work effectively together. Currently with over 150 members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The NGLSE has received NASA funding to host workshops in association with major lunar conferences, most recently the 2010 NLSI Lunar Science Forum. At this workshop, participants worked with science educators on how to effectively craft presentations for students and how to effectively communicate our exciting science and engineering endeavors to the public. The workshop also provided opportunities for participants to network, to communicate their science and engineering to each other, and to interact with NASA leaders and established members of the science and engineering communities. Building a community of active participants who are not only dedicated to becoming productive members of the lunar science and engineering communities but also trained in effective science communication to their peers and the public, writing winning proposals, and leading effective education and public outreach efforts is fundamentally important in building a sustainable, long-lived, and publicly supported lunar science and exploration program. We will report on the progress of the NGLSE group and our workshops, including the needs and interests of this community as identified through our efforts.

Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, L.; Bleacher, J. E.; Santiago, D.; Noble, S. K.

2010-12-01

39

Predicting the performance and innovativeness of scientists and engineers.  

PubMed

A study of 644 scientists and engineers from 5 corporate research and development organizations investigated hypotheses generated from an interactionist framework of 4 individual characteristics as longitudinal predictors of performance and innovativeness. An innovative orientation predicted 1-year-later and 5-years-later supervisory job performance ratings and 5-years-later counts of patents and publications. An internal locus of control predicted 5-years-later patents and publications, and self-esteem predicted performance ratings for both times and patents. Team-level nonroutine tasks moderated the individual-level relationships between an innovative orientation and performance ratings and patents such that the relationships were stronger in a nonroutine task environment. Implications for an interactionist framework of performance and innovativeness for knowledge workers are discussed. PMID:21875172

Keller, Robert T

2012-01-01

40

Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is a rapidly advancing part of regenerative medicine, and new discoveries in this field create new options for this type of therapy. For example, new types of stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells that can circumvent the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells, have been discovered. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous, adult cells have already entered the clinical setting, indicating that regenerative medicine holds much promise for the future. PMID:22111050

Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony

2011-01-01

41

CyberNET is a research infrastructure that enables cybersecurity scientists and engineers to rigorously develop,  

E-print Network

Objective CyberNET is a research infrastructure that enables cybersecurity scientists and engineers Resilient Cybersecurity Initiative Researchers at PNNL are delivering the theory, processes, methodologies

42

Outreach to Scientists and Engineers at the Hanford Technical Library  

SciTech Connect

Staff at the Hanford Technical Library has developed a suite of programs designed to help busy researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) make better use of library products and services. Programs include formal training classes, one-on-one consultations, and targeted email messages announcing new materials to researchers in specific fields. A staple of outreach has been to teach classes to library clients covering research tools in their fields. These classes started out in the library classroom and then expanded to other venues around PNNL. Class surveys indicated that many researchers desired a practical approach to learning rather than the traditional lecture format. The library instituted “Library Learning Day” and hosted classes in the PNNL computer training room to provide lab employees with a hands-on learning experience. Classes are generally offered at noon and lab staff attends classes on their lunch hour. Many just do not have time to spend a full hour in training. Library staff added some experimental half-hour mini classes in campus buildings geared to the projects and interests of researchers there to see if this format was more appealing. As other programs have developed librarians are teaching fewer classes but average attendance figures has remained fairly stable from 2005-2007. In summer of 2004 the library began the Traveling Librarian program. Librarians call-on groups and individuals in 24 buildings on the Richland Washington campus. Five full-time and two part-time librarians are involved in the program. Librarians usually send out email announcements prior to visits and encourage scientists and engineers to make appointments for a brief 15 minute consultation in the researcher’s own office. During the meeting lab staff learn about products or product features that can help them work more productively. Librarians also make cold calls to staff that do not request a consultation and may not be making full use of the library. Scientists and engineers who require longer sessions can arrange half-hour training appointments in the researcher’s own office or at the library. Since the program was implemented staff made 165 visits to 1249 laboratory staff including some repeat consultation requests. New acquisitions lists are sent to individuals and groups that would be interested in recent journal, database, and books purchases. These lists are topic specific and targeted to groups and individuals with an interest in the field. For example newly acquired engineering resources are targeted at engineering groups. The new acquisitions list for engineering began mid year in 2005. An analysis of circulation statistics for engineering books in fiscal year 2005, 2006, and 2007 show that circulation increased each year with 2007 circulation nearly double that of 2005. This took place when overall circulation rose in FY06 but fell slightly in FY07. Outreach strategies tailored and individualized can be effective. Offering multiple outreach options offers researchers different ways to interact with library staff and services.

Buxton, Karen A.

2008-06-17

43

Students Engaged in Research - Young Engineers and Scientists (YES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including geosciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel C.

2009-09-01

44

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) -engaging students in research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) during the past 18 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space sciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students' preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel; Reiff, Patricia

45

Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1977  

SciTech Connect

Information is compiled about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data are for the year 1977 and are part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Data on mathematics, physics, chemistry, environmental engineering, engineering, life sciences, psychology, and social sciences doctoral degree specialties are included.

Not Available

1980-04-01

46

The Regional Distribution of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976. Research Memorandum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are several factors related to regional variations in the number of energy-related scientists and engineers and how this subgroup differs from the base group of scientists and engineers. The emphasis of this research project was to determine the influence of regional differences in industry mix and in staffing patterns within industries…

Finn, Michael G.; Blair, Philip

47

The Science Race: Training and Utilization of Scientists and Engineers, US and USSR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book represents a comparison of the systems of training and utilization of scientists/engineers in the United States and Soviet Union. Chapter 1 provides a general description of the economic structure and organization in which the training of scientists/engineers is conducted and in which such trained personnel are employed. In chapters 2-5,…

Ailes, Catherine P.; Rushing, Francis W.

48

Young engineers and scientists - a mentorship program emphasizing space education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel; Asbell, Elaine; Reiff, Patricia

49

Engaging Students in Space Research: Young Engineers and Scientists 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI and a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their professional mentors during the academic year. During the summer workshop, students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

2008-12-01

50

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The typical postsecondary academic career follows a well-ordered path with several discrete milestones. The first of these is securing a tenure-track position at an academic institution, at which point the individual is usually assigned to a junior rank, such as assistant professor. Junior faculty members ordinarily are employed on probation and are given a specified number of years to earn tenure. The second milestone, the tenure decision, is perhaps the most critical point on the academic career path. Earning tenure usually means lifetime employment and arrival at another milestone, promotion to the rank of associate professor. Failing to earn tenure often results in termination of employment at the institution. Some doctorate holders, presumably those who establish distinguished records, reach a final milestone with promotion to the rank of full professor.1 This study uses data from a nationally representativesample of recipients of doctorates in science and engineering (S&E). With these data we examined gender differences for four critical outcomes that reflect successful movement along the postsecondary academic career path. These four critical outcomes are tenure track placement, earning tenure, promotion to the rank of associate professor, and promotion to the rank of full professor. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Scientists,Technicians

51

The future look in rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine and an Aerospike engine for the Space Tug illustrate the rocket engines of the future. This paper includes a description of design features leading to high performance, long life, and low cost. Computer control of the engine, turnaround maintenance plans, and engine development plans are also discussed.

Sanchini, D. J.; Kirby, F. M.

1973-01-01

52

26 | FUTURES Scientists have an official name for the disappearing honeybees --colony collapse disorder.  

E-print Network

of unprecedented colony losses, bee populations were rapidly declining. Honeybees are the main pollinators26 | FUTURES Scientists have an official name for the disappearing honeybees -- colony collapse the country began to panic. Their honeybees were disappearing. Keepers would open a hive to check

Huang, Zachary

53

Big Data Analytics Retour vers le Futur -3 -De Statisticien Data Scientist  

E-print Network

Big Data Analytics ­ Retour vers le Futur - 3 - De Statisticien à Data Scientist Philippe Besse and velocity, of big data. Keywords : Data mining ; biological high throughput data ; high di- mension ; bioinformatics ; statistical learning ; big data. Université de Toulouse ­ INSA, Institut de Mathématiques, UMR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Inspiring the Next Generation of Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are usually not excited about abstract concepts, and teachers struggle to inject "pizzazz" into many of their lessons. K-12 teachers need opportunities and the associated pedagogical training to bring meaningful and authentic learning to their students. The professional educator community needs to develop a learning environment which connects desired content knowledge with science and engineering practices that students need to be successful future technology leaders. Furthermore, this environment must foster student exploration and discovery by encouraging them to use their natural creativity with newly acquired technical skills to complete assigned projects. These practices are explicitly listed in the US "Next Generation Science Standards" document that is due for final publication in the very near future. Education in America must unleash students' desires to create and make with their hands, using their intellect, and growing academic knowledge. In this submission I will share various student projects that I have created and implemented for middle and high school. For each project, students were required to learn and implement engineering best practices while designing, building, and testing prototype models, according to pre-assigned teacher specifications. As in all real-world engineering projects, students were required to analyze test data, re-design their models accordingly, and iterate the design process several times to meet specifications. Another key component to successful projects is collaboration between student team members. All my students come to realize that nothing of major significance is ever accomplished alone, that is, without the support of a team. I will highlight several projects that illustrate key engineering practices as well as lessons learned, for both student and teacher. Projects presented will include: magnetically levitated vehicles (maglev) races, solar-powered and mousetrap-powered cars and boats, Popsicle stick catapults and bridges, egg drop "lunar landers", egg-passenger car crashes, cardboard boat races (with human passengers), and working roller coasters made with only paper and tape. Each project requires minimal, low-cost materials commonly found at home or in local stores. I will share the most common student misperceptions about inquiry and problem-solving I have observed while working alongside my students during these projects.

Tambara, Kevin

2013-04-01

55

The Future of Materials Science and Engineering  

E-print Network

The Future of Materials Science and Engineering: An Industry Perspective May 14-15, 2013 #12;Proceedings of the Symposium on "The Future of Materials Science and Engineering: An Industry Perspective requirements and applications. Materials science and engineering (MSE) programs at universities across

Li, Mo

56

Young Engineers & Scientists (YES) - Engaging Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, C++ programming, the Internet, careers, science ethics, social impact of technology, and other topics; and select their individual research project with their mentor (SwRI staff member) to be completed during the academic year; and 2) A collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and teachers during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past nineteen (19) years. A total of 258 students have completed or are currently enrolled in YES. Of these students, 38% are females and 57% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local diversity of the San Antonio area. All YES graduates have entered college, several work or have worked for SwRI, two businesses have formed, and three scientific publications have resulted. Sixteen (16) teacher participants have attended the YES workshop and have developed classroom materials based on their experiences in research at SwRI in the past three (3) years. In recognition of its excellence, YES received the Celebrate Success in 1996 and the Outstanding Campus Partner-of-the-Year Award in 2005, both from Northside Independent School District (San Antonio, Texas). Acknowledgments: We are grateful for support from the NASA MMS Mission E/PO Grant, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2011-12-01

57

Nanomedical engineering: shaping future nanomedicines.  

PubMed

Preclinical research in the field of nanomedicine continues to produce a steady stream of new nanoparticles with unique capabilities and complex properties. With improvements come promising treatments for diseases, with the ultimate goal of clinical translation and better patient outcomes compared with current standards of care. Here, we outline engineering considerations for nanomedicines, with respect to design criteria, targeting, and stimuli-triggered drug release strategies. General properties, clinical relevance, and current research advances of various nanomedicines are discussed in light of how these will realize their potential and shape the future of the field. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:169-188. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1315 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25377691

Luo, Dandan; Carter, Kevin A; Lovell, Jonathan F

2015-03-01

58

Big Data Retour vers le Futur -3 -De Statisticien Data Scientist  

E-print Network

Big Data ­ Retour vers le Futur - 3 - De Statisticien à Data Scientist Philippe Besse Aurélien ; statistical learning ; big data. Université de Toulouse ­ INSA, Institut de Mathématiques, UMR CNRS 5219 omiques la décennie suivante ; ­ avènement récent et très médiatisé du big data. Nous terminons en

Besse, Philippe

59

~----I ---1-------The scientists and engineers at the Gloucester  

E-print Network

Low-level irradiation with Cobalt-60 triples the normal shelf life of fresh fish. The new Marine scientists answer questions and communicate their research findings to the fishing industry and to the sci acceptability and distribution tests. ,I I #12;-. , "OUT--. ...... Marine -.., Products '-..... Devel

60

Graduate Education Reform in Asia, Europe, and the Americas and International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers: Proceedings of an NSF Workshop  

NSF Publications Database

... in Europe, Asia, and the Americas and International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers ... in Europe, Asia and the Americas and International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers: Proceedings ...

61

Impact of Entrepreneurship Teaching in Higher Education on the Employability of Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the impact effective entrepreneurship teaching has on the employability of scientists and engineers. Business teaching, guest speakers and work placements are part of many science and engineering degrees and this research indicates that entrepreneurship and related issues are also being addressed in a variety of ways and having…

O'Leary, Simon

2012-01-01

62

A statement of the rights of scientists and engineers.  

PubMed

As the Editors of the Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal, we are pleased to introduce "The Bill of Rights" written by Dr William Hendee, Chair of the Publication Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP). This document covers the fundamental rights and responsibilities of a scientist - not just medical physicists but the entire biomedical imaging community, including the clinicians and researchers. The simultaneous publication of this document in worldwide leading medical physics and allied journals aims to disseminate these standards to the whole scientific world. We, as part of the wider biomedical imaging science community and as the editors of the biij, are fully committed to ensuring these rights are not infringed by anyone, anywhere.BJJ Abdullah and KH NgEditors, Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal. PMID:21611028

Hendee, W

2009-04-01

63

Hierarchical Learning Ensembles: Team Building for Undergraduate Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the design and implementation of the Hierarchical Learning Ensemble (HLE) model, a pedagogy that assembles interdisciplinary teams of graduate, undergraduate, and secondary-level students to solve science and engineering problems. Our goals is to sensitize undergraduates to working in heterogeneous groups and thus better prepare them for the workplace.

Dilisi, Gregory A.; Upton, Jan; Eppell, Steven J.

2006-03-01

64

Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

Ejiri, A.

65

Future of Software Engineering Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

Poon, Peter T.

1997-01-01

66

Spring 2009 Engineering Our Future  

E-print Network

of Engineering Less than 2 miles Northwest of Roscoe, Texas, an oilfield pumping unit sits idly amidst a sea will grow research expertise in solar energy production (page 4-5), smart grids (page 7), energy storage our momentum going. Dean's Report In This Energy Issue Solar Nuclear Electricity Wind Biofuels

Gelfond, Michael

67

Future Prospects of Low Compression Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a review and analysis of the effects of compression ratio and inlet air preheating on engine performance in order to assess the future prospects of low compression ignition engines. Regulation of the inlet air preheating allows some control over the combustion process in compression ignition engines. Literature shows that low compression ratio and inlet air preheating are more beneficial to internal combustion engines than detrimental. Even the disadvantages due to low compression ratio are outweighed by the advantages due to inlet air preheating and vice versa.

Azim, M. A.

2014-01-01

68

Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program. Summary of activities for school year 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children`s natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

Sharlin, H.I.

1992-09-01

69

Physics 201 Syllabus Fall 2013 Prof. Collins Physics for Scientists and Engineers (Phys 201, section 3)  

E-print Network

Physics 201 Syllabus Fall 2013 Prof. Collins 1/2 Physics for Scientists and Engineers (Phys 201: Professor Gary S. Collins, Webster 554, 335-1354. Class hours: TTh, 14:50- 16:05, Webster Physical Sciences is open More about me: http://defects.physics.wsu.edu/gary_collins.html Course email: mailto

Collins, Gary S.

70

An investigation of factors affecting how engineers and scientists seek information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be

Claire J. Anderson; Myron Glassman; R. Bruce McAfee; Thomas Pinelli

2001-01-01

71

Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See  

ScienceCinema

Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

John Lienhard

2010-09-01

72

Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See  

SciTech Connect

Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

Lienhard, John (NPR) [NPR

2004-07-12

73

Space Physics at UNH FROM THE DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION, UNH space scientists, engineers, and  

E-print Network

Space Physics at UNH FROM THE DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION, UNH space scientists, engineers, and students in the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) have worked on mission design and modeling. The Space Science Center, housed at EOS, is engaged in research and graduate education in all

Pringle, James "Jamie"

74

Innovation Development--An Action Learning Programme for Medical Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing evidence that action learning is valuable in a higher education setting. This paper goes on to report a personal development programme, based on principles of critical action learning, where the aim is to equip early-career scientists and engineers working in a university setting with the knowledge, skills and confidence to…

Beniston, Lee; Ellwood, Paul; Gold, Jeff; Roberts, James; Thorpe, Richard

2014-01-01

75

A Tribute to Anthony G. Evans: Materials Scientist and Engineer December; 4, 1942September 9, 2009  

E-print Network

A Tribute to Anthony G. Evans: Materials Scientist and Engineer December; 4, 1942­September 9, 2009 brings together papers written by some of the many colleagues who have worked with Tony Evans over his career. The issue itself reflects the extraordinary breadth of Evans' sci- entific interests. This brief

Hutchinson, John W.

76

Citizenship Ceremony for Dr. von Braun and German-Born Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a swearing-in ceremony held at Huntsville High School, one hundred and three German-born scientists and engineers, along with family members, took the oath of citizenship to become United States citizens. Among those taking the oath was Dr. Wernher von Braun, located in the second row, right side, third from the end.

1955-01-01

77

The journey of a science teacher: Preparing female students in the Training Future Scientists after school program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed through a constructivist perspective, using dialogic engagement, coinciding with Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory. This action research project used mixed methods research design, targeted urban adolescent females who were members of Boys & Girls Club of Greater St. Louis (BGCGSTL) after-school program. The data collection measures were three qualitative instruments (semi-structured interviews, reflective journal entries and attitudinal survey open-ended responses) and two quantitative instruments (pre-test and posttests over the content from the Buckle-down Curriculum and attitudinal survey scaled responses). The goal was to describe the impact the Training Future Scientist (TFS) after-school program has on the girls' scientific content knowledge, attitude toward choosing a science career, and self-perception in science. Through the TFS after-school program participants had access to a secondary science teacher-researcher, peer leaders that were in the 9th--12th grade, and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) role models from Washington University Medical School Young Scientist Program (YSP) graduate and medical students and fellows as volunteers. The program utilized the Buckle-down Curriculum as guided, peer-led cooperative learning groups, hands-on labs and demonstrations facilitated by the researcher, trained peer leaders and/or role models that used constructivist science pedagogy to improve test-taking strategies. The outcomes for the TFS study were an increase in science content knowledge, a positive trend in attitude change, and a negative trend in choosing a science career. Keywords: informal science programs, urban girls, self-efficacy, cooperative learning, peer learning, female adolescents, and after-school urban education This dissertation study was funded by two grants, the 2013 spring dissertation grant from the University of Missouri St. Louis and a philanthropic grant from Dr. Courtney Crim.

Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

78

Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers: A Statistical Profile of Recent Entrants Into the Work Force, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities are…

Bell, Sharon E.; And Others

79

Scientists versus Regulators: Precaution, Novelty & Regulatory Oversight as Predictors of Perceived Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials  

PubMed Central

Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of ‘nano experts’ to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N?=?404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

Beaudrie, Christian E. H.; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H.

2014-01-01

80

PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

2015-01-01

81

Primary-school children's attitudes towards science, engineering and technology and their images of scientists and engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of Year 5 primary-school children towards science, engineering and technology (SET) were examined prior to studying the effects of the Horsham Greenpower Goblin Challenge (HGGC), a hands-on SET project. The data collection centred on pupil, parent and teacher questionnaires using Likert scales and picture\\/word images of scientists and engineers. Analysis showed that Year 5 children had definite, discrete

Anne Silver; Brian S. Rushton

2008-01-01

82

Do you want to change the world? Sounds like a lot of work, but materials scientists and engineers  

E-print Network

Do you want to change the world? Sounds like a lot of work, but materials scientists and engineers do it every day. Materials science and engineering is exactly what it sounds like­the study- erful and reliable jet engines. The field of materials science and engineering provides infinite

Tennessee, University of

83

Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

1985-01-01

84

A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Careers in action  

SciTech Connect

This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

Not Available

1991-12-31

85

A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

Not Available

1991-01-01

86

Engineering stem cells for future medicine.  

PubMed

Despite their great potential in regenerative medicine applications, stem cells (especially pluripotent ones) currently show a limited clinical success, partly due to a lack of biological knowledge, but also due to a lack of specific and advanced technological instruments able to overcome the current boundaries of stem cell functional maturation and safe/effective therapeutic delivery. This paper aims at describing recent insights, current limitations, and future horizons related to therapeutic stem cells, by analyzing the potential of different bioengineering disciplines in bringing stem cells toward a safe clinical use. First, we clarify how and why stem cells should be properly engineered and which could be in a near future the challenges and the benefits connected with this process. Second, we identify different routes toward stem cell differentiation and functional maturation, relying on chemical, mechanical, topographical, and direct/indirect physical stimulation. Third, we highlight how multiscale modeling could strongly support and optimize stem cell engineering. Finally, we focus on future robotic tools that could provide an added value to the extent of translating basic biological knowledge into clinical applications, by developing ad hoc enabling technologies for stem cell delivery and control. PMID:23380842

Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

2013-03-01

87

Ohio State scientists develop model for future prostate cancer treatments guided by math:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have designed a first draft of a mathematical model that someday could guide treatment decisions for advanced prostate cancer, in part by helping doctors predict how individual patients will respond to therapy based on the biology of their tumors.

88

Italy's contribution, from a medical standpoint, to the space safety of payload scientists, and perspectives for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, the selection of the Italian payload scientists has been performed according to the Spacelab Program of ESA. Twenty-four subjects underwent a screening performed by the Health Service of Italian Air Force. They were requested to pass an exercise test on treadmill and another ten-minute test on centrifuge, subject to the effect of + 3 G z. The authors briefly describe the results of the test. Noteworthy is the determination of Central Flicker Fusion Frequency. This parameter makes it possible to assess the endurance level of the subject, much earlier than other techniques (e.g. EKG). The importance of an accurate preliminary screening is emphasized as well as of successive training periods. Future studies will be undertaken to compare evoked cortical potentials with behaviour parameters of space safety, with a view to setting up a subtle tool of evaluation for both future candidates and payload scientists.

Rotondo, G.; Ramacci, G. A.; Meineri, G.; Modugno, G. C.; Monesi, F.

89

Biomanufacturing for tissue engineering: Present and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering, often referred to as regenerative medicine and reparative medicine, is an interdisciplinary field that necessitates the combined effort of cell biologists, engineers, material scientists, mathematicians, geneticists, and clinicians toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. It has emerged as a rapidly expanding approach to address the organ shortage problem and comprises tissue

P. J. Bártolo; C. K. Chua; H. A. Almeida; S. M. Chou; A. S. C. Lim

2009-01-01

90

AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base. The OS28 Communicating Broadly: Perspectives and Tools for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists Session would provide an ideal platform for Fellowship management to share lessons learned about science communication and to offer insight as to the challenges scientists face when communicating with the general public or media.

Pasco, S.

2006-12-01

91

NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on various E/PO topics, and an E/PO proposal writing workshop. SCWG members have also worked to incorporate information about E/PO, including what it is, points of contact, and opportunities for participation, into ongoing training sessions at GSFC, such as New Employee Orientation, Road to Mission Success, and Project Scientist Training. In addition, SCWG members have met with GSFC's upper management to voice barriers and concerns raised by scientists and engineers. We will expand on the barriers, efforts to address them, and the results of those efforts.

Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

2011-12-01

92

Preparing a New Generation of Citizens and Scientists to Face Earth's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the research interests and the focus of traditional earth scientists are transformed, so too must education in earth system science at colleges and universities across the country change. The required change involves not only the methods used to teach this new science, but also the essential place of the earth sciences in the panoply of…

Bralower, Timothy J.; Feiss, P. Geoffrey; Manduca, Cathryn A.

2008-01-01

93

Selected Topics in Engineering II (specific topic: technology entrepreneurship for engineers and computer scientists)  

E-print Network

GNG4100 Selected Topics in Engineering II (specific topic: technology entrepreneurship and growing a technology company. Students will develop a clear understanding on how to evaluate market outline · Entrepreneurship & the entrepreneurial mindset (1 lecture) · Opportunity identification (1

Petriu, Emil M.

94

Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

Sivich, Lorrie

95

Next generation of scientists and engineers: Who`s in the pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Our ability to produce the next generation of scientists and engineers is dependent upon two important demographic changes: the trends in the number of births and the increasingly diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds of those already born. The number of births dropped 25% from 1956 to 1976. As a consequence, the number of high school graduates dropped from 3.1 million in 1977 to 2.4 million in 1992 and will not reach the 1977 high until after 2000. More than half of these graduates are women, and one of every four is a member of minority group. Women now make up more than half of all undergraduates and almost half of all graduate students, but are underrepresented in the natural science and engineering fields. Minority students are about half as likely to be enrolled in college as white students. About 32% of all precollege students and 20% of all college students are members of minority groups. Based on current graduate enrollment figures in natural science and engineering, there will be little increase in women`s share of doctorates in the next several years. The number of PhDs earned by American minorities continues to be very small. Not known is when our economy will require more professionals trained in science and engineering. But any serious attempt to increase the number of students eligible to choose college majors in science or engineering must take both sex and race/ethnicity into account. The nation cannot afford to waste the talent in two-thirds of our increasingly diverse population.

Babco, E.L.

1995-12-31

96

Teaching the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers the NASA Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Product Team (IPT) program, led by The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), is a multidisciplinary, multi-university, multi-level program whose goal is to provide opportunities for high school and undergraduate scientists and engineers to translate stakeholder needs and requirements into viable engineering design solutions via a distributed multidisciplinary team environment. The current program supports three projects. The core of the program is the two-semester senior design experience where science, engineering, and liberal arts undergraduate students from UAH, the College of Charleston, Southern University at Baton Rouge, and Ecole Suprieure des Techniques Aronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA) in Paris, France form multidisciplinary competitive teams to develop system concepts of interest to the local aerospace community. External review boards form to provide guidance and feedback throughout the semester and to ultimately choose a winner from the competing teams. The other two projects, the Innovative Student Project for the Increased Recruitment of Engineering and Science Students (InSPIRESS) Level I and Level II focus exclusively on high school students. InSPIRESS Level I allows high schools to develop a payload to be accommodated on the system being developed by senior design experience teams. InSPIRESS Level II provides local high school students first-hand experience in the senior design experience by allowing them to develop a subsystem or component of the UAH-led system over the two semesters. This program provides a model for NASA centers to engage the local community to become more involved in design projects.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Justice, Stefanie H.

2011-01-01

97

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) - Engaging Students and Teachers in Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for the past 20 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including astronomy), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Twenty-one YES 2012 students developed a website for the Dawn Mission (yesserver.space.swri.edu) and five high school science teachers are developing space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel C.; Reiff, P.

2012-10-01

98

Math 530. Mathematics for Scientists and Engineers Course Website: www.math.colostate.edu/~shipman/math530  

E-print Network

Math 530. Mathematics for Scientists and Engineers Fall 2013 Course Website: www.math.colostate.edu/~shipman/math530 Instructor: Patrick Shipman Office: Weber, Room 121 Office Hours: TBA. Email: shipman@math.colostate.edu; Website: www.math.colostate.edu/~shipman Phone: (970) 491-6488 The Goals of the course are to · gain

99

1990 National Compensation Survey of Research and Development Scientists and Engineers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.

Not Available

1990-11-01

100

Future Research in Adipose Stem Cell Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adipose stem cells have a bright prospect in regenerative medicine for tissue\\/organ engineering. However, some hurdles may\\u000a hinder the progress of adipose stem cell engineering. Therefore this chapter highlights the advances in adipose stem cell\\u000a researches, and focuses on prospective researches that are needed to overcome the hurdles in adipose stem cell engineering,\\u000a i.e., to identify the various stem cells

Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

101

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs presents viewpoints on the fields of Mechanical Engineering Technology (MET), Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MfgET), and Industrial Engineering Technology (IET). The authors are highly knowledgeable in their own right. In addition, each sought input from colleagues to gain a broad perspective. Each part begins with an overview of innovations in the field, covering both technical and educational issues. Then the future directions for the educational programs are explored, considering industry needs, curriculum design, laboratory experiences, pedagogy, accreditation, and interfaces with other fields.

Mott, Robert L.

102

Winter 2012-2013 Engineering Our Future  

E-print Network

and a prosperous 2013. Many exciting things happened in the Whitacre College of Engineering during 2012 Engineering Building in October (page 3). Since that time, construction crews have been working and we are seeing great progress. As a key component of that building, we are grateful to Apache Corporation

Gelfond, Michael

103

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2009 - Engaging Students and Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 218 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 37% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 20 students and 3 teachers enrolled in the YES 2009/2010 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was NASA's MMS Mission) and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2009-12-01

104

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2010 - Engaging Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 18 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 239 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 38% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 21 students and 9 secondary school teachers enrolled in the YES 2010/2011 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was ESA's Rosetta Mission) and high school STEM teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share their developed classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2010-12-01

105

Wind Energy Status and Future Wind Engineering Challenges: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the current status of wind energy technology, the potential for future wind energy development and the science and engineering challenges that must be overcome for the technology to meet its potential.

Thresher, R.; Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.; Veers, P.

2008-08-01

106

Scholarship program to benefit future engineers  

SciTech Connect

ASDSO this year launched a new scholarship program for undergraduate students interested in dam safety engineering as a career. Two scholarships of $2,500 each will be granted to one junior and one senior, beginning with the 1993 school year. Students taking a full college course load and majoring in civil or agricultural engineering, geology, or a related field, were elgible. ASDSO, which plans to name the recipients by May 1993, received about two dozen applications for the scholarships.

Not Available

1993-02-01

107

Technological Innovation and Technical Communications: Their Place in Aerospace Engineering Curricula. A Survey of European, Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on results from 260 aerospace engineers and scientists in United States, Europe, and Japan regarding their opinions about professional importance of technical communications; generation and utilization of technical communications; and relevant content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The fields of cryogenics,…

Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

1991-01-01

108

Science Sampler: Engineering-A-Future for tomorrow's young women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering-A-Future (EAF) is an outreach program for middle school age girls. Through a collaborative effort of the Colleges of Engineering and Education at Tennessee Tech University (TTU), the participants experience hands-on activities to foster an interest in career options that are still considered nontraditional for females among elementary and middle school girls.

Susan Gore

2006-11-01

109

UCS-PROMOVE: The Engineer of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called "The engineer of the future", with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a…

Villas-Boas, V.

2010-01-01

110

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

111

Addressing the Misconceptions of Middle School Students About Becoming a Scientist or Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of our educational outreach program shows that students and their parents are excited about space science, but stereotypes about science and scientists drastically effect student attitudes about science and pursuing a technical career.

Newsom, H. E.; Sorge, C.; Hagerty, J. J.

2000-01-01

112

Current and future opportunities in aeronautical engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current demand for aeronautical engineers is approximately balanced with supply, with some shortfall in certain specialties. In the near term (5 years), demand will exceed supply of new graduates. A number of factors have brought on the state of imbalance: (1) the cyclic nature of the demand of our defense requirements; (2) drastic changes in DOD aircraft procurement; (3) the emergence of the space age; (4) evolution of social attitudes toward technology with resultant decline in enrollments; and (5) the universities themselves through their influences in the direction of careers selected by engineers. These factors have been counteracted somewhat by increased DOD emphasis on aircraft development programs but more importantly by the favorable growth in civil aircraft requirements.

Brizendine, J. C.

1975-01-01

113

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.

Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

114

Future trends of heavy-duty diesel engine lubrication  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-duty diesel engines have earned a loft status within the framework of commercial industry. Diesel engines have developed a solid reputation for excellent durability, low operating cost, and good fuel economy. It is becoming evident that as technology develops to meet future demands for mobile equipment, the compressions-ignition engine will continue to provide significant advantages over other power source options. The image of a diesel as a dirty, noisy, foul-smelling power plant will change as new ways of reducing exhaust emissions, suppressing sounds, and generating clean power from an expanding portfolio of fuels are identified. To be sure, the advancements to come will have a major impact on various diesel engine lubrication issues. The future implementation of a number of these technologies will depend upon the ability of researchers to find satisfactory solutions for these issues.

Kelley, F.A. [Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-10-01

115

USGS Scientist Gavin Hayes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Gavin Hayes,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Haye...

116

USGS Scientist Burke Minsley  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Burke Minsley,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Minsl...

117

Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

Dowdy, M. W.

1981-01-01

118

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures  

E-print Network

Power Systems Engineering Research Center Renewable Electricity Futures Trieu Mai Electricity of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity

Van Veen, Barry D.

119

Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

Chinn, Pauline W. U.

2002-04-01

120

Twenty NSF-Nominated Scientists and Engineers Receive Top Presidential Honor  

NSF Publications Database

... University, advanced manufacturing systems engineering Peter J. Delfyett Jr., University of Central ... M. Marcus, Stanford University, physics of electron conduction Massoud Pedram, University of ...

121

A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1996-01-01

122

Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers: Statistical Profile of New Entrants Into the Work Force, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are data which describe the 1976 employment and educational characteristics of recent science and engineering graduates involved in energy-related activities. This information is from the 1976 National Survey of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, a survey of about 9,800 persons who received bachelor's or master's degrees between…

Rall, Jane E.

123

Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows participation at WM has resulted in three Best Student Poster Awards (WM09, WM10, and WM11) and one Best Professional Poster Award (WM09). DOE Fellows have also presented their research at ANS DD and R and ANS Robotics Topical meetings. Moreover, several of our DOE Fellows have already obtained employment with DOE-EM, other federal agencies, DOE contractors. This paper will discuss how DOE Fellows program is training and mentoring FIU STEM students in Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management technical challenges and research. This training and mentoring has resulted in the development of well trained and polished young scientists and engineers that will become the future workforce in charge of carrying on DOE-EM's environmental cleanup mission. The paper will showcase FIU's DOE Fellows model and highlight some of the applied research the DOE Fellows have conducted at FIU's Applied Research Center and across the Complex by participating in summer internship assignments. This paper will also present and highlight other Fellowships and internships programs sponsored by National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), DOE-EM, NRC, Energy (NE), and other federal agencies targeting workforce development. (authors)

Lagos, L. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

124

Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

2013-01-01

125

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 16: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1993-01-01

126

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

127

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

128

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 17: A comparison of the technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

129

Reliability engineering for future telecommunication networks and services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the results of EURESCOM project EU-S26, a fact-finding study to determine the current state-of-the art on network reliability engineering. The objective is to identify reliability threats of future networks and services for which measures to deal with these threats are not available (yet). First, we present an overview of the faults and failures that threaten the reliability

L. J. M. Nieuwenhuis; H. S. Misser; I. Hawker; S. S. Donachie; M. Ravera; S. Balzaretti; T. Ralenius

1993-01-01

130

Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.  

PubMed

This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework. PMID:15193088

Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

2004-01-01

131

External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

2000-01-01

132

THE CURRENT EMPLOYMENT MARKET FOR ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND TECHNICIANS, DECEMBER 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FIELD REPORTS ON JUNE 1966 CONDITIONS IN 30 MAJOR LABOR AREAS FOR ENGINEERING, SCIENTIFIC, AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS, PROVIDED BY AFFILIATES OF THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY, WERE THE BASIS FOR THIS SEMIANNUAL REPORT. THE NUMBER OF APPLICANTS HAD DECLINED 48 PERCENT TO A NEW 8-YEAR LOW, WHILE OPENINGS HAD RISEN TO 9,600, 58 PERCENT OVER THE…

AUSMUS, NORMA F.; AND OTHERS

133

Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

1990-01-01

134

USGS Scientist Anna Chalfoun  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Anna D. Chalfoun, a USGS scientist and assistant leader at the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scien...

135

Second-Guessing Scientists and Engineers: Post Hoc Criticism and the Reform of Practice in Green Chemistry and Engineering.  

PubMed

The article examines and extends work bringing together engineering ethics and Science and Technology Studies, which had built upon Diane Vaughan's analysis of the Challenger shuttle accident as a test case. Reconsidering the use of her term "normalization of deviance," the article argues for a middle path between moralizing against and excusing away engineering practices contributing to engineering disaster. To explore an illustrative pedagogical case and to suggest avenues for constructive research developing this middle path, it examines the emergence of green chemistry and green engineering. Green chemistry began when Paul Anastas and John Warner developed a set of new rules for chemical synthesis that sought to learn from missed opportunities to avoid environmental damage in the twentieth century, an approach that was soon extended to engineering as well. Examination of tacit assumptions about historical counterfactuals in recent, interdisciplinary discussions of green chemistry illuminate competing views about the field's prospects. An integrated perspective is sought, addressing how both technical practice within chemistry and engineering and the influence of a wider "social movement" can play a role in remedying environmental problems. PMID:25218835

Lynch, William T

2014-09-14

136

Human hypertrophic and keloid scar models: principles, limitations and future challenges from a tissue engineering perspective.  

PubMed

Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and understand why some individuals will form adverse scars even after relatively minor injury. Currently, many different models exist to study scar formation, ranging from simple monolayer cell culture to 3D tissue-engineered models even to humanized mouse models. Currently, these high-/medium-throughput test models avoid the main questions referring to why an adverse scar forms instead of a normotrophic scar and what causes a hypertrophic scar to form rather than a keloid scar and also, how is the genetic predisposition of the individual and the immune system involved. This information is essential if we are to identify new drug targets and develop optimal strategies in the future to prevent adverse scar formation. This viewpoint review summarizes the progress on in vitro and animal scar models, stresses the limitations in the current models and identifies the future challenges if scar-free healing is to be achieved in the future. PMID:24750541

van den Broek, Lenie J; Limandjaja, Grace C; Niessen, Frank B; Gibbs, Susan

2014-06-01

137

Spotlight on Scientists Videos  

Cancer.gov

NCI scientists, from postdoctoral fellows to principal investigators, discuss various topics including their personal backgrounds, how they came to be in the field of cancer research, their current projects, and a look to the future of medical oncology.

138

Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

2010-05-01

139

A standard approach to measurement uncertainties for scientists and engineers in medicine.  

PubMed

The critical nature of health care demands high performance levels from medical equipment. To ensure these performance levels are maintained, medical physicists and biomedical engineers conduct a range of measurements on equipment during acceptance testing and on-going quality assurance programs. Wherever there are measurements, there are measurement uncertainties with potential conflicts between the measurements made by installers, owners and occasionally regulators. Prior to 1993, various methods were used to calculate and report measurement uncertainties. In 1993, the International Organization for Standardization published the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The document was jointly published with six international organizations principally involved in measurements and standards. The GUM is regarded as an international benchmark on how measurement uncertainty should be calculated and reported. Despite the critical nature of these measurements, there has not been widespread use of the GUM by medical physicists and biomedical engineers. This may be due to the complexity of the GUM. Some organisations have published guidance on the GUM tailored to specific measurement disciplines. This paper presents the philosophy behind the GUM, and demonstrates, with a medical physics measurement example, how the GUM recommends uncertainties be calculated and reported. PMID:16060321

Gregory, K; Bibbo, G; Pattison, J E

2005-06-01

140

Software architecture and engineering for patient records: current and future.  

PubMed

During the "The National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," a track focusing on "Systems Architecture and Software Engineering" included eight presenters. These presenters identified three key areas of interest in this field, which include the need for open enterprise architecture and a federated database design, net centrality based on service-oriented architecture, and the need for focus on software usability and reusability. The eight panelists provided recommendations related to the suitability of service-oriented architecture and the enabling technologies of grid computing and Web 2.0 for building health services research centers and federated data warehouses to facilitate large-scale collaborative health care and research. Finally, they discussed the need to leverage industry best practices for software engineering to facilitate rapid software development, testing, and deployment. PMID:19562959

Weng, Chunhua; Levine, Betty A; Mun, Seong K

2009-05-01

141

Future market for ceramics in vehicle engines and their impacts  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic engine components have potential to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some recent tests have also shown their environmental benefits, particularly in reducing particulate emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The authors used the data from a survey of the US vehicle engine and component manufacturers relating to ceramic engine components to develop a set of market penetration models. The survey identified promising ceramic components and provided data on the timing of achieving introductory shares in light and heavy-duty markets. Some ceramic components will penetrate the market when the pilot-scale costs are reduced to one-fifth of their current values, and many more will enter the market when the costs are reduced to one-tenth of the current values. An ongoing ceramics research program sponsored by the US Department of Energy has the goal of achieving such price reductions. The size and value of the future ceramic components market and the impacts of this market in terms of fuel savings, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and potential reduction in other criteria pollutants are presented. The future ceramic components market will be 9 million components worth $29 million within 5 years of introduction and will expand to 692 million components worth $3,484 million within 20 years. The projected annual energy savings are 3.8 trillion Btu by 5 years, increasing to 526 trillion Btu during the twentieth year. These energy savings will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 41 million tons during the twentieth year. Ceramic components will help reduce particulate emissions by 100 million tons in 2030 and save the nation`s urban areas $152 million. The paper presents the analytical approach and discusses other economic impacts.

Vyas, A.; Hanson, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-02-01

142

Pathways to space: A mission to foster the next generation of scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first education project funded under the Australian Government's Australian Space Research Program (ASRP), Pathways to Space was a unique project combining education, science communication research and research in astrobiology and robotics. It drew upon the challenges of space exploration to inspire students to consider study and careers in science and engineering. A multi-faceted program, Pathways to Space provided hands-on opportunities for high school and university students to participate in realistic simulations of a robotic Mars exploration mission for astrobiology. Its development was a collaboration between the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (University of New South Wales), the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (University of Sydney), the Powerhouse Museum and industry partner, Cisco. Focused on students in Years 9-10 (15-16 years of age), this program provided them with the opportunity to engage directly with space engineers and astrobiologists, while carrying out a simulated Mars mission using the digital learning facilities available at the Powerhouse Museum. As a part of their program, the students operated robotic mini-rovers in the Powerhouse Museum's “Mars Yard”, a highly accurate simulation of the Martian surface, where university students also carry out the development and testing of experimental Mars roving vehicles. This aspect of the program has brought real science and engineering research into the public space of the museum. As they undertook the education program, the students participated in a research study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of the project in achieving its key objective - encouraging students to consider space related courses and careers. This paper outlines the development and operation of the Pathways to Space project over its 3-year funding period, during which it met and exceeded all the requirements of its ASRP grant. It will look at the goals of the project, the rationale behind the education and science communications research, the challenges of developing such a multi-faceted education project in collaboration with several partners and the results that have already been achieved within the study.

Dougherty, Kerrie; Oliver, Carol; Fergusson, Jennifer

2014-06-01

143

Future Engineering Professors' Conceptions of Learning and Teaching Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptions of learning and teaching shape teaching practices and are, therefore, important to understanding how engineering professors learn to teach. There is abundant research about professors' conceptions of teaching; however, research on the conceptions of teaching of doctoral students, the future professors, is scarce. Furthermore,…

Torres Ayala, Ana T.

2012-01-01

144

Web Guide to Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on September 11, this new 212-page report from the National Academies describes postdoctoral scholars, especially at universities, as "neglected, even exploited." After studying the employment conditions for the 52,000 postdocs currently working in the United States, a joint committee of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine determined that a number of reforms are badly needed. These include limiting postdoctoral appointments to five years, raising salaries, and strengthening the mentor system. At the National Academies site, users can access the full text of the report, read the opening statement and news release, and listen to the archived Webcast in RealPlayer format.

145

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

146

Education and America's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational system is not producing or being allowed to produce the workforce we need. In the future we will need scientists, engineers, lawyers, poets, and philosophers who can understand, interpret, and harness the technologies of the future. Directions for a renewed federal commitment to education are suggested. (SR)

Ford, William D.

1983-01-01

147

Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

148

Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is organised together with civil engineering students from the University of Rijeka. The aims of this field visit are: to learn about traditional water supply from an underground storage of rain water called cisterna; and to find out from inhabitants about their current water usage habits and expectations, and how these might change when they get water from the main water supply system. This joint activity has been beneficial for both groups of students. The engineering students become aware of the importance of the social aspects in designing the water supply system, while the geography students learn about the engineering challenges entailed. Both groups learn that water consumption increases with the provision of water through pipeline systems and that this needs to be taken into account in the design of water supply and management of water resources. Importantly, they learn the benefits of traditional sustainable water supply methods, which could be implemented as primary or additional sources of water supply in other areas.In summary, both groups of students develop their professional knowledge and skills as well as generic and transferable skills, which are very important for those who will continue to a career in the design and management of water systems.

Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

2010-05-01

149

A Review of Engine Seal Performance and Requirements for Current and Future Army Engine Platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sand ingestion continues to impact combat ground and air vehicles in military operations in the Middle East. The T-700 engine used in Apache and Blackhawk helicopters has been subjected to increased overhauls due to sand and dust ingestion during desert operations. Engine component wear includes compressor and turbine blades/vanes resulting in decreased engine power and efficiency. Engine labyrinth seals have also been subjected to sand and dust erosion resulting in tooth tip wear, increased clearances, and loss in efficiency. For the current investigation, a brief overview is given of the history of the T-700 engine development with respect to sand and dust ingestion requirements. The operational condition of labyrinth seals taken out of service from 4 different locations of the T-700 engine during engine overhauls are examined. Collaborative efforts between the Army and NASA to improve turbine engine seal leakage and life capability are currently focused on noncontacting, low leakage, compliant designs. These new concepts should be evaluated for their tolerance to sand laden air. Future R&D efforts to improve seal erosion resistance and operation in desert environments are recommended

Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

2008-01-01

150

John Mather public policy internship: Perspectives on science policy as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA) and Congressman Bill Foster's office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, I participated in the John Mather public policy internship through AIP and SPS. I spent six weeks as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA), a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that encourages technically-trained citizens to become more engaged in US politics and the policy-making process, and six weeks as an intern for Congressman Bill Foster (D-Il 14) in the House of Representatives. These internships offered two distinct perspectives on how American science policy is crafted and showed me many ways in which scientists can be engaged in the political process.

Tuna, Alexander

2011-04-01

151

Reading about Real Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

Cummins, Sunday

2015-01-01

152

A life scientist, an engineer and a social scientist walk into a lab: challenges of dual-use engagement and education in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

The discussion of dual-use education is often predicated on a discrete population of practicing life scientists exhibiting certain deficiencies in awareness or expertise. This has lead to the claim that there is a greater requirement for awareness raising and education amongst this population. However, there is yet to be an inquiry into the impact of the 'convergent' nature of emerging techno-sciences upon the prospects of dual-use education. The field of synthetic biology, although often portrayed as homogeneous, is in fact composed of various sub-fields and communities. Its practitioners have diverse academic backgrounds. The research institutions that have fostered its development in the UK often have their own sets of norms and practices in engagement with ethical, legal and social issues associated with scientific knowledge and technologies. The area is also complicated by the emergence of synthetic biologists outside traditional research environments, the so called 'do-it-yourself' or 'garage biologists'. This paper untangles some of the complexities in the current state of synthetic biology and addresses the prospects for dual-use education for practitioners. It provides a short overview of the field and discusses identified dual-use issues. There follows a discussion of UK networks in synthetic biology, including their engagement with ethical, legal, social and dual-use issues and limited educational efforts in relation to these. It concludes by outlining options for developing a more systematic dual-use education strategy for synthetic biology. PMID:22606757

Edwards, Brett; Kelle, Alexander

2012-01-01

153

Resources and economic growth: the American future--other voices. [Debate of economist, Federal Reserve governor, and political scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excerpts of essays by Walt W. Rostow, Henry C. Wallich, and Eugene B. Skolnikoff present a range of views on the extent to which politics is a barrier to world agreement on future economic growth. Rostow considers the desires of developing countries for food, energy, and raw materials to be the central problem in reaching a global environmental equilibrium based

W. W. Rostow; H. C. Wallich; E. B. Skolnikoff

2009-01-01

154

Corneal tissue engineering: recent advances and future perspectives.  

PubMed

To address the growing need for corneal transplants two main approaches are being pursued: allogenic and synthetic materials. Allogenic tissue from human donors is currently the preferred choice; however, there is a world-wide shortage in donated corneal tissue. In addition, tissue rejection often limits the long-term success of this approach. Alternatively, synthetic homologs to donor corneal grafts are primarily considered temporary replacements until suitable donor tissue becomes available, as they result in a high incidence of graft failure. Tissue engineered cornea analogs would provide effective cornea tissue substitutes as well as alternatives to address the need to reduce animal testing of commercial products. Recent progress towards these needs is reviewed here, along with future perspectives. PMID:25434371

Ghezzi, Chiara; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L

2014-11-30

155

Finding a new continent versus mapping all the rivers: Recognition, ownership, and the scientific epistemological development of practicing scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional skills associated with being competent and conscientious scientists and engineers. In the attempts to understand the best strategies to teach these skills, research during the past few decades has shown a steadily increasing interest in improving the scientific literacy of students in science and engineering disciplines. Researchers agree that fostering this literacy---particularly with respect to understanding the nature of science, i.e., scientific epistemology---is an important component in developing students' abilities to become successful practitioners of science and engineering. This research was motivated by the need to further elucidate the formative experiences that contribute to science and engineering faculty members' personal epistemologies of science. To examine the development of these epistemologies, a phenomenographical study was designed to elucidate academic scientists' and engineers' understandings of contributions, collaborations, and credit assignment. The results and inductive, grounded-theory analysis of interviews with faculty members in the College of Engineering and Science at a large, southeastern institution revealed a model of scientific epistemological development and its possible ties to professional identity development. This model can help inform changes in mentorship and training practices to better prepare students to manage the challenges posed by being scientists and engineers in the 21st-century.

Verdan, Andrea Marie

156

Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

Griego, Regina M.

2010-12-01

157

The Future of Engineering Education I: A Vision for a New Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first of a series of six papers originally published in 2000 in Chemical Engineering Education surveying recent changes and predicting future directions in engineering education. This paper reviews the global issues that will require reforms in the way engineers are educated and engineering professors are prepared to provide the education. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Felder, Richard M., 1939-

158

Snecma Liquid Rocket Engine Concepts for Future ELV and RLV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snecma is the prime contractor for the development of the storable and cryogenic liquid rocket engines of the Ariane launcher, including the Viking storable engine, HM7 cryogenic engine, Vulcain and Vulcain 2 cryogenic engines. The new cryogenic engine Vinci is under development and qualification is planned by 2006. This paper presents the results of a study which has been performed

Tony Excoffon; Guy de Spiegeleer

2002-01-01

159

[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: (1) solicit opinions regarding the importance of technical communications; (2) determine the use and production of technical communications; (3) seek views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; (4) determine use of libraries, information centers, and online database; (5) determine use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected aerospace engineers and scientists, with a slightly modified version sent to European colleagues. Their responses to selected questions are presented in this paper.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

1990-01-01

160

How can engineering education contribute to a sustainable future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we question how engineering education (and engineering) can support greater participation and inclusiveness in decision making and science and technology. We consider the work relating to engineering and society that is conducted by the scholars of science and technology studies, but which is rarely read or considered by the engineering educators who could draw on it.

J. Pritchard; C. Baillie

2006-01-01

161

PROCESS AND PRODUCT ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENTS, PRESENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P.V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture is sponsored by Elsevier Science Ltd and Chemical Engineering Science in association with the Institution of Chemical Engineers, in recognition of the contribution made by Peter Danckwerts in the pursuit of scholarship in chemical engineering as manifested by his editorship of Chemical Engineering Science for 30 years. The annual lecture shall be appropriate to the

K. Wintermantel

1999-01-01

162

Shortage of Engineers and Scientists. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate One Hundred First Congress, Second Session on Training Scientists and Engineers for the Year 2000--The National Science Foundation's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the transcript of a Congressional hearing focusing on the status of the training of scientists and engineers in the United States and the role of the federal government in the improvement of this situation. Included are opening statements from Senators Albert Gore, Jr. (Tennessee), Robert W. Kasten, Jr. (Wisconsin), and Larry…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

163

Futurity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Futurity website features "the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada and Australia." Currently, some of the participating universities include Boston University, Duke University, McGill University, and the University of Sheffield. Visitors to the homepage will note that there are four areas on the site: Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Technology, and Society & Culture. Recently profiled news items include a compelling new discovery from New York University about the reality of a tractor beam that can pull microscopic particles. The Society & Culture section is a real find, as it contains engaging pieces like "Is zero tolerance too hard on students?" and "Big banks loom over finance 'ecosystem'." Also, visitors can browse news items by school or by topic area. Finally, the Week's Most Discussed area is a great way to learn about compelling new stories from around the globe.

164

The Future of Software Performance Engineering Murray Woodside, Greg Franks, Dorina C. Petriu  

E-print Network

The Future of Software Performance Engineering Murray Woodside, Greg Franks, Dorina C. Petriu Engineering encompasses efforts to describe and improve performance, with two distinct approaches: an early Engineering (SPE) is necessary to evaluate a system's performance, or to improve it. In this paper we propose

Woodside, C. Murray

165

CIVIL ENGINEERING "Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space, energy, the  

E-print Network

CIVIL ENGINEERING Memphisat "Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space, energy, the environment, and our ability to interact with and compete in the global economy. As a civil engineer, you, or management ­ civil engineering offers you a wide range of career choices." -American Society of Civil

Dasgupta, Dipankar

166

Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

2007-01-01

167

Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist  

E-print Network

), Reviewer for Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science Review (BRJASR) #12;Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist Collage of Engineering Institute for Energy and the Environment Obispo, CA 1987 M.S. Agriculture, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 2007 Ph

Johnson, Eric E.

168

Diversity and Equity in the Lab: Preparing Scientists and Engineers for Inclusive Teaching in Courses and Research Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite high attrition rates in college-level science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses, with even higher rates for women and underrepresented minorities, not enough attention has been given to higher education STEM classroom practices that may limit the retention of students from diverse backgrounds. The Professional Development Program (PDP) has developed a range of professional development activities aimed at helping participants learn about diversity and equity issues, integrate inclusive teaching strategies into their own instructional units, and reflect on their own teaching practices. In the PDP, all participants develop and teach a STEM laboratory activity that enables their students to practice scientific inquiry processes as they gain an understanding of scientific concepts. In addition, they are asked to consider diversity and equity issues in their activity design and teaching. The PDP supports participants in this challenging endeavor by engaging them in activities that are aligned with a PDP-defined Diversity & Equity Focus Area that includes five emphases: 1) Multiple ways to learn, communicate and succeed; 2) Learners' goals, interests, motivation, and values; 3) Beliefs and perceptions about ability to achieve; 4) Inclusive collaboration and equitable participation; 5) Social identification within STEM culture. We describe the PDP Diversity & Equity focus, the five emphases, and the supporting activities that have been designed and implemented within the PDP, as well as future directions for our diversity and equity efforts.

Hunter, L.; Seagroves, S.; Metevier, A. J.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Raschke, L.; Jonsson, P.; Porter, J.; Brown, C.; Roybal, G.; Shaw, J.

2010-12-01

169

How Can Engineering Education Contribute to a Sustainable Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present paper we question how engineering education (and engineering) can support greater participation and inclusiveness in decision making and science and technology. We consider the work "relating" to engineering and society that is conducted by the scholars of science and technology studies, but which is rarely read or considered by the…

Pritchard, J.; Baillie, C.

2006-01-01

170

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1994-01-01

171

New opportunities for future, small, General-Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of four independent contracted studies to explore the opportunities for future small turbine engines are summarized in a composite overview. Candidate advanced technologies are screened, various cycles and staging arrangements are parametrically evaluated, and optimum conceptual engines are identified for a range of 300 to 600 horsepower applications. Engine improvements of 20 percent in specific fuel consumption and 40 percent in engine cost were forecast using high risk technologies that could be technically demonstrated by 1988. The ensuing economic benefits are in the neighborhood of 20 to 30 percent for twin-engine aircraft currently powered by piston engines.

Strack, W. C.

1980-01-01

172

Overview of boosting options for future downsized engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driven by a demand for better fuel economy and increasingly stringent emissions regulations over a wide range of customers\\u000a and applications, engine manufacturers have turned towards engine downsizing as the most potent enabler to meet these requirements.\\u000a With boosting systems becoming ever more numerous as the technical solutions to complex boosting requirements of the internal\\u000a combustion engine increase, it is

Martinez-Botas Ricardo; Pesiridis Apostolos; MingYang Yang

2011-01-01

173

Future Modeling Needs in Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a performance model rocket engine design that takes advantage of pulse detonation to generate thrust. The contents include: 1) Introduction to the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE); 2) PDRE modeling issues and options; 3) Discussion of the PDRE Performance Workshop held at Marshall Space Flight Center; and 4) Identify needs involving an open performance model for Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Meade, Brian; Talley, Doug; Mueller, Donn; Tew, Dave; Guidos, Mike; Seymour, Dave

2001-01-01

174

Current and future engine applications of Gr/PI composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of organic matrix composites to gas turbine engine components has been the subject of numerous government and company funded programs since the 1960's. The possibility of significant weight reductions, performance improvements and lower component costs have made the organic matrix composites extremely attractive to aircraft engine designers. Very little of this potential was incorporated into production engines over the years even though a significant number of components were designed, fabricated and tested. Some of the reasons behind the slow rate of incorporation include the following: (1) criticality; (2) engine operating temperature; (3) small component size; (4) small production volume; (5) high production cost; and (6) interfacing with metal parts.

Cavano, P. J.; Schmid, T. E.

1985-01-01

175

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

176

Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley

2012-01-01

177

Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

Caplan, R. D.

1971-01-01

178

Inspire Future Engineers with the Concrete Canoe Competition!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While classroom instruction can and should still be used to teach students the fundamentals of engineering, the key to their ultimate success is learning to use that knowledge in a real-world setting. Out-of-class activities, like the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) National Concrete Canoe Competition, not only give students a hands-on…

Cramer, Steven; Kurten, Jaime

2005-01-01

179

The future of electrical and computer engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors will briefly describe how some of today's innovations and advancements might provide potential for improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of contemporary teaching methods. A model curriculum proposed in this paper merges the disciplines of mathematics, science, engineering, and computing. It also addresses the growing need for exposing aspiring engineers to the human, cultural, and professional aspects of

Frederick C. Berry; Philip S. DiPiazza; Susan L. Sauer

2003-01-01

180

Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering  

EPA Science Inventory

Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

181

Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

182

The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

Mummolo, Giovanni

2007-01-01

183

WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers - Duration: 1:16.  

NASA Video Gallery

Some of the next generationâ??s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

184

Fuel Cells: Thermodynamic Engine to a Sustainable Energy Future Richard T. Carlin  

E-print Network

9.00am Fuel Cells: Thermodynamic Engine to a Sustainable Energy Future Richard T. Carlin Office. Biography Dr. Richard T. Carlin is Department Head for the Sea Warfare and Weapons Department at the Office

Levi, Anthony F. J.

185

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

186

Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

Petersen, D. R.

1986-01-01

187

Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 1: Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was investigated. Two approaches are studied: (1) to determine how the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and (2) to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Because synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are particularly suited to medium speed diesel engines, the first commercial application of these fuels may be by the railroad industry.

Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.; Stallkamp, J. A.

1981-01-01

188

Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed 1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2002-09-01

189

Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2002-01-01

190

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 52: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

191

The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists  

PubMed Central

Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This coaching model is intended to be a complement, rather than a substitute, for traditional mentoring in biomedical research training, and is being tested as such. PMID:25084625

2014-01-01

192

A Strategic Approach for Supporting the Future of Civil Engineering Education in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new strategic vision of the extensively debated European higher education is proposed with focus on civil engineering. Civil engineering education for the future is considered with relevance to potential world-wide trends and anticipated societal requirements and, therefore, required employee qualifications of the construction-related providers…

Angelides, Demos C.; Loukogeorgaki, Eva

2005-01-01

193

Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New mapping technology is providing perspectives of the sea floor "as if there were no ocean", revealing that ocean floors exhibit a wide variety of relief, sediment properties, and active geologic processes such as erosion, faulting, fluid expulsion, and landslides. The development of coastal and offshore resources, such as oil and gas and minerals, involves sea floor engineering in remote, complex, and sometimes hazardous environments. Optimum engineering design and construction practice require detailed surveys of sea floor geomorphology, geologic conditions on the sea bed and to various depths beneath it, combined with geotechnical properties of the sediments and oceanographic information. Integrated site survey models attempt to predict conditions and process frequencies and magnitudes relevant to the engineering design lifetimes of sea floor installations, such as cables, pipelines, production platforms, as well as supporting coastal infrastructure such as jetties, wharves, bridges and harbors. Recent use of deep water areas for oil and gas production, pipelines, and cable routes are also showing that the "world's greatest slopes", beyond the continental shelves contain exciting, exotic, and enigmatic geomorphological features and processes. Safe and cost-effective engineering use of these regions depends upon exciting new technical and conceptual advances for understanding sea floor geomorphology — a task which has barely begun.

Prior, David B.; Hooper, James R.

1999-12-01

194

The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

Hale, Francis J.

195

Automation and Engineering Psychology: A Look to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various aspects of automation are explained to differentiate it from technology and mechanization and to show the difference between using equipment to help humans and using equipment to replace humans. Five reasons are given for engineering psychology to focus its attention on automation. Automation issues in a number of areas are discussed,…

Parsons, H. McIlvaine

196

The Future of Empirical Methods in Software Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the vision that for all fields of software engineering (SE), empirical research methods should enable the development of scientific knowledge about how useful different SE technologies are for different kinds of actors, performing different kinds of activities, on different kinds of systems. It is part of the vision that such scientific knowledge will guide the develop- ment of

Dag I. K. Sjøberg; Tore Dybå; Magne Jørgensen

2007-01-01

197

The Future of Empirical Methods in Software Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the vision that for all fields of software engineering (SE), empirical research methods should enable the development of scientific knowledge about how useful different SE technologies are for different kinds of actors, performing different kinds of activities, on different kinds of systems. It is part of the vision that such scientific knowledge will guide the development of new

D. I. K. Sjoberg; Tore Dybå; M. Jorgensen

2007-01-01

198

Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating

David Gordon Wilson

2012-01-01

199

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

1992-01-01

200

Sustainable Scientists  

SciTech Connect

Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

Mills, Evan

2008-12-31

201

Recruiting Future Engineers Through Effective Guest Speaking In Elementary School Classrooms  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the author describes how engineers can increase the number of future engineers by volunteering as guest speakers in the elementary school classroom. The paper is divided into three main subjects. First, the importance of engineers speaking directly with young students is discussed. Next, several best practice techniques for speaking with young students are described. Finally, information on getting started as a guest speaker is presented, and a list of resources available to guest speakers is provided. The guest engineer speaking to an elementary school audience (ages 6-11) performs a critical role in encouraging young students to pursue a career in engineering. Often, he or she is the first engineer these students meet in person, providing a crucial first impression of the engineering career field and a positive visual image of what an engineer really looks like. A dynamic speaker presenting a well-delivered talk creates a lasting, positive impression on students, influencing their future decisions to pursue careers in engineering. By reaching these students early in life, the guest speaker will help dispel the many prevailing stereotypes about engineers which discourage so many students, especially young women, from considering this career. The guest speaker can ensure young students gain a positive first impression of engineers and the engineering career field by following some best practice techniques in preparing for and delivering their presentation. The author, an electrical engineer, developed these best practice techniques over the past 10 years while presenting over 350 talks on engineering subjects to elementary school students as a volunteer speaker with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory’s Speakers Bureau. Every engineer can make a meaningful contribution toward reversing the predicted shortfall of future engineers by volunteering to speak with young students at the elementary school level. Elementary school teachers typically have a limited education in engineering and are eager to have career engineers speak with their students. As an engineer, there are many opportunities to get involved with guest speaking at the elementary school level. If you have a young child, start by meeting with her or his teacher and volunteering to give a presentation on engineering to the class. Many organizations have formal speakers bureaus. If your organization does not have one, consider starting one. There are several excellent resources on the Internet, such as the IEEE Center for Pre-University Engineering Education’s TryEngineering.org Web site. This site is designed for young students, teachers and parents, giving information on engineering careers and engineering activities the guest speaker can use to prepare a dynamic and informative presentation. Young students who have experienced a positive interaction with an engineer are more likely to pursue a career in engineering. Effective guest speaking by engineers in elementary school classrooms today will increase the likelihood these young students will become the desperately needed engineers of our future.

Kevin Young

2007-11-01

202

The future of high performance computers in science and engineering  

SciTech Connect

Spurred by a number of innovations from both the industrial and academic research establishments made possible by VLSI and parallelism. The author expects the next generation of scientific and engineering computing to be the most diverse and exciting one yet. Some of the research accomplishments have been stimulated by DARPA's Strategic Computing Initiative (SCI). Other progress is a result of the evolution of understanding the technology of multiple vector-processing computers (i.e., supercomputers). However, without the scientific base, creative talent, understanding and demanding users, and infrastructure to design complex VLSI chips, these innovative machines would not be possible. A variety of established and newly formed companies have organized to exploit the new technology. This work lists the number of companies building high performance computers for control and artificial intelligence applications, and traditional supercomputers for scientific and engineering applications.

Bell, G. (Ardent Computer Co., Sunnyvale, CA (US))

1989-09-01

203

The diesel engine for cars--is there a future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine is known as the most fuel efficient combustion engine.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Its acceptance for use in passengers cars, however, varies geographically.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Today, the diesel car plays an important role in Europe; in France,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009for instance, it is achieving a remarkable market share of about\\u000d\\u000a\\u000942 percent, while in the US its market penetration can be neglected.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Many questions are

F. F. Pischinger

1998-01-01

204

Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume I: summary  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly diesel No. 2. The study takes two approaches: (1) to determine how the use of diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and (2) to use fuels other than diesel No. 2 both in diesel and other types of engines. The study consists of two volumes; volume 1 is a summary and volume 2 is the technical document. The study indicates that the possible reduction in fuel usage by increasing the efficiency of the present engine is limited; it is already highly energy efficient. The use of non-petroleum fuels, particularly the oil shale distillates, offers a greater potential. A coal-fired locomotive using any one of a number of engines appears to be the best alternative to the diesel-electric locomotive with regard to life-cycle cost, fuel availability, and development risk. The adiabatic diesel is the second-rated alternative with high thermal efficiency (up to 64%) as its greatest advantage. The risks associated with the development of the adiabatic diesel, however, are higher than those for the coal-fired locomotive. The advantage of the third alternative, the fuel cell, is that it produces electricity directly from the fuel. At present, the only feasible fuel for a fuel cell locomotive is methanol. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, probably derived from oil shale, will be needed if present diesel-electric locomotives are used beyond 1995. Because synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are particularly suited to medium-speed diesel engines, the first commercial application of these fuels may be by the railroad industry.

Liddle, S.G.; Bonzo, B.B.; Purohit, G.P.; Stallkamp, J.A.

1981-11-01

205

SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery  

E-print Network

SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery McGill University The purpose of the Surgical Scientist Program of the Department of Surgery is to develop surgical scientists who will be the future leaders in academic surgery both at McGill and in other university Departments of Surgery. Application

Barthelat, Francois

206

Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.  

PubMed

The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically. PMID:22788100

Wilson, David Gordon

2012-06-01

207

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

208

For 1993, Doctoral Scientists & Engineers Report 1.6 Percent Unemployment Rate But 4.3 Percent UnderEmployment  

NSF Publications Database

... rate for doctoral S&Es in 1993 was 1.6 percent. This rate compares with a 1993 unemploy- ment rate ... rate (2.9 percent). On the other hand, me- chanical and civil engineers have unemploy- ment rates of ...

209

Access and Success for African American Engineers and Computer Scientists: A Case Study of Two Predominantly White Public Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, three rationales have emerged for emphasizing the reinforcement of the United States' science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. The first rationale pertains to U.S. global competitiveness, the second revolves around the benefits of a diverse workforce, and the third argument points to social justice…

Newman, Christopher Bufford

2011-01-01

210

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

211

Investing in the Best and Brightest: Increased Fellowship Support for American Scientists and Engineers. Discussion Paper 2006-09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread concern that the United States faces a problem in maintaining its position as the scientific and technological leader in the world and that loss of leadership threatens future economic well-being and national security. Business, science, and education groups have issued reports that highlight the value to the country of…

Freeman, Richard B.

2006-01-01

212

Charting the pipeline: Identifying the critical elements in the development of successful African American scientists, engineers, and mathematicians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many educational researchers are concerned with the apparent poor performance of different racial and ethnic groups in the fields of science, engineering, and mathematics in the United States. Despite improvements in the performance of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans in these areas over the past decade, these groups are still less likely to enroll in advanced math and science courses or score at or above the proficient level in mathematics. Furthermore, these groups continue to be underrepresented in the nation's technical and scientific workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify the critical elements related to the success of African Americans in science, engineering, and mathematics. Specifically, this study was designed to answer the following questions as they pertained to African American graduate students: What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' initial interest in science, engineering, or mathematics? What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' decisions to continue their studies in their specific areas of interest? What factors, associated with the K--12 schooling experience, were perceived to have contributed to the students' success in science, engineering, or mathematics? The data for the study were acquired from interviews with 32 African American students (16 males and 16 females) who were engaged in graduate work in science, engineering, or mathematics. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the interview data. The first was that all students were involved in experiences that allowed a significant level of participation in science, engineering, and mathematics. Second, all of the students experienced some form of positive personal intervention by another person. Third, all students possessed perceptions of these fields that involved some sort of positive outcome. Finally, all of the of the students believed they possessed intrinsic qualities that qualified and prepared them for their involvement with science, engineering, and mathematics. These four themes exhibited themselves in different ways during the course of the students' lives. As a result, the discussion of the results of the study was divided among the three developmental periods: the interest-building phase, the knowledge-acquisition phase, and the careerbuilding phase. The study's findings provide valuable information to schools, educators, policy makers, and researchers on how to prepare effectively all children for a science and technology driven society, and for some, induction into tomorrow's scientific community.

Williams, Brian Anthony

213

Civil Engineering Feasibility Studies for Future Ring Colliders at CERN  

E-print Network

CERN civil engineers are studying the feasibility of several potential ring colliders to complement the LHC: an 80km circular tunnel to house the TLEP and VHE-LHC, and the ring-ring and linac-ring options for the LHeC. The feasibility of these projects is largely dependent on civil design and geotechnical and environmental risks. As civil infrastructure works typically represent one third of the cost of major physics projects, it is critical that the construction costs are well understood from the conceptual stage. This proceeding presents the first results of the feasibility studies for the 80km tunnel and the linac-ring LHeC. Presented at IPAC'13 Shanghai, 12-17 May 2013

Bruning, O; Myers, S; Osborne, J; Rossi, L; Waaijer, C; Zimmermann, F

2013-01-01

214

Technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an overview of recent technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines at Astrium, Space Infrastructure Division (SI), is shown.The main technology. developments shown in this paper are: •Technologies Technologies for enhanced heat transfer to the coolant for expander cycle engines•Advanced injector head technologies•Advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies.The main technologies for enhanced heat

H. Immich; J. Alting; J. Kretschmer; D. Preclik

2003-01-01

215

SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

Bederson, Benjamin

2006-04-01

216

Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

Evans, Brenda

217

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

218

New opportunities for future small civil turbine engines - Overviewing the GATE studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of four independent studies that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. Detroit Diesel Allison, Garrett/AiResearch, Teledyne CAE, and Williams Research participated along with several airframers. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. All four companies predicted sizable performance gains (e.g., 20% SFC decrease), and three predicted large engine cost reductions of sufficient magnitude to challenge the reciprocating engine in the 300-500 SHP class. Key technology areas were recommended for NASA support in order to realize these improvements.

Strack, W. C.

1979-01-01

219

RME or DME: A preferred alternative fuel option for future diesel engine operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin challenges of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, present engine and vehicle manufacturers with problems focused on future provision of both automotive power plant and conventional hydrocarbon fuels. In the drive to meet more stringent emission controls, many options have been identified, in the investigation of viable alternative fuels, and in the means of meeting the standards. While

R. J. Crookes; K. D. H. Bob-Manuel

2007-01-01

220

On the Training of Radio and Communications Engineers in the Decades of the Immediate Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A list of 11 statements relating to the change in training programs for radio and communications engineers is presented in this article, in preparation for future developments in the field. Semiconductors, decimeter and centimeter radio frequency ranges, and a statistical approach to communications systems are analyzed as the three important…

Klyatskin, I.G.

221

A STUDY OF THE RE-EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS LAID OFF FROM 62 AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS FIRMS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA DURING 1963-65. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS (1) TO ANALYZE SELECTED ASPECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF 1,184 ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS WHO WERE PERMANENTLY LAID OFF BY 62 DEFENSE-ORIENTED AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS COMPANIES DURING AN 18-MONTH PERIOD ENDING MARCH 31, 1965, AND (2) TO DESCRIBE THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA'S…

LOOMBA, R.P.

222

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

223

Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

2013-06-01

224

Successful collaborations between scientists and schools  

SciTech Connect

There are many ways for scientists to support science education in the schools; each method reflects the motivation and goals of the provider. In order to be most effective it is essential to find out the needs of the teacher and the best way to support his/her work in the classroom. Four models of interaction between scientists and teachers are described including: Summer teacher professional development programs; Adopt-a-Scientist; Industry initiated visits by industrial scientists; and, Bringing students into scientists` laboratories. It is crucial not to forget that science and engineering involve doing something. The projects must be ones the students can do and find exciting.

Ostwald, T.

1994-12-31

225

238 American Scientist, Volume 98 Scientists' Bookshelf  

E-print Network

238 American Scientist, Volume 98 Scientists' Bookshelf © 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research- nitive psychologist, in their book What Darwin Got Wrong. In the view of the authors, Darwin and the neo

Richards, Robert J.

226

SGR: Scientists for Global Responsibility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists for Global Responsibility (SGR) have created a site depicting the belief that "science and technology should be used responsibly in a way that contributes to justice and peace in human society and to the long-term well-being of the wider environment". Scientists can download reports that the group, consisting of 600 scientists, has written such as Cleaner Technologies: A Positive Choice. Students can learn about how to make wise career choices that will be both rewarding and environmentally friendly. The site also contains abstracts of future and previous conferences including Franks Barnaby's abstract The Rick of Nuclear Terrorism. All scientists and students interested in promoting ethical science and technology will want to explore this site.

227

Join us as we define the future of technology and engineering.At Northrop Grumman, we've developed the Future Technical Leaders (FTL) Program -a professional  

E-print Network

Join us as we define the future of technology and engineering.At Northrop Grumman, we've developed the Future Technical Leaders (FTL) Program - a professional development opportunity aimed at identifying and around the globe, we see the value of our performance every day. We are Northrop Grumman. And forward

228

CIVIL ENGINEERS AT THE CROSSROADS - HOW CONSULTING ENGINEERS CAN DRAW ON THE PAST TO FURTHER OUR EXPERTISE FOR THE FUTURE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper first discusses the role of civil engineers in the development of Japan's infrastructure during the period of post-war reconstruction and subsequent high economic growth. The paper highlights the importance of practical skills in a world where the role of civil engineers is expected to become increasingly diverse, and emphasizes the importance of seizing opportunities to further develop international competitiveness. In the post-war era, civil engineers raised their expertise and acquired advanced technologies from overseas and made further improvements through the course of applying those technologies. By adopting many state-of-the-art technologies civil engineers helped develop the infrastructure that now serves as Japan's social and economic backbone. Current trends such as the shrinking and aging population and globalization are destined to have large-scale impacts on Japan's social systems. In the context of such dynamics, this paper discusses civil engineers' perception of our current position in history, and how we will raise the standards of our profession for the future.

Hirotani, Akihiko

229

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

230

The future of electronic packaging for solid state power technology: the transition of E-packaging to electromechanical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of solid state power conversion is inextricably linked to a joining of disciplines both in its past and even more so in it's future. For the future development of technologies central to solid state power conversion the mechanical-thermodynamic-electrodynamic manufacturing process disciplines have to be coordinated to become a new discipline with an old name: electromechanical engineering. The misleading

D. Kehl; B. Beihoff

2000-01-01

231

Long-term land use future scenarios for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to facilitate decision regarding environmental restoration activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the United States Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) conducted analyses to project reasonable future land use scenarios at the INEL for the next 100 years. The methodology for generating these scenarios included: review of existing DOE plans, policy statements, and mission statements pertaining to the INEL; review of surrounding land use characteristics and county developments policies; solicitation of input from local, county, state and federal planners, policy specialists, environmental professionals, and elected officials; and review of environmental and development constraints at the INEL site that could influence future land use.

NONE

1995-08-01

232

Engineering Change Towards a sustainable future in the developing world The Royal Academy of Engineering 73  

E-print Network

's current activities. Simultaneously, both academia and industry must seek to minimise the environmental, managing our environmental impact is going to be vital to the future of society. Over the last 60 years and the challenge of reducing resource consumption and waste. Secondly, advances in computing and networking

Cambridge, University of

233

Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth science industry through a student satellite development program is one of the best methods of developing the next generation of space and earth science engineers and scientists.

Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

2011-12-01

234

Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for this discussion.

DeVore, E. K.

2004-05-01

235

100-LBF LO2/LCH4 - Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

2008-01-01

236

Teach Engineering: Students as Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum unit for middle school features two lessons in which students design experiments to test their own hypotheses. In the first lesson, students gather and record simple data about drops of different fluids -- but that is not the primary point of the activity. Instead, students must analyze their own findings and generate plausible explanations based upon the evidence. In the second lesson, students develop testable hypotheses about the amount of mass lost in gum after chewing. They test both sugared and sugar-free gums. Again, the main point is not data collection. This experiment promotes understanding of the importance of a control in a scientific experimentation. Editor's Note: This curricular unit is offered in segments. The entire unit takes about two weeks, but may be parceled into smaller modules requiring 2-3 days for completion.

Hebrank, Mary

2010-10-18

237

Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

Seltzer, Richard J.

1985-01-01

238

United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University-a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists, engineers, and epidemiologists.  

PubMed

Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a "sink" for recalcitrant, hydrophobic, and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize future opportunities and invite collaborative use of the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants, (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants, (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy-making and regulations, and (iv) approximate, ongoing exposures and body burdens of mass-produced chemicals in human society. PMID:24824503

Venkatesan, Arjun K; Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

2015-02-01

239

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1991-01-01

240

Intestinal Tissue Engineering: Current Concepts and Future Vision of Regenerative Medicine in the Gut  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Functional tissue engineering of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex process aiming to aid the regeneration of structural layers of smooth muscle, intrinsic enteric neuronal plexuses, specialized mucosa and epithelial cells as well as interstitial cells. The final tissue engineered construct is intended to mimic the native GI tract anatomically and physiologically. Physiological functionality of tissue engineered constructs is of utmost importance while considering clinical translation. The construct comprises of cellular components as well as biomaterial scaffolding components. Together, these determine the immune-response a tissue engineered construct would elicit from a host upon implantation. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made to mitigate adverse host reactions. These include a quest for identifying autologous cell sources like embryonic and adult stem cells, bone marrow-derived cells, neural crest-derived cells and muscle-derived stem cells. Scaffolding biomaterials have been fabricated with increasing biocompatibility and biodegradability. Manufacturing processes have advanced to allow for precise spatial architecture of scaffolds in order to mimic in vivo milieu closely and achieve neovascularization. This review will focus on the current concepts and the future vision of functional tissue engineering of the diverse neuromuscular structures of the GI tract from the esophagus to the internal anal sphincter. PMID:22188325

Bitar, Khalil N.; Raghavan, Shreya

2011-01-01

241

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) delivers space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides U.S. capability for both crew and cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010, as outlined in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. I In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle/Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle/Altair Lunar Lander. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability, coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration over a multi-decade schedule. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity against predictions made by modern modeling and simulation analysis. It also will give information about the work in progress for the Ares I-X developmental test flight planned in 2009 to provide key data before the Ares I Critical Design Review. Activities such as these will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development tasks being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, the work performed will lead to the fielding of a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads for sustainable scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

242

Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. PMID:24319010

Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

2014-01-01

243

[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

1990-01-01

244

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on Tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic beatings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2000-01-01

245

Future role of MR elastography in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering (TE) has been introduced for more than 25 years without a boom in clinical trials. More than 70 TE-related start-up companies spent more than $600 million/year, with only two FDA-approved tissue-engineered products. Given the modest performance in clinically approved organs, TE is a tenaciously promising field. The TE community is advocating the application of clinically driven methodologies in large animal models enabling clinical translation. This challenge is hindered by the scarcity of tissue biopsies and the absence of standardized evaluation tools, but can be negated through non-invasive assessment of growth and integration, with reduced sample size and low cost. Solving this issue will speed the transition to cost-efficient clinical studies. In this paper we: (a) introduce magnetic resonance elastography to the tissue-engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) community; (b) review recent MRE applications in TERM; and (c) discuss future directions of MRE in TERM. We have used MRE to study engineered tissues both in vitro and in vivo, where the mechanical properties of mesenchymally derived constructs were progressively monitored before and after tissues were implanted in mouse models. This study represents a stepping stone toward the applications of MRE in directing clinical trials with low cost and likely expediting the translation to more relevantly large animal models and clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23956239

Othman, Shadi F; Xu, Huihui; Mao, Jeremy J

2013-08-16

246

Computational Intelligence and Its Impact on Future High-Performance Engineering Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Intelligence held at the Virginia Consortium of Engineering and Science Universities, Hampton, Virginia, June 27-28, 1995. The presentations addressed activities in the areas of fuzzy logic, neural networks, and evolutionary computations. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, industry, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the Computational intelligence area and to provide guidelines for future research.

Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

247

Energy Demand Staff Scientist  

E-print Network

Scientist Lynn Price Staff Scientist Nan Zhou Scientist Nate Aden Senior Research Associate Hongyou Lu Senior Research Associate Nina Zheng Research Associate Ali Hasanbeigi Post Doc Yining Qin Post Doc for the Industrial Sector in China: Experience from a Pilot Project with Two Steel Mills in Shandong Province

Eisen, Michael

248

Hydrologic modelling for climate change impacts analysis of shifts in future hydrologic regimes: implications for stream temperature and salmon habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges faced by climate change impact analysts must be solved through interdisciplinary collaboration between research scientists, institutions and stakeholders. In particular, hydrologic modelers, climate scientists, biologists, ecologists, engineers and water resource managers must interact to pool expertise and provide tools to address the complex issues associated with future climate change. The current study examines the results of an application

K. E. Bennett; A. T. Werner; M. Schnorbus; E. P. Salathé; M. Nelitz

2009-01-01

249

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 15: Technical uncertainty and project complexity as correlates of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of an exploratory investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory study was conducted that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty and project complexity on information use by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists. The study utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list served as the study population. The adjusted response rate was 67 percent. The survey instrument is appendix C to this report. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and information use. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and the use of federally funded aerospace R&D. The results of this investigation are relevant to researchers investigating information-seeking behavior of aerospace engineers. They are also relevant to R&D managers and policy planners concerned with transferring the results of federally funded aerospace R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1993-01-01

250

Precision engineering for astronomy: historical origins and the future revolution in ground-based astronomy.  

PubMed

Since the dawn of civilization, the human race has pushed technology to the limit to study the heavens in ever-increasing detail. As astronomical instruments have evolved from those built by Tycho Brahe in the sixteenth century, through Galileo and Newton in the seventeenth, to the present day, astronomers have made ever more precise measurements. To do this, they have pushed the art and science of precision engineering to extremes. Some of the critical steps are described in the evolution of precision engineering from the first telescopes to the modern generation telescopes and ultra-sensitive instruments that need a combination of precision manufacturing, metrology and accurate positioning systems. In the future, precision-engineered technologies such as those emerging from the photonics industries may enable future progress in enhancing the capabilities of instruments, while potentially reducing the size and cost. In the modern era, there has been a revolution in astronomy leading to ever-increasing light-gathering capability. Today, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is at the forefront of this revolution, building observatories on the ground that are set to transform our view of the universe. At an elevation of 5000 m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) is nearing completion. The ALMA is the most powerful radio observatory ever and is being built by a global partnership from Europe, North America and East Asia. In the optical/infrared part of the spectrum, the latest project for ESO is even more ambitious: the European Extremely Large Telescope, a giant 40 m class telescope that will also be located in Chile and which will give the most detailed view of the universe so far. PMID:22802494

Cunningham, Colin; Russell, Adrian

2012-08-28

251

Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: a protein engineering perspective.  

PubMed

Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class of protein therapeutics. The rationale for developing better protein therapeutics with enhanced efficacy, greater safety, reduced immunogenicity or improved delivery comes from the convergence of clinical, scientific, technological and commercial drivers that have identified unmet needs and provided strategies to address them. Future protein drugs seem likely to be more extensively engineered to improve their performance, e.g., antibodies and Fc fusion proteins with enhanced effector functions or extended half-life. Two old concepts for improving antibodies, namely antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, have advanced to the cusp of clinical success. As for newer protein therapeutic platform technologies, several engineered protein scaffolds are in early clinical development and offer differences and some potential advantages over antibodies. PMID:21371474

Carter, Paul J

2011-05-15

252

Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: A protein engineering perspective  

SciTech Connect

Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class of protein therapeutics. The rationale for developing better protein therapeutics with enhanced efficacy, greater safety, reduced immunogenicity or improved delivery comes from the convergence of clinical, scientific, technological and commercial drivers that have identified unmet needs and provided strategies to address them. Future protein drugs seem likely to be more extensively engineered to improve their performance, e.g., antibodies and Fc fusion proteins with enhanced effector functions or extended half-life. Two old concepts for improving antibodies, namely antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, have advanced to the cusp of clinical success. As for newer protein therapeutic platform technologies, several engineered protein scaffolds are in early clinical development and offer differences and some potential advantages over antibodies.

Carter, Paul J., E-mail: pjc@gene.com

2011-05-15

253

ROLES OF PROFESSIONAL SCIENTISTS AND RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS IN THE EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES PREPARING TO ENTER THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS WORKFORCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL have developed considerable experience in organizing and carrying out science education outreach activities for minority and disabled students. The author was invited to participate in a symposium on the ...

254

Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future

Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

2014-01-01

255

Mentoring Among Scientists: Implications of Interpersonal Relationships within a Formal Mentoring Program  

SciTech Connect

Mentoring is an established strategy for learning that has its root in antiquity. Most, if not all, successful scientists and engineers had an effective mentor at some point in their career. In the context of scientists and engineers, mentoring has been undefined. Reports addressing critical concerns regarding the future of science and engineering in the U.S. mention the practice of mentoring a priori, leaving organizations without guidance in its application. Preliminary results from this study imply that formal mentoring can be effective when properly defined and operationalized. Recognizing the uniqueness of the individual in a symbiotic mentor-protégé relationship significantly influences a protégé’s learning experience which carries repercussions into their career intentions. The mentor-protégé relationship is a key factor in succession planning and preserving and disseminating critical information and tacit knowledge essential to the development of leadership in the science and technological industry.

Bryan D. Maughan

2006-11-01

256

Design of an Advanced Expander Test Bed. [for future space engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is the key element for development of technology for future space engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The AETB will use oxygen/hydrogen propellants and a split expander cycle with nominal operation at a combustion chamber pressure of 1200 psia, a mixture ratio of 6.0, and an equivalent vacuum thrust of 20,000 lbf. It will function over a wide range of conditions including throttling to 5 percent thrust, operation at a mixture ratio of 12.0, and operation in tank head idle and pumped idle modes.

Masters, Arthur I.; Tabata, William K.

1991-01-01

257

Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

1992-01-01

258

Fulbrighters Agricultural scientists  

E-print Network

with research and education. A Fulbright award gives students and scholars the benefit of conducting worldFulbrighters are... Agricultural scientists Anthropologists Archeologists Architects Art historians

259

Just Like Real Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

2009-01-01

260

Contributions by Citizen Scientists to Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) The AAVSO's experience in utilizing the skills, equipment, and enthusiasm of amateur astronomers towards its research is not unique in astronomy. Citizen Scientists have contributed to our understanding of asteroids, exo-planets, solar system weather, light echoes, and galactic streaming, as well as inventing new equipment and software. This talk will highlight some of the recent advances by Citizen Scientists, and suggest some areas where they can contribute in the future.

Henden, A. A.

2012-06-01

261

The History of Winter: teachers as scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned veterans in the field, is a unique experience for many of the teachers. Here we present lessons learned throughout the lifetime of the program, including successes and improvements made, and present our vision for the future of HOW.

Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

2013-12-01

262

Synchrotron imaging techniques for bone and cartilage tissue engineering: potential, current trends, and future directions.  

PubMed

Biomedical imaging is crucial to the success of bone/cartilage tissue engineering (TE) by providing detailed three-dimensional information on tissue-engineered scaffolds and associated bone/cartilage growth during the healing process. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based biomedical imaging is an emerging technique for this purpose that has been drawing considerable recent attention. Due to the unique properties of synchrotron light, SR biomedical imaging can provide information that conventional X-ray imaging is not able to capture. SR biomedical imaging techniques notably differ from conventional imaging in both physics and implementation, thus varying with regard to both capability and popularity for biomedical imaging applications. In the earlier decade, synchrotron-based imaging was used in bone/cartilage TE to characterize bone/cartilage scaffolds and tissues as well as the varying degrees of success in reconstruction. However, several key issues should be addressed through research before SR biomedical imaging can be advanced to a noninvasive method for application to live animals and eventually to human patients. This review briefly presents recent developments in this area, focusing on different synchrotron-based biomedical imaging techniques and their advantages and limitations, as well as reported applications to bone and cartilage TE. Key issues and challenges are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research. PMID:24517187

Olubamiji, Adeola Deborah; Izadifar, Zohreh; Chen, Daniel Xiongbiao

2014-10-01

263

Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2005-04-01

264

Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for the Constellation Program. Development studies conducted to date for NTP forward planning have identified a number of technical areas that will require advancement to acceptable technology readiness levels (TRLs) before they can be utilized in NTP system development. These include high-temperature, high-area ratio nozzle extension; long-life, low-NPSP turbomachinery; and low-boiloff propellant management, and a qualified nuclear fuel element. The current J-2X program is working many of these areas that can be leveraged to support NTP development in a highly compatible and synergistic fashion. In addition to supporting technical development, there are other programmatic issues being worked in the J-2X program that can be leveraged by a future NTP development program. These include compliance with recently-evolved space system requirements such as human-rating, fault tolerance and fracture control. These and other similar mandatory system requirements have been adopted by NASA and can result in a significant technical impact beyond elevation of the root technologies required by NTP. Finally, the exploitation of experience, methodologies, and procedures developed by the J-2X program in the areas of verification, qualification, certification, altitude simulation testing, and facility definition will be especially applicable to a future NTP system. The similarities in system mission (in-space propulsion) and operational environment (vacuum, zero-gee) between J-2X and NTP make this highly synergistic. Thus, it can be shown that the collective benefit of leveraging experience and technologies developed during the J-2X program can result in significant savings in development cost and schedule for NTP.

Ballard, Richard O. [Liquid Engine and Main Propulsion Systems Branch, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

2008-01-21

265

What do Future Senators, Scientists, Social Workers,  

E-print Network

= BMI percentile each year (BMI = body mass index) Explanatory variable = days of eating cereal in each unhealthy for other meals too. High metabolism could cause low BMI and the need to eat breakfast. Those, not Dairy MAX) What was the size of the effect? Reduction of just under 2% in BMI percentile for each

Utts, Jessica

266

Women Life Scientists: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase student's exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach and problem-solving science activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Each module contains a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Modules drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula. The book may be purchased from the American Physiological Society or the individual chapters may be downloaded for free from the Archive. To access all of the chapters, click the "All in This Collection" link to the left.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

267

Astronomy Olympiads a Challenge for Future Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contests in astronomy for secondary school pupils, very often called "Astronomy Olympiads", have acquired a general recognition in many countries. They are regarded in various manners: as the best way to attract to science young talented people in general, the possibility to discriminate the most successful participants, who are then in position to be offered to become students of famous universities which is viewed as the beginning of a nice career, the possibility of affirmation of astronomy in secondary schools, the way to put together young amateur astronomers from various parts of the world, etc. On the other hand, there are some organisational problems which follow such events; they concern the relationship with the International Astronomical Union, outreach of the contests in different countries and many others. Serbia has been a member in the Astronomy-Olympiad Movement from 2002.

Ninkovic, S.

2013-05-01

268

Just like Real Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

Betteley, Pat

2009-01-01

269

Misquoted Scientists Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

Cole, John R.

1981-01-01

270

Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

1999-01-01

271

Stories of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

Mascazine, John R.

2001-01-01

272

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

273

Variable compression ratio engine: A future power plant for automobiles - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy standards have long remained a source of challenges for research in automobile engine technology development towards the more thermally efficient and less polluting engine. Spark ignition (SI) engines have lower part-load efficiency when compared with the diesel engines. The greatest opportunity for improving SI engine efficiency is by way of higher compression ratio, variable

Amjad Shaik; N Shenbaga; Vinayaga Moorthi

2007-01-01

274

The Whitaker Foundation: Graduate Fellowships: Biomedical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The funding mission of the Whitaker Foundation is to provide the opportunity for scientists to make future advances in medical science through increased interaction between engineering and biomedical research. Applications for graduate fellowships in biomedical engineering will be accepted from undergraduate students in their final year of study, first year graduate students, and non-students with appropriate engineering or science backgrounds. The target date for submitting applications is December 10, 1998.

1998-01-01

275

Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

2013-01-01

276

National Science Board, Citing Census Stats on Foreign-Born Scientists and Engineers, Releases Workforce Report with New Sense of Urgency  

NSF Publications Database

... and Engineers, Releases Workforce Report with New Sense of Urgency WASHINGTON, D.C.?The National ... following a three-year study, saying that new figures on the proportion of foreign-born workers in ...

277

Scaffold design and fabrication technologies for engineering tissues — state of the art and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, tissue engineers are attempting to engineer virtually every human tissue. Potential tissue-engineered products include cartilage, bone, heart valves, nerves, muscle, bladder, liver, etc. Tissue engineering techniques generally require the use of a porous scaffold, which serves as a threedimensional template for initial cell attachment and subsequent tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. The scaffold provides the necessary

Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2001-01-01

278

Talk Like a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

2010-04-01

279

Present Challenges, Critical Needs, and Future Technological Directions for NASA's GN and C Engineering Discipline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently undergoing a substantial redirection. Notable among the changes occurring within NASA is the stated emphasis on technology development, integration, and demonstration. These new changes within the Agency should have a positive impact on the GN&C discipline given the potential for sizeable investments for technology development and in-space demonstrations of both Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) systems and Autonomous Precision Landing (APL) systems. In this paper the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) provides a summary of the present technical challenges, critical needs, and future technological directions for NASA s GN&C engineering discipline. A brief overview of the changes occurring within NASA that are driving a renewed emphasis on technology development will be presented as background. The potential benefits of the planned GN&C technology developments will be highlighted. This paper will provide a GN&C State-of-the-Discipline assessment. The discipline s readiness to support the goals & objectives of each of the four NASA Mission Directorates is evaluated and the technical challenges and barriers currently faced by the discipline are summarized. This paper will also discuss the need for sustained investments to sufficiently mature the several classes of GN&C technologies required to implement NASA crewed exploration and robotic science missions.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.

2010-01-01

280

The Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems: Present Challenges and Future Promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are used in the SE community to address the need for managing the development of complex systems. A key feature of the MBSE approach is the use of a model to capture the requirements, architecture, behavior, operating environment and other key aspects of the system. The focus on the model differentiates MBSE from traditional SE techniques that may have a document centric approach. In an effort to assess the benefit of utilizing MBSE on its flight projects, NASA Langley has implemented a pilot program to apply MBSE techniques during the early phase of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X). MISSE-X is a Technology Demonstration Mission being developed by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist i . Designed to be installed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS), MISSE-X will host experiments that advance the technology readiness of materials and devices needed for future space exploration. As a follow-on to the highly successful series of previous MISSE experiments on ISS, MISSE-X benefits from a significant interest by the

Bloebaum, Christina L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

2012-01-01

281

Finding a New Continent versus Mapping All the Rivers: Recognition, Ownership, and the Scientific Epistemological Development of Practicing Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional…

Verdan, Andrea Marie

2012-01-01

282

Scientists Track Sulfate Emissions Across Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have a precise record of sulfate deposition from volcanoes stretching back 2000 years, a finding that will better inform future climate models and policy decisions. The new reconstruction was detailed in a paper published online on 6 July in Nature Climate Change (doi:10.1038/nclimate2293).

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

283

Engineering for a ChangingWorld A Roadmap to the Future of  

E-print Network

interdisciplinary nature of new technologies, and the impact of cyberin- frastructure demand new paradigms in engineering re- search and development. Moreover, challenges such as the off-shoring of engineering jobs

284

Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379  

SciTech Connect

In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are size limitations on the underground facilities imposed by the mechanical behavior of the candidate host rock type (i.e., poorly indurated clay) and the resulting ground support requirements. Underground excavations in the Boom Clay require a significant level of ground support to ensure the openings remain stable. A concrete lining system has been developed to address this engineering requirement. As a result strict size limits are imposed on both the diameter of the tunnels and the dimensions of the shaft stations resulting in unique design challenges requiring maximal optimization of the available space. Ongoing studies indicate that a significant (20%) reduction in shaft diameter can be achieved by diagonally orienting the hoist guide rails with respect to the cage, optimizing the counter weight dimensions, and reconfiguring the auxiliary hoisting system as a single rope system. Reliable subsurface transportation of waste packages can be achieved through a hybrid rail/wheel system powered by a battery operated electric locomotive. Key components of the system, including the battery-powered locomotive and a turntable used for transitioning waste shipments from the access gallery into disposal galleries without the need for constructing turnouts, have been successfully demonstrated at the Gorleben exploratory facility and the Konrad repository in Germany, respectively. By optimizing the available space in the disposal galleries and limiting the introduction of hazardous gases by using electric powered systems combined with the relatively small number of workers envisioned in the Belgian repository concept adequate ventilation can be achieved to ensure safe operational conditions. The proposed sealing and backfill systems in the Belgian repository concept should provide adequate safeguards as currently planned. Should a future retrievability requirement be imposed on the design it appears likely that a partial backfilling strategy could be employed. The key component in ensuring retrievability in the design would be the selection of a backfill that combines the

Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.; Nieder-Westermann, G.H. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Van Humbeeck, H. [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Brussels (Belgium); Van Cotthem, Alain [Tractebel Engineering SA, Brussels (Belgium)

2012-07-01

285

Use of Gobar-gas in diesel engines in India -present status and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present search for viable alternative fuels for SI and CI engines, bio-gas (gobar-gas in particular) has received considerable attention in recent years, in India, for use in diesel engines meant specially for rural or agricultural applications. The use of gobar-gas in diesel engines has yielded quite encouraging results from considerations of diesel saving and engine performance. It has

S. Parkash; R. P. Gakkhar; C. P. Gupta

1983-01-01

286

445 N (100lbf) LO 2\\/LCH 4 reaction control engine technology development for future space vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have identified liquid oxygen (LO2)\\/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 445N (100-lbf) LO2\\/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative

Philip J. Robinson; Eric M. Veith; Eric A. Hurlbert; Rafael Jimenez; Timothy D. Smith

2010-01-01

287

Report to the President: Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The President's Council of Adviser's on Science and Technology (PCAST) present the report Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for Americaâs Future. This report provides a strategy for improving K-12 STEM education that responds to the tremendous challenges and historic opportunities facing the Nation. The reports recommends further use of standards and extensive increases in teacher recruiting. The report also advises greater use of partnerships and improvement in diversity.

Technology, Presidentâs C.

2011-04-04

288

Marine Scientists Directory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Sciences Board of the National Academy of Sciences is distributing questionnaires to oceanographers, in preparation for the next edition of the U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists. The questionnaires are being sent to heads of oceanography activities in academia, government, and industry for further distribution to their ocean science staff members. EOS readers in the U.S. who consider themselves marine scientists but who do not receive a questionnaire before October 24 should write directly to Richard C. Vetter, Ocean Sciences Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418.

289

Online Workspace to Connect Scientists with NASA's Science E/PO Efforts and Practitioners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing awareness of the need for a scientifically literate public in light of challenges facing society today, and also a growing concern about the preparedness of our future workforce to meet those challenges. Federal priorities for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education call for improvement of teacher training, increased youth and public engagement, greater involvement of underrepresented populations, and investment in undergraduate and graduate education. How can planetary scientists contribute to these priorities? How can they “make their work and findings comprehensible, appealing, and available to the public” as called for in the Planetary Decadal Survey?NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) workspace provides the SMD E/PO community of practice – scientists and educators funded to conduct SMD E/PO or those using NASA’s science discoveries in E/PO endeavors - with an online environment in which to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate activities, thus helping to increase effectiveness of E/PO efforts. The workspace offers interested scientists avenues to partner with SMD E/PO practitioners and learn about E/PO projects and impacts, as well as to advertise their own efforts to reach a broader audience. Through the workspace, scientists can become aware of opportunities for involvement and explore resources to improve professional practice, including literature reviews of best practices for program impact, mechanisms for engaging diverse audiences, and large- and small-scale program evaluation. Scientists will find “how to” manuals for getting started and increasing impact with public presentations, classroom visits, and other audiences, as well as primers with activity ideas and resources that can augment E/PO interactions with different audiences. The poster will introduce the workspace to interested scientists and highlight pathways to resources of interest that can help scientists more effectively contribute to national STEM education priorities. Visitors are encouraged to explore the growing collection of resources at http://smdepo.org.

Shipp, Stephanie; Bartolone , Lindsay; Peticolas, Laura; Woroner, Morgan; Dalton, Heather; Schwerin, Theresa; Smith, Denise

2014-11-01

290

445 N (100-lbf) LO 2/LCH 4 reaction control engine technology development for future space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 445 N (100-lbf) LO 2/LCH 4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign mixture ratio (MR), ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

2010-03-01

291

100-Lb(f) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

2008-01-01

292

Scientists' and Teachers' Perspectives about Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is resulting in more opportunities for scientists and teachers to collaborate. The relationships can result in failed collaborations or success. We recently completed a 6-year regional project that used several approaches to develop scientist-teacher relationships.…

Munson, Bruce H.; Martz, Marti Ann; Shimek, Sarah

2013-01-01

293

Ph.D. Scientists (Entry Level) Molecular Biologists Description  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Scientists (Entry Level) ­ Molecular Biologists Description: DuPont, a Global Leader and a demonstrated record of productivity through multiple publications or patents. One key component of DuPont. Scientists and engineers within CR&D work within multi-disciplinary teams alongside DuPont businesses

Aukema, Brian

294

Ph.D. Scientists (Entry Level) Biochemistry Description  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Scientists (Entry Level) ­ Biochemistry Description: DuPont, a Global Leader and a demonstrated record of productivity through multiple publications or patents One key component of DuPont. Scientists and engineers within CR&D work within multi-disciplinary teams alongside DuPont businesses

Aukema, Brian

295

Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

2001-01-01

296

ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REPORTED ARE FACTORS WHICH HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE AT THE UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL IN INFLUENCING MEN TO ENTER CAREERS IN SCIENCE. THE RESEARCH IS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART 1 ASSESSES STATISTICALLY THE SCIENTIST PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF 490 UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES BY DETERMINING WHAT PROPORTION OF THEIR GRADUATES ENTERED CAREERS IN…

KNAPP, R.H.; GOODRICH, H.B.

297

Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

298

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

299

Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

Gordon, Wendy

2014-02-01

300

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

Christine P. Villano

2011-01-01

301

Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

302

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

303

Naked Scientists Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Naked Scientists are "a media-savvy group of physicians and researchers from Cambridge University who use radio, live lectures, and the Internet to strip science down to its bare essentials, and promote it to the general public." They have a weekly radio program on BBC radio and this is available via a weekly podcast as well. Visitors to this site can learn more about the Naked Scientists as well as subscribe to their podcasts which include: Naked Scientists Podcast (and an enhanced version with images), Ask the Naked Scientists, and Question of the week. Subscriptions are available via iTunes, Yahoo, or Google or they can be downloaded as MP3 or MP4 from the site. Recent topics have included: Flu and Viruses; Combating Climate Change; and Memory and Learning. Anybody with a desire to learn about science in an accessible and entertaining way will find these podcasts useful. These podcasts could also be used in a classroom or for homework - as a way to integrate technology and fundamentals.

2008-02-14

304

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

Porter, Diana

2009-01-01

305

Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

306

Nurturing the Child Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

2011-01-01

307

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1996-01-01

308

Future directions in engineering ethics research: Microethics, macroethics and the role of professional societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three frames of reference for engineering ethics are discussed—individual, professional and social—which can be further broken\\u000a down into “microethics” concerned with individuals and the internal relations of the engineering profession and “macroethics”\\u000a referring to the collective social responsibility of the engineering profession and to societal decisions about technology.\\u000a Few attempts have been made at integrating microethical and macroethical approaches to

Joseph R. Herkert

2001-01-01

309

Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) - its Impact on Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an overview of our "Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for Mars" ( "BEES for Mars") project. The BEES approach distills selected biologically inspired strategies utilizing motion cues/optic flow, bioinspired pattern recognition, biological visual and neural control systems, bioinspired sensing and communication techniques, and birds of prey inspired search and track algorithmic systems. Unique capabilities so enabled, provide potential solutions to future autonomous robotic space and planetary mission applications. With the first series of tests performed in September 2003, August 2004 and September 2004, we have demonstrated the BEES technologies at the El Mirage Dry Lakebed site in the Mojave Desert using Delta Wing experimental prototypes. We call these test flyers the "BEES flyer", since we are developing them as dedicated test platform for the newly developed bioinspired sensors, processors and algorithmic strategies. The Delta Wing offers a robust airframe that can sustain high G launches and offers ease of compact stowability and packaging along with scaling to small size and low ReynOld's number performance for a potential Mars deployment. Our approach to developing light weight, low power autonomous flight systems using concepts distilled from biology promises to enable new applications, of dual use to NASA and DoD needs. Small in size (0.5 -5 Kg) BEES Flyers are demonstrating capabilities for autonomous flight and sensor operability in Mars analog conditions. The BEES project team spans JPL, NASA Ames, Australian National University (ANU), Brigham Young University(BYU), DC Berkeiey, Analogic Computers Inc. and other institutions. The highlights from our recent flight demonstrations exhibiting new Mission enabling capabilities are described. Further, this paper describes two classes of potential new missions for Mars exploration: (1) the long range exploration missions, and (2) observation missions, for real time imaging of critical ephemeral phenomena, that can be enabled by use of BEES flyers. For example, such flyers can serve as a powerful black-box for critical descent and landing data and enablers for improved science missions complementing and supplementing the existing assets like landers and rovers by providing valuable exploration and quick extended low-altitude aerial coverage of the sites of interest by imaging them and distributing instruments to them. Imaging done by orbiters allows broad surface coverage at limited spatial resolution. Low altitude air-borne exploration of Mars offers a means for imaging large areas, perhaps up to several hundred kilometers, quickly and efficiently, providing a close-up birds-eye view of the planetary terrain and close-up approach to constrained difficult areas like canyons and craters. A novel approach to low-mass yet highly capable flyers is enabled by small aircraft equipped using sensors and processors and algorithms developed using BEES technology. This project is focused towards showing the direct impact of blending the best of artificial intelligence attributes and bioinspiration to create a leap beyond existing capability for our future Missions.

Thakoor, Sarita; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steve

2004-01-01

310

Mechanical Engineering Curricula: A Follow-up Study for the Future Effects of ABET EC2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the sole agency responsible for accreditation of educational programs leading to degrees in engineering, engineering technology, and related engineering areas. In the late 1990s, engineering programs began transitioning to a new Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC2000). By 2001, all engineering programs were required to be accredited under the new criteria. The philosophy of Engineering Criteria 2000 is to allow institutions and programs to define their mission and objectives to meet the needs of their constituents and enable program differentiation. Emphasis is placed on continuous improvement of programs based on the input of constituents and a process that links outcomes and assessment to program objectives. This current paper is a follow-up study to a preliminary study conducted by the author in 2000 that looked at the initial effects of ABET EC2000. The earlier study examined selected mechanical engineering programs to discern the impact of EC2000 on curriculum development during the initial implementation phase of the new criteria. Data on the layout and composition of mechanical engineering curricula for nine schools in the United States with Ph.D. programs and nine schools without Ph.D. programs was presented and is updated in this current work. Current results are also compared to a study by Robert E. Mates from the State University of New York at Buffalo entitled a Survey of Undergraduate ME Programs, conducted in 1987. The conclusions identify changes that have occurred in mechanical engineering curricula as the EC2000 assessment process has matured.

Whiteman, Wayne

311

Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or

James B. Sampson

2005-01-01

312

The Education of Future Aeronautical Engineers: Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will outline answers to the two central questions regarding improving engineering education: (1) What is the full set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that engineering students should possess as they leave the university, and at what level of proficiency?; and (2) How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? The…

Crawley, Edward F.; Brodeur, Doris R.; Soderholm, Diane H.

2008-01-01

313

Existing and Future Demands on the Turbocharging of Modern Large Two-stroke Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Turbocharger development remains one of the key issues for further performance development of large two-stroke diesel engines which power the majority of the world's shipping. This paper reviews the state of current technology in terms of turbochargers and their interaction with these large engines. Pressure ratio and turbocharger efficiency are the key parameters for further development of large two-stroke

Klaus Heim

314

The Future of Engineering Starts Here TodayStarts Here, Today.  

E-print Network

. Booth School of Engineering Practice chidiac@mcmaster.ca #12;Sustainable industries Evolution Leadership creation Informed Choices Design Manufacturing Design intensive Environment, safety and Leadership 12-18 months #12;SEP Master of Engineering Programs · Professional education at the Master's degree

Haykin, Simon

315

Journal Review: Biomolecular Engineering, Bioengineering, Biochemicals, and Food Directed Evolution: Past, Present, and Future  

E-print Network

Journal Review: Biomolecular Engineering, Bioengineering, Biochemicals, and Food Directed Evolution Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 DOI 10.1002/aic.13995 Published of genetic diversification and library screening or selection, has become one of the most useful

Zhao, Huimin

316

Making It All Work: The Engineering Graduate of the Future, a UK Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High skills are today seen as being of vital importance to economies, industries, companies and individuals. The engineering industry is no exception and the graduate engineer has a key position in this regard. In the research reported in this paper, the authors use in-depth interviews with industry experts to investigate the provision of…

Spinks, Nigel; Silburn, Nicholas L. J.; Birchall, David W.

2007-01-01

317

Estimating the effect of future oil prices on petroleum engineering project investment yardsticks.  

E-print Network

This study proposes two methods, (1) a probabilistic method based on historical oil prices and (2) a method based on Gaussian simulation, to model future prices of oil. With these methods to model future oil prices, we can calculate the ranges...

Mendjoge, Ashish V

2004-09-30

318

Building the Future SERIES Seismic Engineering research infrastructures for European synergies  

E-print Network

the Future Eurocode 8 Design of structures forEurocode 8 - Design of structures for earthquake resistance to very good) Research needs: · Development of design rules for "equivalent frames" Research needs Building the Future S i i d i l f t dSeismic design rules for prestressed concrete elements The use

319

Scientists warn DOE of dwindling funding  

SciTech Connect

Fusion scientists have raised their voices to let the Department of Energy know that they are concerned about the DOE`s commitment to fusion research. In a letter dated February 28, 1994, 37 scientists from 21 institutions noted that {open_quotes}US funding for fusion has steadily decreased: It is now roughly half its level of 1980. This peculiar and painful circumstance has forced the program to contract drastically, losing skilled technical personnel, even as it faces its most exciting opportunities.{close_quotes} The letter was addressed to Martha Krebs, the DOE`s director of the Office of Energy Research, and N. Anne Davies, associated director for fusion energy. The scientists wanted to make two points. The first was that fusion energy research, only midway between concept and commercialization, deserves major reinvestment. The second was that basic scientific knowledge in the area of fusion, not just applied engineering, must remain a priority.

NONE

1994-06-01

320

Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

Saia, S. M.

2013-12-01

321

Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They can also help reinforce academic knowledge and skills. The cost of transportation restricts teachers ability to take students on field trips exposing them to outside experts and unique learning environments. Additionally, arranging to bring in guest speakers to the classroom seems to happen infrequently, especially in schools in rural areas. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center has created a way to enable teachers to connect their students with STEM experts virtually. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. Through EEAB, scientists are able to actively engage with students across the nation in multiple ways. They can work with student teams as mentors, participate in virtual student team science presentations, or connect with students through Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) Events.

Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

2012-01-01

322

NASA Now: Engineering Design: Tilt Rotors, Aircraft of the Future - Duration: 6:09.  

NASA Video Gallery

Meet Carl Russell, a research aerospace engineer who is working on developing new innovations for air travel. Russell discusses how tilt rotors work, including a demonstration on how rotors use Ber...

323

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Man's Responsibility to His Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological evolution can be carried out in the laboratory. With new knowledge available in genetics, possibilities are raised that genetic characters can be transferred in the future to embryos according to a predetermined plan. (PS)

Hoagland, Hudson

1972-01-01

324

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial, and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic bearings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2002-01-01

325

ALEXANDER PERLIN Research Scientist  

E-print Network

.Sc. in Ocean Engineering, Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St. Petersburg, Russia in beach protection projects funded by Israeli Ministry of Science and Port and Railway Authority; computed

326

Developing a Consensus-Driven, Core Competency Model to Shape Future Audio Engineering Technology Curriculum: A Web-Based Modified Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this online study was to create a ranking of essential core competencies and technologies required by AET (audio engineering technology) programs 10 years in the future. The study was designed to facilitate curriculum development and improvement in the rapidly expanding number of small to medium sized audio engineering technology…

Tough, David T.

2009-01-01

327

Adaptation and development of software simulation methodologies for cardiovascular engineering: present and future challenges from an end-user perspective  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective. PMID:19487202

Díaz-Zuccarini, V.; Narracott, A.J.; Burriesci, G.; Zervides, C.; Rafiroiu, D.; Jones, D.; Hose, D.R.; Lawford, P.V.

2009-01-01

328

Future Land Use and Concerns About the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: A Survey of Urban Dwellers.  

PubMed

/ We examined environmental concerns and future land-use preferences of 487 people attending the Boise River Festival in Boise, Idaho, USA, about the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). We were particularly interested in the perceptions of urban dwellers living at some distance from the facility, since attitudes and perceptions are usually examined for people living near such facilities. More than 50% of the people were most worried about contamination and about waste storage and transport, another 23% were concerned about human health and accidents and spills, and the rest listed other concerns such as jobs and the economy or education. When given a list of possible concerns, accidents and spills, storage of current nuclear materials, and storage of additional nuclear materials were rated the highest. Thus both open-ended and structured questions identified nuclear storage and accidents and spills as the most important concerns, even for people living far from a DOE site. The highest rated future land uses were: National Environmental Research Park, recreation (including hiking, camping, fishing and hunting), and returning the land to the Shoshone-Bannock tribes; the lowest rated future land uses were homes and increased nuclear waste storage. These relative rankings are similar to those obtained for other Idahoans living closer to the site and for people living near the Savannah River Site, another DOE facility in South Carolina. The concern expressed about accidents and spills and waste storage translated into a desire not to see additional waste brought to INEEL and a low rating for using INEEL for building homes.KEY WORDS: Future land use; Perceptions; Recreation; Hazardous waste; Department of Energy; Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n4p532.html

Burger; Roush; Wartenberg; Gochfeld

1999-11-01

329

Potential Applications of the Ceramic Thrust Chamber Technology for Future Transpiration Cooled Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term development of ceramic rocket engine thrust chambers at the German Aerospace Center(DLR) currently leads to designs of self-sustaining, transpiration-cooled, fiber-reinforced ceramic rocket engine chamber structures.This paper discusses characteristic issues and potential benefits introduced by this technology. Achievable benefits are the reduction of weight and manufacturing cost, as well as an increased reliability and higher lifetime due to thermal cycle stability.Experiments with porous Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) materials for rocket engine chamber walls have been conducted at the DLR since the end of the 1990s.This paper discusses the current status of DLR's ceramic thrust chamber technology and potential applications for high thrust engines.The manufacturing process and the design concept are explained.The impact of variations of engine parameters(chamber pressure and diam-eter)on the required coolant mass flow are discussed.Due to favorable scaling effects a high thrust application utilizes all benefits of the discussed technology, while avoiding the most significant performance drawbacks.

Herbertz, Armin; Ortelt, Markus; Müller, Ilja; Hald, Hermann

330

The future in Agricultural Engineering: news degrees in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Engineer Agronomist at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) has been offered as a degree of five years with a total of 400 credits and seven optional orientations: Crop Production, Plant and Breeding Protection, Environment, Agricultural Economics, Animal Production, Rural Engineering and Food Technology. Actually, the Bologna plan creates three new degrees: Engineering and Science Agronomic, Food Engineering and Agro-Environmental Engineering, with 240 ECTS each one of them and with specific professional characteristics. The changes that involve the introduction of these new degrees is perhaps the largest occurred never at the Spanish university system, not only by the drastic transformation in the structure of titles, but also by the new changes that lie ahead in teaching methods. Among others we will comment the following ones: -A year decreased duration of studies and therefore incorporation into the market. - Elimination of the seven current guidelines to create three specific qualifications of degree. -Decrease of optional subjects and increase in credits for the basic subjects. - Inclusion of business practices. - Increase in the number of credits of final project. - Changes in methodologies and a higher involvement of teachers and students in the education.

Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Vázquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Arce, A.

2010-05-01

331

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

332

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 25: The technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 4 RAeS mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

333

Planned Topaz 2 launch worries space scientists  

SciTech Connect

US plans to launch into orbit a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) experiment powered by a Russian-supplied Topaz 2 space reactor has raised objections from some space scientists. They say that radiation from the reactor could adversely affect about a dozen present and future scientific satellites - such as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launched in 1991 - by disrupting instruments and computers, and causing damage. In response, SDIO said it is working to address the concerns of the scientific community.

Taylor, G.M.

1993-02-01

334

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of VOCs [2], and that lubricating oil is a major contributor. Fitting an oxidation catalyst to the natural gas engine leads to a reduction in nanoparticles emissions in comparison to engines without aftertreatment [2,3,4]. In 2001, the Cummins Westport Plus technology was introduced with the C Gas Plus engine, a popular choice for transit bus applications. This incorporates drive by wire, fully integrated, closed loop electronic controls and a standard oxidation catalyst for all applications. The B Gas Plus and the B Propane Plus engines, with application in shuttle and school buses were launched in 2002 and 2003. The gas-specific oxidation catalyst operates in concert with an optimized ring-pack and liner combination to reduce total particulate mass below 0.01g/bhphr, combat ultrafine particles and control VOC emissions.

Dunn, M

2003-08-24

335

Implications of multiplane-multispeed balancing for future turbine engine design and cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several alternative approaches, provided by multiplane-multispeed balancing, to traditional gas turbine engine manufacture and assembly procedures. These alternatives, which range from addition of trim-balancing at the end of the traditional assembly process to modular design of the rotating system for assembly and balancing external to the engine, require attention by the engine designer as an integral part of the design process. Since multiplane-multispeed balancing may be incorporated at one or more of several points during manufacture-assembly, its deliberate use is expected to provide significant cost and performance (reduced vibration) benefits. Moreover, its availability provides the designer with a firm base from which he may advance, with reasonable assurance of success, into the flexible rotor dynamic regime.

Badgley, R. H.

1974-01-01

336

CHO microRNA engineering is growing up: Recent successes and future challenges?  

PubMed Central

microRNAs with their ability to regulate complex pathways that control cellular behavior and phenotype have been proposed as potential targets for cell engineering in the context of optimization of biopharmaceutical production cell lines, specifically of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. However, until recently, research was limited by a lack of genomic sequence information on this industrially important cell line. With the publication of the genomic sequence and other relevant data sets for CHO cells since 2011, the doors have been opened for an improved understanding of CHO cell physiology and for the development of the necessary tools for novel engineering strategies. In the present review we discuss both knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs obtained from other biological models and proof of concepts already performed on CHO cells, thus providing an outlook of potential applications of microRNA engineering in production cell lines. PMID:23916872

Jadhav, Vaibhav; Hackl, Matthias; Druz, Aliaksandr; Shridhar, Smriti; Chung, Cheng-Yu; Heffner, Kelley M.; Kreil, David P.; Betenbaugh, Mike; Shiloach, Joseph; Barron, Niall; Grillari, Johannes; Borth, Nicole

2013-01-01

337

Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes and discusses the propulsion-system problems that will most likely be encountered if the specifications of hydrocarbon-based jet fuels must undergo significant changes in the future and, correspondingly, the advances in technology that will be required to minimize the adverse impact of these problems. Several investigations conducted are summarized. Illustrations are used to describe the relative effects of selected fuel properties on the behavior of propulsion-system components and fuel systems. The selected fuel properties are those that are most likely to be relaxed in future fuel specifications. Illustrations are also used to describe technological advances that may be needed in the future. Finally, the technological areas needing the most attention are described, and programs that are under way to address these needs are briefly discussed.

Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

1978-01-01

338

Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

1982-01-01

339

The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

2012-01-20

340

Career Explorations: Solar Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about science careers. Learners will answer questions prior to and after viewing an online video about careers for solar scientists and astronomers. This activity requires access to the Internet and, ideally, a method of projecting the video onto a screen and for playing the audio. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 2-4 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

341

Astronomer to Data Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

Kirkpatrick, Jessica

2015-01-01

342

The Dismal Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.

1997-01-01

343

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

344

Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

Stephens, G. E.

1980-01-01

345

Science Sampler: Hire a scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hire a scientist is an activity that asks students to review the qualifications of a scientist who has applied for a job at a research facility. During this review, students learn about the scientist's job skills, education, and work experience by conducting their own research on the Internet and at the library, through interviews conducted by email, and during conversations with visiting scientists. Once the research is completed, the student assumes the role of the scientist to complete a job application and answer some interview questions. This role-playing activity helps bring science to life.

Mesmer, Karen

2003-03-01

346

A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

2013-01-01

347

Introduction to current and future protein therapeutics: A protein engineering perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein therapeutics and its enabling sister discipline, protein engineering, have emerged since the early 1980s. The first protein therapeutics were recombinant versions of natural proteins. Proteins purposefully modified to increase their clinical potential soon followed with enhancements derived from protein or glycoengineering, Fc fusion or conjugation to polyethylene glycol. Antibody-based drugs subsequently arose as the largest and fastest growing class

Paul J. Carter

2011-01-01

348

Investigation into the past and future of women in science and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covering the Ancient Greek era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the 19th and 20th C., this paper explores the visions of the abilities of women, their access to education, and their roles in these epochs. Recent data on the participation rate of women in science and engineering, the culture in these fields, and strategies to increase their presence

M. Frize

2009-01-01

349

Field models: Their present and future application in fire safety engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different field models for calculating heat load, fire development, and smoke concentrations have been developed for use in fire safety engineering work. The field model versions of KAMELEON are based on a finite difference solution of the basic equations from fluid dynamics together with different mathematical models. The most important of these models are the kappa-epsilon model of turbulence, the

K. S. Pedersen; B. F. Magnussen

1992-01-01

350

Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, fielding a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads will pave the way for a new century of scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

2008-01-01

351

Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

1990-01-01

352

Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

2013-07-01

353

Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper\\u000a proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates\\u000a as sensitive and relevant test organisms. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20\\u000a peer-reviewed papers

A. Baun; N. B. Hartmann; K. Grieger; K. O. Kusk

2008-01-01

354

Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume 2: Technical document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2 was studied. The study takes two approaches: to determine the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and to use fuels other than Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, probably derived from oil shale, will be needed if present diesel-electric locomotives continue to be used.

Liddle, S. G.

1981-01-01

355

Future fuels and engines for railroad locomotives. Volume II. Technical document  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the potential for reducing the dependence of railroads on petroleum fuel, particularly Diesel No. 2. The study takes two approaches: (1) to determine how the use of Diesel No. 2 can be reduced through increased efficiency and conservation, and (2) to use fuels other then Diesel No. 2 both in Diesel and other types of engines. The study indicates that the possible reduction in fuel usage by increasing the efficiency of the present engine is limited; it is already highly energy efficient. The use of non-petroleum fuels, particularly the oil shale distillates, offers a greater potential. A coal-fired locomotive using any one of a number of engines appears to be the best alternative to the diesel-electric locomotive with regard to life-cycle cost, fuel availability, and development risk. The adiabatic diesel is the second-rated alternative with high thermal efficiency (up to 64%) as its greatest advantage. The risks associated with the development of the adiabatic diesel, however, are higher than those for the coal-fired locomotive. The advantage of the third alternative, the fuel cell, is that it produces electricity directly from the fuel. At present, the only feasible fuel for a fuel cell locomotive is methanol. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, probably derived from oil shale, will be needed if present diesel-electric locomotives are used beyond 1995. Because synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are particularly suited to medium-speed diesel engines, the first commercial application of these fuels may be by the railroad industry.

Liddle, S.G.; Bonzo, B.B.; Purohit, G.P.; Stallkamp, J.A.

1981-11-01

356

Ask a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is able to attract many of the top scientists from around the world. It makes sense that they would also draw upon this collective acumen to help young people learn about what they do. Visitors can submit their own questions for these professionals or look at questions that have already been answered. First-time visitors can start with the Top Ten Questions to get started on their journey. There are actually sixty questions answered here, as there are six sections, including Animals, General Biology, Evolution, and Genetics. The questions answered here are a diverse lot, ranging from "Why is there no mammal with green fur?" to "Why is memory affected by age?" The answers are lucid, well-written, and quite thorough. The generally curious will not be disappointed by this site.

2012-01-01

357

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

358

Advanced mathematical methods for scientists and engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book gives a self-contained presentation of the methods of asymptotics and perturbation theory, methods useful for obtaining approximate analytical solutions to differential and difference equations. Parts and chapter titles are as follows: fundamentals - ordinary differential equations, difference equations; local analysis - approximate solution of linear differential equations, approximate solution of nonlinear differential equations, approximate solution of difference equations,

C. M. Bender; S. A. Orszag

1978-01-01

359

Providing engineers and physical scientists with  

E-print Network

works in partnership with the DTI-funded Health Technologies Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN and Science, as well as the clinical facilities available via the Glasgow NHS Trusts and other KTN clinical

Strathclyde, University of

360

Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery  

PubMed Central

We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518

2010-01-01

361

Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.  

PubMed

Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury. PMID:21488817

Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

2011-01-01

362

Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of modifications in hydrocarbon jet fuels specifications on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel system performance is discussed. Specific topics covered include: specific fuel consumption; ignition at relight limits; exhaust emissions; combustor liner temperatures; carbon deposition; gum formation in fuel nozzles, erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes; deposits in fuel system heat exchangers; and pumpability and flowability of the fuel. Data that evaluate the ability of current technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

1978-01-01

363

Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

2014-01-01

364

Model-based engineering:a strategy for RRW and future weapons programs.  

SciTech Connect

To meet Sandia's engineering challenges it is crucial that we shorten the product realization process. The challenge of RRW is to produce exceptional high quality designs and respond to changes quickly. Computer aided design models are an important element in realizing these objectives. Advances in the use of three dimensional geometric models on the Reliable Robust Warhead (RRW) activity have resulted in business advantage. This approach is directly applicable to other programs within the Laboratories. This paper describes the RRW approach and rationale. Keys to this approach are defined operational states that indicate a pathway for greater model-based realization and responsive infrastructure.

Harris, Rick; Martinez, Jacky R.

2007-05-01

365

Future development programs. [for emission reduction and production of aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A company program was planned which has a main drive to develop those emission reduction concepts that have the promise of earliest success. These programs were proposed in an attempt to enhance existing engine systems, exploiting their potential for emission reduction as far as is compatible with retaining the well established features in them that are well understood and in current production. The intended programs identified in the area of new concepts were: (1) upgrading the TCM fuel system, (2) evaluation of accelerator pump, (3) reduced cooling requirement, and (4) variable spark timing.

Waters, L.

1976-01-01

366

Genetically engineered virus-resistant plants in developing countries: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

Plant viruses cause severe crop losses worldwide. Conventional control strategies, such as cultural methods and biocide applications against arthropod, nematode, and plasmodiophorid vectors, have limited success at mitigating the impact of plant viruses. Planting resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical way to control plant virus diseases. Natural sources of resistance have been exploited extensively to develop virus-resistant plants by conventional breeding. Non-conventional methods have also been used successfully to confer virus resistance by transferring primarily virus-derived genes, including viral coat protein, replicase, movement protein, defective interfering RNA, non-coding RNA sequences, and protease, into susceptible plants. Non-viral genes (R genes, microRNAs, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, dsRNAse, RNA modifying enzymes, and scFvs) have also been used successfully to engineer resistance to viruses in plants. Very few genetically engineered (GE) virus resistant (VR) crops have been released for cultivation and none is available yet in developing countries. However, a number of economically important GEVR crops, transformed with viral genes are of great interest in developing countries. The major issues confronting the production and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries are primarily socio-economic and related to intellectual property rights, biosafety regulatory frameworks, expenditure to generate GE crops and opposition by non-governmental activists. Suggestions for satisfactory resolution of these factors, presumably leading to field tests and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries, are given. PMID:20109667

Reddy, D V R; Sudarshana, M R; Fuchs, M; Rao, N C; Thottappilly, G

2009-01-01

367

Earth's future in the Anthropocene: Technological interventions between piecemeal and utopian social engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive discussion in the academic and policy communities is developing around the possibility of climate engineering through stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI). In this contribution, we develop a perspective on this issue in the context of the wider setting of societal development in the Anthropocene. We draw on Karl Popper's concepts of piecemeal and utopian social engineering to examine how different visions of societal development relate to SAI. Based on this reflection, we argue that the debate on SAI is fueled not only by the inequitable distribution of its effects and potential atmospheric and climatic side effects, as disconcerting as some of these effects and side effects may be, but also, and perhaps primarily, by its apparent privileging of the status quo and incremental change over a more immediate and radical change in societal organization. Although differing ideological orientations might thus help explain the intensity of parts of the debate, the understanding from which they follow, in which societal development is deduced from postulated technological characteristics and assumptions about a technology's use, hides from view a more subtle understanding of the relationship between technology and politics.

Schäfer, Stefan; Stelzer, Harald; Maas, Achim; Lawrence, Mark G.

2014-04-01

368

The Future of Carbon Dioxide for Polymer Processing in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

The use of CO2 for scaffold fabrication in tissue engineering was popularized in the mid-1990s as a tool for producing polymeric foam scaffolds, but had fallen out of favor to some extent, in part due to challenges with pore interconnectivity. Pore interconnectivity issues have since been resolved by numerous dedicated studies that have collectively outlined how to control the appropriate parameters to achieve a pore structure desirable for tissue regeneration. In addition to CO2 foaming, several groups have leveraged CO2 as a swelling agent to impregnate scaffolds with drugs and other bioactive additives, and for encapsulation of plasmids within scaffolds for gene delivery. Moreover, in contrast to CO2 foaming, which typically relies on supercritical CO2 at very high pressures, CO2 at much lower pressures has also been used to sinter polymeric microspheres together in the presence of cells to create cell-seeded scaffolds in a single step. CO2 has a number of advantages for polymer processing in tissue engineering, including its ease of use, low cost, and the opportunity to circumvent the use of organic solvents. Building on these advantages, and especially now with the tremendous precedent that has paved the way in defining operating parameters, and making the technology accessible for new groups to adapt, we invite and encourage our colleagues in the field to leverage CO2 as a new tool to enhance their own respective unique capabilities. PMID:23289736

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Scurto, Aaron M.

2013-01-01

369

The Amateur Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student investigation of a reverse flame in a atmosphere of methane that won second place in the physics division of the International Science and Engineering Fair. Includes a discussion of falling and fracturing behavior, specifically dealing with chimneys, trees, pencil point, stirring rods, and chalk. (BT)

Walker, Jearl

1979-01-01

370

The Society for Amateur Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.

371

Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.

372

Field models: Their present and future application in fire safety engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different field models for calculating heat load, fire development, and smoke concentrations have been developed for use in fire safety engineering work. The field model versions of KAMELEON are based on a finite difference solution of the basic equations from fluid dynamics together with different mathematical models. The most important of these models are the kappa-epsilon model of turbulence, the eddy dissipation concept of combustion (EDC), the soot model by Magnussen, and the discrete transfer model for radiation by Shah and Lockwood. All the resulting equations are solved three dimensionally and in transient. A version under development is a calculation tool for flame spread on surface linings. The system uses input data from the cone calorimeter. The paper will mainly deal with the description of the numerical code and especially a version called KAMELEON FIRE E-3D, handling enclosed pool fires.

Pedersen, K. S.; Magnussen, B. F.

1992-12-01

373

A future in our past: the umbilical cord for orthopaedic tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

The umbilical cord (UC) has recently been added to the list of potential cell sources for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Although the UC is usually discarded after delivery, UC storage in special tissue banks is becoming an increasingly common procedure. Indeed, the capacity of UC cells to be directed toward different phenotypes makes this tissue an ideal cell source for regenerative medicine in orthopedics and in other fields. In this paper, these issues are presented and discussed, together with the potential of this cell source for allogeneic use. This article also looks at the anatomy of the UC from both the macroscopic and the cellular perspective and considers its extraordinary potential for research and clinical applications. PMID:25606537

MARMOTTI, ANTONIO; PERETTI, GIUSEPPE MARIA; MATTIA, SILVIA; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

2014-01-01

374

Precision engineering for future propulsion and power systems: a perspective from Rolls-Royce.  

PubMed

Rolls-Royce today is an increasingly global business, supplying integrated power systems to a wide variety of customers for use on land, at sea and in the air. Its reputation for 'delivering excellence' to these customers has been built largely on its gas turbine technology portfolio, and this reputation relies on the quality of the company's expertise in design, manufacture and delivery of services. This paper sets out to examine a number of examples, such as the high-pressure turbine blade, of the company's reliance on precision design and manufacture, highlighting how this precision contributes to customer satisfaction with its products. A number of measures the company is taking to accelerate its competitiveness in precision manufacture are highlighted, not least its extensive relationships with the academic research base. The paper finishes by looking briefly at the demands of the company's potential future product portfolio. PMID:22802505

Beale, Sam

2012-08-28

375

Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

Rosser, Sue

2015-01-01

376

Scientists and Sociologists of Science -- Friends or Foes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Wars may have made it falsely appear as if sociologists and scientists were natural enemies. In fact, the relations between sociology of science and scientists have been mutually supportive (e.g., in 1961, Bernard Barber got over 500 reprint requests for his Science article "Resistance of scientists to scientific discovery"). And it was scientists who took the initiative to STS (Science and Technology Studies). It is the newer paradigm of sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) that has seemingly redefined the relationship. However, as is clear from "insider" criticism, e.g. The Hard Program in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (Schmaus, Segerstrale and Jesseph, 1992), SSK's "causal" or "behaviorist" explanatory model is in fact outside mainstream sociology. Unlike SSK, mainstream sociologists typically attempt to reconcile actors' and analysts' accounts. It is high time for the sociology of science to bring the scientist back in. Cooperation is crucial for the elucidation of such things as operative norms and standards for "good science." Recently, in a paradoxical-seeming move, SSKers have presented themselves not as sociologists, but as bona fide scientists doing science. However, scientists do not recognize the results of SSK sociologists' case studies. This situation could fruitfully result in a future discussion between SSK sociologists and scientists about the very criteria for 'science' -- assuming that SSKers are indeed interested in understanding science. At present, they seem to be rather using science as a convenient site for studying knowledge and society instead.

Segerstrale, Ullica

1998-04-01

377

Scientists Involved in K-12 Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping-in pre-existing programs to contribute right away without having to re-invent the wheel is a good approach. Education and outreach sessions are expanding at professional, scientific meetings such as AGU, and provide an excellent start for those in search of new educational experiences. Contacting a regional COSEE is also a very effective way to get involved.

Robigou, V.

2004-12-01

378

Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Injectors for Potential Future Mars Ascent Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary mission studies for human exploration of Mars have been performed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These studies indicate that for chemical rockets only a cryogenic propulsion system would provide high enough performance to be considered for a Mars ascent vehicle. Although the mission is possible with Earth-supplied propellants for this vehicle, utilization of in-situ propellants is highly attractive. This option would significantly reduce the overall mass of launch vehicles. Consequently, the cost of the mission would be greatly reduced because the number and size of the Earth launch vehicle(s) needed for the mission would decrease. NASA/Johnson Space Center has initiated several concept studies of in-situ propellant production plants. Liquid oxygen (LOX) is the primary candidate for an in-situ oxidizer. In-situ fuel candidates include methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and methanol (CH3OH). MSFC initiated a technology development program for a cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars human exploration mission in 1998. One part of this technology program is the effort described here: an evaluation of propellant injection concepts for a LOX/liquid methane Mars Ascent Engine (MAE) with an emphasis on light-weight, high efficiency, reliability, and thermal compatibility. In addition to the main objective, hot-fire tests of the subject injectors will be used to test other key technologies including light-weight combustion chamber materials and advanced ignition concepts. This paper will address the results of the liquid methane/LOX injector study conducted at MSFC. A total of four impinging injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure varied from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were performed. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability.

Trinh, Huu Phuoc

1999-01-01

379

Anania Shirakatsi and "Pagan" Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anania Shirakatsi's approach to the views of "Pagan" scientists is discussed. He had special attitude to ancient science and its representatives. In his various works he criticizes their wrong views. Shirakatsi was especially good in distinguishing the correct and erroneous points of view by different scientists and he could chose the right approach and add his own one.

Vardumyan, Gohar

2014-10-01

380

Donald F. Hornig, scientist who  

E-print Network

Donald F. Hornig, scientist who helped develop the atomic bomb, dies at 92 By Matt Schudel, was designed to produce an atomic bomb. Dr. Hornig led a team that developed a device called the "X unit, Published: January 23 Donald F. Hornig, who as a young scientist once "babysat" the world's first atomic

Colorado at Boulder, University of

381

Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

Coroneos, Rula M.

2012-01-01

382

The Neurolab mission and biomedical engineering: a partnership for the future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last five years, with the advent of flights of U.S. Shuttle/Spacelab missions dedicated entirely to life sciences research, the opportunities for conducting serious studies that use a fully outfitted space laboratory to better understand basic biological processes have increased. The last of this series of Shuttle/Spacelab missions, currently scheduled for 1998, is dedicated entirely to neuroscience and behavioral research. The mission, named Neurolab, includes a broad range of experiments that build on previous research efforts, as well as studies related to less mature areas of space neuroscience. The Neurolab mission provides the global scientific community with the opportunity to use the space environment for investigations that exploit microgravity to increase our understanding of basic processes in neuroscience. The results from this premier mission should lead to a significant advancement in the field as a whole and to the opening of new lines of investigation for future research. Experiments under development for this mission will utilize human subjects as well as a variety of other species. The capacity to carry out detailed experiments on both human and animal subjects in space allows a diverse complement of studies that investigate functional changes and their underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms. In order to conduct these experiments, a wide array of biomedical instrumentation will be used, including some instruments and devices being developed especially for the mission.

Liskowsky, D. R.; Frey, M. A.; Sulzman, F. M.; White, R. J.; Likowsky, D. R.

1996-01-01

383

Frontier Scientists use Modern Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

O'connell, E. A.

2013-12-01

384

CSBF Engineering Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) at Palestine, Texas provides operational and engineering support for the launch of NASA Scientific Balloons. Over the years with the support of the NASA Balloon Program Office, CSBF has developed unique flight systems with the focus of providing a highly reliable, cost effective medium for giving Scientist's access to a near space environment. This paper will provide an overview of the CSBF flight systems with an emphasis on recent developments and plans for the future including: RIP Stitch -Parachute Shock Attenuation system, MIP -Micro Instrumentation Package, GAPR -Gondola Automatic Parachute Release system, NASA TDRSS High Gain Antenna system, Superpressure flight video systems

Orr, Dwayne

385

Which are my Future Career Priorities and What Influenced my Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice—Case of Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key

Gregor Cerinsek; Tina Hribar; Natasa Glodez; Slavko Dolinsek

2012-01-01

386

Rice scientists lay biotech network foundations  

SciTech Connect

To help agricultural researchers in poorly funded Asian laboratories improve food crops, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is proposing a biotechnology network that would disseminate instruments, plant genetic materials, chemicals, and scientific information free of charge. The network will focus primarily on Asian researchers trained at the Philippines-based IRRI who are trying to breed high-yield, disease-resistant rice strains and thereby pump up the world's rice production by about 10 million metric tons a year. The total crop in 1990 was about 520 million tons. Not all biological substances are legal to import and export, and this may impede distributing some plant genetic material to network scientists. However, at present it is legal to ship molecular DNA markers that are essential for tagging important genes in lab studies. As a test balloon for the network, markers are being distributed to scientists in national agricultural research programs in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. IRRI is seeking $5.5 million in funding, enough to run the network for 5 years. If the network becomes a reality, Asian rice scientists may pluck out of the mail something far more valuable than DNA markers or even sweepstakes notices: genetically engineered plants, which might be allowed across national boundaries in 2 or 3 years.

Not Available

1991-11-29

387

Identity Matching to Scientists: Differences that Make a Difference?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists. Adolescents' educational choices are important aspects of their identity work, and recent theories link individual choice to the perceived match between self and prototypical persons associated with that choice. In the present study, we have investigated images of scientists among the segment of the upper secondary school students (20 % of the cohort) from which future Danish scientists are recruited. Their images were rather realistic, only including vague and predominantly positive stereotypical ideas. With a particular Science-and-Me (SAM) interview methodology, we inquired into the match between self- and prototypical-scientists ( N = 30). We found high perceived similarity within a core of epistemological characteristics, while dissimilarities typically related to a social domain. However, combining interview data with survey data, we found no significant statistical relation between prototype match and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Importantly, the SAM dialogue revealed how students negotiate perceived differences, and we identified four negotiation patterns that all tend to reduce the impact of mismatches on educational aspirations. Our study raises questions about methodological issues concerning the traditional use of self-to-prototype matching as an explanatory model of educational choice.

Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva

2014-06-01

388

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

Hand, M.; Mai, T.

2012-08-01

389

Scientists' perspectives on consent in the context of biobanking research.  

PubMed

Most bioethics studies have focused on capturing the views of patients and the general public on research ethics issues related to informed consent for biobanking and only a handful of studies have examined the perceptions of scientists. Capturing the opinions of scientists is important because they are intimately involved with biobanks as collectors and users of samples and health information. In this study, we performed interviews with scientists followed by qualitative analysis to capture the diversity of perspectives on informed consent. We found that the majority of scientists in our study reported their preference for a general consent approach although they do not believe there to be a consensus on consent type. Despite their overall desire for a general consent model, many reported several concerns including donors needing some form of assurance that nothing unethical will be done with their samples and information. Finally, scientists reported mixed opinions about incorporating exclusion clauses in informed consent as a means of limiting some types of contentious research as a mechanism to assure donors that their samples and information are being handled appropriately. This study is one of the first to capture the views of scientists on informed consent in biobanking. Future studies should attempt to generalize findings on the perspectives of different scientists on informed consent for biobanking.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.143. PMID:25074466

Master, Zubin; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Caulfield, Timothy

2014-07-30

390

Developing Nurse Scientist Course Login  

Cancer.gov

Privacy  |   Disclaimer  |   Help  |   Logout      Developing Nurse Scientist Course User Login / Registration Returning Users Email: Password: Having trouble logging in? New User Registration If you are entering the course for the first time, you must

391

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

392

Scientists Check for Volcanic Activity  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Four scientists are busy reviewing seismic data, checking maps, and uploading activity updates in the USGS Volcano Hazards Program's Volcano Observatory operations room from the Menlo Park, California USGS campus....

393

AGU Honors Space Weather Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU has recently presented two awards to space weather scientists. Yao Chen is the recipient of the 2008 Sunanda and Santimay Basu Early Career Award in Sun-Earth Systems Science. The award, given by the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of AGU, recognizes an individual scientist from a developing nation for making "outstanding contributions to research in Sun-Earth systems science that further the understanding of both plasma physical processes and their applications for the benefit of society."

Tretkoff, Ernie

2009-08-01

394

S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

395

The Futures Channel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1999, the goal of The Futures Channel (TFC) is to use "new media technologies to create a channel between the scientists, engineers, explorers and visionaries who are shaping the future, and today's learners who will one day succeed them." The site provides visitors with access to new movies and educator favorites at no charge, and visitors can also purchase compilations of past programs online here as well. In the "Featured Movies" area, visitors can learn how baseball bats are tested, the intricacies involved with making dolls, and the daily life of a weather forecaster. On the right-hand side of the homepage, visitors can also sign up to receive the free weekly newsletter. Visitors looking for more specific short videos can click on one of the thirteen subject areas on the left-hand side of the homepage. The site is rounded out by some special features, like "Behind the Sound of TFC" which features an interview with Stephen Jay, the composer of the music for these innovative films.

396

Telling Your Story: Ocean Scientists in the K-12 Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most scientists and engineers are accustomed to presenting their research to colleagues or lecturing college or graduate students. But if asked to speak in front of a classroom full of elementary school or junior high school students, many feel less comfortable. TERC, as part of its work with The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-New England (COSEE-NE) has designed a workshop to help ocean scientists and engineers develop skills for working with K-12 teachers and students. We call this program: Telling Your Story (TYS). TYS has been offered 4 times over 18 months for a total audience of approximately 50 ocean scientists. We will discuss the rationale for the program, the program outline, outcomes, and what we have learned. ne.net/edu_project_3/index.php

McWilliams, H.

2006-12-01

397

Future Flights!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is an exciting conclusion to the airplanes unit that encourages students to think creatively. After a review of the concepts learned, students will design their own flying machine based on their knowledge of the forces involved in flight, the properties of available materials, and the ways in which their flying machine could benefit society. Students will also learn how the brainstorming process helps in creative thinking and inventing and that scientists and engineers use this technique to come up with new products or modify and improve existing products.

2014-09-18

398

Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to current radio astronomy research, and the idea was largely forgotten. In the 1990s this perception began to change when scientists and engineers designed sensitive instruments to detect the faint afterglow of the Big Bang, which is seen in the Universe as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. While making detailed maps of this faint and cold radiation, scientists also detected signals at approximately the same wavelength and intensity as the background radiation, but clearly emanating from within the Milky Way's galactic plane. The researchers expected to detect some emission from the Milky Way, but what they encountered was much brighter than anticipated. This discovery caused some concern among researchers because of the need to have a very clear "window" on the Universe to study the background radiation in great detail. If there were a source of radio emission in our own galactic "back yard," then studies of the microwave background radiation would need to recognize these emissions and correct for them. "We want to be clear, however, that nothing we have found invalidates the current interpretation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation," assured Finkbeiner. "Nobody has done anything wrong in neglecting these signals - so far." Scientists considered several plausible mechanisms for this anomalous emission, but these theories failed to explain the observed spatial distribution of this emission across the sky. This predicament prompted theorists to rethink the spinning dust idea, leading to a 1998 model by Bruce Draine (Princeton University) and Alex Lazarian (University of Wisconsin), which proposed rotational dust-grain emission as an important mechanism. Draine and Lazarian assumed that small dust grains, perhaps having no more than 100 atoms each, would populate many interstellar dust clouds in the Galaxy. Each grain would have a small electric dipole and would therefore react to the charged ions that race through the clouds at tremendous speeds. As an ion either strik

2001-11-01

399

The Formation of Scientists and Technicians at the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a nuclear industry in France will mean an increased ; need for scientists, engineers, and technicians. To ensure a supply of well-; trained workers, the National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Technics ; was formed with close cooperation between the universities and the Centre ; d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay. The program offered is described briefiy. An

Debiesse

1959-01-01

400

Young Scientist in Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bringing space exploration recent results and future challenges and opportunities to the knowledge of students has been a preoccupation of educators and space agencies for quite some time. The will to foster student’s interest and reawaken their interest for science topics and in particular research is something occupying the minds of educators in all corners of the globe. But the challenge is growing literally at the speed of light. We are in the age of “Big Data”. Information is available, opportunities to build smart algorithms flourishing. The problem at hand is how we are going to make use of all this possibilities. How can we prepare students to the challenges already upon them? How can we create a scientifically literate and conscious new generation? They are the future of mankind and therefore this is a priority and should quickly be recognized as such. Empowering teachers for this challenge is the key to face the challenges and hold the opportunities. Teachers and students need to learn how to establish fruitful collaboration in the pursuit of meaningful teaching and learning experiences. Teachers need to embrace the opportunities this ICT world is offering and accompany student’s path as tutors and not as explorers themselves. In this training session we intend to explore tools and repositories that bring real cutting edge science to the hands of educators and their students. A full space exploration will be revealed. Planetarium Software - Some tools tailored to prepare an observing session or to explore space mission’s results will be presented in this topic. Participants will also have the opportunity to learn how to plan an observing session. This reveals to be an excellent tool to teach about celestial movements and give students a sense of what it means to explore for instance the Solar System. Robotic Telescopes and Radio Antennas - Having planned an observing session the participants will be introduced to the use of robotic telescopes, a very powerful tool that allows educators to address a diversity of topics ranging from ICT tools to the Exploration of our Universe. Instead of using traditional methods to teach about certain subjects for instance: stellar spectra, extra-solar planets or the classification of galaxies, they can use these powerful tools. Among other advantages a clear benefit of such tool is that teachers can use telescopes during regular classroom hours, provided they choose one located in the opposite part of the planet, where it is night time. Participants will also have the opportunity to use one of the radio antennas devoted for education from the EUHOU Consortium (European Hands-on Universe). A map of the arms of our galaxy will be built during the training session. Image Processing - After acquiring the images participants will be introduced to Salsa J, an image processing software that allows educators to explore the potential of astronomical images. The first example will be a simple measurement task: measuring craters on the Moon. Further exploration will guide them from luminosity studies to the construction of colour images, from making movies exhibiting the circular motion of the Sun to Jupiter Moons dance around the planet. e-learning repositories - In the ICT age it is very important that educators have support and know where to find meaningful and curriculum adapted resources for the construction of modern lessons. Some repositories will be presented in this session. Examples of such repositories are: Discover the Cosmos and EUHOU or a congregator of such repositories with quite advanced possibilities to support the work of teachers, the Open Discovery Space portal. This type of sessions are being successfully implemented by the Galileo Teacher Training Program team in Portugal under the scope of the EC funded GO-LAB project. This is a project devoted to demonstrate innovative ways to involve teachers and students in e-Science through the use of virtual labs, that simulate experiments, in order to spark young people’s interest in science and in following scie

Doran, Rosa

401

Will there be another generation of reproductive scientists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines concerns pertaining to the future of professionals in the discipline of reproductive science. This discourse is based on the experiences, opinions and due considerations of the author. The major objective of this paper is to stimulate thinking, discussion and debate, as well as action aimed at correcting problems that may threaten the next generation of reproductive scientists.

P. L. Senger

2008-01-01

402

Robert M. Koch, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist  

E-print Network

5/10/12 Name Robert M. Koch, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist for Undersea Tactical Stealth Systems Naval Undersea Warfare Center Dr. Robert M. Koch, P.E. serves as the U.S. Navy Senior Technologist (ST of the future. Dr. Koch is responsible for stimulating, planning, coordinating, and reviewing the full spectrum

403

Science/Engineering: Open Doors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trends in American society are changing the role of women in science and engineering, but all the elements in our society change at different rates. Women, like men, must choose during their teenage years to continue their training in math or science, or they close the door that can lead them to futures in the interesting and satisfying fields of science and engineering. The key is to keep girls involved in the hard sciences through the adolescent crisis. Many mentoring and outreach programs exist to help young women cross this threshold. These programs include hands-on science experiences, mentoring or putting young women in contact with women scientists and engineers, and internships, Viewpoints and histories of contemporary women engineers are discussed.

White, Susan; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

404

Progress in tissue engineering to repair joint damage in osteoarthritis A/P Cao Tong Medical scientists now have "clear" evidence that the damaged cartilage tissue in osteoarthritis and  

E-print Network

Progress in tissue engineering to repair joint damage in osteoarthritis ­ A/P Cao Tong Medical joint disorders can be encouraged to regrow and regenerate, and are developing tissue engineering of tissue engineering to treat joint damage, the researchers summarized their own work and scanned global

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

405

Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers: Scientist Involvement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists, science experts, graduate and even undergraduate student researchers have a unique ability to inspire the next generation of explorers. These science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts can serve as role models for students and can help inspire them to consider future STEM-related careers. They have an exceptional ability to instill a sense of curiosity and fascination in the minds of students as they bring science to life in the classroom. Students and teachers are hungry for opportunities to interact with scientists. They feel honored when these experts take time out of their busy day to share their science, their expertise, and their stories. The key for teachers is to be cognizant of opportunities to connect their students with scientists. For scientists, the key is to know how to get involved, to have options for participation that involve different levels of commitment, and to work with educational specialists who can help facilitate their involvement. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students by getting them actively involved with NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. One of the main goals of the program is to facilitate student research in the classroom. The program uses astronaut photographs, provided through the ARES Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload on the International Space Station (ISS) as the hook to help students gain an interest in a research topic. Student investigations can focus on Earth or involve comparative planetology. Student teams are encouraged to use additional imagery and data from Earth or planetary orbital spacecraft, or ground-based data collection tools, to augment the astronaut photography dataset. A second goal of the program is to provide opportunities for meaningful connections between scientists and classrooms. To do this, EEAB offers multiple opportunities for scientist involvement. One opportunity involves having scientists work as mentors for student teams conducting research. These student teams, ranging from grades 4 through 12, are able to obtain guidance, suggestions, and input from STEM experts as they conduct a research investigation. Another opportunity for scientist involvement is participation in Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) events. These DL events entail interactive and engaging presentations that enable STEM experts to share their expertise with students and teachers (grades 3 through 12) from all across the nation. A third opportunity for scientist involvement involves participation in virtual student team science presentations. Student teams have the opportunity to share their research and results by presenting it to science experts through the use of WebEx, an easy-to-use online conferencing tool. The impact STEM experts have on students in today s classrooms is powerful. They serve as role models to these students, and they open students eyes to a potential career path they may not have known existed otherwise. The more scientists and STEM experts we can connect with students, the greater the impact we can make as we strive to inspire and prepare our nation s next generation of explorers.

Graff, Paige; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Susan

2012-01-01

406

Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers: Scientist Involvement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists, science experts, graduate and even undergraduate student researchers have a unique ability to inspire the next generation of explorers. These science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts can serve as role models for students and can help inspire them to consider future STEM-related careers. They have an exceptional ability to instill a sense of curiosity and fascination in the minds of students as they bring science to life in the classroom. Students and teachers are hungry for opportunities to interact with scientists. They feel honored when these experts take time out of their busy day to share their science, their expertise, and their stories. The key for teachers is to be cognizant of opportunities to connect their students with scientists. For scientists, the key is to know how to get involved, to have options for participation that involve different levels of commitment, and to work with educational specialists who can help facilitate their involvement. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students by getting them actively involved with NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. One of the main goals of the program is to facilitate student research in the classroom. The program uses astronaut photographs, provided through the ARES Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload on the International Space Station (ISS) as the hook to help students gain an interest in a research topic. Student investigations can focus on Earth or involve comparative planetology. Student teams are encouraged to use additional imagery and data from Earth or planetary orbital spacecraft, or ground-based data collection tools, to augment the astronaut photography dataset. A second goal of the program is to provide opportunities for meaningful connections between scientists and classrooms. To do this, EEAB offers multiple opportunities for scientist involvement. One opportunity involves having scientists work as mentors for student teams conducting research. These student teams, ranging from grades 4 through 12, are able to obtain guidance, suggestions, and input from STEM experts as they conduct a research investigation. Another opportunity for scientist involvement is participation in Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) events. These DL events entail interactive and engaging presentations that enable STEM experts to share their expertise with students and teachers (grades 3 through 12) from all across the nation. A third opportunity for scientist involvement involves participation in virtual student team science presentations. Student teams have the opportunity to share their research and results by presenting it to science experts through the use of WebEx, an easy-to-use online conferencing tool. The impact STEM experts have on students in today's classrooms is powerful. They serve as role models to these students, and they open students' eyes to a potential career path they may not have known existed otherwise. The more scientists and STEM experts we can connect with students, the greater the impact we can make as we strive to inspire and prepare our nation's next generation of explorers.

Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.

2012-12-01

407

Chemical Engineering Curricula for the Future: Synopsis of Proceedings of a U.S.-India Conference, January, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a summary of a seminar for changing the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum in India. Identifies and describes biotechnology, materials for structural and microelectronic catalysis, and new separation processes as emerging areas. Evaluates the current curriculum, including basic science, engineering lore, chemical engineering,…

Ramkrishna, D.; And Others

1989-01-01

408

STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in developing countries interested in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering & math) often choose majors that will improve their job opportunities in their home country when they graduate, e.g. engineering or medicine. Geoscience might be chosen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, but rarely as a primary major unless there are local economic natural resources. The Institute of International

A. Fraiwan; L. Khadra; W. Shahab; D. L. Olgaard

2010-01-01

409

Process Systems Engineering: From Solvay to the 21st Century. A History of Development, Successes and Prospects for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term Process Systems Engineering (PSE) is relatively recent, but the engineering of processing systems is as old as the beginning of the chemical industry, around the beginning of the 19th century. Initially, the practice of PSE was informal and as time went on it was formalized in progressively increasing degrees. Today, it is solidly founded on engineering sciences and

George Stephanopoulos

2009-01-01

410

NRAO Scientists on Team Receiving International Astronautics Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is presenting an award to a pioneering team of scientists and engineers who combined an orbiting radio-astronomy satellite with ground-based radio telescopes around the world to produce a "virtual telescope" nearly three times the size of the Earth. The team, which includes two scientists from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), will receive the award in a ceremony Sunday, October 16, in Fukuoka, Japan. VSOP Satellite and Ground Telescopes Artist's conception of HALCA satellite and ground observatories together making "virtual telescope" (blue) about three times the size of Earth. CREDIT: ISAS, JAXA (Click on image for larger version) The IAA chose the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), an international collaboration, to receive its 2005 Laurels for Team Achievement Award, which recognizes "extraordinary performance and achievement by a team of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of Astronautics to foster its peaceful and international use." VSOP team members named in the IAA award include NRAO astronomers Edward Fomalont, of Charlottesville, Virginia, and Jonathan Romney, of Socorro, New Mexico. "This is a well-deserved award for an international team whose hard work produced a scientific milestone that yielded impressive results and provides a foundation for more advances in the future," said Dr. Fred K.Y Lo, NRAO Director. The VSOP program used a Japanese satellite, HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), that included an 8-meter (26-foot) radio telescope. HALCA was launched in 1997 and made astronomical observations in conjunction with ground-based radio telescopes from 14 countries. Five tracking stations, including one at NRAO's Green Bank, West Virginia, facility, received data from HALCA which later was combined with data from the ground-based telescopes to produce images more detailed than those that could have been made by ground-based systems alone. The NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide system of radio telescopes ranging from Hawaii to the Caribbean, was one of the principal ground-based networks working with HALCA. The VLBA's powerful special-purpose computer, called a correlator, was a prime workhorse for processing the data from VSOP astronomical observations. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance, or "baselines" between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. The IAA award citation notes that the VSOP team "realized the long-held dream of radio astronomers to extend those baselines into space, by observing celestial radio sources with the HALCA satellite, supported by a dedicated network of tracking stations, and arrays of ground radio telescopes from around the world." The VSOP team was able to approximately triple the resolving power available with only ground-based telescopes. The first experiment in such space-ground observation was made in 1986, using a NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. The VSOP project grew as an international effort after that experiment, and provided observing time to astronomers from around the world. During the VSOP observational program, the combined space-ground system made more than 780 individual astronomical observations and also made an all-sky survey of the cores of active galaxies. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In addition to providing large amounts of observing time on the VLBA and building and operating the Green Bank tracking station, NRAO staff also modified existing hardware and software and aided astronomers from around the world in analyzing VSOP data. On behalf of the entire VSOP Team, the IAA highlighted "the astronomers and engineers who made key contributions to realizing, and operating, a radio telescope b

2005-10-01

411

One More Legacy of Paul F. Brandwein: Creating Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the influence of Paul F. Brandwein, author, scientist, teacher and mentor, publisher, humanist, and environmentalist, on gifted youngsters who later became scientists, based primarily on information gathered from surveys completed by 25 of his students and one colleague. It also traces his profound interactions with science educators. It illuminates the theories of Brandwein and his protégés and colleagues about the interaction of environment, schooling, and education and Brandwein's belief in having students do original research (that is, research whose results are unknown) on their way to discovering their future scientific paths. It tests Brandwein's 1955 hypothesis on the characteristics typical of the young who eventually become scientists, namely: Three factors are considered as being significant in the development of future scientists: a Genetic Factor with a primary base in heredity (general intelligence, numerical ability, and verbal ability); a Predisposing Factor, with a primary base in functions which are psychological in nature; an Activating Factor, with a primary base in the opportunities offered in school and in the special skills of the teacher. High intelligence alone does not make a youngster a scientist (p xix).

Fort, Deborah C.

2011-06-01

412

The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist  

E-print Network

/8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears the possibility of doing preimplantation single-cell SNP screening--a single-cell form of whole- genome genetic, and metabolites in single cells. By necessity or convenience, almost everything we know about biochemistry

Heller, Eric

413

(Executive Summary) REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The President's Council of Adviser's on Science and Technology (PCAST) present the report Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for Americaâs Future. This report provides a strategy for improving K-12 STEM education that responds to the tremendous challenges and historic opportunities facing the Nation. The reports recommends further use of standards and extensive increases in teacher recruiting. The report also advises greater use of partnerships and improvement in diversity.

Technology, Presidentâs C.

2011-04-04

414

Anniversary Issue, April 2009 CynthiaBir,Sport ScienceScientist  

E-print Network

20th Anniversary Issue, April 2009 · CynthiaBir,Sport ScienceScientist · The STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE of ENGINEERING InsideThisIssue: Cynthia Bir, Scientist on the Sport Science set, Electrical and Computer Walter Bryzik Chair, Mechanical Chuck Manke Chair, Chemical and Materials Science

Berdichevsky, Victor

415

Scientists May Have Put Their Names on Papers Written by Drug Companies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how academic scientists appear to have put their names on papers that are actually ghostwritten by for-profit companies and then published in medical journals. Some of the scientists accused of doing so deny any wrongdoing, but journal editors are already outlining measures to prevent future breaches of academic integrity.…

Guterman, Lila

2008-01-01

416

AGU Scientists “Rock” Capitol Hill for Congressional Visits Day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Earth and space sciences may not always make national headlines, they are woven into a multitude of national policies that affect people in the United States and around the world. Issues such as energy, environment, hazards, and climate consistently are on the legislative docket of the U.S. Congress, and as a result, policy makers need to hear from Earth and space scientists who can offer their expertise. Twenty-nine AGU members from 16 states did just that during the fifteenth annual Science-Engineering-Technology Congressional Visits Day (SET-CVD) event on 28-29 April. AGU joined forces with dozens of other scientific and engineering societies, bringing nearly 300 scientists and engineers from across the country to Capitol Hill.

Chell, Kaitlin

2010-06-01

417

Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.

418

Cassini Scientist for a Day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Mission's "Scientist for a Day" program allows students the opportunity to be in scientists' shoes, evaluate various options and learn how to make decisions based on scientific value. Students are given three or more possible imaging targets. They research these targets and decide which one will bring the best scientific results. They then defend their choice in a 500-word essay. The essay with the best scientific argument for a chosen target wins the contest. Cassini will take the images on Nov. 30, 2007. A few days later, winners (and as many other students as possible) are invited to discuss the results with Cassini scientists via videoconferences. Entries are judged by a committee composed of Cassini scientists, Cassini mission planners, Cassini Outreach and JPL Education Specialists. The contest has been held on a smaller scale three times. This edition is open to all U.S. schools. Students will be divided in two groups, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. The contest will also be held in England, and possibly in other countries.

Evans, Michael W.; Murray, C. D.; Piazza, E.; McConnell, S.

2007-10-01

419

Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist  

E-print Network

Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Publications: Jordan, T. H., H. W. Menard, and D.K. Smith, Density and size distribution of seamounts in the eastern Pacific inferred from wide-beam sounding data, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10508-10518, 1983. Kim, I. I., D. K. Smith, H

Smith, Deborah K.

420

The Gonzo Scientist. Flunking Spore.  

PubMed

The blockbuster video game Spore is being marketed as a science-based adventure that brings evolution, cell biology, and even astrophysics to the masses. But after grading the game's science with a team of researchers, the Gonzo Scientist has some bad news. PMID:18948523

Bohannon, John

2008-10-24

421

Scientists at Work. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes activities related to the development, field testing, evaluation, and marketing of the "Scientists at Work" program which combines computer assisted instruction with database tools to aid cognitively impaired middle and early high school children in learning and applying thinking skills to science. The brief report reviews…

Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.

422

Scientist Using Terrestrial Lidar Equipment  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Chris Soulard using the Terrestrial Lidar to scan study area in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ.  Note the bag of ice on the equipment.  High temperates can cause equipment to overheat, requiring scientists to be creative in protecting equipment....

423

SCOPE-Zhongyu Young Scientist  

E-print Network

such as UNEP and UNESCO to develop the next generation of environmental assessments. This international forumSCOPE-Zhongyu Young Scientist Environmental Awards 2011 The SCOPE-Zhongyu Environmental Awards were to the improvement of the world environment through promotion of environmental sciences, technological advances

Wang, Wei Hua

424

Publish or perish: Scientists must write or How do I climb the paper mountain?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This will be an interactive workshop for scientists discussing strategies for improving writing efficiency. Topics covered include database search engines, reference managing software, authorship, journal determination, writing tips and good writing habits....

425

Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center pursues scientific research in the area of low-gravity effects on materials and processes. To facilitate these Government performed research responsibilities, a number of supplementary research tasks were accomplished by a group of specialized visiting scientists. They participated in work on contemporary research problems with specific objectives related to current or future space flight experiments and defined and established independent programs of research which were based on scientific peer review and the relevance of the defined research to NASA microgravity for implementing a portion of the national program. The programs included research in the following areas: protein crystal growth, X-ray crystallography and computer analysis of protein crystal structure, optimization and analysis of protein crystal growth techniques, and design and testing of flight hardware.

Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James

1995-01-01

426

Meeting report: the road to science-based policy - ESOF through the eyes of young scientists.  

PubMed

Communication and common understanding between politicians, scientists, and the society can lead to evidence-based science policy, a core principle that guides high caliber research and open innovation for a sustainable future. PMID:25346005

Sinjab, Ansam; Nöske, Katharina

2014-12-01

427

Use of Citizen Scientists through Crowd Sourcing for Inventory and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crowd Source Data Capture (CSDC), an application engine developed as a tool for collection, inventorying, and monitoring of data through citizen scientists and crowd sourcing, will be demonstrated. Two examples of interactive, searchable websites, the Wetland Classification Imagery Gallery and Calling All Wetlands show how the CSDC Engine can be used by professionals, academics, and citizen scientists for viewing, inventorying, and monitoring of collected data.

Lockwood, C. M.; Handley, N.; Handley, L. R.

2011-12-01

428

Invisible Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

Ohashi, Hideo

429

How scientists use social media to communicate their research  

PubMed Central

Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

2011-01-01

430

Engaging Students and Scientists through ROV Competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center's network of regional and national remotely operated vehicle (ROV) competitions for students provide a unique and exciting way for the scientific community to get involved in education and outreach and meet broader impact requirements. From Hawaii to New England, MATE's ROV competitions also facilitate collaborations among the scientific community, professional societies, government agencies, business and industry, and public aquaria. Since 2001, the MATE Center and organizations such as the Marine Technology Society (MTS), NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration, and the Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, among others, have challenged 1,000+ students to design and build ROVs for underwater tasks based on science and exploration missions taking place in the real world. From the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), more than 60 scientists, engineers, and their organizations have supported the students participating in these events and, in doing so, have contributed to E&O and increased the awareness and impact of their work. What does it take to get involved with this E&O effort? That depends on the time, technical expertise, facilities, equipment, building materials, and/or funds that you can afford to contribute. Examples of how scientists and their institutions have and continue to support MATE's ROV competitions include: -Serving as technical advisors, judges, and competition-day technical assistants. -Sharing time and technical expertise as mentors. -Providing access to facilities and equipment. -Donating building materials and supplies. -Hosting the event at your institution. In addition to helping you to become involved in E&O and meet broader impact requirements, benefits to you include: -Exposing yourself to technologies that could support your science. -Getting ideas for creative and inexpensive solutions to challenges that you may face while doing your work. -Recruiting students to your institution. -Heightening your and your institution's visibility within the scientific community -Building a positive image within your own local community. -Networking with other scientists and research and academic institutions as well as professional societies, industry, government, and other organizations such as aquaria. Whether or not you use ROVs to support your work is not important. What is important are the knowledge and skills that you do use to accomplish your research goals. In the case of the competition, ROVs are the vehicle to teach concepts such as physics, oceanography, math, science, and engineering - the same concepts that you understand and apply when doing your science. By sharing your time and expertise, you can help students solidify what they are learning as they design and build their ROVs and make the connection to how it can be applied to other disciplines.

Zande, J.

2004-12-01

431

Ask-An-Earth-Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Hawaii, this educational Website covers topics in and beyond the fields of geology and geophysics. At the site, users may send (electronic) questions to 'real live scientists' regarding: Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks; Geochemistry, the Environment, and Pollution; Geophysics and General Geology; Earthquakes and Seismology; Hydrology and Water Quality; Natural Hazards; Minerals, Gems, Ores and Crystals; and Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Answers are thoughtful and content-rich, although many are specific to the Hawaiian Islands (as expected). To submit a question, users must select from a related topic area and then complete the online submission form. First-time users should begin by browsing previous questions and FAQs, however. This is a wonderful resource for students wishing to interact with established scientists, or for educators seeking clear and interesting explanations of natural phenomena.

432

Scientists Sift Through Urban Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City soil gets tramped on, dumped on, and pushed around, but some soil scientists are carefully examining what is underfoot in urban areas. During a 3 May session on urban soils at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, scientists discussed various aspects of city dirt. In a presentation about the large amount of rubble from buildings that were bombed during World War II, Beate Mekiffer with the Soil Protection Group at the Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany, noted that the sulfate concentration in Berlin's upper aquifer has increased continuously for decades. Many areas in Berlin now exceed a 240-milligram-per-liter “precaution value” for sulfate in drinking water, according to Mekiffer.

Showstack, Randy

2010-05-01

433

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end,…

McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L.

2007-01-01

434

The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

Oreskes, N.

2013-12-01

435

Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

436

Climate Kids: Renewable Energy Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to a scientist who works primarily on wind energy. He explains the importance of wind farm placement planning. Images of architectural wind and a wind farm are included, along with a link to the Power Up game. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

437

QCSEE - The key to future short-haul air transport. [Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the design and test procedure for the QCSEE (quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine). The engines designed for the YC-14 and YC-15 STOL aircraft, both use a very low fan pressure ratio to keep jet-flap noise about 3 dB below total system noise. Other noise reducing features discussed are the low tip speed fans and a carefully selected number of fan blades and vanes with adequate spacing between them. Attention is also given to the development of a low emissions combustor, and reduction of fan frame weight, through the use of graphite/epoxy material. The YC-15 engine also employs variable pitch fans to provide thrust reversal, thus saving weight. Finally, it is noted that the tests have proven that the engines could be configurated to meet the needs of a powered lift system without excessively compromising performance or weight.

Ciepluch, C. C.; Willis, W. S.

1979-01-01

438

An Updated Online Menu of Opportunities for Scientists in Education (MOSIE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, scientists have been involved in education through school visits, as role models, and by teaching single lessons. Although helpful, there are much broader and deeper ways scientists and engineers may contribute their expertise. As part of the Space Science Institute's role as Broker/Facilitator for the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Support Network, and motivated by the need to have EPO options for scientists who win research grants, we have assembled the first iteration of the "Menu of Opportunities for Scientists in Education" (MOSIE). The MOSIE website is intended for space scientists who win OSS research awards and wish to become involved in a related EPO program. MOSIE will help facilitate scientist participation and/or collaboration in high-impact space science EPO projects. It provides both ongoing opportunities that scientists could plug in to, either as volunteers or as part of a funded project, as well as examples and ideas for EPO proposals. Projects included in MOSIE are selected because they have ongoing, nationally distributed opportunities for space scientists to participate in education in meaningful ways. We expect these options for scientists' EPO involvement to evolve and the number of targeted projects to grow. If you represent an ongoing EPO program with nationally distributed opportunities for space scientist participation, and would like your program listed in MOSIE, please stop by the poster, or contact Dr. Cherilynn Morrow at camorrow@colorado.edu. For more information, please see: http://moussaka.colorado.edu/broker/mosie.

Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J. B.

2002-05-01

439

ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP Where did we come from? Where are we going? How do we get · If it works but no one knows why, it's ENGINEERING #12;The scientist explains that which exists; The engineer creates that which never was. Theodore von Karman #12;Engineer - Noun (from French "to contrive

Eagar, Thomas W.

440

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

441

Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

Robinson, George

2004-01-01

442

The Scientist in Society: Perspectives from Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is whether scientists should take responsibility for the social consequences of their discoveries. Reviewed is the role to which the "modern" playwright assigns scientists in modern society and what might realistically be a role that scientists and scientific societies should play in the modern world. (KR)

Brouwer, Wytze

1990-01-01

443

Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

444

Helping Young People Engage with Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

2014-01-01

445

ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leonardo Testi. He took up the appointment in May 2007. Leonardo Testi received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence in 1997. Subsequently he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory of Caltech. In 1998 he joined staff of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, and later on of INAF, for which he also served on the Science Council. Leonardo has been chair of the European ALMA Science Advisory committee and a member of the ALMA Science Advisory committee, so he well knows the details of the project as well as the science that can be carried out with ALMA.

Wilson, T.

2007-06-01

446

The mentoring of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mentoring relationships of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies were examined. Male and female biologists, chemists, engineers and physicists were compared regarding the importance of doctoral students receiving career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring from their doctoral chairperson and student colleagues. Scientists' satisfaction with their chairperson and colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions was also investigated. In addition, scientists identified individuals other than their chairperson and colleagues who were positive influencers on their professional development as scientists and those who hindered their development. A reliable instrument, "The Survey of Accomplished Scientists' Doctoral Experiences," was developed to assess career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring of doctoral chairpersons and student colleagues based on the review of literature, interviews with scientists and two pilot studies. Surveys were mailed to a total of 400 men and women scientists with earned doctorates, of which 209 were completed and returned. The findings reveal that female scientists considered the doctoral chairperson furnishing career enhancing mentoring more important than did the men, while both were in accordance with the importance of them providing psychosocial mentoring. In addition, female scientists were not as satisfied as men with their chairperson providing most of the career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring functions. For doctoral student colleagues, female scientists, when compared to men, indicated that they considered student colleagues more important in providing career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring. However, male and female scientists were equally satisfied with their colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions. Lastly, the majority of male scientists indicated that professors served as a positive influencer, while women revealed that spouses and friends positively influenced their professional development as scientists. Several recommended changes in science departments are provided.

Filippelli, Laura Ann

447

Business process re-engineering and process management : A survey of current practice and future trends in integrated management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process re-engineering (BPR) is the latest addition to the armoury of management techniques available. BPR purports to produce quantum improvements in performance by radically redesigning organizational processes. There is, however, some confusion as to what exactly constitutes BPR and how, if at all, BPR should be integrated with other approaches such as total quality management (TQM) and benchmarking. Uses

Mohamed Zairi; David Sinclair

1995-01-01

448

eNgiNeeriNg Career fair SPONSORED BY The College of Engineering and The Engineers' Council  

E-print Network

Electronic Design Hall of Fame member 3 Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers 4 Biomaterials Textile Engineering 2013 AT A GLANCE The College of Engineering RESEARCH $160 million

449

Educating and Training Accelerator Scientists and Technologists for Tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator science and technology is inherently an integrative discipline that combines aspects of physics, computational science, electrical and mechanical engineering. As few universities offer full academic programs, the education of accelerator physicists and engineers for the future has primarily relied on a combination of on-the-job training supplemented with intense courses at regional accelerator schools. This paper describes the approaches being used to satisfy the educational interests of a growing number of interested physicists and engineers.

Barletta, William A.; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Seryi, Andrei

2012-07-01

450

High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics  

SciTech Connect

This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

Not Available

1994-05-01

451

Scientists Turn Healthy Cells Cancerous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research recently announced in the journal Nature that they have been able to genetically alter a healthy human cell to create a cancerous one. The discovery is being hailed as an important step forward towards the development of anti-cancer drugs. Previously, scientists have been able to turn normal cells cancerous by using chemicals and e-rays, but this is the first time it has been accomplished through genetic manipulation. This holds promise for a relatively new approach to treating cancer, one that attempts to remove the underlying genetic flaws that cause cancer instead of attacking both healthy and cancerous cells with present-day chemotherapy treatments. The sites listed provide information about this important new development in cancer research.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

452

Scientists measure Arctic Ozone Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible ozone hole has opened in the Arctic stratosphere, according to research published in the November 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Scientists report that ozone values in the northern polar region set record low levels during the spring of 1997. They speculate that the record ozone depletion may have been caused by a fundamental shift in polar climatology and an unusual springtime cooling trend of the lower Arctic stratosphere.Long-term records of total ozone from both the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument and from groundbased observations show a continuing decrease over the last several years, according to the papers. Chlorine gases, particularly the radical CIO, have been conclusively identified as the cause of the ozone depletion.

Showstack, Randy

453

Professional Societies of Minority Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

Stassun, K. G.

2003-12-01

454

International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence is needed to inform regulatory and policy responses that address potential risks. A recent "big questions" exercise with participants largely from North America identified 22 important research questions around the risks of PPCP in the environment that would help address the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade. To expand that analysis, we developed a survey that was completed by 535 environmental scientists from 57 countries, of whom 49% identified environmental or analytical chemistry as their primary disciplinary background. They ranked the 22 original research questions and submitted 171 additional candidate research questions they felt were also of high priority. Of the original questions, the 3 perceived to be of highest importance related to: 1) the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PPCP mixtures on nontarget organisms, 2) effluent treatment methods that can reduce the effects of PPCPs in the environment while not increasing the toxicity of whole effluents, and 3) the assessment of the environmental risks of metabolites and environmental transformation products of PPCPs. A question regarding the role of cultural perspectives in PPCP risk assessment was ranked as the lowest priority. There were significant differences in research orientation between scientists who completed English and Chinese language versions of the survey. We found that the Chinese respondents were strongly orientated to issues of managing risk profiles, effluent treatment, residue bioavailability, and regional assessment. Among English language respondents, further differences in research orientation were associated with respondents' level of consistency when ranking the survey's 15 comparisons. There was increasing emphasis on the role of various other stressors relative to PPCPs and on risk prioritization as internal decision making consistency increased. Respondents' consistency in their ranking choices was significantly and positively correlated with SETAC membership, authors' number of publications, and longer survey completion times. Our research highlighted international scientists' research priorities and should help inform decisions about the type of hazard and risk-based research needed to best inform decisions regarding PPCPs in the environment. Disciplinary training of a scientist or engineer appears to strongly influence preferences for research priorities to understand PPCPs in the environment. Selection of participants and the depth and breadth of research prioritization efforts thus have potential effects on the outcomes of research prioritization exercises. Further elucidation of how patterns of research priority vary between academic and government scientists and between scientists and other government and stakeholders would be useful in the future and provide information that helps focus scientific effort on socially relevant challenges relating to PPCPs in the environment. It also suggests the potential for future collaborative research between industry, government, and academia on environmental contaminants beyond PPCPs. PMID:24954797

Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W

2014-10-01

455

Universities Earth System Scientists Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

Estes, John E.

1995-01-01

456

Doctoral training of African scientists.  

PubMed

There are two principal rationales for doctoral training of African scientists in health: 1) these scientists are essential for the nations of sub-Saharan Africa to define and implement their own health priorities, and 2) the research they perform is essential for development. However, this training is difficult because of its expense (> $20,000 per year), because many developed country mentors are unaware of the realities of research in sub-Saharan Africa, and because major differences in salary provide a financial disincentive to return. We describe a training strategy that reduces attrition because it is linked to the investigators' responsibilities before and after training, and to home country priorities. This strategy requires a close relationship between the developing country (on-site) and developed country (off-site) mentors, with joint participation in the selection and funding process, followed by course work and short-term, independent projects off-site that lead to a thesis project in the developing country, and subsequently to a defined professional position in the developing country after completion of the doctoral degree. For this strategy to succeed, the developed country mentor must have both field experience and investigative expertise; the developing country mentor must have an understanding of modern biology, as well as clinical and epidemiologic experience. In addition, we would like to emphasize that the long-term retention of these talented, highly-trained individuals requires a similar long-term commitment by their developed country mentors, well beyond the short term of most research funding. PMID:9502592

Doumbo, O K; Krogstad, D J

1998-02-01

457

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

Fletcher, Samuel

2008-04-01

458

Web site lets solar scientists inform and inspire students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where on the Web can a middle school girl ask a female solar scientist about solar storms, the course and behavior of charged solar particles, and the origin of the Sun's dynamo—and also find out what the scientist was like as a child, whether the scientist has tattoos or enjoys snowboarding, what she likes and dislikes about her career, and how she balances her energy for work and family life? These kinds of exchanges happen at Solar Week (http://www.solarweek.org; see Figure 1). Established in 2000, Solar Week is an online resource for middle and lower high school students about the science of the Sun, sponsored by the Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL) at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley). The Web site's goals are to educate students about the Sun and solar physics and to encourage future careers in science—especially for girls. One way is by giving solar scientists the chance to be relatable role models, to answer students' questions, and to share their experiences in an online forum.

Hauck, Karin

2012-07-01

459

Training Chief Scientists for the Ocean Research of Tomorrow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNOLS Early Career Chief Scientist Training Program is designed to instruct participants in all of the "cradle to grave" phases of expeditionary oceanography, from the initial proposal, to science and cruise logistics planning, to cruise execution and post-cruise reporting. During the past 2-years, with support from NSF, the program has sponsored three participant-led multi-disciplinary cruises on UNOLS vessels together with pre-cruise informational short courses. Two Senior Scientists and two Marine Technicians work with 14 participants per cruise to accomplish well-scrutinized science plans led by two participant co-chief scientists. Participants are chosen from a pool of applicants based on their passion for oceanography, their desire to take on cruise leadership, the quality and feasibility of a research project they bring to the cruise, and long-term research aims. To date the participants have come from 28 different academic institutions and have included graduate students, post-docs, research scientists, teaching faculty and a center director. Hallmarks of the program lauded by the participants include insight into cruise leadership and ship operations not provided by any other means; new appreciation for other marine science disciplines and sampling techniques; the establishment of collaborations and newly inspired science questions based on shared data; and understanding of what UNOLS is and how UNOLS staff and marine technicians can assist with future seagoing projects.; Multi-coring on R/V Wecoma during September 2011 training cruise (photo P. Suprenand) ; Science party W1109C

Reimers, C. E.; Alberts, J.

2012-12-01

460

Carcinogenicity studies of diesel engine exhausts in laboratory animals: a review of past studies and a discussion of future research needs.  

PubMed

Diesel engines play a vital role in world economy, especially in transportation. Exhaust from traditional diesel engines using high-sulfur fuel contains high concentrations of respirable carbonaceous particles with absorbed organic compounds. Recognition that some of these compounds are mutagenic has raised concern for the cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust exposure. Extensive research addressing this issue has been conducted during the last three decades. This critical review is offered to facilitate an updated assessment of the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust and to provide a rationale for future animal research of new diesel technology. Life-span bioassays in rats, mice, and Syrian hamsters demonstrated that chronic inhalation of high concentrations of diesel exhaust caused lung tumors in rats but not in mice or Syrian hamsters. In 1989, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) characterized the rat findings as "sufficient evidence of animal carcinogenicity," and, with "limited" evidence from epidemiological studies, classified diesel exhaust Category 2A, a "probable human carcinogen." Subsequent research has shown that similar chronic high concentration exposure to particulate matter generally considered innocuous (such as carbon black and titanium dioxide) also caused lung tumors in rats. Thus, in 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that the findings in the rats should not be used to characterize the cancer hazard or quantify the cancer risk of diesel exhaust. Concurrent with the conduct of the health effects studies, progressively more stringent standards have been promulgated for diesel exhaust particles and NOx. Engine manufacturers have responded with new technology diesel (improved engines, fuel injection, fuels, lubricants, and exhaust treatments) to meet the standards. This review concludes with an outline of research to evaluate the health effects of the new technology, research that is consistent with recommendations included in the U.S. EPA 2002 health assessment document. When this research has been completed, it will be appropriate for IARC to evaluate the potential cancer hazard of the new technology diesel. PMID:16097136

Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; McClellan, Roger O; Hart, Georgia A; Lapin, Charles A

2005-06-01

461

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Simulation Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of developing an observing program for a given observatory, the planner requires a number of inputs regarding the target and scientific instrument that need to be calculated, found, and/or confirmed. Thus, preparation of a program can be quite a daunting task. The task can be made easier by providing observers with a software tools environment. NGST funded the initial development of the Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) to research new visual approaches to proposal preparation. Building on this experience, work has begun on a new integrated SEA simulation facility. The main objective is to develop the framework for a flexible simulation facility to allow astronomers to explore the target/instrument/observatory parameters and to 'simulate' the quality of data they will attain. The goal is a simulation pipeline that will allow the user to manage the complex process of simulating and analyzing images without heroic programming effort. Tying this into SEA will allow astronomers to effectively come 'full circle' from retrieving archival images, to data analysis, to proposing new observations. The objectives and strategies for the SEA simulation facility are discussed, as well as current status and future enhancements.

Wolf, K. R.; Li, C.; Jones, J.; Matusow, D.; Grosvenor, S.; Koratkar, A.

462

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering