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1

Inspiring Future Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they compared their own methods of learning with those of scientists past and present. The results? The students discovered that anyone can be a scientist! Researching "how scientists learn" proved to be incredibly motivating to students and truly inspired them to consider science careers. This article describes their investigations during the six-day unit.

Betteley, Pat; Jr., Richard E.

2009-04-01

2

Inspiring Future Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2009-01-01

3

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers: Effective Professional Development Experiences for Future Members of Lunar Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) group is a grass roots effort devoted to growing the community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. Recent lunar missions, along with an increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, have resulted in a substantial increase in the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers in recent years. With plans for future US and international lunar missions, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific study. The lunar community is fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar researchers and engineers with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of lunar knowledge and expertise. Established informally in 2008 by early career scientists and education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, the NGLSE group has since grown tremendously. With over 190 current members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The group's founders have received funding to formally design and implement experience-building and networking activities for group members, such as professional development workshops and other community-building events. The professional development opportunities provided to the NGLSE group enable the members to become better equipped to contribute to the current and future success of the lunar program. The NGLSE has received NASA funding, as well as support from the NASA Lunar Science Institute, to host workshops and meetings for its members, including providing small travel stipends for student participants, in association with major lunar conferences, such as the NASA Lunar Science Forum (LSF) and the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). The goals of the workshops are to provide attendees with professional development, to familiarize them with best practices for communicating their science to different audiences, to provide an opportunity for them to network with each other, and to provide opportunities for them to meet, collaborate with, and receive training from established members of the lunar science and engineering community. Three NGLSE workshops have been held since 2009 in addition to numerous community-building events. Feedback from workshop participants indicates that they highly value both the professional development aspects of the workshop, such as learning effective science communication techniques, and also the aspect of hearing from and networking with the established generation of lunar scientists and engineers. A recent needs assessment indicated that NGLSE members would like for future workshops to focus on professional development topics like tips for getting hired by academia, the government, or industry, tips for getting research funding, effective proposal writing, and others. We will report on the lessons learned from building and leading the NGLSE group and planning and implementing associated events, such as our professional development workshops.

Santiago, D.; Bleacher, L.; Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Noble, S. K.

2011-12-01

4

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext ... 2001 Profile Tables Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile ...

5

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... Profiles Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles This ...

6

Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93  

NSF Publications Database

... and Engineers: 1989-93 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 ... Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 Appendix Tables This document was last modified on May ...

7

Profiles of Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science 360 Knowledge Network works to bring visitors "the latest wonders of science, engineering, technology and math." Among other things, the Network encourages young people to get involved in STEM careers, and these profiles are an important part of that mission. This site includes a dozen profiles of various individuals, including a virtual reality scientist, a biogeoscientist, and a marine biologist. Each short film features these scientists in their working environments. Each video is done with a bit of good humor, which makes the whole thing quite enjoyable. First-time visitors to the site shouldn't miss the profile of Yael Maguire, an electrical engineer who clearly has a great deal of fun on the job. After watching the videos, visitors can also sign up to receive notices when new profiles are added to the site.

2012-09-07

8

Supply and Demand for Scientists and Engineers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report, which includes 51 tables and charts, examines past, present, and future imbalances in the supply of and demand for scientists and engineers. The supply is assessed by source and by field, and compared with current and short-range demand for new graduates and for experienced scientists and engineers, including assessment of the…

Vetter, Betty M.

9

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although\\u000a the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been\\u000a systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question “How are student perceptions of engineers\\u000a and scientists similar and how are they

Bethany Fralick; Jennifer Kearn; Stephen Thompson; Jed Lyons

2009-01-01

10

The poultry scientist: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

This paper is adapted from the World's Poultry Science Association Lecture presented July 22, 2008, at the Poultry Science Association meeting. It contains the author's views of the past, present, and future roles of poultry scientists. PMID:19439620

Siegel, P B

2009-06-01

11

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.

Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

2009-02-01

12

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public. Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers was developed by the AAAS Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology, in partnership with the National Science Foundation, to provide science-communication tools for use by scientists and engineers. Communicating Science resources are available both online and via in-person workshops, to help researchers communicate more broadly with the public.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-05-30

13

Profile of Military Scientists and Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The profile is based upon a survey of the scientists and engineers in field research, development, test and evaluation activities of the Department of Defense--primarily laboratories, test centers and ranges. The report summarizes the characteristics of t...

E. M. Glass

1969-01-01

14

Modern Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommends a change in the way mathematics is taught to engineers and scientists. Espouses a shift away from traditional methods to an approach that makes significant use of algebra packages. Suggests that teaching the language comprised of the notation and grammar of mathematics would be of more use and more accessible than focusing entirely on…

Ward, J. P.

2003-01-01

15

Career Management for Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

Borchardt, John K.

2000-05-01

16

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 2001 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States ... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001 This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

17

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 1999 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States ... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999 This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

18

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers Group: EPO for the NextGen  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent lunar missions and increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers has grown substantially in the last few years. With plans for future US and international orbital and landed spacecraft, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific scrutiny. The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers

N. E. Petro; L. Bleacher; J. E. Bleacher; D. Santiago; S. K. Noble

2010-01-01

19

Young Engineers and Scientists: A Mentorship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) hosts the Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) mentorship program instituted in 1993 in applied physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering for high school juniors and seniors living in San Antonio. The aim of YES is to increase the number of students, including females and minorities, seeking careers in these fields and to enhance the participants' chances of success in achieving their career goals. The program is divided into two parts: an intensive three-week group training session held at SwRI in the summer where students are paired with SwRI staff members on a one-to-one basis, and individual research projects completed during the academic year in which students earn credit at their high school. Several students have completed or are currently working on projects in astronomy. A brief description of the YES program is given with examples from the summer workshop and independent student projects.

Boice, D. C.; Hooper, J.

1996-09-01

20

Business planning for scientists and engineers  

SciTech Connect

Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

1992-03-01

21

Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

22

Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry: Why So Few.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference provided a forum for women scientists and engineers to share data and personal experiences to uncover the principal causes of underrepresentation of scientific and engineering (S&E) women in industry and to explore effective strategies for ...

1994-01-01

23

Engaging Students in Research -- Young Engineers & Scientists (YES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between SwRI and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas. It provides high school students a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in science and engineering.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

2009-03-01

24

Some challenges facing software engineers developing software for scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss two types of challenges facing software engineers as they develop software for scientists. The first type is those challenges that arise from the experience that scientists might have of developing their own software. From this experience, they internalise a model of software development but may not realise the contextual factors which make such a model

Judith Segal

2009-01-01

25

A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

Edwards, William R.

2001-12-10

26

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies offers its assessment of the postdoctoral experience and provides principles, action points, and recommendations for enhancing that experience.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences); NAE (National Academy of Engineering); Institute of Medicine (Institute of Medicine)

2000-01-01

27

Annotated Bibliography of Marine Fouling for Marine Scientists and Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annotated bibliography was compiled to provide information and guidance to the marine scientist or engineer who must contend with those animals and plants which attach themselves to man-made underwater objects, i.e., fouling organisms. The references ...

J. R. DePalma

1968-01-01

28

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Nonmanufacturing Industries: 1993  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Nonmanufacturing Industries

29

Training scientists and engineers for the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a transcript of testimony by Alvin W. Trivelpiece, director of ORNL, before Congressional Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space. Dr. Trivelpiece discusses the importance of training scientist and engineers for the year 2000. (FSD)

Trivelpiece, A.W.

1990-05-08

30

The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

Allison, Simon

2010-01-01

31

Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may…

Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

32

TOUGH Short Course for Scientists and Engineers  

SciTech Connect

The TOUGH family of codes is a suite of computer programs for the simulation of multiphase fluid and heat flows in porous and fractured media with applications to geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal in geologic formations, geologic carbon sequestration, gas hydrate research, vadose zone hydrology, environmental remediation, oil and gas reservoir engineering, and other mass transport and energy transfer problems in complex geologic settings. TOUGH has been developed in the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Many modifications and enhancements have been made to TOUGH (at LBNL and elsewhere) from the time it was first released in 1987. TOUGH and its various descendants (such as iTOUGH2, T2VOC, TMVOC, EWASG, TOUGHREACT, TOUGH+ and many more) are currently in use in approximately 300 research laboratories, private companies, and universities in 33 countries. The LBNL group, headed by Karsten Pruess, serves as custodian of the code. The TOUGH simulators were developed for problems involving strongly heat-driven flow. To describe these phenomena a multi-phase approach to fluid and heat flow is used, which fully accounts for the movement of gaseous and liquid phases, their transport of latent and sensible heat, and phase transitions between liquid and vapor. TOUGH takes account of fluid flow in both liquid and gaseous phases--and, in certain modules, a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)--occurring under pressure, viscous, and gravity forces according to Darcy's law. Interference between the phases is represented by means of relative permeability functions. The code includes Klinkenberg effects and binary diffusion in the gas phase, and capillary and phase adsorption effects for the liquid phase. Heat transport occurs by means of conduction (with thermal conductivity dependent on water saturation), convection, and binary diffusion, which includes both sensible and latent heat. The goal of this training course is to teach participants with limited numerical modeling experience the fundamental concepts of modeling with the TOUGH family of codes. The material to be covered includes the following: Introduction to the TOUGH family of codes and applications; Underlying physics, mathematical models, and numerical approaches; Program structure and code installation; and Explanation of input and output files. The course will revolve around sample problems that are meant to familiarize users with TOUGH modeling concepts, such as grid generation, specification of material properties, initial and boundary conditions, and program control The most common equation of state (EOS) modules will be considered for a variety of applications and levels of complexity (ranging from isothermal problems with a single component and phase, to non-isothermal problems with multiple components and phases) Examples of advanced applications from the TOUGH family of codes, will be presented.

Kowalsky, Michael B.; Finsterle, Stefan

2006-08-01

33

Handbook of applied mathematics for engineers and scientists  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended to be reference for applications of mathematics in a wide range of topics of interest to engineers and scientists. An unusual feature of this book is that it covers a large number of topics from elementary algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to computer graphics and cybernetics. The level of mathematics covers high school through about the junior level of an engineering curriculum in a major univeristy. Throughout, the emphasis is on applications of mathematics rather than on rigorous proofs.

Kurtz, M.

1991-12-31

34

Immigrant Scientists and Engineers: 1982-84 (Detailed Statistical Tables).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report updates, for 1982 through 1984, immigrant scientist and engineer data first available in 1949. The data source is the Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S. Department of Justice. The report provides insight into key aspects of the inflow...

1985-01-01

35

Promotability perception gaps between female engineers & scientists and their managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the relationship between marriage, motherhood and the degree of incongruence between female engineers and scientists' self-perceptions and their managers' perceptions of their promotability. Women's self-perceptions and their managers' perceptions of their promotability are farthest apart when women are married or mothers. These results are net of differences in past performance, education, experience, attitudes, and approaches

Corinne Post; Nancy DiTomaso; George F. Farris; Rene Cordero

2005-01-01

36

Going "Green": Environmental Jobs for Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green is often used as a synonym for environmental or ecological, especially as it relates to products and activities aimed at minimizing damage to the planet. Scientists and engineers have long had important roles in the environmental movement. Their expertise is focused on a variety of issues, including increasing energy efficiency, improving…

Ramey, Alice

2009-01-01

37

Business planning for scientists and engineers [3rd edition  

SciTech Connect

This combination text/workbook is intended for use by scientists or engineers actively engaged in developing a product or technology to commercial production. The 'how' of planning is a central theme with special emphasis on development of operational plans and strategic thinking.

Servo, Jenny C.

1999-09-01

38

Attrition of Scientists and Engineers at Seven Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The General Accounting Office developed data on the attrition of scientists and engineers between 1979 and 1983. GAO generally found that changes in the scientific work-force paralleled changes in the total workforce. A comparison of changes in the scient...

1984-01-01

39

Foreign national scientists and engineers in the United States workforce  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses two questions: (1) How many immigrant scientists and engineers (S/Es) are there. (2) What work do immigrant S/Es do, and how are they paid relative to natives. For Ph.D.'s we obtained the cooperation of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Social Security Administration, to examine all the recipients of engineering Ph.D.'s in 1980 and 1981 and to find out what proportion had $5000 or more of earnings in the US in 1982. Results indicate that 62% of all non-citizen graduates (and half of those on temporary visas) in engineering and computer science remained in the US.

Finn, M.G.

1986-01-01

40

What affects lifelong learning of scientists and engineers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper greatly enriches the discussion on the determinants of lifelong learning of scientists and engineers (S&Es). In our analysis, which is based on a survey among S&Es in the Netherlands, we take account of both formal training and different modes of informal learning. We find that S&Es employed in firms which apply innovative production processes more often participate in

Grip Andries de; Smits Wendy

2009-01-01

41

SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States  

NSF Publications Database

... Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States Hypertext Format SESTAT: A Tool for Studying ... Document Format (.pdf) SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States ...

42

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

2007-01-01

43

Cultivating Scientist- and Engineer-Educators 2010: The Evolving Professional Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Professional Development Program (PDP) is at the heart of the education programs of the Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators. The PDP was originally developed by the Center for Adaptive Optics, and since has been instrumental in developing and advancing a growing community of scientist- and engineer-educators. Participants come to the PDP early in their careers—most as graduate students—and they emerge as leaders who integrate research and education in their professional practice. The PDP engages participants in the innovative teaching and learning strategies of inquiry. Participants put new knowledge into action by designing inquiry activities and teaching their activities in undergraduate science and engineering laboratory settings. In addition to inquiry, members of the PDP community value and intentionally draw from diversity and equity studies and strategies, assessment strategies, education research, knowledge about effective education practices, and interdisciplinary dialogue. This paper describes the PDP, including goals, rationale, format, workshop sessions, outcomes from ten years, and future directions.

Hunter, L.; Metevier, A. J.; Seagroves, S.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Porter, J.; Raschke, L.; Jonsson, P.; Shaw, J.; Quan, T. K.; Montgomery, R.

2010-12-01

44

The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted in order to investigate the technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; to

Thomas E. Pinelli; R. O. Barclay; M. L. Kenne; M. Flammia; J. M. Kennedy

1993-01-01

45

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review Special Report Hypertext Format Gender Differences ... and Engineers: A Literature Review Portable Document Format (.pdf) Gender Differences in the ...

46

A bibliometric profile of top-scientists a case study in chemical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carefully selected a group of chemical engineering scientists internationally recognized as top-scientists in their field. A method has been developed to systematically compare bibliometric characteristics of these top-scientists with an average scientist in chemical engineering. This method also includes citation-analysis of books and proceedings. The results show a very clear bibliometric profile. First, top-scientists references are more numerous and,

H. P. F. Peters; A. F. J. van Raan

1994-01-01

47

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th edition - Volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly 30 years, Paul Tipler's Physics for Scientists and Engineers has set the standard in the introductory calculus-based physics course for clarity, accuracy, and precision. In this fifth edition, Paul has recruited Gene Mosca to bring his years of teaching experience to bear on the text, to scrutinize every explanation and example from the perspective of the freshman student. The result is a teaching tool that retains its precision and rigor, but offers struggling students the support they need to solve problems strategically and to gain real understanding of physical concepts.

Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene P.

48

Conference Scene: Scientists discuss the future of nanomedicine.  

PubMed

The First International Translational Nanomedicine Conference was recently held at Northeastern University (MA, USA) from 26 to 28 July 2013, in the heart of historic Boston (MA, USA). Sponsored by the International Journal of Nanomedicine and Northeastern University's College of Engineering, the conference focused on strategies for turning the advances in nanomedicine research into actual products, as well as addressing other issues pertinent to the future of the field. Plenary talks were given by distinguished Northeastern University faculty members for 1 h, and 30-min technical talks were given by experts from all over the world. Interspersed through the lectures, over 100 students and researchers presented posters detailing their latest findings. PMID:24156486

Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

2013-11-01

49

Cultural Representations of Gender and Science: Portrayals of Female Scientists and Engineers in Popular Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images of female scientists and engineers in popular$lms convey cultural and social assump- tions about the role of women in science, engineering, and technology (SET). This study analyzed cultural representations of gender conveyed through images offemale scientists andengineers in popularjilms from 1991 to 2001. While many of these depictions of female scientists and engi- neers emphasized their appearance and focused

JOCELYN STEINKE

2005-01-01

50

THE FUTURE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS: ONE SCIENTIST'S PERSPECTIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent explosion of information, especially in digital form, is revolutionizing many fields of scientific endeavor, including the assorted venues scientists use to disseminate their research results. Scientists should take a keen interest in this nascent paradigm shift ­ it is already having a p...

51

Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers Group: EPO for the NextGen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent lunar missions and increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers has grown substantially in the last few years. With plans for future US and international orbital and landed spacecraft, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific scrutiny. The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) is a grass-roots effort at fostering the growing community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. We are fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar enthusiasts with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of a base of lunar knowledge. The need to foster the next generation of lunar scientists is recognized within NASA and the international community (e.g., International Lunar Exploration Working Group, Lunar Explorers Society, and the Canadian Lunar Research Network). A primary goal of the NASA Lunar Science Institute is to support “...the development of the lunar science community and training the next generation of lunar science researchers.” Additionally, NASA’s Optimizing Science and Exploration Working Group, which is comprised of representatives from several NASA Directorates and Centers, is tasked with the integration of science and engineering for the successful exploration of the Moon. In much the same way, the NGLSE aims to bring early career scientists and engineers together in order to create and support a network of next generation lunar scientists and engineers who will be able to work effectively together. Currently with over 150 members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The NGLSE has received NASA funding to host workshops in association with major lunar conferences, most recently the 2010 NLSI Lunar Science Forum. At this workshop, participants worked with science educators on how to effectively craft presentations for students and how to effectively communicate our exciting science and engineering endeavors to the public. The workshop also provided opportunities for participants to network, to communicate their science and engineering to each other, and to interact with NASA leaders and established members of the science and engineering communities. Building a community of active participants who are not only dedicated to becoming productive members of the lunar science and engineering communities but also trained in effective science communication to their peers and the public, writing winning proposals, and leading effective education and public outreach efforts is fundamentally important in building a sustainable, long-lived, and publicly supported lunar science and exploration program. We will report on the progress of the NGLSE group and our workshops, including the needs and interests of this community as identified through our efforts.

Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, L.; Bleacher, J. E.; Santiago, D.; Noble, S. K.

2010-12-01

52

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) -engaging students in research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) during the past 18 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space sciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students' preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel; Reiff, Patricia

53

Students Engaged in Research - Young Engineers and Scientists (YES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including geosciences), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel C.

2009-09-01

54

Doubling Up: A Profile of U.S. Scientists and Engineers Who Hold Second Jobs  

NSF Publications Database

... of U.S. Scientists and Engineers Who Hold Second Jobs (March 27, 2001) This issue brief presents ... and engineering labor force that held second jobs. The SESTAT database is used to examine the ...

55

Engaging Students in Space Research: Young Engineers and Scientists 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI and a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their professional mentors during the academic year. During the summer workshop, students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.

2008-12-01

56

Young engineers and scientists - a mentorship program emphasizing space education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.

Boice, Daniel; Asbell, Elaine; Reiff, Patricia

57

Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Academies' Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy has been concerned with many aspects of the education and training of scientists in the US. Its most recent effort was an intensive study of the experience of postdocs across all fields. The report concluded that postdocs have become essential in many research settings. It is largely they who carry out the day-to-day work of research and their efforts account for a great deal of the extraordinary productivity of US science. While there is substantial variation in the experiences of postdocs from field to field and among different types of laboratories, overall, the data indicated that employment conditions for postdocs, especially in universities, need to be signficantly improved if the US is to develop the human capital needed to sustain a healthy research enterprise and global leadership. The data collected will be summarized as will some of the more detailed conclusions and recommendations. An essential guiding principle was that the postdoctoral experience is first and foremost a period of apprenticeship for the purpose of gaining scientific, technical, and professional skills that advance the professional career. The Committee also concluded that improvement in the current situation will require efforts by postdocs, their advisers, the host institutions, the funding organizations, and professional societies. Besides reviewing the report, this presentation will summarize some of the actions that have been taken in response to the report since its publication more than a year ago.

Singer, M.

2001-12-01

58

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The typical postsecondary academic career follows a well-ordered path with several discrete milestones. The first of these is securing a tenure-track position at an academic institution, at which point the individual is usually assigned to a junior rank, such as assistant professor. Junior faculty members ordinarily are employed on probation and are given a specified number of years to earn tenure. The second milestone, the tenure decision, is perhaps the most critical point on the academic career path. Earning tenure usually means lifetime employment and arrival at another milestone, promotion to the rank of associate professor. Failing to earn tenure often results in termination of employment at the institution. Some doctorate holders, presumably those who establish distinguished records, reach a final milestone with promotion to the rank of full professor.1 This study uses data from a nationally representativesample of recipients of doctorates in science and engineering (S&E). With these data we examined gender differences for four critical outcomes that reflect successful movement along the postsecondary academic career path. These four critical outcomes are tenure track placement, earning tenure, promotion to the rank of associate professor, and promotion to the rank of full professor. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Scientists,Technicians

2010-01-27

59

An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of phase 4 of the NASA\\/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to

R. O. Barclay; T. E. Pinelli; D. Elazar; J. M. Kennedy

1991-01-01

60

International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers to the United States - Brain Drain or Brain Circulation?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Science Foundation issue brief examines the destination of foreign born scientists and engineers who study in the United States. The brief presents figures for the distribution among US education, industry, and government employers; stay rate; and percentages of scientists and engineers with firm plans, as well as offers, to remain in the US.

Johnson, Jean M.; Regets, Mark C.

1998-01-01

61

Inside “the system”: engineers, scientists, and the boundaries of social protest in the long 1960s  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the end of the 1960s, many engineers and scientists in the US questioned the social and political dimensions of science and technology. This introspection came as critics assailed science and technology as elements of the militaristic, alienating structure of modern society. Engineers and scientists repudiated, appropriated, or sometimes even acted in concert with these critics. Also relevant, however, in

Matt Wisnioski

2003-01-01

62

Confidence in Scientists and Engineers to Solve Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust in scientists has emerged as a key variable used to explain attitudes toward global warming and other environmental issues. Previous studies have shown that the more trust one has in scientists, the more likely one is to be concerned about global warming, to believe that steps should be taken to limit it, and to take action oneself. A closely

Eric Smith; Holly Klick

63

Inspiring the Next Generation of Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are usually not excited about abstract concepts, and teachers struggle to inject "pizzazz" into many of their lessons. K-12 teachers need opportunities and the associated pedagogical training to bring meaningful and authentic learning to their students. The professional educator community needs to develop a learning environment which connects desired content knowledge with science and engineering practices that students need to be successful future technology leaders. Furthermore, this environment must foster student exploration and discovery by encouraging them to use their natural creativity with newly acquired technical skills to complete assigned projects. These practices are explicitly listed in the US "Next Generation Science Standards" document that is due for final publication in the very near future. Education in America must unleash students' desires to create and make with their hands, using their intellect, and growing academic knowledge. In this submission I will share various student projects that I have created and implemented for middle and high school. For each project, students were required to learn and implement engineering best practices while designing, building, and testing prototype models, according to pre-assigned teacher specifications. As in all real-world engineering projects, students were required to analyze test data, re-design their models accordingly, and iterate the design process several times to meet specifications. Another key component to successful projects is collaboration between student team members. All my students come to realize that nothing of major significance is ever accomplished alone, that is, without the support of a team. I will highlight several projects that illustrate key engineering practices as well as lessons learned, for both student and teacher. Projects presented will include: magnetically levitated vehicles (maglev) races, solar-powered and mousetrap-powered cars and boats, Popsicle stick catapults and bridges, egg drop "lunar landers", egg-passenger car crashes, cardboard boat races (with human passengers), and working roller coasters made with only paper and tape. Each project requires minimal, low-cost materials commonly found at home or in local stores. I will share the most common student misperceptions about inquiry and problem-solving I have observed while working alongside my students during these projects.

Tambara, Kevin

2013-04-01

64

Young Engineers & Scientists (YES) - Engaging Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, C++ programming, the Internet, careers, science ethics, social impact of technology, and other topics; and select their individual research project with their mentor (SwRI staff member) to be completed during the academic year; and 2) A collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and teachers during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past nineteen (19) years. A total of 258 students have completed or are currently enrolled in YES. Of these students, 38% are females and 57% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local diversity of the San Antonio area. All YES graduates have entered college, several work or have worked for SwRI, two businesses have formed, and three scientific publications have resulted. Sixteen (16) teacher participants have attended the YES workshop and have developed classroom materials based on their experiences in research at SwRI in the past three (3) years. In recognition of its excellence, YES received the Celebrate Success in 1996 and the Outstanding Campus Partner-of-the-Year Award in 2005, both from Northside Independent School District (San Antonio, Texas). Acknowledgments: We are grateful for support from the NASA MMS Mission E/PO Grant, SwRI, Northside Independent School District, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2011-12-01

65

Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists a...

J. B. Malone J. K. Lytle J. M. Housner

1999-01-01

66

Project STEP: creating positive experiences for future scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the fields of science and engineering, the University of Texas Science and Technology Center (UT STC) implemented several outreach programs for students at the K-12 level. The goal is to create strong, positive science experiences for students at an age when scientific foundations and attitudes are still being established. Project STEP

C. N. Chittenden

1995-01-01

67

Technical communications in aerospace: an analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of US and European aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; to seek

Thomas E. Pinelli; R. O. Barclay; J. M. Kennedy; M. Glassman

1990-01-01

68

From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study documents the changes that have occurred in the representation of women in science and engineering and the characteristics of women scientists and engineers. Data from two National Science Foundation databases, the Survey of Earned Doctorates for New Ph.D.s and the Survey of Doctoral Recipients for the science & engineering doctoral…

Long, J. Scott, Ed.

69

Employment of Scientists and Engineers Reaches 3.2 Million in 1995  

NSF Publications Database

Employment of Scientists and Engineers Reaches 3.2 Million in 1995 (August 13, 1998) This Data Brief ... workforce. Topics covered include: employment, unemployment, salaries, and the relationship between ...

70

Towards Usable User Studies: Assessing the Information Behavior of Scientists and Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a secondary analysis of data describing the information-related attitudes and behaviors of scientists and engineers in terms of their organizational and situational attributes. The database represented the responses of some 560 scient...

C. K. Mick G. N. Lindsey D. Callahan F. Spielberg

1979-01-01

71

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1999 (Early Release Tables)  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientists and Engineers: 1999 [Early Release Tables] List of Tables Characteristics of Doctoral ... tables are final and will not be revised when released on the WWW unless problems are found that ...

72

Massive Internet Data Available to Environmental Engineers and Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Business and Commerce; Chemistry, Engineering, Computer and Software; Databases for Research; E Commerce and Web Site Promotions; Education Information; Environmental Employment Search; Environmental Science and Engineering; General Reference an...

L. K. Wang

1999-01-01

73

The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs for Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The McBride Honors Program in Public Affairs at The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), instituted in 1978, is an award-winning exemplar in the liberal arts which provides a select number of CSM engineering students an opportunity to cross the boundaries of their technical expertise in engineering and applied science, and to gain the understanding and appreciation of the contexts in which engineering and applied science and all human systems reside, and specifically to explore and integrate the social, cultural, ethical and environmental implications of their future professional judgments and their roles as citizens in varied and complex settings. The 27 semester-hour program of seminars, courses, and off-campus activities features small seminars; a cross-disciplinary approach; and opportunities for one-on-one faculty tutorials, instruction and practice in oral and written communication, a Washington, D.C. public policy seminar, a practicum experience (internship or foreign study). Circumstances external to the McBride Program itself, which include the development and growth of the field of Public Affairs nationally and the persistence of legacy courses, have created the need to revitalize and refocus the historically cross-departmental Program. A recent curriculum reform effort has achieved a more thoroughly interdisciplinary learning experience to educate engineers and scientists who, as called for in the National Academy of Engineering's The Engineer of 2020 "will assume leadership positions from which they can serve as positive influences in the making of public policy and in the administration of government and industry". In this presentation we showcase best practices in curriculum reform, exemplified by a seminar in National policy analysis where students and faculty have recently investigated federal science funding decisions in support of natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildland fires, and pandemic disease.

Harrison, W. J.; Miller, R. L.; Olds, B. M.; Sacks, A. B.

2006-12-01

74

A Career Planning Center for Beginning Scientists and Engineers (CPC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by the US National Academy of Sciences, is a gateway to a large amount of information regarding careers for beginning scientists. It is divided into nine topical sections at this time, including information on trends in the job market, links to career guidance, and an advice center where new scientists can request a mentor and experienced professionals can volunteer to be mentors. The highlight of the site, from the point of view of employment seeking, is the Employment and Research Funding Center, with annotated links to employment, internship, fellowship, postdoctoral, and research funding opportunity information. In addition, there is a selected list of available jobs. Note that the site is free but requests registration.

1998-01-01

75

What is Happening to Academic Employment of Scientists and Engineers?  

NSF Publications Database

... and Engineers? (June 19, 1998) This Issue Brief discusses changes in the composition of science and ... in multiple formats. See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats ...

76

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995. Detailed Statistical Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents data on the demographic and employment characteristics of the nation's doctoral scientists and engineers. Data were developed as part of the Longitudinal Doctorate Project. Current information on the supply and utilization of doctoral personnel in science and engineering reflects the results of the 1995 Survey of Doctorate…

Wilkinson, R. Keith

77

AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations.

S. Pasco

2006-01-01

78

The Impact of Technology on the Mathematics Education of Engineers and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematics education of engineers has been a source of concern for many years. In this century we can find many articles addressing the issue (for example, Fry, 1941; Anderson, 1951; Searl, 1964). In the industrialised countries in the last century many institutions were established outside their conventional universities to provide training for engineers and scientists and that training included

J. W. Searl

79

Educational Program for Scientists and Engineers at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to develop an educational program to update Air Force scientists, engineers, senior technicians and managers of science and engineering (both military and civilian) working at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). Needs in continuing education were assessed from data obtained from: the Office of Professional and…

Weed, Herman R.; And Others

80

How does a high school outreach program engage our future scientists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Secondary School Enrichment Program (SSEP) is one of the outreach initiatives developed in the Faculty of Science, The University of New South Wales (UNSW). In the face of declining enrolments in the enabling sciences, the program seeks to foster a culture of academic generosity by bringing our current and future scientists together to participate in authentic scientific research. Developed

Chong Eng Tay; Michelle Kofod; Rosanne Quinnell; Bianca Lino; Noel Whitaker

81

Hierarchical Learning Ensembles: Team Building for Undergraduate Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe the design and implementation of our Hierarchical Learning Ensemble (HLE) model, a pedagogy that assembles interdisciplinary teams of graduate, undergraduate, and secondary-level students to solve science and engineering problems. Our goal is to sensitize undergraduates to working in heterogeneous groups and thus better prepare them…

DiLisi, Gregory A.; Eppell, Steven J.; Upton, Jan

2006-01-01

82

Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Personnel System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to help science and engineering managers in Government laboratories understand the relevant features and flexibilities of the Federal personnel system. The various sections deal with staff recruitment procedures, academic qualifications for each entering grade, short term appointments, the Federal pay system, position…

Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

83

Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program. Summary of activities for school year 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children`s natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

Sharlin, H.I.

1992-09-01

84

HBCU Future Engineering Faculty Fellowship Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Naval Research (ONR) Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Future Engineering Faculty Fellowship Program completed ten (10) years of service as of September 31, 2001. The program continues to represent a commitment by the Offic...

J. Kelly

2002-01-01

85

Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See  

ScienceCinema

Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

86

Using the Curriculum Vita to Study the Career Paths of Scientists and Engineers: An Exploratory Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we assess the utility of the curriculum vita (CV) as a data source for examining the career paths of scientists and engineers. CVs were obtained in response to an email message sent to researchers working in the areas of biotechnology and microelectronics. In addition, a number of CVs were obtained \\

James S. Dietz; Ivan Chompalov; Barry Bozeman

2000-01-01

87

Analysis of information use by scientists and engineers in the petroleum industry in Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Information sources used by various groups of people have been the subject of examination especially in the developed countries from numerous perspectives. These have ranged from an effort to determine their information needs to an attempt to establish the correlation between information and national development. This study is concerned with the petroleum industry in Nigeria. It was found that there was no significant difference between the scientists and engineers in the frequency of use of published information sources, but engineers used interpersonal sources more frequently than the scientists. There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of published and interpersonal sources in meeting information needs of both groups. Scientists used libraries more frequently than engineers; libraries mainly used could not meet the information needs of scientists and engineers. There was no absolute correlation between frequency of library use and perception of users in adequacy of libraries in meeting thier information needs. Computers were not used for information retrieval in libraries mainly used by the respondents.

Nkereuwem, E.E.

1984-01-01

88

Sharing Science with Children: A Survival Guide for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first of three Sharing Science with Children Guides produced by the North Carolina Museum of Life and Science. This guide is written for scientists and engineers interested in making effective classroom presentations. Teaching tips, a list of typical science topics studied, and a chart describing the thinking and learning capabilities of K-8 students are all included.

89

An investigation of factors affecting how engineers and scientists seek information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be

Claire J. Anderson; Myron Glassman; R. Bruce McAfee; Thomas Pinelli

2001-01-01

90

Relationships of age and seniority with career variables of engineers and scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied changing career experiences of professional engineers and scientists in 1967 (n = 290) and 1969 (n = 90). Both age and seniority were related to (a) amount of various needs, (b) aspirations for needs, (c) importance of needs, (d) satisfaction with needs, (e) self-image, (f) organizational climate, (g) job challenge, (h) job involvement, (i) intrinsic motivation, (j) perceived performance,

Douglas T. Hall; Roger Mansfield

1975-01-01

91

Midlife Career Transitions of Men Who Are Scientists and Engineers: A Narrative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article summarizes the results of a qualitative study of career transition experiences of middle-aged male scientists and engineers in the current socioeconomic environment in the United States. The study addresses the effects of the transitions from psychosocial perspectives. The authors selected participants from research organizations,…

Liu, Yosen; Englar-Carlson, Matt; Minichiello, Victor

2012-01-01

92

Statistics for nuclear engineers and scientists. Part 1. Basic statistical inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is intended for the use of engineers and scientists working in the nuclear industry, especially at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. It serves as the basis for several Bettis in-house statistics courses. The objectives of the report are to introduce the reader to the language and concepts of statistics and to provide a basic set of techniques to

Beggs

1981-01-01

93

Statistics for Nuclear Engineers and Scientists. Part 1. Basic Statistical Inference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended for the use of engineers and scientists working in the nuclear industry, especially at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. It serves as the basis for several Bettis in-house statistics courses. The objectives of the report are to i...

W. J. Beggs

1981-01-01

94

Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. PMID:23438464

McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

2013-03-01

95

Primary-School Children's Attitudes towards Science, Engineering and Technology and Their Images of Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The attitudes of Year 5 primary-school children towards science, engineering and technology (SET) were examined prior to studying the effects of the Horsham Greenpower Goblin Challenge (HGGC), a hands-on SET project. The data collection centred on pupil, parent and teacher questionnaires using Likert scales and picture/word images of scientists

Silver, Anne; Rushton, Brian S.

2008-01-01

96

Some Future Software Engineering Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper provides an update and extension of a 2006 paper, “Some Future Trends and Implications for Systems and Software\\u000a Engineering Processes,” Systems Engineering, Spring 2006. Some of its challenges and opportunities are similar, such as the need to simultaneously achieve high levels\\u000a of both agility and assurance. Others have emerged as increasingly important, such as the challenges of dealing

Barry Boehm

2011-01-01

97

Why Computational Science and Engineering Should be of Interest to Computer Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces the field computational science and engineering (CS&E), and is an attempt to get other computer scientists more interested in CS&E related activities. It starts by giving a short outline of the increased international activity in the field. Several of the definitions of CS&E that have been given are presented, with an emphasis on how the field

Lasse Natvig

98

What place does religion have in the ethical thinking of scientists and engineers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion, defined as ‘the idea of a state that transcends ourselves and our world and the working out of the consequences\\u000a of that idea’, may influence the ethical thinking of scientists and engineers in two ways. The first is at the level of the\\u000a individual and how personal beliefs affect the choice of research, design or development projects, relationships with

Ian StJohn Fisher

1996-01-01

99

Biomedical engineering continues to make the future.  

PubMed

Biomedical engineering (BME) continues to make the future, not just respond to the present, by anticipating the needs of interface engineering and clinical medicine. In many respects, BME is the educational mode of the future, fostering collaboration among disciplines at its core by building on basic concepts in engineering and biology. We strive to educate where the needs, opportunities, and jobs are and will be in the future. The bridge between engineering, biology, and medicine is a growing link, and there is no sign that this interface will slow. With an aging population, dynamic changes in health care, as well as global economies and related themes upon us, we are only at the very beginning of the impact that BME will have on medicine and the quality of life. Those of us in BME are excited to be setting this agenda and welcome your participation. In part, this is why we have designed our BME major to cover both the depth and breadth, always a challenge, but one that we are committed to. The depth of the design projects, research experience, coursework, study abroad options, and internships all convenes to establish a solid foundation for our students as they embark on their career paths. PMID:21791406

Fantini, Sergio; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kaplan, David

100

National Advanced Manufacturing Testbed: A Distributed Testbed Enabling Collaborative Research between Scientists and Engineers at Remote Locations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Advanced Manufacturing Testbed (NAMT) is a distributed testbed enabling collaborative research between scientists and engineers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), remote industry locations, and government and univer...

D. C. Stieren R. J. Densock M. E. Luce

1999-01-01

101

Sources of Information for the Scientist and Engineer Concerned with Advanced Treatment and Reclamation of Waste Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on advanced treatment of waste water is distributed among many different sources. This paper will endeavour to point out most of the important sources available. The ordinary scientist and engineer find it increasingly difficult to handle the ...

P. J. Aucamp

1977-01-01

102

Designers' Perspectives on Effective Professional Development for Scientist- and Engineer-Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While preparing a formal description of the CfAO's Professional Development Program (PDP), some of the PDP's designers and instructors described its core values and unique aspects, for internal reference. However, these ideas are worth sharing, as they represent the insiders' perspectives on what makes the PDP successful. No single attribute described is completely unique to the PDP, but taken together these values and aspects combine and inter-relate to strengthen and distinguish the program. These attributes include: (1) the PDP's main participants, who are practicing scientists and engineers rather than pre-service teachers; (2) the importance of community among these participants; (3) the interdisciplinarity of the participants and the interdisciplinary nature of science/engineering education itself; (4) respect for education research and best practices; (5) a focus on diversity and equity in science/engineering education; (6) the university-level science/engineering lab (as opposed to the lecture) as a venue for innovation; (7) a focus on inquiry as an exemplar of effective science/engineering education; (8) an emphasis on being intentional with one's choices as an educator; (9) a cycle of experience-reflection-innovation-reflection; and (10) the agility of the PDP program and staff to nimbly try new ideas and/or respond to participants' needs. The authors believe that the PDP's unique combination of these values and aspects leads to such successes as high return-participation and over-subscription rates, and contributes to the program's success overall.

Seagroves, S.; Metevier, A. J.; Hunter, L.; Porter, J.; Brown, C.; Jonsson, P.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Raschke, L.

2010-12-01

103

AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base. The OS28 Communicating Broadly: Perspectives and Tools for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists Session would provide an ideal platform for Fellowship management to share lessons learned about science communication and to offer insight as to the challenges scientists face when communicating with the general public or media.

Pasco, S.

2006-12-01

104

The Relationship between Doctoral Completion Time, Gender, and Future Salary Prospects for Physical Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding physical scientists, we present evidence that doctoral completion time is a strong predictor of future salary prospects: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a substantially lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for typical measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication rates) and several other structural and career factors expected to influence salaries. Extending this picture to include gender effects, we show that women earn significantly less than men overall and experience no effect of doctoral completion time on their salaries, while men see a significant gain in salary stemming from earlier completion times. Doctoral completion time is shown to be largely unconnected to measures of prior academic success, research independence, and scientific merit suggesting that doctoral completion time is, to a great extent, out of the control of individual graduate students. Nonetheless, it can be influential on an individual's future career prospects, as can gender-related effects.

Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.

2012-03-01

105

Getting Started with MATLAB 5 - A Quick Introduction for Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MATLAB, a software package for high-performance numerical computation and visualization, is one of the most widely used tools across engineering departments today. Its broad appeal lies in its interactive environment with hundreds of built-in functions for technical computation, graphics, and animation. Further, it provides easy extensibility with its own high-level programming language. Getting Started with MATLAB 5: A Quick Introduction for Scientists and Engineers is intended to get the reader started in MATLAB quickly. Chapters one and two provide a thorough introduction to the basics and five self-guided lessons. Remaining chapters cover useful and interesting elementary, advanced, and special MATLAB functions. This book will be appropriate in any college level course where MATLAB is either going to be taught or used to solve problems.

Pratap, Rudra

1998-10-01

106

How Do Engineering Scientists Think? Model-Based Simulation in Biomedical Engineering Research Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing, building, and experimenting with physical simulation models are central problem-solving practices in the engineering sciences. Model-based simulation is an epistemic activity which includes exploration, generation and testing of hypotheses, explanation, and inference. This paper argues that to interpret and understand how these simulation models function in creating knowledge and technologies requires construing problem solving as accomplished by a researcher

Nancy J. Nersessian

2009-01-01

107

Biomanufacturing for tissue engineering: Present and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering, often referred to as regenerative medicine and reparative medicine, is an interdisciplinary field that necessitates the combined effort of cell biologists, engineers, material scientists, mathematicians, geneticists, and clinicians toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. It has emerged as a rapidly expanding approach to address the organ shortage problem and comprises tissue

P. J. Bártolo; C. K. Chua; H. A. Almeida; S. M. Chou; A. S. C. Lim

2009-01-01

108

The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced

C. J. Rahnke; R. J. Nichols

1982-01-01

109

Role of military scientists and engineers in space (1980-2000)  

SciTech Connect

The Space Transportation System provides military scientists and engineers exciting new capabilities to conduct a variety of pioneering experiments on orbit, taking unique advantage of the space environment itself or observing the planet firsthand from the vantage point of space. The reusable Shuttle/Spacelab configuration permits a more effective use of the human and material resources being committed to the space program in the next decade, and ensures the presence of man in space on a routine basis. However, full-scale exploitation of space for national defense will depend to a great extent on the skillful and successful utilization of the military payload specialists, who will fly and operate various Shuttle-based DoD experiments. This paper explores the doctrine, role, function, and training requirements for DoD payload specialists. The unique advantage of man-in-the-loop activities and the orbiting military scientist conducting experiments in situ is addressed in light of previous US manned space flight experience and the projected capabilities of the Shuttle. 4 figures.

Angelo, J.A. Jr

1981-01-01

110

Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full

J. H. Ramsthaler; T. K. Sulmeisters

1988-01-01

111

The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines  

SciTech Connect

The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

1982-06-01

112

Ohio State scientists develop model for future prostate cancer treatments guided by math:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have designed a first draft of a mathematical model that someday could guide treatment decisions for advanced prostate cancer, in part by helping doctors predict how individual patients will respond to therapy based on the biology of their tumors.

113

Current and future light duty diesel engines and their fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvements in fuel economy provided by light duty Diesel engines relative to gasoline engines have resulted in an increase in the popularity of Diesel engines in passenger cars and light trucks during the past five years. However, projected improvements in gasoline engine fuel economy, more stringent future Diesel emission requirements and possible reductions in fuel quality pose significant technical

W. R. Wade; C. M. Jones

1983-01-01

114

From Science to Business: Preparing Female Scientists and Engineers for Successful Transitions into Entrepreneurship--Summary of a Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…

Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria

2012-01-01

115

Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make

Pauline W. U. Chinn

2002-01-01

116

Research and Development in Industry: 1979. Funds, 1979. Scientists and Engineers, January 1980. Surveys of Science Resources Series. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes data on research and development (R&D) performed by industry during 1979, examines historical trends for key R&D funding variables, and presents information on industry-employed R&D scientists and engineers. Areas addressed in the first section on R&D funds include: major R&D industries (aircraft/missiles, electrical…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

117

Favoritism, Bias, and Error in Performance Ratings of Scientists and Engineers: The Effects of Power, Status, and Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that the sociostructural position of groups must be taken into consideration along with motivational and cognitive processes to explain evaluations received and made by women, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. With this framework, we analyze performance ratings for a sample of 2,445 scientists and engineers from 24 U.S. companies and find that (a) there is more

D. Randall Smith; Nancy DiTomaso; George F. Farris; Rene Cordero

2001-01-01

118

Italy's contribution, from a medical standpoint, to the space safety of payload scientists, and perspectives for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, the selection of the Italian payload scientists has been performed according to the Spacelab Program of ESA. Twenty-four subjects underwent a screening performed by the Health Service of Italian Air Force. They were requested to pass an exercise test on treadmill and another ten-minute test on centrifuge, subject to the effect of + 3 G z. The authors briefly describe the results of the test. Noteworthy is the determination of Central Flicker Fusion Frequency. This parameter makes it possible to assess the endurance level of the subject, much earlier than other techniques (e.g. EKG). The importance of an accurate preliminary screening is emphasized as well as of successive training periods. Future studies will be undertaken to compare evoked cortical potentials with behaviour parameters of space safety, with a view to setting up a subtle tool of evaluation for both future candidates and payload scientists.

Rotondo, G.; Ramacci, G. A.; Meineri, G.; Modugno, G. C.; Monesi, F.

119

Which automotive engines in the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automobile is a major factor in four national issues - energy, natural resources, pollution, and transportation. As such, it represents a problem, a challenge, and an opportunity for engineering and management. The national issues involved, impacts of more efficient automobile engines on pollution and transportation, the cost benefits of more efficient engines, and the necessity for a balanced engine

1974-01-01

120

Turbofan Engines-Their Present and Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article describes a way of making turbofan engines by the use of well-designed turbojet engines and discusses the efficiency of such a conversion. The use of an afterburner in a turbofan engine, permitting the use of these engines at high supersonic f...

V. Starostin

1966-01-01

121

Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions  

SciTech Connect

The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full capability to assist in the development of the nuclear engine. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has formed a team of experts with Martin Marietta for mission analysis. Science Applications International (SAIC) for flight safety analysis, Westinghouse for the nuclear subsystem, and Rocketdyne for the engine system. INEL is the overall program manager and manager for test facility design, construction and operation. The INEL team has produced plans for both the engine system and the ground test facility. AFAL has funded the INEL team to perform mission analyses to evaluate the cost, performance and operational advantages for a nuclear rocket engine in performing Air Force Space Missions. For those studies, the Advanced Nuclear Rocket Engine (ANRE), a scaled down NERVA derivative, was used as the baseline nuclear engine to compare against chemical engines and nuclear electric engines for performance of orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. 3 tabs.

Ramsthaler, J.H.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

1988-01-01

122

Preparing a New Generation of Citizens and Scientists to Face Earth's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the research interests and the focus of traditional earth scientists are transformed, so too must education in earth system science at colleges and universities across the country change. The required change involves not only the methods used to teach this new science, but also the essential place of the earth sciences in the panoply of…

Bralower, Timothy J.; Feiss, P. Geoffrey; Manduca, Cathryn A.

2008-01-01

123

Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities for Women Engineers and Scientists (survey of Fiscal Year 1997 Powre Awardees)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of fiscal year 1997 POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees from the National Science Foundation revealed that women engineers and scientists face similar issues, challenges, and opportunities and think that the laboratory climate has similar impacts on their careers. Separating responses of women scientists from those of women engineers revealed that 70% of both

Sue V. Rosser; Mireille Zieseniss

2000-01-01

124

Engineering futures: Female students, careers, and work\\/life balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research project was to examine the content of engineering students imagined futures. We asked 347 students from a large undergraduate engineering program to list ten salient events they imagined in their future, as well as to list the ages at which they wanted to realize those milestones. We also surveyed them about their learning strategies and

Jonathan C. Hilpert; Melissa L. Carrion; Jenefer Husman; Laura Baughman

2011-01-01

125

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2009 - Engaging Students and Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 218 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 37% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 20 students and 3 teachers enrolled in the YES 2009/2010 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was NASA's MMS Mission) and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2009-12-01

126

Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) 2010 - Engaging Teachers in Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 18 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 239 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 38% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 21 students and 9 secondary school teachers enrolled in the YES 2010/2011 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was ESA's Rosetta Mission) and high school STEM teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share their developed classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.

Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.

2010-12-01

127

Potential impact of future fuels on small gas turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of the consequences of shortages of aviation gasoline on small aircraft turbine engines and the air traffic. Since the future of fuels is uncertain and supplies deplete the design modification for alternate fuels are considered. The need to develop approximate engines is emphasized. Data are given of some experimental engines with fuels not currently considered as aviation fuels. 11 refs.

Saintsbury, J.A.; Sampath, P.

1982-01-01

128

The future of computational modelling in reaction engineering.  

PubMed

In this paper, we outline the future of modelling in reaction engineering. Specifically, we use the example of particulate emission formation in internal combustion engines to demonstrate what modelling can achieve at present, and to illustrate the ultimately inevitable steps that need to be taken in order to create a new generation of engineering models. PMID:20603373

Kraft, Markus; Mosbach, Sebastian

2010-08-13

129

Engineering for a just and sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering can help make the world a better place. It can help to provide better access to water, health food, shelter, education, warmth. As engineers, we have the potential to help make structural changes that will change people’s lives. For better or for worse. Certainly engineers have the potential to help make the world a better place, but they can

Caroline Baillie

2008-01-01

130

In vivo tissue engineering: dreams for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both tissue-engineered organs and hybrid artificial organs are considered to be candidates for the satisfaction of future\\u000a hopes. The author has been engaged in developing vascular prostheses-neointima formed on vascular prostheses was a product\\u000a of tissue engineering in vivo. On the basis of the author's experiences, the advantages of in vivo tissue engineering technologies\\u000a for future artificial organs and dreams

Yasuharu Noishiki

2000-01-01

131

Academic Science/Engineering: 1972-83. R&D Funds, Federal Support, Scientists and Engineers, Graduate Enrollment and Support. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the third in a series of biennial reports in which academic resources in science and engineering are analyzed. It is based primarily on findings from four National Science Foundation surveys that collect information on academic research and development (R&D) expenditures, federal obligations, employment of scientists and…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

132

The Future of Engineering Science & Engineering Technology: Collision or Convergence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses differences and similarities of engineering (theoretical/abstract) and engineering technology (practical/application-oriented) programs which the author believes are artificially divided. The fields overlap and should be reunited, but this will need more effective interaction among all engineering professionals and revision of…

Kenyon, Richard A.

1985-01-01

133

The Future of Engineering Science & Engineering Technology: Collision or Convergence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses differences and similarities of engineering (theoretical/abstract) and engineering technology (practical/application-oriented) programs which the author believes are artificially divided. The fields overlap and should be reunited, but this will need more effective interaction among all engineering professionals and revision of…

Kenyon, Richard A.

1985-01-01

134

Software Engineering: The Future of a Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing and diverse pressures, manpower shortages, and technology transfer problems all plague the growing software engineering profession. Industry, government, education, and the professional society together must help.

John D. Musa

1985-01-01

135

On the education of future software engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The education of software engineers more and more addresses organizational and management issues, like for instance modeling the business structure and environment which will receive a new software system. The teaching to software engineering students of modeling technologies based on standards like UML and the Rational Unified Process, stressing the focus on designing business-oriented management of software services, raises novel

Paolo Ciancarini; Rocco Moretti

2005-01-01

136

Genetic Engineering of Allergens: Future Therapeutic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of allergens for specific immunotherapy should aim at the production of modified molecules with reduced IgE-binding epitopes (hypoallergens), while preserving structural motifs necessary for T cell recognition (T cell epitopes) and for induction of IgG antibodies reactive with the natural allergen (blocking antibodies). Common approaches for engineering of hypoallergens usually require knowledge of T and B cell epitopes

Fátima Ferreira; Michael Wallner; Heimo Breiteneder; Arnulf Hartl; Josef Thalhamer; Christof Ebner

2002-01-01

137

Engineering a future for amphibians under climate change  

Treesearch

Title: Engineering a future for amphibians under climate change ... climates in the 21st century pose serious threats for biological systems and practical actions ... into local or regional management plans, programs and activities for amphibians.

138

Future auto engines: competition heats up. Fuels, technology, costs, materials will decide which engine wins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional automobile engines are already competing with more-efficient diesel and stratified-charge engines, with gas-turbine and Stirling engines in the wings. Technical and economic issues will determine which will power the car of the future. The most likely scenario projects a mix of engines for several decades. This article describes and compares five power cycles, pointing out the fuel and engineering

Rain

1982-01-01

139

Future auto engines: competition heats up. Fuels, technology, costs, materials will decide which engine wins  

SciTech Connect

Conventional automobile engines are already competing with more-efficient diesel and stratified-charge engines, with gas-turbine and Stirling engines in the wings. Technical and economic issues will determine which will power the car of the future. The most likely scenario projects a mix of engines for several decades. This article describes and compares five power cycles, pointing out the fuel and engineering requirements and the research needs of each. 9 figures. (DCK)

Rain, C.

1982-05-01

140

UCS-PROMOVE: The Engineer of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called "The engineer of the future", with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a…

Villas-Boas, V.

2010-01-01

141

A Model Preparing Future Faculty Program for Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the need for more qualified faculty in engineering programs and to improve the overall educational environment, the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering has established a college-wide Preparing Future Faculty program. The program maintains strong ties with a well-established university-level program but is specifically focused on engineering and computer science disciplines. It is based on the best practices

C. Purdy; P. Bishop; J. Fried; A. Kukreti; Gary Lewandowski

2003-01-01

142

Engineered fuel: Renewable fuel of the future?  

SciTech Connect

The power generation and municipal solid waste management industries share an interest in the use of process engineered fuel (PEF) comprised mainly of paper and plastics as a supplement to conventional fuels. PEF is often burned in existing boilers, making PEF an alternative to traditional refuse derived fuels (RDF). This paper describes PEF facilities and makes a comparison of PEF and RDF fuels.

Tomczyk, L. [R.W. Beck Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-01-01

143

Women and Underrepresented Minority Scientists and Engineers Have Lower Levels of Employment in Business and Industry  

NSF Publications Database

... and Engineers Have Lower Levels of Employment in Business and Industry By Abiola C.Davis Women and ... Engineering: 1996, NSF 96-311. Bachelor's employment by sector The private for profit sector ...

144

Educating Scientists and Engineers: Grade School to Grad School. Higher Education. Contractor Documents,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: (1) The Apollo Program: Science and Engineering Personnel Demand Created by a Federal Research Mission, Arnold S. Levine; (2) Institutional Productivity: The Undergraduate Origins of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, Betty D. Maxfield; (3) The His...

A. S. Levine B. D. Maxfield S. L. Goldman

1988-01-01

145

Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers: Statistical Profile of New Entrants into the Work Force, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data describing the 1976 employment and educations characteristics of recent science and engineering graduates involved in energy-related activities are presented. The data are from the 1976 National Surevey of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, a ...

J. E. Rall

1978-01-01

146

Engineering the Future: Embedding Engineering Permanently across the School-University Interface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program. Engineering the Future (EtF) sought to promote a permanent, informed awareness within the school community of high-level engineering by embedding key aspects of engineering within the education curriculum. The Scottish education system is used for a case…

MacBride, G.; Hayward, E. L.; Hayward, G.; Spencer, E.; Ekevall, E.; Magill, J.; Bryce, A. C.; Stimpson, B.

2010-01-01

147

The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at

D. M. Rizzo; M. Paul; C. Farmer; P. Larson; J. Matt; K. Sentoff; I. Vazquez-Spickers; A. R. Pearce

2007-01-01

148

The future of information engineering technology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current and future shortage for IT professionals poses a challenge for the IT industry, for educational institutions, and for government and state agencies. The challenge is to increase the pool of qualified IT workers that has not kept pace with the explosive demand, which has resulted in a steady increase in salaries for IT personnel over the last decade.

A. Saad

1999-01-01

149

Future engineering needs of mirror fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fusion research has matured during the last decade and significant insight into the future program needs has emerged. While some will properly note that the crystal ball is cloudy, it is equally important to note that the shape and outline of our course is discernable. In this short summary paper, I will draw upon the National Mirror Program Plan for mirror projects and on available design studies of these projects to put the specific needs of the mirror program in perspective.

Thomassen, K.I.

1982-07-30

150

Study of the scientific reasoning methods: Identifying the salient reasoning characteristics exhibited by engineers and scientists in an R&D environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the core of what it means to be a scientist or engineer is the ability to think rationally using scientific reasoning methods. Yet, typically if asked, scientist and engineers are hard press for a reply what that means. Some may argue that the meaning of scientific reasoning methods is a topic for the philosophers and psychologist, but this study believes and will prove that the answers lie with the scientists and engineers, for who really know the workings of the scientific reasoning thought process than they. This study will provide evidence to the aims: (a) determine the fundamental characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists working in R&D projects, (b) sample the engineer/scientist community to determine their views as to the importance, frequency, and ranking of each of characteristics towards benefiting their R&D projects, (c) make concluding remarks regarding any identified competency gaps in the exhibited or expected cognitive reasoning methods of engineer/scientists working on R&D projects. To drive these aims are the following three research questions. The first, what are the salient characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists in an R&D environment? The second, what do engineer/scientists consider to be the frequency and importance of the salient cognitive reasoning methods characteristics? And the third, to what extent, if at all, do patent holders and technical fellows differ with regard to their perceptions of the importance and frequency of the salient cognitive reasoning characteristics of engineer/scientists? The methodology and empirical approach utilized and described: (a) literature search, (b) Delphi technique composed of seven highly distinguish engineer/scientists, (c) survey instrument directed to distinguish Technical Fellowship, (d) data collection analysis. The results provide by Delphi Team answered the first research question. The collaborative effort validated presented characteristic and most importantly presents ten additional novel or new reasoning characteristics. These characteristics were then presented and evaluated by the Technical Fellows. Their findings answered the second and third research question. With interesting results including the data indicating "imagination" as highest in importance and frequency, and comparison analysis of the patent holders showing those having five or more patents significantly valued "intuition (independent).

Kuhn, William F.

151

Composite Estimates of Scientists and Engineers (1986): Documentation of Methodology. Parts 1 and 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the Science and Engineering Tabulating Model (SETAB) used by Mathematica Policy Research Inc., to generate detailed estimates and tabulations of the U.S. science and engineering (S/E) population in 1986 from the National Science Found...

D. Edson

1988-01-01

152

Utility of predicting group membership and the role of spatial visualization in becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist.  

PubMed

This article has two themes: First, we explicate how the prediction of group membership can augment test validation designs restricted to prediction of individual differences in criterion performance. Second, we illustrate the utility of this methodology by documenting the importance of spatial visualization for becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist. This involved various longitudinal analyses on a sample of 400,000 high school students tracked after 11 years following their high school graduation. The predictive validities of Spatial-Math and Verbal-Math ability composites were established by successfully differentiating a variety of educational and occupational groups. One implication of our findings is that physical science and engineering disciplines appear to be losing many talented persons by restricting assessment to conventional mathematical and verbal abilities, such as those of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). PMID:8482696

Humphreys, L G; Lubinski, D; Yao, G

1993-04-01

153

Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

Chinn, Pauline W. U.

2002-04-01

154

Assessing the adequacy of future science and engineering degree awards  

SciTech Connect

There has long been a continuing need for occupational demand and supply projections for purposes of educational planning. In recent years, however, concerns over ``shortages`` of technical labor, international competitiveness, changing workforce demographics and other issues have intensified this debate, especially regarding scientists and engineers. In 1990, the National Science Foundation (NSF) published a projection of a ``cumulative shortfall`` of 675,000 bachelors degrees in the natural science and engineering (NS&E) fields by the year 2006. The NSF study based this finding largely on demographics: college age population was forecast to decline through the projection period. NS&E degree production from this shrinking base would ``fall short`` of historical levels of NS&E degree production. This projection had previously been circulated in draft form; the size of the ``cumulative shortfall`` resulted in considerable attention and the draft was used in statements in support of programs that were perceived to enhance NS&E degree production.

Finn, M.G.; Baker, J.G.

1992-11-01

155

Overseas Chinese Environmental Engineers and Scientists Association (OCEESA) Journal, Volume 19, Number 1, February 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OCEESA Member News; OCEESA Officers of 2002; List of OCEESA Presidents; Editor's Note; Call for Paper, 8th MTEPC; OCEESA President's Message; OCEESA Past President's Annual Report; Sino-American Technology and Engineering Conference (SATEC'01) Report; Min...

Y. T. Hung H. H. Lo D. Tsye-Lang Tang

2003-01-01

156

Conventional engine technology. volume 3: comparisons and future potential  

SciTech Connect

The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

Dowdy, M.W.

1981-12-01

157

Computer-aided software engineering: present status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the current status of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) and discuss the benefits it promises to deliver in the future. First, an extended life-cycle model is presented. Next, basic functions of a CASE environment and the authors' classification scheme for analyzing CASE products are discussed. Following this, the authors draw implications from the results of empirical CASE studies

Minder Chen; J. F. Nunamaker Jr.; E. Sue Weber

1989-01-01

158

The Left Brain of North American CitiesScientists and Engineers and Urban Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using pooled Census of Population data for 242 metropolitan areas, this paper evaluates the link between long-run employment growth and the supply of different types of skilled labor. It also examines factors related to the growth of a particular type of skilled labor—workers in science and engineering occupations. The first part of the article investigates the contribution of broad and

Desmond Beckstead; W. Mark Brown; Guy Gellatly

2008-01-01

159

Overview of USPAS and its role in educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerators are essential engines of discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and chemistry. Particle beam based instruments in medicine, industry and national security constitute a multi-billion dollar per year industry. More than 55,000 peer-reviewed papers having accelerator as a keyword are available on the Web. Yet only a handful of universities offer any formal training in accelerator science. Several reasons can be cited: 1) The science and technology of particle beams and other non-neutral plasmas cuts across traditional academic disciplines. 2) Electrical engineering departments have evolved toward micro- and nano-technology and computing science. 3) Nuclear engineering departments have atrophied at many major universities. 4) With few exceptions, interest at individual universities is not extensive enough to support a strong faculty line. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Governed and supported by a consortium of nine DOE laboratories and two NSF university laboratories, USPAS offers a responsive and balanced curriculum of science, engineering, computational and hands-on courses. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

Barletta, William

2008-04-01

160

The Barrett Foundation: Undergraduate Research Program for Environmental Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new program sponsored by The Barrett Foundation in the University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences (UVM) supports undergraduate students in Environmental Engineering, Earth and Environmental Sciences to pursue independent summer research projects. The Barrett Foundation, a non-profit organization started by a UVM Engineering alum, provided a grant to support undergraduate research. Students must work with at least two different faculty advisors to develop project ideas, then independently prepare a research proposal and submit it to a faculty panel for review. The program was structured as a scholarship to foster a competitive application process. In the last three years, fourteen students have participated in the program. The 2007 Barrett Scholars projects include: - Using bacteria to change the chemistry of subsurface media to encourage calcite precipitation for soil stability and pollutant sequestration - Assessing structural weaknesses in a historic post and beam barn using accelerometers and wireless data collection equipment - Using image processing filters to 1) evaluate leaf wetness, a leading indicator of disease in crops and 2) assess the movement of contaminants through building materials. - Investigating the impact of increased water temperature on cold-water fish species in two Vermont streams. - Studying the impacts of light duty vehicle tailpipe emissions on air quality This program supports applied and interdisciplinary environmental research and introduces students to real- world engineering problems. In addition, faculty from different research focuses are presented the opportunity to establish new collaborations around campus through the interdisciplinary projects. To date, there is a successful publication record from the projects involving the Barrett scholars, including students as authors. One of the objectives of this program was to provide prestigious, competitive awards to outstanding undergraduate engineers who wish to pursue a specific research project under the mentorship of faculty members who are leading scholars in their fields. We not only wanted to create a valuable experience for the undergraduate engineers, but also felt that creating a competitive and prestigious award would create excitement and convince other undergraduate engineers to pursue research experiences.

Rizzo, D. M.; Paul, M.; Farmer, C.; Larson, P.; Matt, J.; Sentoff, K.; Vazquez-Spickers, I.; Pearce, A. R.

2007-12-01

161

Curiosity + Kindergarten = Future Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Carefully crafted experiences in the early childhood classroom can create learning opportunities for children that allow one curiosity to lead to another. Learning how to find out answers to fascinating questions is what science is all about. In fact, it can be as simple as learning how an ordinary egg can be changed. For the past year, the…

Flannagan, Jenny Sue; Rockenbaugh, Liesl

2010-01-01

162

Curiosity + Kindergarten = Future Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carefully crafted experiences in the early childhood classroom can create learning opportunities for children that allow one curiosity to lead to another. Learning how to find out answers to fascinating questions is what science is all about. In fact, it

Flannagan, Jenny S.; Rockenbaugh, Liesl

2010-12-01

163

Breadth-first CS 1 for scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an introductory CS course designed to provide future scientists with a one-semester overview of the discipline. The course takes a breadth-first approach that leverages its students' interest and experience in science, mathematics, and engineering. In contrast to many other styles of CS 1, this course does not presume that its students will study more computer science, but

Zachary Dodds; Christine Alvarado; Geoff Kuenning; Ran Libeskind-hadas

2007-01-01

164

Designing and Evaluating a Climate Change Course for Upper-Division Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AOSS 300, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, was created to provide a mechanism for scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation with emphasis on issues of the atmosphere and oceans. The course is specifically designed to contribute to the desired Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) outcomes that engineering and science graduates possess "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of solutions in a global and societal context." To facilitate this new course a new suite of coupled Flash/PHP/MySQL tools have been created that allow personalization of the students' learning space and interaction with faculty. Using these tools students are challenged to actively participate in the construction of knowledge through development of on-line portfolios that influence course content. This paper reports on lessons learned in the first semester that will guide further course development.

Samson, P. J.

2002-12-01

165

Overview of USPAS and its role in educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerators are essential engines of discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and chemistry. Particle beam based instruments in medicine, industry and national security constitute a multi-billion dollar per year industry. More than 55,000 peer-reviewed papers having accelerator as a keyword are available on the Web. Yet only a handful of universities offer any formal training in accelerator science. Several reasons can

William Barletta

2008-01-01

166

Web Guide to Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on September 11, this new 212-page report from the National Academies describes postdoctoral scholars, especially at universities, as "neglected, even exploited." After studying the employment conditions for the 52,000 postdocs currently working in the United States, a joint committee of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine determined that a number of reforms are badly needed. These include limiting postdoctoral appointments to five years, raising salaries, and strengthening the mentor system. At the National Academies site, users can access the full text of the report, read the opening statement and news release, and listen to the archived Webcast in RealPlayer format.

167

The future of vehicle propulsion – combustion engines and alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing shortage on energy resources as well as future emission legislation development increase the pressure to develop\\u000a more efficient, environmentally friendly propulsion systems for vehicles. This requires a further development of current diesel\\u000a and gasoline engines as well as a careful look to alternatives like fuel cell systems or hybrid propulsion systems. This paper\\u000a gives a survey about the current

Stefan Pischinger

2004-01-01

168

The fraying web of life and our future engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence abounds that we are reaching the carrying capacity of the earth -- engaging in deficit spending. The amount of crops, animals, and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds wth the earth can replace by an estimated 20%. Additionally, signs of climate change are precursors of things to come. Global industrialization and the new technologies of the 20th century have helped to stretch the capacities of our finite natural system to precarious levels. Taken together, this evidence reflects a fraying web of life. Sustainable development and natural capitalism work to reverse these trends, however, we are often still wedded to the notion that environmental conservation and economic development are the 'players' in a zero-sum game. Engineering and its technological derivatives can also help remedy the problem. The well being of future generations will depend to a large extent on how we educate our future engineers. These engineers will be a new breed -- developing and using sustainable technology, benign manufacturing processes and an expanded array of environmental assessment tools that will simultaneously support and maintain healthy economies and a healthy environment. The importance of environment and sustainable development cosiderations, the need for their widespread inclusion in engineering education, the impediments to change, and the important role played by ABET will be presented.

Splitt, Frank G.

2004-07-01

169

Preparing Future Scientists and Engineers in High School: Where is the Physics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although high school physics enrollments are growing, most state curricula make it easy for a student to avoid a physics course. Grading and graduation requirements may actually encourage a good student to skip physics. Often the physics course may be taught by a less than qualified teacher. Likewise, teacher licensure requirements and school hiring practices often encourage good teachers not to specialize in physics. I will discuss how such factors affect high school physics enrollments in North Carolina and elsewhere. As university physics instructors we should be aware of these issues and how we can support physics teaching and learning in the high schools. I will also review the activities of the AIP/AAPT/APS Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics, which is completing a review of pre-service and in-service physics teacher preparation programs across the US. These programs come in many forms that respond to the local school environments. They often involve close collaborations of the physics and education departments, flexible and creative curriculum requirements, and some faculty dedicated to shepherding undergraduates into physics teaching. We note that a university program that produces only two qualified physics teachers per year is considered successful. The Task Force is seeking common features of successful physics teacher programs to encourage other physics departments to enhance their own programs. The final report of the Task Force will be presented at the APS/AAPT Joint Meeting in February, 2010.

Haase, David G.

2009-11-01

170

The diesel engine for cars -- Is there a future?  

SciTech Connect

The diesel engine is known as the most fuel efficient combustion engine. Its acceptance for use in passenger cars, however, varies geographically. Today, the diesel car plays an important role in Europe; in France, for instance, it is achieving a remarkable market share of about 42%, while in the US its market penetration can be neglected. Many questions are expressed concerning the future of diesel powered cars. The question affecting market acceptance is as follows: can the significantly better fuel efficiency of a diesel car outweigh perceived detrimental characteristics? Such unfavorable properties are thought to be low specific power, objectionable noise, higher exhaust emissions (including smoke), and higher vehicle price. These features are closely influenced by the state of passenger car diesel engine technology. This technology state and its potential must be evaluated with respect to current and future demands, for instance, tighter exhaust emission regulations. In addition, the commercial value and consumer acceptance of high fuel economy must be evaluated. It is clear that the ultimate result of weighing the pros and cons will depend not only on technological factors, but also on political factors such as fuel taxation. Regarding the state of technology, the diesel car is very promising. First, by employing a direct injection combustion system, the fuel efficiency can be improved by about 15% over current swirl chamber engines. Furthermore, the specific power (hp/ltr) can be increased by efficient supercharging to achieve values of today`s gasoline engines. By tuning the combustion system, low noise engine design features and incorporation of careful noise reduction measures on the vehicle, the noise behavior of a spark ignited vehicle can be reached. Exhaust emissions can currently be reduced to a level to satisfy today`s European and US Tier 1 emission limits. However, significant development effort remains. More stringent emission levels (California US, Tier 2 ULEV, and Stage 3 in Europe) require further advancements in diesel combustion. The strong development potential of 4-valve engines and new unique injection systems is evident. In addition, there are promising developments with lean NO{sub x} catalysts and regenerative particulate filters. These technologies offer the potential to meet the very stringent future emission standards.

Pischinger, F.F. [GmbH and Co. KG, Aachen (Germany). FEV Motorentechnik

1998-07-01

171

Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Japanese (n=94) and U.S. (n=340) aerospace scientists/engineers described time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, importance of technical communication courses, and the use of libraries, computer networks, and technical reports. Japanese respondents had greater language fluency; U.S. respondents spent more time with…

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1997-01-01

172

The Birth of a Notion: The Windfalls and Pitfalls of Tailoring an SoTL-Like Concept to Scientists, Mathematicians, and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite calls for greater agreement in defining the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), terms that resemble SoTL are proliferating. An NSF-sponsored center for teaching and learning coined its own term, "teaching-as-research" (TAR), believing it would resonate better with research-active scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. To…

Connolly, Mark R.; Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana L.; Clifford, Matthew A.

2007-01-01

173

Rewards in Air Force R and D: An Analysis of Desirability, Perception and Association with the Productivity of Scientists/Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was taken of 278 Air Force R and D scientists/engineers to determine the following: their level of desirability for 33 rewards, their perceptions of receiving 25 of the 33 rewards for innovative output, and whether they feel the distribution of r...

A. E. Stevens

1976-01-01

174

National science policy and scientific manpower: Funding effects on job mobility of scientists and engineers in the United States, 1958--1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science policy in the United States between 1958 and 1972 was intended to influence the research and development (R D) labor force indirectly, through government funding. An event history analysis of professional R D jobs in five scientific disciplines shows that, while federal funding influences the job mobility of scientists and engineers, other social and economic factors are also significant

Lyman

1993-01-01

175

The End of Mandatory Retirement for Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Postsecondary Institutions: Retirement Patterns 10 Years Later. InfoBrief. NSF 11-302  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mandatory retirement in postsecondary educational institutions ended in 1994. In this paper, examination of retirements in 1993 (just before the end of this practice) and again 10 years later shows that by 2003, the age distribution of doctoral scientists and engineers working in postsecondary institutions had shifted, with a larger proportion…

Hoffer, Thomas B.; Sederstrom, Scott; Harper, Deborah

2010-01-01

176

The NASA Suborbital Center of Excellence - preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers (ESA SE-058)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Suborbital Center of Excellence (SCE) is charting new territory. From an idea to promote science and engineering education and outreach, the SCE is working toward the objective of increasing numbers of college graduates choosing a career in suborbital programs. Educational outreach initiatives for young children to university students are presented. These include hands-on experiments, demonstrations, and suborbital educational materials. Approaches to excite university students to want to pursue these careers through relevant and useful work experiences are also presented. A key component of this is the SCE co-op program. Future programs and initiatives are presented. The SCE is evolving, meeting the needs to promote science and engineering education and outreach.

Merritt, Bernice; Hottman, Steve; Hansen, Kathy; Cathey, Henry M., Jr.

2003-08-01

177

Tissue engineering for the management of chronic wounds: current concepts and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Chronic wounds constitute a significant and growing biomedical burden. With the increasing growth of populations prone to dysfunctional wound healing, there is an urgent and unmet need for novel strategies to both prevent and treat these complications. Tissue engineering offers the potential to create functional skin, and the synergistic efforts of biomedical engineers, material scientists, and molecular and cell biologists have yielded promising therapies for non-healing wounds. However, traditional paradigms for wound healing focus largely on the role of inflammatory cells and fail to incorporate more recent research highlighting the importance of stem cells and matrix dynamics in skin repair. Approaches to chronic wound healing centred on inflammation alone are inadequate to guide the development of regenerative medicine-based technologies. As the molecular pathways and biologic defects underlying non-healing wounds are further elucidated, multifaceted bioengineering systems must advance in parallel to exploit this knowledge. In this viewpoint essay, we highlight the current concepts in tissue engineering for chronic wounds and speculate on areas for future research in this increasingly interdisciplinary field. PMID:22742728

Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

2012-06-29

178

Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

2010-05-01

179

Introducing engine innovations: an examination of future markets for Brayton and Stirling automotive engines  

SciTech Connect

This paper takes a general and particular view of the process of engine innovation. The history of engine innovation in automobiles and railroads is briefly reviewed and related to the potential path of automotive engine innovation that may occur toward the turn of the century. It is shown that automotive engine innovation in the past has been costly, especially to lower income consumers, and that potential future adoption of Stirling and Brayton (gas turbine) engines is unlikely to be any different. The danger of negative economic side effects during the innovation process for the automobile industry and nation are noted. It is suggested that careful corporate and national preparation for automotive innovation is necessary. To that end, advanced (year 2000) engine and vehicle characteristics from the Technology Assessment of Productive Conservation in Urban Transport are used to estimate that the Stirling and Brayton engines are likely to have very specific and different markets. Driving cycle behavior of the engines in an urban and suburban setting is examined to show that the Stirling's most likely market will be as a specialized urban vehicle, while the Brayton's best market will be as a specialized suburban and inter-city vehicle. It is argued that neither engine has the properties necessary to become a universal replacement for all purpose vehicles using advanced Otto-cycle and diesel engines, but that proper use of these vehicles could ultimately help efficiently mitigate national problems of urban air pollution (the Stirling) and/or excessive fuel consumption. Finally, it is pointed out that recent EPA methods of evaluating vehicle fuel efficiency could incorrectly lead to a negative economic evaluation of advanced Stirling and Brayton engines, tending to unjustifiably retard their introduction into the market.

Santini, D.J.

1984-08-01

180

Software architecture and engineering for patient records: current and future.  

PubMed

During the "The National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," a track focusing on "Systems Architecture and Software Engineering" included eight presenters. These presenters identified three key areas of interest in this field, which include the need for open enterprise architecture and a federated database design, net centrality based on service-oriented architecture, and the need for focus on software usability and reusability. The eight panelists provided recommendations related to the suitability of service-oriented architecture and the enabling technologies of grid computing and Web 2.0 for building health services research centers and federated data warehouses to facilitate large-scale collaborative health care and research. Finally, they discussed the need to leverage industry best practices for software engineering to facilitate rapid software development, testing, and deployment. PMID:19562959

Weng, Chunhua; Levine, Betty A; Mun, Seong K

2009-05-01

181

John Mather public policy internship: Perspectives on science policy as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA) and Congressman Bill Foster's office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, I participated in the John Mather public policy internship through AIP and SPS. I spent six weeks as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA), a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that encourages technically-trained citizens to become more engaged in US politics and the policy-making process, and six weeks as an intern for Congressman Bill Foster (D-Il 14) in the House of Representatives. These internships offered two distinct perspectives on how American science policy is crafted and showed me many ways in which scientists can be engaged in the political process.

Tuna, Alexander

2011-04-01

182

Preparing the Future Workforce: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Policy in K-12 Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last December, the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Coalition--a national organization of more than 600 groups representing knowledge workers, educators, scientists, engineers, and technicians--wrote to President-elect Obama urging him to "not lose sight of the critical role that STEM education plays in enabling…

Dickman, Anneliese; Schwabe, Amy; Schmidt, Jeff; Henken, Rob

2009-01-01

183

Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

184

Future Jet Technologies. Part B. F-35 Future Risks v. JS-Education of Pilots & Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of “Next-Generation” airframes based on supermarket-jet-engine-components is nowadays passé. A novel integration methodology [Gal-Or, “Editorial-Review, Part A”, 2011, Gal-Or, “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft”, Springer Verlag, Gal-Or, Int'l. J. of Thermal and Fluid Sciences 7: 1-6, 1998, “Introduction”, 2011] is nowadays in. For advanced fighter aircraft it begins with JS-based powerplant, which takes up to three times longer to mature vis-à-vis the airframe, unless “committee's design” enforces a dormant catastrophe. Jet Steering (JS) or Thrust Vectoring Flight Control, is a classified, integrated engine-airframe technology aimed at maximizing post-stall-maneuverability, flight safety, efficiency and flight envelopes of manned and unmanned air vehicles, especially in the “impossible-to-fly”, post-stall flight domains where the 100+ years old, stall-spin-limited, Conventional Flight Control fails. Worldwide success in adopting the post-stall, JS-revolution, opens a new era in aviation, with unprecedented design variables identified here for a critical review of F-35 future risks v. future fleets of jet-steered, pilotless vehicles, like the X-47B/C. From the educational point of view, it is also instructive to comprehend the causes of long, intensive opposition to adopt post-stall, JS ideas. A review of such debates may also curb a future opposition to adopt more advanced, JS-based technologies, tests, strategies, tactics and missions within the evolving air, marine and land applications of JS. Most important, re-education of pilots and engineers requires adding post-stall, JS-based studies to curriculum & R&D.

Gal-Or, Benjamin

2011-09-01

185

Engineering Lessons Learned and Technical Standards Integration: Capturing Key Technologies for Future Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capturing engineering lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies, then integrating them with technical standards, provides a viable process for enhancing engineering capabilities. The development of future space missions will requi...

D. P. Mellen D. Garcia W. W. Vaughan

2003-01-01

186

Germ-line engineering, freedom, and future generations.  

PubMed

New technologies in germ-line engineering have raised many questions about obligations to future generations. In this article, I focus on the importance of increasing freedom and the equality of freedom for present and future generations, because these two ideals are necessary for a just society and because they are most threatened by the wide-scale privatisation of GLE technologies. However, there are ambiguities in applying these ideals to the issue of genetic technologies. I argue that Amartya Sen's capability theory can be used as a framework to ensure freedom and equality in the use of GLE technology. Capability theory articulates the goal of equalising real freedom by bringing all people up to a threshold of basic human capabilities. Sen's capability theory can clarify the proper moral goal of GLE insofar as this technology could be used to bring people up to certain basic human capabilities, thereby increasing their real freedom. And by increasing the freedom of those who lack basic human capabilities, GLE can aid in decreasing the inequalities of freedom among classes of people. PMID:12718332

Cooke, Elizabeth F

2003-02-01

187

Shortage of Engineers and Scientists. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate One Hundred First Congress, Second Session on Training Scientists and Engineers for the Year 2000--The National Science Foundation's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the transcript of a Congressional hearing focusing on the status of the training of scientists and engineers in the United States and the role of the federal government in the improvement of this situation. Included are opening statements from Senators Albert Gore, Jr. (Tennessee), Robert W. Kasten, Jr. (Wisconsin), and Larry…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

188

Diversity and Equity in the Lab: Preparing Scientists and Engineers for Inclusive Teaching in Courses and Research Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite high attrition rates in college-level science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses, with even higher rates for women and underrepresented minorities, not enough attention has been given to higher education STEM classroom practices that may limit the retention of students from diverse backgrounds. The Professional Development Program (PDP) has developed a range of professional development activities aimed at helping participants learn about diversity and equity issues, integrate inclusive teaching strategies into their own instructional units, and reflect on their own teaching practices. In the PDP, all participants develop and teach a STEM laboratory activity that enables their students to practice scientific inquiry processes as they gain an understanding of scientific concepts. In addition, they are asked to consider diversity and equity issues in their activity design and teaching. The PDP supports participants in this challenging endeavor by engaging them in activities that are aligned with a PDP-defined Diversity & Equity Focus Area that includes five emphases: 1) Multiple ways to learn, communicate and succeed; 2) Learners' goals, interests, motivation, and values; 3) Beliefs and perceptions about ability to achieve; 4) Inclusive collaboration and equitable participation; 5) Social identification within STEM culture. We describe the PDP Diversity & Equity focus, the five emphases, and the supporting activities that have been designed and implemented within the PDP, as well as future directions for our diversity and equity efforts.

Hunter, L.; Seagroves, S.; Metevier, A. J.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Raschke, L.; Jonsson, P.; Porter, J.; Brown, C.; Roybal, G.; Shaw, J.

2010-12-01

189

PROCESS AND PRODUCT ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENTS, PRESENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P.V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture is sponsored by Elsevier Science Ltd and Chemical Engineering Science in association with the Institution of Chemical Engineers, in recognition of the contribution made by Peter Danckwerts in the pursuit of scholarship in chemical engineering as manifested by his editorship of Chemical Engineering Science for 30 years. The annual lecture shall be appropriate to the

K. Wintermantel

1999-01-01

190

Engineering the Future with America's High School Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The number of students enrolled in engineering is declining while the need for engineers is increasing. One contributing factor is that most high school students have little or no knowledge about what engineering is, or what engineers do. To teach young s...

M. A. Farrance J. W. Jenner

1993-01-01

191

Assessment in Engineering Education: Evolution, Approaches and Future Collaborations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the current state of assessment in engineering education in the United States as reflected in the Journal of Engineering Education. We begin with a brief review of recent developments in the assessment of engineering education and the events that have inspired change. Next, we explore assessment methodologies that have been used repeatedly in the evaluation of engineering

BARBARA M. OLDS; BARBARA M. MOSKAL; RONALD L. MILLER

192

The Role of Scientific and Engineering Societies in Development: Present Perspectives and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There can be no doubt that engineers and scientists have a vital role to play in the developmental processes by which the na tions of the Third World will bring greater health, safety, pro sperity and self-reliance to their peoples, but the role that the professionalengineering and scientific societies must play re mains undefined. In this paper the roles these

Donald Fink

1979-01-01

193

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: The Relationship Between the Use of US Government Technical Reports by US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists and Selected Institutional and Sociometric Variables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and selected institutional and sociometric variables was investigated. The methodology used for this study was survey research. Data were coll...

T. E. Pinelli

1991-01-01

194

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

195

Future Modeling Needs in Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a performance model rocket engine design that takes advantage of pulse detonation to generate thrust. The contents include: 1) Introduction to the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE); 2) PDRE modeling issues and options; 3) Discussio...

B. Meade D. Talley D. Mueller D. Tew M. Guidos D. Seymour

2001-01-01

196

Perspective on the Future of High Efficiency Engines .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New fuel economy standards and emissions regulations are accelerating the development of new engine technologies, sensors, and on-board computing. These developments will enable unprecedented engine control, which will in turn enable real-world implementa...

J. B. Green R. M. Wagner S. J. Curran

2013-01-01

197

Diversity in Engineering: Managing the Workforce of the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October 29 and 30, 2001, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce brought together representatives of corporations that have been recognized for their successful diversity programs and members of the...

2002-01-01

198

Recruiting Future Engineers through Effective Guest Speaking in Elementary School Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author describes how engineers can increase the number of future engineers by volunteering as guest speakers in the elementary school classroom. The paper is divided into three main subjects. First, the importance of engineers speaking directly with young students is discussed. Next, several best practice techniques for speaking with young students are described. Finally, information on

Kevin Young

2007-01-01

199

Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

2007-01-01

200

Citizen Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest

Bennett, Katherine

2010-09-01

201

Engineering Ethics in Serching the Future of Engineering Education in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High interest in engineering ethics in engineering education in Japan is, firstly, to meet the requirement of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education and, secondly, due to recent technological troubles in industry. Since the subject of engineering ethics has broad and deep backgound, it exceeds scope and ability of an engineering society representing one engineering field. Last year, the joint committee of engineering ethics has been established in cooperation of 12 leading engineering societies, associations and the Engineering Academy of Japan. Here is a short report of activities and prospects of the joint committee, mainly focusing on engineering education.

Nagashima, Akira

202

Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

203

The Future for Industrial Engineers: Education and Research Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|EU graduation and the recruitment of industrial engineers (IEs) have been investigated. An increasing demand is observed for graduates in almost all industrial engineering (IE) subjects. The labour market in the EU is evolving towards the service sector even if manufacturing still represents a significant share of both IE employment and gross…

Mummolo, Giovanni

2007-01-01

204

Artificial Intelligence in Engineering: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review paper which sets the scene by defining some fundamental concept, such as intelligence and intelligent systems, and then discusses current trends in applications of artificial intelligence in engineering. The author reviews five key paradigms of artificial intelligence in engineering: knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and intelligent agents.

George Rzevski

1995-01-01

205

The future of electrical and computer engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors will briefly describe how some of today's innovations and advancements might provide potential for improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of contemporary teaching methods. A model curriculum proposed in this paper merges the disciplines of mathematics, science, engineering, and computing. It also addresses the growing need for exposing aspiring engineers to the human, cultural, and professional aspects of

Frederick C. Berry; Philip S. DiPiazza; Susan L. Sauer

2003-01-01

206

Current status and future trends in computational wind engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulty of Computational Wind Engineering (hereafter CWE) is described from the viewpoints of Computational Fluid Dynamics (hereafter CFD) technique. The rapid growth of CFD applications to wind engineering is presented. The new trends in turbulence models for applying CWE are noted. The advantages of dynamic subgrid scale (hereafter SGS) models in Large Eddy Simulation (hereafter LES) are clarified.

Shuzo Murakami

1997-01-01

207

Effective professional development of engineering educators: A future outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering faculty, in general and the juniors in particular, need to expand their technical knowledge and develop new competencies to further their technical professional development. This paper explores ways to effective professional development of junior engineering educators, to enable them to assume the roles they are entrusted with. The purpose here is to offer a new way to think about

Waddah Akili

2007-01-01

208

Future Forests: Forecasting Social and Ecological Consequences of Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering could result in a dramatic transformation of the forest products industry, increasing corporate economic power and concentrating timber production in those regions most suited to industrial-scale tree plantations. We briefly review arguments in favor of and in opposition to genetic engineering in forestry, and describe the constellation of forces promoting this technology. We then examine possible social consequences

CONNER BAILEY; PETER R. SINCLAIR; MARK R. DUBOIS

2004-01-01

209

Jet engine diagnostics and trending: roadmap for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard for US Air Force engine diagnostics and trending has been developed and fielded. The Comprehensive Engine Management System increment IV (CEMS IV) will be enhanced and fielded under the functional umbrella of the Core Automated Maintenance System. The methodology by which CEMS IV supports the philosophy of on-condition maintenance is discussed. The operational implementation of portable decision support

T. G. Jellison; C. B. Suehs; R. L. De Hoff

1988-01-01

210

Engineering Education in the United States: Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past half-century, engineering education in the United States has undergone a profound transformation, from a strong focus on engineering practice and design before World War II to the current emphasis on scientific fundamentals and mathematical analysis. This change was driven by the Cold War and the accompanying major federal…

Prados, John W.

211

Engineering Education: The Key to a Sustainable Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is obvious that engineering played a significant role in the development of the world. Many contributions engineers have given are visible in the world and in people's daily lives. Unfortunately, humans often learn through trial and error, and much of the world has been developed in ways that did not contribute to the well-being of the planet…

Thomas, Jason

2012-01-01

212

Future Advanced Aero-Engines: The Materials Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A balanced program of aero-engine advanced engineering is pursued in the UK, and an important and growing element of this program is that devoted to materials and processing technology. The quest for more capable materials is an essential element of that ...

D. R. Highton W. J. Chrispin

1989-01-01

213

Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley

2012-01-01

214

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

215

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

216

Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley

2012-01-01

217

Combatting Obsolescence Using Perceived Discrepancies in Job Expectations of Research Managers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Exercise Future" questionnaire, which covers individual preferences and expectations about conditions in one's future sphere of work, was completed by 143 research and development scientists, engineers, and managers as part of an experiment to test effects on subsequent self-development activities. Three fourths saw the importance of…

Barrett, Gerald V.; And Others

218

Remanufacturing Engineering Literature Overview and Future Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the past ten years, the remanufacturing engineering has become a very popular topic in the industrial area as it is one\\u000a of the most effective and potential strategies for the “end-of-life” product management. However, the available literature\\u000a and theory in the remanufacturing area are limited; this paper is designed to present an overview over the remanufacturing\\u000a engineering, including literature

Qingdi Ke; Hong-chao Zhang; Guangfu Liu; Bingbing Li

219

Introducing engine innovations: an examination of future markets for Brayton and Stirling automotive engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a general and particular view of the process of engine innovation. The history of engine innovation in automobiles and railroads is briefly reviewed and related to the potential path of automotive engine innovation that may occur toward the turn of the century. It is shown that automotive engine innovation in the past has been costly, especially to

Santini

1984-01-01

220

Preparing future engineers for challenges of the 21st century: Sustainable engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of engineering is changing rapidly as the growing global population puts added demands on the earth's resources: engineering decisions must now account for limitations in materials and energy as well as the need to reduce discharges of wastes. This means educators must revise courses and curricula so engineering graduates are prepared for the new challenges as practicing engineers.

Cliff I. Davidson; Chris T. Hendrickson; H. Scott Matthews; Michael W. Bridges; David T. Allen; Cynthia F. Murphy; Braden R. Allenby; John C. Crittenden; Sharon Austin

2010-01-01

221

Scaffold-based articular cartilage repair - Future prospects wedding gene therapy and tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future prospects wedding gene therapy and tissue engineering. In this article, current clinical procedures for articular cartilage repair are reviewed in the context of the contributions that tissue engineering approaches can make in improving the outcome. Specific attention is directed toward the promising effects of growth factors and the potential advantages of employing gene therapy techniques in combination with three-dimensional

RAMILLE M. CAPITO; MYRON SPECTOR

2003-01-01

222

Germ-Line Engineering as The Eugenics of The Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper consists of three parts. Part I challenges the “rights approach” to the future generations problem. Agreeing with\\u000a D. Parfit’s argument that an appeal to rights cannot entirely solve the future generations problem (called the Non-Identity\\u000a Problem by him), further possible arguments will be explored: the talk on rights of unconceived people is difficult, which\\u000a rights or whether rights

Qui Renzong

223

Engineered mammalian chromosomes in cellular protein production: future prospects.  

PubMed

The manufacture of recombinant proteins at industrially relevant levels requires technologies that can engineer stable, high expressing cell lines rapidly, reproducibly, and with relative ease. Commonly used methods incorporate transfection of mammalian cell lines with plasmid DNA containing the gene of interest. Identifying stable high expressing transfectants is normally laborious and time consuming. To improve this process, the use of engineered chromosomes has been considered. To date, the most successful technique has been based on the artificial chromosome expression or ACE System, which consists of the targeted transfection of cells containing mammalian based artificial chromosomes with multiple recombination acceptor sites. This ACE System allows for the specific transfection of single or multiple gene copies and eliminates the need for random integration into native host chromosomes. The utility of using artificial engineered mammalian chromosomes, specifically the ACE System, is illustrated in several case studies covering the generation of CHO cell lines expressing monoclonal antibodies. PMID:21431730

Kennard, Malcolm L

2011-01-01

224

Engineering for a Changing World: A Roadmap to the Future of Engineering Practice, Research, and Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Powerful forces, including demographics, globalization, and rapidly evolving technologies are driving profound changes in the role of engineering in society. The changing workforce and technology needs of a global knowledge economy are dramatically changing the nature of engineering practice, demanding far broader skills than simply the mastery of scientific and technological disciplines. The growing awareness of the importance of technological innovation to economic competitiveness and national security is demanding a new priority for application-driven basic engineering research. The nonlinear nature of the flow of knowledge between fundamental research and engineering application, the highly interdisciplinary nature of new technologies, and the impact of cyber infrastructure demand new paradigms in engineering research and development. Moreover, challenges such as the off-shoring of engineering jobs, the decline of student interest in scientific and engineering careers, immigration restrictions, and inadequate social diversity in the domestic engineering workforce are also raising serious questions about the adequacy of our current national approach to engineering.

Duderstadt, James J., 1942-

2010-01-12

225

Investing in the Best and Brightest: Increased Fellowship Support for American Scientists and Engineers. Discussion Paper 2006-09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is widespread concern that the United States faces a problem in maintaining its position as the scientific and technological leader in the world and that loss of leadership threatens future economic well-being and national security. Business, science, and education groups have issued reports that highlight the value to the country of…

Freeman, Richard B.

2006-01-01

226

The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

Hale, Francis J.

227

Computational wind engineering: Past achievements and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the current state of the art in computational wind engineering, particularly as it relates to applications of numerical flow modelling for the evaluation of wind effects on buildings and their environment. The variability of computational results is presented and compared with that of wind tunnel measurements. Concerns are expressed regarding the current application of the numerical approach

Theodore Stathopoulos

1997-01-01

228

Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making: An Overview and Future Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of cognitive engineering and decision making (CEDM) has grown rapidly in recent decades. At this writing, it is the largest technical interest group within the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Work that falls into this area of research and study is also widely practiced across Europe and in countries around the world. Along with this growth, there is

Mica R. Endsley; Robert Hoffman; David Kaber; Emilie Roth

2007-01-01

229

Preventing future brownfields engineering solutions and pollution prevention policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems methodology for identifying, characterizing, and evaluating engineering solutions and policies that prevent the formation of brownfields is presented. Brownfields exist in very large numbers and pose serious environmental and health risks in developed countries around the world. As industries abandon unprofitable sites and development spreads to other parts of the globe, potential brownfield creation abounds which will further

Bruce Taylor; Lloyd Hipel; Keith W. Hipel; Liping Fang; Michele Heng

2009-01-01

230

Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

Filipkowski, A.

2011-01-01

231

Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New mapping technology is providing perspectives of the sea floor “as if there were no ocean”, revealing that ocean floors exhibit a wide variety of relief, sediment properties, and active geologic processes such as erosion, faulting, fluid expulsion, and landslides. The development of coastal and offshore resources, such as oil and gas and minerals, involves sea floor engineering in remote,

David B Prior; James R Hooper

1999-01-01

232

Diversity in Engineering Teaching--Views from Future Engineering Faculty. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though diversity issues have not always been addressed in engineering education, addressing diversity has emerged as an important issue in the engineering education community as the student population in colleges and universities has become increasingly more diverse. Despite these changes in student populations, attrition from engineering

Sattler, Brook; Yellin, Jessica; Huang, Yi-Min; Turns, Jennifer

2007-01-01

233

The diesel engine for cars--is there a future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine is known as the most fuel efficient combustion engine.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Its acceptance for use in passengers cars, however, varies geographically.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Today, the diesel car plays an important role in Europe; in France,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009for instance, it is achieving a remarkable market share of about\\u000d\\u000a\\u000942 percent, while in the US its market penetration can be neglected.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Many questions are

F. F. Pischinger

1998-01-01

234

Engineer Support to Future Full-Spectrum Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Afghanistan and Iraq has shown that current warfare is a brigade commander's fight. With the transformation to modularized BCTs, it is clear that future combat will continue to be executed at the BCT level. The nature of full spectrum combat also points t...

T. O'Hara

2008-01-01

235

Global Software Engineering: The Future of Socio-technical Coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally-distributed projects are rapidly becoming the norm for large software systems, even as it becomes clear that global distribution of a project seriously impairs critical coordination mechanisms. In this paper, I describe a desired future for global development and the problems that stand in the way of achieving that vision. I review research and lay out research challenges in four

James D. Herbsleb

2007-01-01

236

Surfing Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Australian Broadcasting Corporation website, Ruben Meerman, the surfing scientist, offers a large number of entertaining experiments to excite students about science. At the science tricks link, users can discover how to balance nine nails on the head of a 10th, make a balloon shish kebab, make a super-strength straw, and much more. After each trick, the website offers information on how and why it worked. Everyone will have fun with the primary science lesson plans, demonstrations, and challenging conundrums. The activities are easy to do and use materials that are readily available.

237

Solutions to future resource problems by engineering design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The designer of mechanical equipment and products already has the guidelines and supporting data to adopt the non-waste technology concept. A non-waste technology future must first solve the problems of finite raw materials, the threat of energy shortages, and rapid pollution. Short-term solutions to these problems will involve recycling, but long-term solutions will require methodical design to prevent these situations

van den Kroonenberg

1979-01-01

238

Engineering aperiodic order in nanoplasmonics: past, present, and future opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to design and to control light matter interactions on the nanoscale represents the core aspect of the rapidly growing fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics. Efficient schemes for electromagnetic field localization and enhancement over broad frequency spectra are essential requirements for the engineering of novel optoelectronic technologies that leverage on enhanced optical cross sections. In particular, the study of deterministic arrays of resonant nanostructures without translational invariance offers an enormous potential for the manipulation of localized optical states and broad frequency spectra. Deterministic Aperiodic Nano Structures (DANS), are generated by mathematical rules with spectral features that interpolate in a tunable fashion between periodic crystals and disordered random media. In this paper, we will focus on the optical properties and device applications of planar DANS in relation to plasmon-enhanced light emission, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, and optical biosensing.

Dal Negro, Luca

2011-02-01

239

The triplet “molecular processes–product–process” engineering: the future of chemical engineering ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today chemical engineering has to answer to the changing needs of the chemical and related process industries and to meet the market demands. Being a key to survival in globalization of trade and competition, the evolution of chemical engineering is thus necessary. Its ability to cope with the scientific and technological problems encountered will be appraised in this paper. To

Jean-Claude Charpentier

2002-01-01

240

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report Number 37. Factors Motivating and Impending Information-Seeking by Early Career-Stage U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists - Results of an Initial Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected results from an investigation that focused on the factors motivating and impeding information-seeking by early career-stage (i.e., new) U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are reported. Undertaken as a Phase 1 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospa...

E. W. Morrison T. E. Pinelli

1996-01-01

241

Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 2. Survey of Continuing Educational Programs Within Selected Industries and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey data obtained from industries and universities are summarized and analyzed from the standpoint of the Air Force's requirement for updating its military scientists and engineers.It is concluded that the wide range of innovative methods of continuing education (CE), in use or in development within selected industries and universities, can be…

Lisez, Louis; Slebodnick, Edward B.

242

Human Nature Genetically Re-Engineered: Moral Responsibilities to Future Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The prospect of human genetic germ-line engineering raises questions regarding the propriety of altering the human genome.\\u000a It raises questions as well regarding the ways in which one might understand responsibilities to the future generations who\\u000a will experience the result of such alterations. This essay explores the difficulty of disclosing content-full obligations\\u000a regarding genetic germ-line engineering. Instead, as this essay

H. Tristram Engelhardt

243

Engineering for a Changing World: Introduction The Future of Engineering Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The changing workforce and technology needs of a global knowledge economy are changing engineering practice demanding far broader skills. Importance of technological innovation to economic competitiveness and national security is driving a new priority for application-driven basic engineering research. Challenges such as out sourcing and off shoring, decline of student interest in STEM careers, inadequate social diversity, and immigration constraints are raising serious questions about the adequacy of current national approach to engineering. This resource is a supplemental presentation to MERE Online resources S0800661 and S0800664.

2009-10-21

244

Participation of Scientists in Education and Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a very wide spectrum of education and communications efforts in which scientists and engineers can participate, in fact there are too many opportunities. How do scientists and engineers identify the ones that are most suited to them and their science\\/technology, and for which the most education value will result? This is not an easy question to answer. Fortunately,

B. W. Meeson

2004-01-01

245

SET for the future: Working towards inclusive science, engineering and technology curricula in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘SET for the Future?s was a research\\/action project undertaken at Heriot-Watt University in 1996–97, funded by the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council (SHEFC). The SET acronym in the title refers to Science, Engineering and Technology curricula in higher education. The goals of the project were to survey SET students' education experiences, to compare this information with previous research, and to

Catherine Cronin; Maureen Foster; Elizabeth Lister

1999-01-01

246

SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

Bederson, Benjamin

2006-04-01

247

SET for the Future: Working towards Inclusive Science, Engineering and Technology Curricula in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"SET (Science, Engineering, and Technology) for the Future," a research/action project at Scotland's Heriot-Watt University, surveyed SET students' education experience, compared information with previous research, and used results to modify two SET modules to increase the participation of women students and improve their experiences. Discusses…

Cronin, Catherine; Foster, Maureen; Lister, Elizabeth

1999-01-01

248

Future NTP Development Synergy Leveraged from Current J-2X Engine Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a discussion of how the many long-lead development elements required for the realization of a future nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system can be effectively leveraged from the ongoing work being conducted on the J-2X engine program for th...

R. O. Ballard

2008-01-01

249

Biodiesel production from genetically engineered microalgae: Future of bioenergy in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current biomass sources for energy production in Iran include sewerage as well as agricultural, animal, food industry and municipal solid wastes, and are anticipated to account for about 14% of national energy consumption in near future. However, due to the considerable progress made in genetic engineering of various plants in Iran during the last decade and the great potentials of

Meisam Tabatabaei; Masoud Tohidfar; Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani; Mohammadreza Safarnejad; Mohammad Pazouki

2011-01-01

250

Future Critical Issues and Problems Facing Technology and Engineering Education in the Commonwealth of Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to determine the future critical issues and problems facing the K-12 technology and engineering education profession in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This study was based on the Wicklein nationwide studies (1993a, 2005). Even though this study did not exactly replicate the Wicklein studies--since it was limited to…

Katsioloudis, Petros; Moye, Johnny J.

2012-01-01

251

CIVIL ENGINEERS AT THE CROSSROADS - HOW CONSULTING ENGINEERS CAN DRAW ON THE PAST TO FURTHER OUR EXPERTISE FOR THE FUTURE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper first discusses the role of civil engineers in the development of Japan's infrastructure during the period of post-war reconstruction and subsequent high economic growth. The paper highlights the importance of practical skills in a world where the role of civil engineers is expected to become increasingly diverse, and emphasizes the importance of seizing opportunities to further develop international competitiveness. In the post-war era, civil engineers raised their expertise and acquired advanced technologies from overseas and made further improvements through the course of applying those technologies. By adopting many state-of-the-art technologies civil engineers helped develop the infrastructure that now serves as Japan's social and economic backbone. Current trends such as the shrinking and aging population and globalization are destined to have large-scale impacts on Japan's social systems. In the context of such dynamics, this paper discusses civil engineers' perception of our current position in history, and how we will raise the standards of our profession for the future.

Hirotani, Akihiko

252

Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth science industry through a student satellite development program is one of the best methods of developing the next generation of space and earth science engineers and scientists.

Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

2011-12-01

253

Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

Evans, Brenda

254

An engineering dilemma: sustainability in the eyes of future technology professionals.  

PubMed

The ability to design technological solutions that address sustainability is considered pivotal to the future of the planet and its people. As technology professionals engineers are expected to play an important role in sustaining society. The present article aims at exploring sustainability concepts of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark. Their understandings of sustainability and the role they ascribe to sustainability in their future professional practice is investigated by means of a critical discourse analysis including metaphor analysis and semiotic analysis. The sustainability construal is considered to delimit possible ways of dealing with the concept in practice along the engineering education pathway and in professional problem solving. Five different metaphors used by the engineering students to illustrate sustainability are identified, and their different connotative and interpretive implications are discussed. It is found that sustainability represents a dilemma to the engineering students that situates them in a tension between their technology fascination and the blame they find that technological progress bears. Their sustainability descriptions are collected as part of a survey containing among other questions one open-ended, qualitative question on sustainability. The survey covers an entire year group of Danish engineering students in the first month of their degree study. PMID:23197313

Haase, S

2012-11-30

255

Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future  

SciTech Connect

Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

256

Review of Engine Seal Performance and Requirements for Current and Future Army Engine Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sand ingestion continues to impact combat ground and air vehicles in military operations in the Middle East. The T-700 engine used in Apache and Blackhawk helicopters has been subjected to increased overhauls due to sand and dust ingestion during desert o...

I. R. Delgado M. P. Proctor

2008-01-01

257

Combating Obsolescence Using Perceived Discrepancies in Job Expectations of Research Managers and Scientists: A Preliminary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

R and D scientists, engineers and managers completed a questionnaire Exercise Future as part of an experiment to test effects on subsequent self-development activities. Three-fourths see and want educational upgrading but only 44 per cent expect to have t...

B. M. Bass G. V. Barrett J. A. Miller

1970-01-01

258

Teach Engineering: Students as Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum unit for middle school features two lessons in which students design experiments to test their own hypotheses. In the first lesson, students gather and record simple data about drops of different fluids -- but that is not the primary point of the activity. Instead, students must analyze their own findings and generate plausible explanations based upon the evidence. In the second lesson, students develop testable hypotheses about the amount of mass lost in gum after chewing. They test both sugared and sugar-free gums. Again, the main point is not data collection. This experiment promotes understanding of the importance of a control in a scientific experimentation. Editor's Note: This curricular unit is offered in segments. The entire unit takes about two weeks, but may be parceled into smaller modules requiring 2-3 days for completion.

Hebrank, Mary

2010-10-18

259

What Scientists Say: Scientists' Views of Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on scientists' views of scientific models and their use in authentic practice. Participants were 24 scientists, averaging 25 years research experience, representing four discipline areas. Views of scientific models were assessed through an open-ended questionnaire ("VNOS-Sci") and interviews. The scientists described models…

Schwartz, Renee S.; Lederman, Norman G.

2005-01-01

260

Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

1999-07-01

261

Long-term land use future scenarios for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to facilitate decision regarding environmental restoration activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the United States Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) conducted analyses to project reasonable future land use scenarios at the INEL for the next 100 years. The methodology for generating these scenarios included: review of existing DOE plans, policy statements, and mission statements pertaining to the INEL; review of surrounding land use characteristics and county developments policies; solicitation of input from local, county, state and federal planners, policy specialists, environmental professionals, and elected officials; and review of environmental and development constraints at the INEL site that could influence future land use.

NONE

1995-08-01

262

Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative identification of future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) is presented. These needs are assessed relative to the similar needs of the tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection, redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed here for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids.

Krakowski, R.A.

1982-01-01

263

Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

Seltzer, Richard J.

1985-01-01

264

Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives.  

PubMed

This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less eco-friendly and hazardous to human health. A combination of microbiological and ecological knowledge, biochemical mechanisms and field engineering designs would be an essential element for successful in situ bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using engineered bacteria. Critical research questions pertaining to the development and implementation of GE bacteria for enhanced bioremediation have been identified and poised for possible future research. Genetic engineering of indigenous microflora, well adapted to local environmental conditions, may offer more efficient bioremediation of contaminated sites and making the bioremediation more viable and eco-friendly technology. However, many challenges are to be addressed concerning the release of genetically engineered bacteria in field conditions. There are possible risks associated with the use of GE bacteria in field condition, with particular emphasis on ways in which molecular genetics could contribute to the risk mitigation. Both environmental as well as public health concerns need to be addressed by the molecular biologists. Although bioremediation of heavy metals by using the genetically engineered bacteria has been extensively reviewed in the past also, but the bio-safety assessment and factors of genetic pollution have been never the less ignored. PMID:21402131

Singh, Jay Shankar; Abhilash, P C; Singh, H B; Singh, Rana P; Singh, D P

2011-03-22

265

Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for this discussion.

DeVore, E. K.

2004-05-01

266

Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

267

The software engineering journey: From a naieve past into a responsible future  

SciTech Connect

All engineering fields experience growth, from early trial & error approaches, to disciplined approaches based on fundamental understanding. The field of software engineering is making the long and arduous journey, accomplished by evolution of thinking in many dimensions. This paper takes the reader along a trio of simultaneous evolutionary paths. First, the reader experiences evolution from a zero-risk mindset to a managed-risk mindset. Along this path, the reader observes three generations of security risk management and their implications for software system assurance. Next is a growth path from separate surety disciplines to an integrated systems surety approach. On the way, the reader visits safety, security, and dependability disciplines and peers into a future vision which coalesces them. The third and final evolutionary path explored here transitions the software engineering field from best practices to fundamental understanding. Along this road, the reader observes a framework for developing a {open_quotes}science behind the engineering{close_quotes}, and methodologies for software surety analysis.

Chapa, S.K.

1997-08-01

268

Risk perception, future land use and stewardship: Comparison of attitudes about Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ending of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating mission, future land use and stewardship of departmental facilities. This paper compares the environmental concerns and future use preferences of 351 people interviewed at Lewiston, Idaho, about the Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), two of DOE’s largest sites. Although most subjects

J. Burger; J. Sanchez; D. Roush; M. Gochfeld

2001-01-01

269

Tissue engineering with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs): current and future applications.  

PubMed

Soft-tissue loss presents an ongoing challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Standard approaches to soft-tissue reconstruction include autologous tissue flaps, autologous fat transplantation and alloplastic implants. All of these approaches have disadvantages, including donor-site morbidity, implant migration and absorption and foreign body reaction. Stem cell application has recently been suggested as a possible novel therapy. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an abundant, readily available population of multipotent progenitor cells that reside in adipose tissue, which is an easily accessible and abundant source of putative stem cells for translational clinical research. Their therapeutic use in pre-clinical studies and experimental clinical trials has been well documented. We present the current strategies of tissue engineering with ADSC and we discuss the possible future applications of this new method in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Complete understanding of the mechanisms of interactions among adipose stem cells, growth factors and biomaterials in tissue engineering is still lacking. Adipose tissue stem cell-based regenerative strategies hold tremendous promise, although this potential must be balanced against stringent standards of scientific and clinical investigation, before developing 'off-the-shelf' tissue engineering products. PMID:19969517

Sterodimas, Aris; de Faria, Jose; Nicaretta, Beatriz; Pitanguy, Ivo

2009-12-07

270

Precision engineering for astronomy: historical origins and the future revolution in ground-based astronomy.  

PubMed

Since the dawn of civilization, the human race has pushed technology to the limit to study the heavens in ever-increasing detail. As astronomical instruments have evolved from those built by Tycho Brahe in the sixteenth century, through Galileo and Newton in the seventeenth, to the present day, astronomers have made ever more precise measurements. To do this, they have pushed the art and science of precision engineering to extremes. Some of the critical steps are described in the evolution of precision engineering from the first telescopes to the modern generation telescopes and ultra-sensitive instruments that need a combination of precision manufacturing, metrology and accurate positioning systems. In the future, precision-engineered technologies such as those emerging from the photonics industries may enable future progress in enhancing the capabilities of instruments, while potentially reducing the size and cost. In the modern era, there has been a revolution in astronomy leading to ever-increasing light-gathering capability. Today, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is at the forefront of this revolution, building observatories on the ground that are set to transform our view of the universe. At an elevation of 5000 m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) is nearing completion. The ALMA is the most powerful radio observatory ever and is being built by a global partnership from Europe, North America and East Asia. In the optical/infrared part of the spectrum, the latest project for ESO is even more ambitious: the European Extremely Large Telescope, a giant 40 m class telescope that will also be located in Chile and which will give the most detailed view of the universe so far. PMID:22802494

Cunningham, Colin; Russell, Adrian

2012-08-28

271

Politics and scientific expertise: Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the homogeneity and influences on scientists' perspectives of environmental risks, the authors have examined similarities and differences in risk perceptions, particularly regarding nuclear wastes, and policy preferences among 1011 scientists and engineers. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the patterns of beliefs among scientists from different fields of research. In contrast to physicists, chemists, and engineers, life scientists

Richard P. Barke; Hank C. Jenkins-Smith

1993-01-01

272

Addressing the Demand for Engineers by Teaching Engineering to Counselors and Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of America's global competitiveness depends upon a well-educated, technologically literate workforce. However, if proactive measures are not taken in the near future, the United States will face a serious shortage of scientists, engineers, technologists, and mathematicians because high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, are increasingly losing interest in these subjects. The key in reversing this trend

G. Bruce Gehrig; Lyndon Abrams; Deborah Bosley; James Conrad; Stephen Kuyath

2007-01-01

273

Engineering goals for future thoracic endografts-how can we make them more effective?  

PubMed

Endovascular treatments for catastrophic aortic conditions have gained increasing popularity over the past 20 years. Originally developed for abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR), treatment has been modified for use in thoracic aortic repair (TEVAR). As expanding numbers of patients with increasingly intractable conditions and more hostile anatomies are treated, endovascular stent designs are maturing to be suitable for these more demanding situations. This article discusses the engineering considerations that apply to changing stent graft designs for current and evolving thoracic applications. The biological parameters that differentiate thoracic from abdominal aortic environments are outlined. Factors concerning materials, sealing mechanisms, deployment, stent frame architecture, and migration resistance are described, and eagerly awaited potential future developments are summarized. PMID:23993242

Weidman, Jenna M; Desai, Malhar; Iftekhar, Arif; Boyle, Kevin; Greengard, Judith S; Fisher, Lois M; Thomas, Richard L S; Zannetti, Simona

2013-06-24

274

Mentoring Among Scientists: Implications of Interpersonal Relationships within a Formal Mentoring Program  

SciTech Connect

Mentoring is an established strategy for learning that has its root in antiquity. Most, if not all, successful scientists and engineers had an effective mentor at some point in their career. In the context of scientists and engineers, mentoring has been undefined. Reports addressing critical concerns regarding the future of science and engineering in the U.S. mention the practice of mentoring a priori, leaving organizations without guidance in its application. Preliminary results from this study imply that formal mentoring can be effective when properly defined and operationalized. Recognizing the uniqueness of the individual in a symbiotic mentor-protégé relationship significantly influences a protégé’s learning experience which carries repercussions into their career intentions. The mentor-protégé relationship is a key factor in succession planning and preserving and disseminating critical information and tacit knowledge essential to the development of leadership in the science and technological industry.

Bryan D. Maughan

2006-11-01

275

Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2005-04-01

276

The Whitaker Foundation: Graduate Fellowships: Biomedical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The funding mission of the Whitaker Foundation is to provide the opportunity for scientists to make future advances in medical science through increased interaction between engineering and biomedical research. Applications for graduate fellowships in biomedical engineering will be accepted from undergraduate students in their final year of study, first year graduate students, and non-students with appropriate engineering or science backgrounds. The target date for submitting applications is December 10, 1998.

1998-01-01

277

Just Like Real Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

2009-01-01

278

Scientists in Action!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists in Action provides news about natural scientists and what they do, including: how scientists must react to rockfalls and earthquakes; spy plane modification by NASA to gather data to help forecast brush fires and spot toxic waste; frog malformation and population decrease; the 'Geologists in the Parks' program, which involves new earth scientists in helping National Park staff understand and manage resources; recovery by micropaleontologists of a K-T core from the bottom of the ocean; mapping the Grand Canyon; managing the treasures of Yellowstone; fossil preparators combining art and science skills; and bringing panthers back to the Florida Everglades.

279

Perceptions of Engineers Regarding Successful Engineering Team Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The perceptions of engineers and scientists at NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. A sample of 49 engineers and scientists rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also c...

R. H. Nowaczyk

1998-01-01

280

Scientists Shaping the Discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

2011-12-01

281

Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

282

Shaping the Future, Volume II: Perspectives on Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology  

NSF Publications Database

... in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology MS WORD VERSIONS | TEXT VERSIONS | PDF VERSIONS ... in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (54K) View the entire document in TEXT, Shaping ...

283

Collaborating with WISE Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through an interactive partnership, fifth-grade students collected data on plants and joined an active scientific community of working scientists. This Web-based Integrated Science Environment (WISE) project involved asking questions about plants, growing plants in the classroom, and discussing their data with scientists online.

Linn, Marcia C.; Williams, Michelle

2003-09-01

284

Misquoted Scientists Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

Cole, John R.

1981-01-01

285

Scientists as People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of students' images of scientists from high school through college in Israel, and indicates the presence of significant discrepancies between the images held by college students and by scientists themselves as measured by the Test On Understanding Science (TOUS) form W. (CC)|

Jungwirth, E.

1973-01-01

286

Contributions by Citizen Scientists to Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) The AAVSO's experience in utilizing the skills, equipment, and enthusiasm of amateur astronomers towards its research is not unique in astronomy. Citizen Scientists have contributed to our understanding of asteroids, exo-planets, solar system weather, light echoes, and galactic streaming, as well as inventing new equipment and software. This talk will highlight some of the recent advances by Citizen Scientists, and suggest some areas where they can contribute in the future.

Henden, A. A.

2012-06-01

287

Problems of forecasting the future of advanced engines and engine characteristics of the hydrogen injection with LHâ tank and pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the history of the vehicle engine during the last half century is reviewed, a number of research and development efforts have resulted in various useful improvements. From the author`s personal point of view, the electronic-controlled fuel injection device is the most distinguished accomplishment for the vehicle engine. In the first part of this article, scientific explanation will be made

S. Furuhama

1997-01-01

288

Survey of High School Students on Their Future Careers in Science, Engineering and Technology: A Case Study of Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The purpose of this study was to introduce a case o f partnership between a state college and local hig h schools, and also investigate perspectives and expectations of high school students about their future careers in science, engineering and technology. Several high schools in the south- central Indiana region were linked with the technol ogy division at Ivy Tech

Xin-Ran Duan

289

Scaffold design and fabrication technologies for engineering tissues — state of the art and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, tissue engineers are attempting to engineer virtually every human tissue. Potential tissue-engineered products include cartilage, bone, heart valves, nerves, muscle, bladder, liver, etc. Tissue engineering techniques generally require the use of a porous scaffold, which serves as a threedimensional template for initial cell attachment and subsequent tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. The scaffold provides the necessary

Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2001-01-01

290

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even

Dunn

2003-01-01

291

Scientist - Educator Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is the quest for knowledge about the natural world, and scientists are often characterized as driven by curiosity and the desire to discover, traits they share with children exploring the world through youthful eyes. In contrast, formal science education at the pre-college and college levels frequently distills the joy of scientific research and discovery into a body on known facts, laws, and disciplinary studies, loosing the excitement of doing science. When scientists partner with teachers and other educators, there is an opportunity for engaging students and the public with scientists and their research projects. Further, scientists provide expertise to create up-to-date and accurate materials for use in classrooms, science centers, and youth groups. Scientists also see engagement with teachers, students, and the public through science centers as a means of growing the next generation of scientists to continue the work. Often this process is facilitated by science education professionals who work at the interface between the worlds of scientific research and formal and informal education. The partnership between the research scientist and the science education professional can result in improved science education for a broad community of teachers, students and the public.

Devore, E.

2003-12-01

292

Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

The repair and regeneration of large bone defects resulting from disease or trauma remains a significant clinical challenge. Bioactive glass has appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, but the application of glass scaffolds for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is often limited by their low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. This paper provides an overview of recent developments in the fabrication and mechanical properties of bioactive glass scaffolds. The review reveals the fact that mechanical strength is not a real limiting factor in the use of bioactive glass scaffolds for bone repair, an observation not often recognized by most researchers and clinicians. Scaffolds with compressive strengths comparable to those of trabecular and cortical bones have been produced by a variety of methods. The current limitations of bioactive glass scaffolds include their low fracture toughness (low resistance to fracture) and limited mechanical reliability, which have so far received little attention. Future research directions should include the development of strong and tough bioactive glass scaffolds, and their evaluation in unloaded and load-bearing bone defects in animal models.

Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

293

Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.  

PubMed

Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans. PMID:17264194

Mameli, M

2007-02-01

294

Women Life Scientists: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase student's exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach and problem-solving science activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Each module contains a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Modules drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula. The book may be purchased from the American Physiological Society or the individual chapters may be downloaded for free from the Archive. To access all of the chapters, click the "All in This Collection" link to the left.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

295

Summary of safeguards interactions between Los Alamos and Chinese scientists  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos has been collaborating since 1984 with scientists from the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) to develop nuclear measurement instrumentation and safeguards systems technologies that will help China support implementation of the nonproliferation treaty (NPT). To date, four Chinese scientists have visited Los Alamos, for periods of six months to two years, where they have studied nondestructive assay instrumentation and learned about safeguards systems and inspection techniques that are used by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. Part of this collaboration involves invitations from the CIAE to US personnel to visit China and interact with a larger number of Institute staff and to provide a series of presentations on safeguards to a wider audience. Typically, CIAE scientists, Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering (BINE) staff, and officials from the Government Safeguards Office attend the lectures. The BINE has an important role in developing the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle. BINE is designing a reprocessing plant for spent nuclear fuel from Chinese nuclear Power reactors. China signed the nonproliferation treaty in 1992 and is significantly expanding its safeguards expertise and activities. This paper describes the following: DOE support for US and Chinese interactions on safeguards; Chinese safeguards; impacts of US-China safeguards interactions; and possible future safeguards interactions.

Eccleston, G.W.

1994-04-20

296

COSEE Southeast: Scientist's Niche  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists can get help engaging in K-16 education efforts from this resource. It provides information and publications on how researchers can get involved in education, and contains a link to the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories (SAML).

297

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, Science to the Rescue (Markle 1

Porter, Diana

2009-10-01

298

Scientists and Human Rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

Makdisi, Yousef

2012-02-01

299

Talk Like a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

2010-04-01

300

Scientist of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first grade teacher in an urban school, eager to bring authentic science into the classroom, provides an opportunity for her students to experience science adventures and explorations, while also getting parents involved. She implemented a program called Scientist of the Day which allows students to experience simple hands-on science experiments, and to involve their parents both in and out of the classroom. The idea is for every child to have a turn being "Scientist of the Day".

Salinas, Maria

2005-10-01

301

C. E. M. -The Alfa Romeo engine management system-Design concepts-Trends for the future  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the CEM, an original electronic engine management system developed by Alfa Romeo which has the task of controlling fuel injection, ignition and other boundary functions. This system has been designed particularly for high specific power output engines, as typical Alfa Romeo engines are; hence it includes timed sequential fuel injection and a set of sensors and actuators that were chosen aiming in particular at fast engine response. The CEM system has been defined and tested on all the engines of the Alfa Romeo range; it has also made possible the development of new control techniques such as the modular engine. In order to improve the performance characteristics and to obtain additional control features a second generation CEM is now under development. The future system will use the spin-offs of studies now in progress on adaptive controls based on detection of the pressure cycles and ionization inside cylinders to achieve a direct control of combustion. This should enable the optimization of engine behaviour during its whole life.

Bassi, A.; Arcari, F.; Perrone, F.

1985-01-01

302

A Modest Proposal Regarding the Future of Engineering Technology Education in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts engineering (theoretical/abstract) and engineering technology (practical/application-oriented) baccalaureate programs. Although the perpetuated independent development of the programs has created a negative impact on the profession, changes in accreditation criteria/categories might help engineering technology programs…

Cheshier, Stephen R.

1985-01-01

303

Better engineering education with less financial support: a look into the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes that business incubators can be natural and valuable extensions of engineering schools. This paper reviews experience gained through the Cape Technikon's chemical engineering business development programme. It recommends a return to technical education by entrepreneurs. Engineering education is directed at freedom from poverty, disease and oppression. Very often, those countries that need education the most have the least to

Donald Cook

1996-01-01

304

Authentic discourse activities of research scientists: A foundation for the use of literacy and language activities in science instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on three case studies of scientists' and engineers' discourse practices as researchers, drawing on past exploration of scientists as writers (Yore, Hand & Prain, 2002). The first is a survey of 19 scientists and engineers at a Canadian University, the second is a 6-month study of two scientists involved with five different research groups from biochemistry

Larry D. Yore

305

U.S. Ethnic Scientists and Entrepreneurs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Immigrants are exceptionally important for U.S. technology development, accounting for almost half of the country's Ph.D. workforce in science and engineering. Most notably, the contribution of Chinese and Indian scientists and entrepreneurs in U.S. high-technology sectors increased dramatically in the 1990s. These ethnic scientific communities…

Kerr, William R.

2007-01-01

306

Report to the President: Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The President's Council of Adviser's on Science and Technology (PCAST) present the report Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for Americaâs Future. This report provides a strategy for improving K-12 STEM education that responds to the tremendous challenges and historic opportunities facing the Nation. The reports recommends further use of standards and extensive increases in teacher recruiting. The report also advises greater use of partnerships and improvement in diversity.

Technology, Presidentâs C.

2011-04-04

307

Knock control of gasoline engines-A comparison of solutions and tendencies, with special reference to future European emission legislation  

SciTech Connect

The different demands with respect to electronic knock control in the USA, Japan and Europe are compared. Available systems to suit the special European requirements of turbo-charged and naturally aspirated engines are presented in detail. The influence of the new European emission standards currently under discussion and their effect on the requirements of such systems are considered. Alternative approaches for future systems are discussed.

Decker, H.; Gruber, H.U.

1985-01-01

308

445 N (100lbf) LO 2\\/LCH 4 reaction control engine technology development for future space vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have identified liquid oxygen (LO2)\\/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 445N (100-lbf) LO2\\/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative

Philip J. Robinson; Eric M. Veith; Eric A. Hurlbert; Rafael Jimenez; Timothy D. Smith

2010-01-01

309

Associate Scientist Andres Berrio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, looks at Andres Berrio and his current job as an associate scientist. This video examines what someone can do with experience and education in laboratory science, what skills are needed to succeed in this field, and what employees can do to shine to employers. This video is helpful for anyone interested in biotechnology or working as a laboratory associate scientist or assistant. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:53.

2010-10-11

310

The Future of Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology: Towards a Systematic Practice  

PubMed Central

Industrial biotechnology promises to revolutionize conventional chemical manufacturing in the years ahead, largely owing to the excellent progress in our ability to re-engineer cellular metabolism. However, most successes of metabolic engineering have been confined to over-producing natively synthesized metabolites in E. coli and S. cerevisiae. A major reason for this development has been the descent of metabolic engineering, particularly secondary metabolic engineering, to a collection of demonstrations rather than a systematic practice with generalizable tools. Synthetic biology, a more recent development, faces similar criticisms. Herein, we attempt to lay down a framework around which bioreaction engineering can systematize itself just like chemical reaction engineering. Central to this undertaking is a new approach to engineering secondary metabolism known as ‘multivariate modular metabolic engineering’ (MMME), whose novelty lies in its assessment and elimination of regulatory and pathway bottlenecks by re-defining the metabolic network as a collection of distinct modules. After introducing the core principles of MMME, we shall then present a number of recent developments in secondary metabolic engineering that could potentially serve as its facilitators. It is hoped that the ever-declining costs of de novo gene synthesis; the improved use of bioinformatic tools to mine, sort and analyze biological data; and the increasing sensitivity and sophistication of investigational tools will make the maturation of microbial metabolic engineering an autocatalytic process. Encouraged by these advances, research groups across the world would take up the challenge of secondary metabolite production in simple hosts with renewed vigor, thereby adding to the range of products synthesized using metabolic engineering.

Yadav, Vikramaditya G.; De Mey, Marjan; Lim, Chin Giaw; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2012-01-01

311

Engaging AGU Scientists in the Development of Multimedia Education Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planet Earth Science Inc. was established by an AGU scientist with the specific purpose of bringing Earth System Science education to the secondary education level. Through the development of its multimedia education products it has engaged a number of AGU scientists, engineers, instructional designers and educators at every level of the development chain from instructional design to content writing, media

C. Gautier

2001-01-01

312

The Education of Future Aeronautical Engineers: Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will outline answers to the two central questions regarding improving engineering education: (1) What is the full set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that engineering students should possess as they leave the university, and at what level of proficiency? (2) How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? The suggested answers lie within an

Edward F. Crawley; Doris R. Brodeur; Diane H. Soderholm

2008-01-01

313

High Efficiency with Future Alcohol Fuels in a Stoichiometric Medium-Duty Spark Ignition Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethanol and methanol are both attractive SI fuels for achieving high efficiency at near gas-engine costs. Better-than-diesel efficiency with PFI-SI alcohol engines. Stoichiometric operation with a standard three-way catalyst. Alcohol fuels offer potential...

C. L. Gray M. J. Brusstar

2007-01-01

314

Work in Progress: An Engineering Student Leadership Program for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The College of Engineering at Iowa State University has partnered with 3M to launch a new leadership program that will prepare students for life-long leadership roles in industry as well as public service. The program will complement the engineering skills and knowledge students acquire during their academic careers to better prepare them for leadership and collaborative roles in their professional

Diane Rover; Krishna Athreya; Sarah Walter; Loren Zachary

2006-01-01

315

A Response to Advancing Technologies. Repositioning Engineering Education to Serve America's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a summary of 20 papers which examine the status and impact of computers and related technologies on engineering, design practices and production in the private sector, and on engineering curricula and teaching methodology; and their role in assuring social and economic vitality. Chapter 1 discusses how technology impacts the…

Glower, Donald D., Ed.; Saline, Lindon E., Ed.

316

Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges  

PubMed Central

Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (< 6 mm) vessel replacements. While synthetic polymer alternatives to date have failed to meet the performance of autogenous conduits, tissue-engineered replacement vessels represent an ideal solution to this clinical problem. Ongoing progress requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research.

Kumar, Vivek A.; Brewster, Luke P.; Caves, Jeffrey M.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

2012-01-01

317

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

318

Scientist as Problem Solver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis of this paper is that the scientist is a problem solver. If this thesis is true, then we can dispense with a separate theory of scientific discovery -- the processes of discovery are just applications of the processes of problem solving. Howeve...

H. A. Simon

1987-01-01

319

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

320

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

321

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

322

Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

323

Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

324

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

325

Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

2001-01-01

326

Structural Engineering in the Middle School Classroom: Building a Foundation in Math and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

th grade students. Our vision includes conveying our excitement about science, mathematics, and engineering through classroom experiments and inquiry- based exercises, while encouraging these students to participate in building a future diverse workforce of engineers and scientists and having a tangible impact on the K-12 educational system. From live shake table demonstrations to popsicle stick bridge competitions, a unique structural

Anthony Hurd; Ellen Taylor; Shirley Dyke; Kevin Truman

327

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled 'Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines' held on September 15-1...

C. DellaCorte O. Pinkus

2002-01-01

328

The Education of Future Aeronautical Engineers: Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will outline answers to the two central questions regarding improving engineering education: (1) What is the full\\u000a set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that engineering students should possess as they leave the university, and at what\\u000a level of proficiency? (2) How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? The suggested answers lie within\\u000a an

Edward F. Crawley; Doris R. Brodeur; Diane H. Soderholm

2008-01-01

329

Scientists warn DOE of dwindling funding  

SciTech Connect

Fusion scientists have raised their voices to let the Department of Energy know that they are concerned about the DOE`s commitment to fusion research. In a letter dated February 28, 1994, 37 scientists from 21 institutions noted that {open_quotes}US funding for fusion has steadily decreased: It is now roughly half its level of 1980. This peculiar and painful circumstance has forced the program to contract drastically, losing skilled technical personnel, even as it faces its most exciting opportunities.{close_quotes} The letter was addressed to Martha Krebs, the DOE`s director of the Office of Energy Research, and N. Anne Davies, associated director for fusion energy. The scientists wanted to make two points. The first was that fusion energy research, only midway between concept and commercialization, deserves major reinvestment. The second was that basic scientific knowledge in the area of fusion, not just applied engineering, must remain a priority.

NONE

1994-06-01

330

The Great Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

Meadows, Jack

1989-11-01

331

Ask a Marine Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. This site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

2010-07-09

332

Postmodernism for animal scientists.  

PubMed

Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society. PMID:14677854

Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B

2003-12-01

333

Data sources for materials scientists and engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article emphasizes data sources rather than those containing bibliographic or tutorial information. Referral centers and reference publication guides of general nature are reviewed first, then those especially focussed on materials information, and topical guides to data sources in the materials field. The bulk of the article consists of almost 300 specific materials data sources arranged in a materials-properties matrix

J. H. Westbrook; J. D. Desai

1978-01-01

334

The future in Agricultural Engineering: news degrees in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Engineer Agronomist at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) has been offered as a degree of five years with a total of 400 credits and seven optional orientations: Crop Production, Plant and Breeding Protection, Environment, Agricultural Economics, Animal Production, Rural Engineering and Food Technology. Actually, the Bologna plan creates three new degrees: Engineering and Science Agronomic, Food Engineering and Agro-Environmental Engineering, with 240 ECTS each one of them and with specific professional characteristics. The changes that involve the introduction of these new degrees is perhaps the largest occurred never at the Spanish university system, not only by the drastic transformation in the structure of titles, but also by the new changes that lie ahead in teaching methods. Among others we will comment the following ones: -A year decreased duration of studies and therefore incorporation into the market. - Elimination of the seven current guidelines to create three specific qualifications of degree. -Decrease of optional subjects and increase in credits for the basic subjects. - Inclusion of business practices. - Increase in the number of credits of final project. - Changes in methodologies and a higher involvement of teachers and students in the education.

Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Vázquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Arce, A.

2010-05-01

335

Potential Applications of the Ceramic Thrust Chamber Technology for Future Transpiration Cooled Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term development of ceramic rocket engine thrust chambers at the German Aerospace Center(DLR) currently leads to designs of self-sustaining, transpiration-cooled, fiber-reinforced ceramic rocket engine chamber structures.This paper discusses characteristic issues and potential benefits introduced by this technology. Achievable benefits are the reduction of weight and manufacturing cost, as well as an increased reliability and higher lifetime due to thermal cycle stability.Experiments with porous Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) materials for rocket engine chamber walls have been conducted at the DLR since the end of the 1990s.This paper discusses the current status of DLR's ceramic thrust chamber technology and potential applications for high thrust engines.The manufacturing process and the design concept are explained.The impact of variations of engine parameters(chamber pressure and diam-eter)on the required coolant mass flow are discussed.Due to favorable scaling effects a high thrust application utilizes all benefits of the discussed technology, while avoiding the most significant performance drawbacks.

Herbertz, Armin; Ortelt, Markus; Müller, Ilja; Hald, Hermann

336

Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or the prospective user. In rare cases an inventor of a new technology has an intuitive understanding of human engineering principles and knows well the capabilities and limitations of operators. This paper outlines the importance of focusing on the user-system interface and encouraging engineers to develop their own intuitive sense of users through mental imagery. If design engineers start with a clear mental picture of a specific user and task rather than generalities of use, fewer interface problems are likely to be encountered later in development. Successful technology innovators often use a visual thinking approach in the development of new concepts. Examples are presented to illustrate the successful application of intuitive design. An approach is offered on how designers can improve their non-verbal thinking skills. The author shares the view that the mission of HFE should not be to make system developers dependent on the small community of HF experts but rather to help them learn the value of applying user-centered design techniques.

Sampson, James B.

2005-05-01

337

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a key cell factory platform for future biorefineries.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast. PMID:22388689

Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

2012-03-03

338

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of VOCs [2], and that lubricating oil is a major contributor. Fitting an oxidation catalyst to the natural gas engine leads to a reduction in nanoparticles emissions in comparison to engines without aftertreatment [2,3,4]. In 2001, the Cummins Westport Plus technology was introduced with the C Gas Plus engine, a popular choice for transit bus applications. This incorporates drive by wire, fully integrated, closed loop electronic controls and a standard oxidation catalyst for all applications. The B Gas Plus and the B Propane Plus engines, with application in shuttle and school buses were launched in 2002 and 2003. The gas-specific oxidation catalyst operates in concert with an optimized ring-pack and liner combination to reduce total particulate mass below 0.01g/bhphr, combat ultrafine particles and control VOC emissions.

Dunn, M

2003-08-24

339

Risk perception, future land use and stewardship: comparison of attitudes about Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.  

PubMed

With the ending of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating mission, future land use and stewardship of departmental facilities. This paper compares the environmental concerns and future use preferences of 351 people interviewed at Lewiston, Idaho, about the Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), two of DOE's largest sites. Although most subjects lived closer to Hanford than INEEL, most resided in the same state as INEEL. Therefore their economic interests might be more closely allied with INEEL, while their health concerns might be more related to Hanford. Few lived close enough to either site to be directly affected economically. We test the null hypotheses that there are no differences in environmental concerns and future land-use preferences as a function of DOE site, sex, age and education. When asked to list their major concerns about the sites, more people listed human health and safety, and environmental concerns about Hanford compared to INEEL. When asked to list their preferred future land uses, 49% of subjects did not have any for INEEL, whereas only 35% did not know for Hanford. The highest preferred land uses for both sites were as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP), and for camping, hunting, hiking, and fishing. Except for returning the land to the tribes and increased nuclear storage, subjects rated all future uses as more preferred at INEEL than Hanford. Taken together, these data suggest that the people interviewed know more about Hanford, are more concerned about Hanford, rate recreational uses and NERP as their highest preferred land use, and feel that INEEL is more suited for most land uses than Handford. Overall rankings for future land uses were remarkably similar between the sites, indicating that for these stakeholders, DOE lands should be preserved for research and recreation. These preferences should be taken into account when planning for long-term stewardship at these two DOE sites. PMID:11383101

Burger, J; Sanchez, J; Roush, D; Gochfeld, M

2001-04-01

340

Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems: Present Challenges and Future Promise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are used in the SE community to address the need for managing the development of complex systems. A key feature of the MBSE approach is the use of a model to capture the requirements, architecture, behavior, oper...

A. M. R. McGowan C. L. Bloebaum

2012-01-01

341

F-BOX and oleosin: additional target genes for future metabolic engineering in tung trees?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tung oil, produced from seeds of the tung tree (Vernicia fordii), is a valuable industrial oil. Genetic engineering can improve the oil content, making it more suitable for use in biodiesel, and the pivotal role of DGAT2 in triacylglycerol synthesis has been extensively studied. Our data indicated, however, that DGAT2 expression decreases rapidly during the late period of oil accumulation,

Yicun Chen; Guan Zhou; Yangdong Wang; Lingna Xu

2010-01-01

342

Executive seminar on the future role of risk assessment and reliability engineering in nuclear regulation  

SciTech Connect

This Executive Seminar was jointly sponsored by the US-NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Argonne National Laboratory (Division of Educational Programs) for the purpose of informing NRC's staff on current thinking in the area of risk assessment and reliability engineering. Six presentations are included, along with their associated question and answer sessions.

van Erp, J.B. (ed.)

1981-05-01

343

A scalable solution for engineering streaming traffic in the future Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

As traffic on the Internet continues to grow exponentially, there is a real need to solve scalability and traffic engineering simultaneously — specifically, without using over-provisioning in order to accommodate streaming media traffic. One of the threats to the current operation stability of the Internet comes from UDP-based streaming media applications, such as Skype (which is currently doubling every 6-month)

Mario Baldi; Guido Marchetto; Yoram Ofek

2007-01-01

344

K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for America's Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of the United States in the 21st century will depend on the ideas and skills of its population. These have always been the nation's most important assets. As the world becomes increasingly technological, the value of these national assets will be determined by the effectiveness of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

345

Using Reference Models for Business Engineering - State-of-the-Art and Future Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual models play an increasingly important role in all phases of the information systems life cycle. For instance, they are used for business process engineering, information systems development, and customizing of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Despite conceptual modeling being a vital instrument for developing information systems, the modeling process often is resource-consuming and faulty. As a way to overcome

Peter Fettke; Peter Loos

2006-01-01

346

Engineers of the Future: The Colorado School of Mines' McBride Honors Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More educators argue that science and technology students must be more liberally educated. The McBride Honors Program at Colorado School of Mines addresses the needs of a global society by preparing engineers to be technically competent, with strong communication skills, and knowledge of societal issues. (MLW)|

Olds, Barbara M.

1988-01-01

347

Engineering Education for International Sustainability: Curriculum Design Under the Sustainable Futures Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, the global community has been striving to meet the Millennium Development Goals, a blueprint for improving the quality of life and health of the world's poorest. These goals specifically address poverty, education, health, gender equality, environmental sustainability and global partnerships. The engineering profession must be able to participate and provide leadership

Valerie J. Fuchs; James R. Mihelcic

348

Training the translational scientist.  

PubMed

A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010. A session at this forum was organized to address the training and skills needed to develop a biomedical scientific workforce that interfaces academia, government agencies, and industry to support the process of translating science into applicable means to improve health. By examining the requisite competencies and training resources for scientists in each of these sectors, opportunities for collaboration and adoption of new educational strategies were identified that could help to address barriers to translational research education and career development. PMID:21178132

Jackson, Rebecca D; Gabriel, Sherine; Pariser, Anne; Feig, Peter

2010-12-22

349

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

350

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. Charlotte's Web is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's book defines vocabulary words and incorporates scientific facts concerning arachnids. However, some of the spider information in the book is not accurate. Therefore, Charlotte's Web can also be used to teach students to become better informed readers.

Getz, Angela; Patrick, Patricia

2008-11-01

351

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v*s-a-v*s that of the Russians. On October 15, President Dwight D. Eisenhower called "his scientists" to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an "unforgettable hour." At this meeting, I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee, made several proposals to President Eisenhower that the President accepted immediately. We are still living with the legacy of the proposals that Eisenhower adopted that day.

Rigden, John S.

2006-12-01

352

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v'is-a-v'is that of the Russians. President Dwight D. Eisenhower called ``his scientists'' to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an ``unforgettable hour.'' I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee made several proposals to President Eisenhower which the President accepted immediately. Today, 50-years later, we are still living with the legacy of Sputnik.

Rigden, John S.

2007-04-01

353

The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

2012-01-20

354

Another Kind of Scientist Activism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

Marino, Lori

2009-01-01

355

Genetic engineering of woody plants: current and future targets in a stressful environment.  

PubMed

Abiotic stress is a major factor in limiting plant growth and productivity. Environmental degradation, such as drought and salinity stresses, will become more severe and widespread in the world. To overcome severe environmental stress, plant biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering in woody plants, need to be implemented. The adaptation of plants to environmental stress is controlled by cascades of molecular networks including cross-talk with other stress signaling mechanisms. The present review focuses on recent studies concerning genetic engineering in woody plants for the improvement of the abiotic stress responses. Furthermore, it highlights the recent advances in the understanding of molecular responses to stress. The review also summarizes the basis of a molecular mechanism for cell wall biosynthesis and the plant hormone responses to regulate tree growth and biomass in woody plants. This would facilitate better understanding of the control programs of biomass production under stressful conditions. PMID:21288247

Osakabe, Yuriko; Kajita, Shinya; Osakabe, Keishi

2011-02-28

356

Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Source for Future Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem cells (ES) have the potential of long-term viability, selfrenewal and pluripotency which makes them interesting\\u000a candidates for tissue engineering and gene therapy applications. On the other hand ethical and political issues arise while\\u000a using theses cells and severe problems such as their tumorgenicity have not been solved yet. In the last couple of month a\\u000a new source of

Edda Tobiasch

357

Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper\\u000a proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates\\u000a as sensitive and relevant test organisms. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20\\u000a peer-reviewed papers

A. Baun; N. B. Hartmann; K. Grieger; K. O. Kusk

2008-01-01

358

Scientists need political literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

Simarski, Lynn Teo

359

Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

2013-07-01

360

Current and future regenerative medicine - principles, concepts, and therapeutic use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering in equine medicine.  

PubMed

This paper provides a bird's-eye perspective of the general principles of stem-cell therapy and tissue engineering; it relates comparative knowledge in this area to the current and future status of equine regenerative medicine.The understanding of equine stem cell biology, biofactors, and scaffolds, and their potential therapeutic use in horses are rudimentary at present. Mesenchymal stem cell isolation has been proclaimed from several equine tissues in the past few years. Based on the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy, most of these cells are more correctly referred to as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, unless there is proof that they exhibit the fundamental in vivo characteristics of pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. That said, these cells from various tissues hold great promise for therapeutic use in horses. The 3 components of tissue engineering - cells, biological factors, and biomaterials - are increasingly being applied in equine medicine, fuelled by better scaffolds and increased understanding of individual biofactors and cell sources.The effectiveness of stem cell-based therapies and most tissue engineering concepts has not been demonstrated sufficiently in controlled clinical trials in equine patients to be regarded as evidence-based medicine. In the meantime, the medical mantra "do no harm" should prevail, and the application of stem cell-based therapies in the horse should be done critically and cautiously, and treatment outcomes (good and bad) should be recorded and reported.Stem cell and tissue engineering research in the horse has exciting comparative and equine specific perspectives that most likely will benefit the health of horses and humans. Controlled, well-designed studies are needed to move this new equine research field forward. PMID:19412395

Koch, Thomas G; Berg, Lise C; Betts, Dean H

2009-02-01

361

Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.  

PubMed

Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury. PMID:21488817

Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

2011-01-01

362

Space Engineering Model Cryogen Free ADR for Future ESA Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an engineering model ADR system to cool cryogenic detectors to 50-30 mK is presented which is designed to be cooled via a 4-5 K space cryocooler. The system will be subjected to vibration qualification suitable for an Ariane 5 launch. The ADR is of a double ADR form comprising a chromic potassium alum (CPA) low temperature stage and dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG) high temperature stage. Details of the 3 Tesla (< 2.5 Amp) magnet system and the magnetic shielding for the detector focal plane and potential spacecraft are given with modelled results.

Hepburn, I. D.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Coker, P.; Crofts, E.; Winter, B.; Milward, S.; Stafford-Allen, R.; Hunt, R.; Brownhill, M.; Rando, N.; Linder, M.

2004-06-01

363

Model-based engineering:a strategy for RRW and future weapons programs.  

SciTech Connect

To meet Sandia's engineering challenges it is crucial that we shorten the product realization process. The challenge of RRW is to produce exceptional high quality designs and respond to changes quickly. Computer aided design models are an important element in realizing these objectives. Advances in the use of three dimensional geometric models on the Reliable Robust Warhead (RRW) activity have resulted in business advantage. This approach is directly applicable to other programs within the Laboratories. This paper describes the RRW approach and rationale. Keys to this approach are defined operational states that indicate a pathway for greater model-based realization and responsive infrastructure.

Harris, Rick; Martinez, Jacky R.

2007-05-01

364

Ask a Scientist!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet offers many opportunities to find quality answers to a host of important questions, ranging from the fields of the humanities to those in the hard sciences. One important resource that offers answers to a number of thorny questions is the Ask a Scientist! website created and maintained by the Centers for Materials Research at Cornell University. The site had its debut on September 17, 1998, when Professor Neil Ashcroft answered the timely question, "What is Jupiter made of?". Visitors to the site can browse or search for previously answered questions, and of course, they are also welcome to submit their own questions for consideration. Visitors will definitely want to view the "Frequently Viewed Questions", which feature responses to such favorites queries as "How can you tell if a diamond is real or fake?" or "How is glass made?"

365

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

366

Engineering Employment and Unemployment, 1971. Engineering Manpower Bulletin Number 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics concerning employment of scientists were obtained from 59,300 scientists responding to an Engineers Joint Council questionnaire. Findings reported are: (1) the overall unemployment rate was 3 percent for engineers compared to a rate of 5.8 percent for all other workers; (2) considering engineers not having engineering jobs, the…

Alden, John D.

367

Present Status and Future Prospects of Geothermal Development in Italy with an Appendix on Reservoir Engineering  

SciTech Connect

This paper consists of two parts and an appendix. In the first part a review is made of the geothermal activity in Italy from 1975 to 1982, including electrical and non-electrical applications. Remarks then follow on the trends that occurred and the operational criteria that were applied in the same period, which can be considered a transitional period of geothermal development in Italy. Information on recent trends and development objectives up to 1990 are given in the second part of the paper, together with a summary on program activities in the various geothermal areas of Italy. The appendix specifically reviews the main reseroir engineering activities carried out in the past years and the problems likely to be faced in the coming years in developing Itallian fields.

Cataldi, R.; Calamai, A.; Neri, G.; Manetti, G.

1983-12-15

368

Re-engineering clostridial neurotoxins for the treatment of chronic pain: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

Clostridial neurotoxins from the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) family are protein complexes, derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which potently inhibit acetylcholine release and result in a reversible blockade of the neuromuscular junction. This feature led to the clinical development of BoNT-A for a number of neuromuscular disorders. BoNT-A toxins are commercially available as three different preparations: Dysport/Azzalure, Botox/Vistabel, and Xeomin/Bocouture. Although BoNT-A preparations have not yet been approved for the treatment of pain, a substantial body of preclinical and clinical evidence shows that BoNT-A is effective in treating a number of different types of pain. It is thought to exert an analgesic effect both via muscle-relaxant properties and also directly, via inhibition of nociceptive neuropeptides. This review explores the mechanistic basis of this analgesic effect, summarizing current knowledge of the structure-function relationship of BoNT and discussing effects on both motor and pain neurons. For a complete picture of the analgesic properties of BoNT-A, clinical evidence of efficacy in myofascial pain and neuropathic pain is considered in tandem with a mechanistic rationale for activity. Patients experiencing chronic pain are clear candidates for treatment with a modified clostridial endopeptidase that would provide enduring inhibition of neurotransmitter release. A strong preclinical evidence base underpins the concept that re-engineering of BoNT could be used to enhance the analgesic potential of this neurotoxin, and it is hoped that the first clinical studies examining re-engineered BoNT-A will confirm this potential. PMID:20462283

Pickett, Andy

2010-06-01

369

Scientists’ collaboration strategies: implications for scientific and technical human capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Scientific and technical human capital” (S&T human capital) has been defined as the sum of researchers’ professional network ties and their technical skills and resources [Int. J. Technol. Manage. 22 (7–8) (2001) 636]. Our study focuses on one particular means by which scientists acquire and deploy S&T human capital, research collaboration. We examine data from 451 scientists and engineers at

Barry Bozeman; Elizabeth Corley

2004-01-01

370

Precision engineering for future propulsion and power systems: a perspective from Rolls-Royce.  

PubMed

Rolls-Royce today is an increasingly global business, supplying integrated power systems to a wide variety of customers for use on land, at sea and in the air. Its reputation for 'delivering excellence' to these customers has been built largely on its gas turbine technology portfolio, and this reputation relies on the quality of the company's expertise in design, manufacture and delivery of services. This paper sets out to examine a number of examples, such as the high-pressure turbine blade, of the company's reliance on precision design and manufacture, highlighting how this precision contributes to customer satisfaction with its products. A number of measures the company is taking to accelerate its competitiveness in precision manufacture are highlighted, not least its extensive relationships with the academic research base. The paper finishes by looking briefly at the demands of the company's potential future product portfolio. PMID:22802505

Beale, Sam

2012-08-28

371

Management of Research and Engineering Selected Topics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This compendium discusses three topics of interest to managers of scientists and engineers. These three topics are development of scientists and engineers for technical management, performance appraisal of personnel, and means to effectiveness for project...

J. P. Hope

1976-01-01

372

The Society for Amateur Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.

373

The Secret Life of Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

374

Nutritional scientist or biochemist?  

PubMed

When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

Suttie, J W

2011-08-21

375

Advocacy is scientists' responsibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

Greenstadt, Gene

376

Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety

Richard K. Coll; Neil Taylor

2004-01-01

377

The Neurolab mission and biomedical engineering: a partnership for the future.  

PubMed

Over the last five years, with the advent of flights of U.S. Shuttle/Spacelab missions dedicated entirely to life sciences research, the opportunities for conducting serious studies that use a fully outfitted space laboratory to better understand basic biological processes have increased. The last of this series of Shuttle/Spacelab missions, currently scheduled for 1998, is dedicated entirely to neuroscience and behavioral research. The mission, named Neurolab, includes a broad range of experiments that build on previous research efforts, as well as studies related to less mature areas of space neuroscience. The Neurolab mission provides the global scientific community with the opportunity to use the space environment for investigations that exploit microgravity to increase our understanding of basic processes in neuroscience. The results from this premier mission should lead to a significant advancement in the field as a whole and to the opening of new lines of investigation for future research. Experiments under development for this mission will utilize human subjects as well as a variety of other species. The capacity to carry out detailed experiments on both human and animal subjects in space allows a diverse complement of studies that investigate functional changes and their underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms. In order to conduct these experiments, a wide array of biomedical instrumentation will be used, including some instruments and devices being developed especially for the mission. PMID:11538996

Liskowsky, D R; Frey, M A; Sulzman, F M; White, R J; Likowsky, D R

1996-01-01

378

Engineering the future. Development of transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to adverse environments.  

PubMed

Environmental stresses - especially drought and salinity - and iron limitation are the primary causes of crop yield losses. Therefore, improvement of plant stress tolerance has paramount relevance for agriculture, and vigorous efforts are underway to design stress-tolerant crops. Three aspects of this ongoing research are reviewed here. First, attempts have been made to strengthen endogenous plant defences, which are characterised by intertwined, hierarchical gene networks involved in stress perception, signalling, regulation and expression of effector proteins, enzymes and metabolites. The multigenic nature of this response requires detailed knowledge of the many actors and interactions involved in order to identify proper intervention points, followed by significant engineering of the prospective genes to prevent undesired side-effects. A second important aspect refers to the effect of concurrent stresses as plants normally meet in the field (e.g., heat and drought). Recent findings indicate that plant responses to combined environmental hardships are somehow unique and cannot be predicted from the addition of the individual stresses, underscoring the importance of programming research within this conceptual framework. Finally, the photosynthetic microorganisms from which plants evolved (i.e., algae and cyanobacteria) deploy a totally different strategy to acquire stress tolerance, based on the substitution of stress-vulnerable targets by resistant isofunctional proteins that could take over the lost functions under adverse conditions. Reintroduction of these ancient traits in model and crop plants has resulted in increased tolerance to environmental hardships and iron starvation, opening a new field of opportunities to increase the endurance of crops growing under suboptimal conditions. PMID:21415892

Zurbriggen, Matias D; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Carrillo, Nestor

2010-01-01

379

The Virtual Scientist: connecting university scientists to the K-12 classroom through videoconferencing.  

PubMed

The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as research faculty members, clinicians, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students, and professional staff, participate through conventional volunteer recruitment and program announcements as well as outreach partnership efforts with other Vanderbilt centers. These experts present 30- to 45-min long, grade-appropriate content sessions from the CSO IVC studio or their own laboratory. Teachers register for sessions via an on-line application process. After the session, teachers, students, and experts are requested to complete an anonymous on-line evaluation that addresses both technical- and content-associated issues. Results from 2003 to the present indicated a favorable assessment for a promising program. Results showed that 69% of students (n = 335) and 88% of teachers (n = 111) felt that IVC improved access to scientists, whereas 97% of students (n = 382) and teachers (n = 126) and 100% of scientists (n = 23) indicated that they would participate in future videoconferences. Students and teachers considered that the Virtual Scientist program was effective [76% (n = 381) and 89% (n = 127), respectively]. In addition, experts supported IVC as effective in teaching [87% (n = 23)]. Because of the favorable responses from experts, teachers, and students, the CSO will continue to implement IVC as a tool to foster interactions of scientists with K-12 classrooms. PMID:17327585

McCombs, Glenn B; Ufnar, Jennifer A; Shepherd, Virginia L

2007-03-01

380

Ask A Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Argonne National Laboratory, one of the US Department of Energy's largest research centers, has posted this 'Newton' website with its Division of Educational Programs. The interactive website provides students (mostly K-12) and teachers with answers to questions about astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, environmental sciences, mathematics, physics, and general science. Users type in a question, which is forwarded to an expert in that field. While 'Newton' has been available as a Telnet service since 1991, this new website allows free access to the searchable database of 15,000 questions and answers. Currently available archives cover the period 1992 through 1995.

1992-01-01

381

Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.

382

Reflections on physical chemistry: Science and scientists.  

PubMed

This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. PMID:16599803

Jortner, Joshua

2006-01-01

383

Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They ...

K. J. Willis P. V. Graff S. Runco W. L. Stefanov

2012-01-01

384

Why scientists should do history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists often say that only a practicing scientist can understand certain things vital to the workings of science, things that often escape historians. Scientists, more often than not, believe that the sense required to understand how science is done can be gained only by doing it. They suggest that history written by historians, especially internal history, which is based on critical examination of the scientific ideas themselves, will be wanting.The historian, on the other hand, through the methods and techniques of history, social studies and philosophy— tools not often possessed by scientists—can show scientists how their discipline has come to be, how it is bedded in society, and how it derives its esteem and support for being.

Glen, William

385

Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

2004-06-01

386

Scientists conduct largest coastal experiment on record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duck, N.C.—Something out of the ordinary has been happening near this quiet, resort town on the Outer Banks. More than 100 coastal scientists, students, and technicians have descended on the Army Corps of Engineer's Waterways Experiment Station primarily to study movement of sediment in the surf zone. In fact, a large percentage of the U.S. near-shore research community has flooded the Duck area to execute the largest coastal experiment ever undertaken. The researchers have brought with them more than 80 computers and an array of exotic gadgets to carry out “DUCK94,” an unprecedented project that has been three years in the making.

Wakefield, Julie

387

Autonomous Robotic Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the success of the recent NASA interplanetary space mission MER (NASA, 2007) it hashighlighted the importance of using a roving science platform for exploration. Near and long- termrequirements for future interplanetary missions place increasing demands on rover performance toextract maximum benefit from the large effort and funding committed to such missions. Missions aremore diverse in their science objectives and require improved robustness and reliability over longerdistances during surface operations. To keep pace with these complex and evolving requirements it is essential that the level of autonomyusedon future missions be increased in order to improve the responsiveness of historical operations models which are biased towards an open-loop response for high-level anaylsis and decisionmaking. The driver of the CREST rover development initiative is the need to achieve: More accurate delivery of science instrumentation, New science opportunities, Large increases in the sciencedata returned to Earth, More robust and reliable operations and More efficient use of operationalresources. This paper presents our work and results obtained to date.

Woods, M.; Ward, R.; Honary, E.; Barnes, D.; Pullan, D.; Long, D.; Draper, C.

2007-08-01

388

Invisible Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

Ohashi, Hideo

389

Attitudes and Perceptions about Ecological Resources, Hazards, and Future Land Use of People Living near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the attitudes and perceptions of local people about ecological resources, environmental hazards, and future land use of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Such monitoring of attitudes is an important aspect of environmental assessment. We interviewed 262 people who attended the 42nd Annual Free Fishermen's Breakfast at St. Anthony, Idaho, on 23 March 1997. We

Joanna Burger; DONALD E. ROUSH Jr; Jessica Sanchez; Jeanine Ondrof; Robert Ramos; Michael J. McMahon; Michael Gochfeld

2000-01-01

390

Which are my Future Career Priorities and What Influenced my Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice—Case of Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key

Gregor Cerinsek; Tina Hribar; Natasa Glodez; Slavko Dolinsek

2012-01-01

391

Hydrogen I. C. engine: its origins and future in the emerging energy-transportation-environment system. Report 729212  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present fuels used in internal combustion engines cause pollution. Lower efficiency cycle automotive engines and catalytic exhaust treatment are technically unsound and waste remaining fuel reserves. Therefore the hydrogen internal combustion engine is being developed. The hydrogen multi-fuel internal combustion engine is the key component of a comprehensive electricity-hydrogen energy system which would control air pollution and would solve

Weil

1973-01-01

392

Report on the Conference Future Ground-based Solar System Research: Synergies with Space Probes and Space Telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary workshop bringing together Solar System researchers, space mission engineers and scientists, ground- and space-based observers and theoreticians is summarised. The broad scope of the meeting covered current and future space missions, planned ground-based facilities and their closer interaction.

Hans Ulrich Käufl; Gian Paolo Tozzi

2008-01-01

393

Do Scientists Really Reject God?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)|

Scott, Eugenie C.

1998-01-01

394

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

395

Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code Aim is to redesign natural biological systems for ... researchers say. "This is the first time the genetic code has been fundamentally changed," study co-author Farren ...

396

Unite to face Congress, Brown tells scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“As a politician,” George E. Brown, Jr., rather understatedly told the American Association for the Advancement of Science on February 15, “I must tell you that unlimited federal funding for basic research is no longer viewed by the U.S. Congress as a birthright of the scientific community.” In his plenary address to the association's annual meeting, the new chairman of the House Science Committee repeatedly warned scientists and engineers not to be divisive over tight research budgets. The California Democrat also called for a unified vision of scientific and technological progress, built upon better communication between scientists, engineers, and Congress.The “good news,” Brown said, is that even in a tough budget year, President George Bush has asked for substantial hikes for many research-funding agencies. However, Brown added, “There will not be huge increases for the funding of basic research over the next 3-5 years,” and even Bush's current requests are not sacrosanct. Ticking off various programs that have been slashed, Brown asked, “Who do you think they're going to set their hungry eyes on?”

397

An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative skills and content knowledge in the geosciences. The importance of fully developing each of these aspects of the ESSN research projects and how they can differ between projects will be discussed.

Ledley, T. S.

2001-05-01

398

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and

Samuel Fletcher

2008-01-01

399

Green Computing Methodology for Next Generation Computing Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green computing has been an active research area which studies an efficient use of computing resources. It is a growing import subject that creates an urgent need to train next generation computer scientists or practitioners to think “green.” However, green computing has not yet been well taught in computer science (CS) or computer engineering programs (CE) programs, partly due to

Chia-Tien Dan Lo; Kai Qian

2010-01-01

400

STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in developing countries interested in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering & math) often choose majors that will improve their job opportunities in their home country when they graduate, e.g. engineering or medicine. Geoscience might be chosen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, but rarely as a primary major unless there are local economic natural resources. The Institute of International

A. Fraiwan; L. Khadra; W. Shahab; D. L. Olgaard

2010-01-01

401

Chemical Engineering Curricula for the Future: Synopsis of Proceedings of a U.S.-India Conference, January, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a summary of a seminar for changing the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum in India. Identifies and describes biotechnology, materials for structural and microelectronic catalysis, and new separation processes as emerging areas. Evaluates the current curriculum, including basic science, engineering lore, chemical engineering,…

Ramkrishna, D.; And Others

1989-01-01

402

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional climate model MAR (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of estimating the sea level rise (SLR) coming from Surface Mass Balance (SMB) changes over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we report future projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs). Our results indicate that in warmer climates, the mass gained due to increased winter snowfall over GrIS does not compensate the mass lost through increased meltwater run-off in summer. All the MAR projections shows similar non-linear melt increases with rising temperatures as a result of the positive surface albedo feedback, because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. Nevertheless, MAR exhibits a large range in its future projections. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from CMIP5 GCMs outputs, we show that the uncertainty coming from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a SLR, resulting from a GrIS SMB decrease, estimated to be 4±2 cm and 9±4 cm for the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. However, these future projections do not consider the positive melt-elevation feedback. Sensitivity MAR experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes highlight the importance of coupling climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow to consider the future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes, and their mutual feedbacks to rising temperatures.

Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; van den Broeke, Michiel; Tedesco, Marco; van Angelen, Jan; Lenaerts, Jan; Erpicum, Michel

2013-04-01

403

Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments focus on the benefits scientists received from networking with K-12 teachers. The classroom lessons resulting from STEP have been so popular among teachers, the Alaska Department of Education and Early Development recently contracted with the PI to create a website that will make the STEP database open to teachers across Alaska. When the Alaska Department of Education and Early Development launched the new website in August 2011, the name of the STEP program was changed to the Alaska K-12 Science Curricular Initiative (AKSCI). The STEP courses serving as the foundation to the new AKSCI site are located under the "History" tab of the new website.

Bertram, K. B.

2011-12-01

404

Engineering Education Answers the Challenge of the Future. Proceedings of the National Congress on Engineering Education (November 20-22, 1986, Washington, D.C.).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reported are the discussions and votes on issues related to engineering education. Sections included are an introduction to the National Congress on Engineering Education and an overview of the meeting including 79 resolutions related to the four areas of broad-academic issues, faculty issues, curriculum issues, and issues on laboratories,…

Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc., New York, NY.

405

Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to current radio astronomy research, and the idea was largely forgotten. In the 1990s this perception began to change when scientists and engineers designed sensitive instruments to detect the faint afterglow of the Big Bang, which is seen in the Universe as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. While making detailed maps of this faint and cold radiation, scientists also detected signals at approximately the same wavelength and intensity as the background radiation, but clearly emanating from within the Milky Way's galactic plane. The researchers expected to detect some emission from the Milky Way, but what they encountered was much brighter than anticipated. This discovery caused some concern among researchers because of the need to have a very clear "window" on the Universe to study the background radiation in great detail. If there were a source of radio emission in our own galactic "back yard," then studies of the microwave background radiation would need to recognize these emissions and correct for them. "We want to be clear, however, that nothing we have found invalidates the current interpretation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation," assured Finkbeiner. "Nobody has done anything wrong in neglecting these signals - so far." Scientists considered several plausible mechanisms for this anomalous emission, but these theories failed to explain the observed spatial distribution of this emission across the sky. This predicament prompted theorists to rethink the spinning dust idea, leading to a 1998 model by Bruce Draine (Princeton University) and Alex Lazarian (University of Wisconsin), which proposed rotational dust-grain emission as an important mechanism. Draine and Lazarian assumed that small dust grains, perhaps having no more than 100 atoms each, would populate many interstellar dust clouds in the Galaxy. Each grain would have a small electric dipole and would therefore react to the charged ions that race through the clouds at tremendous speeds. As an ion either strik

2001-11-01

406

The future of space medicine.  

PubMed

In November 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its partners in the International Space Station (ISS) ushered in a new era of space flight: permanent human presence in low-Earth orbit. As the culmination of the last four decades of human space flight activities. the ISS focuses our attention on what we have learned to date. and what still must be learned before we can embark on future exploration endeavors. Space medicine has been a primary part of our past success in human space flight, and will continue to play a critical role in future ventures. To prepare for the day when crews may leave low-Earth orbit for long-duration exploratory missions, space medicine practitioners must develop a thorough understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body, as well as ways to limit or prevent them. In order to gain a complete understanding and create the tools and technologies needed to enable successful exploration. space medicine will become even more of a highly collaborative discipline. Future missions will require the partnership of physicians, biomedical scientists, engineers, and mission planners. This paper will examine the future of space medicine as it relates to human space exploration: what is necessary to keep a crew alive in space, how we do it today, how we will accomplish this in the future, and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to achieve future goals. PMID:11669139

Nicogossian, A; Pober, D

407

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-07-01

408

Radiation scientists and homeland security.  

PubMed

Radiation scientists represent an important resource in homeland defense. Security analysts worry that a crude but deadly radiological bomb might be fashioned from stolen nuclear material and a few sticks of dynamite. Such a device could kill dozens, hundreds, and possibly thousands and could contaminate a square mile or more. Emergency workers may call upon radiation scientists to aid the injured. Educational materials are available on the ACR, ASTRO, and RRS websites, linked to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide radiation workers material that they can use to help emergency room and civil defense personnel after a terrorist attack. Radiation scientists are urged to obtain these materials and contact their local hospital and public health authorities to volunteer their services and expertise. PMID:11966328

Rose, Christopher M

2002-05-01

409

(Executive Summary) REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The President's Council of Adviser's on Science and Technology (PCAST) present the report Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for Americaâs Future. This report provides a strategy for improving K-12 STEM education that responds to the tremendous challenges and historic opportunities facing the Nation. The reports recommends further use of standards and extensive increases in teacher recruiting. The report also advises greater use of partnerships and improvement in diversity.

Technology, Presidentâs C.

2011-04-04

410

Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

2004-01-01

411

NRAO Scientists on Team Receiving International Astronautics Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is presenting an award to a pioneering team of scientists and engineers who combined an orbiting radio-astronomy satellite with ground-based radio telescopes around the world to produce a "virtual telescope" nearly three times the size of the Earth. The team, which includes two scientists from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), will receive the award in a ceremony Sunday, October 16, in Fukuoka, Japan. VSOP Satellite and Ground Telescopes Artist's conception of HALCA satellite and ground observatories together making "virtual telescope" (blue) about three times the size of Earth. CREDIT: ISAS, JAXA (Click on image for larger version) The IAA chose the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), an international collaboration, to receive its 2005 Laurels for Team Achievement Award, which recognizes "extraordinary performance and achievement by a team of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of Astronautics to foster its peaceful and international use." VSOP team members named in the IAA award include NRAO astronomers Edward Fomalont, of Charlottesville, Virginia, and Jonathan Romney, of Socorro, New Mexico. "This is a well-deserved award for an international team whose hard work produced a scientific milestone that yielded impressive results and provides a foundation for more advances in the future," said Dr. Fred K.Y Lo, NRAO Director. The VSOP program used a Japanese satellite, HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), that included an 8-meter (26-foot) radio telescope. HALCA was launched in 1997 and made astronomical observations in conjunction with ground-based radio telescopes from 14 countries. Five tracking stations, including one at NRAO's Green Bank, West Virginia, facility, received data from HALCA which later was combined with data from the ground-based telescopes to produce images more detailed than those that could have been made by ground-based systems alone. The NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide system of radio telescopes ranging from Hawaii to the Caribbean, was one of the principal ground-based networks working with HALCA. The VLBA's powerful special-purpose computer, called a correlator, was a prime workhorse for processing the data from VSOP astronomical observations. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance, or "baselines" between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. The IAA award citation notes that the VSOP team "realized the long-held dream of radio astronomers to extend those baselines into space, by observing celestial radio sources with the HALCA satellite, supported by a dedicated network of tracking stations, and arrays of ground radio telescopes from around the world." The VSOP team was able to approximately triple the resolving power available with only ground-based telescopes. The first experiment in such space-ground observation was made in 1986, using a NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. The VSOP project grew as an international effort after that experiment, and provided observing time to astronomers from around the world. During the VSOP observational program, the combined space-ground system made more than 780 individual astronomical observations and also made an all-sky survey of the cores of active galaxies. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In addition to providing large amounts of observing time on the VLBA and building and operating the Green Bank tracking station, NRAO staff also modified existing hardware and software and aided astronomers from around the world in analyzing VSOP data. On behalf of the entire VSOP Team, the IAA highlighted "the astronomers and engineers who made key contributions to realizing, and operating, a radio telescope b

2005-10-01

412

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) is a prototype effort for the Next Generation Space Telescope that uses a combination of artificial intelligence and user interface techniques to explore ways to substantially reduce the time and effort involved in proposal preparation for both scientists and the telescope operations staff. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been working with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) to explore SEA alternatives. At ADASS '99 we were demonstrating the latest version of the SEA software. This article summarizes the new features and lessons learned in the SEA project over the last year.

Grosvenor, S. R.; Burkhardt, C.; Koratkar, A.; Fishman, M.; Wolf, K. R.; Jones, J. E.; Ruley, L.

413

Scientists in an alternative vision of a globalized world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why should ``increasing the visibility of scientists in emergent countries'' be of interest? Can increasing the relevance and connectedness of scientific output, both to technological applications at home and cutting edge basic research abroad contribute to the general welfare in such countries? For this to happen, governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations must provide incentives for the local industry to help fund and actively engage in the creation of new technologies, rather than settling for the solution of well understood engineering problems under the rubric of collaboration between scientists and industry. However, the trajectory of the highly industrialized countries cannot be retraced. Globalization facilitates closer interaction and collaboration between scientists but also deepens the contrasts between the center and the periphery, both world wide and within national borders; as it is understood today, it can lead to the redundancy of local technology oriented research, as the idea of a ``local industry'' is rapidly made obsolete. Scientists from all over the world are sucked into the vortex as both the economic and the cultural world increasingly revolve around a single axis. The challenge is to redefine our terms of reference under these rapidly changing boundary conditions and help bring human needs, human security and human happiness to the fore in elaborating and forging alternative visions of a globalized world. Both natural scientists and social scientists will be indispensable in such an endeavor.

Erzan, Ayse

2008-03-01

414

AGU Scientists “Rock” Capitol Hill for Congressional Visits Day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Earth and space sciences may not always make national headlines, they are woven into a multitude of national policies that affect people in the United States and around the world. Issues such as energy, environment, hazards, and climate consistently are on the legislative docket of the U.S. Congress, and as a result, policy makers need to hear from Earth and space scientists who can offer their expertise. Twenty-nine AGU members from 16 states did just that during the fifteenth annual Science-Engineering-Technology Congressional Visits Day (SET-CVD) event on 28-29 April. AGU joined forces with dozens of other scientific and engineering societies, bringing nearly 300 scientists and engineers from across the country to Capitol Hill.

Chell, Kaitlin

2010-06-01

415

Genes, brain, and cognition: A roadmap for the cognitive scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current progress in genetics in relation to the understanding of human cognition. It is argued that genetics occupies a prominent place in the future of cognitive science, and that cognitive scientists should play an active role in the process. Recent research in genetics and developmental neuroscience is reviewed and argued to provide a new perspective on the

Franck Ramus

2006-01-01

416

Is There a Shortage of Scientists? A Re-Analysis of Supply for the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a recent economic downturn, there is considerable political and industry pressure to retain or even increase the number of scientists in the UK and other developed countries. Claims are made that the supply of scientists (including engineers and mathematicians) is crucial to the economy and the health of the nation, and a large number of…

Smith, Emma; Gorard, Stephen

2011-01-01

417

Using electronic field trips to provide scientist role models: A qualitative pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and global leaders are leading the call for more educational programs aimed at engaging PK-12 students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines to increase the quantity and quality of scientists in the STEM workforce. In response, learning interventions are being designed to broaden students' perceptions of, and interest in, science and science careers. Scientist role models have

Jamie Loizzo

2011-01-01

418

Is There a Shortage of Scientists? A Re-Analysis of Supply for the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a recent economic downturn, there is considerable political and industry pressure to retain or even increase the number of scientists in the UK and other developed countries. Claims are made that the supply of scientists (including engineers and mathematicians) is crucial to the economy and the health of the nation, and a large number of…

Smith, Emma; Gorard, Stephen

2011-01-01

419

Engineering and Science Manpower Act of 1982. H.R. 5254. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session (April 27, 29, 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are hearings on the H.R. 5254 (National Engineering and Science Manpower Act of 1982). The purpose of this legislation is to establish a national policy which will insure an adequate supply of scientists and engineers necessary to meet the needs of the United States in the future. Testimony was presented by John Glenn (U.S. senator from…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

420

Mentoring Among Scientists: Implications of interpersonal Relationships Within a Formal Mentoring Program. Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mentoring is an established strategy for learning that has its root in antiquity. Most, if not all, successful scientists and engineers had an effective mentor at some point in their career. In the context of scientists and engineers, mentoring has been u...

B. D. Maughan

2006-01-01

421

Grzegorz Rozenberg: A Magical Scientist and Brother  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a personal description of Grzegorz Rozenberg. There is something magical in the fact that one man, Grzegorz, has been able to obtain so many and such good results in so numerous and diverse areas of science. This is why I have called him a “magical scientist.” He is also a very interdisciplinary scientist. In some sense this is due to his educational background. His first degree was in electronics engineering, the second a master’s in computer science, and the third a Ph.D. in mathematics. However, in the case of Grzegorz, the main drive for new disciplines comes from his tireless search for new challenges in basic science, rather than following known tracks. Starting with fundamental automata and language theory, he soon extended his realm to biologically motivated developmental languages, and further to concurrency, Petri nets, and graph grammars. During the past decade, his main focus has been on natural computing, a term coined by Grzegorz himself to mean either computing taking place in nature or human-designed computing inspired by nature.

Salomaa, Arto

422

Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.

423

The Scientists in Schools Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists in Schools is a project funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations and managed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Education Section. This paper describes how the project is working to establish and maintain sustained and ongoing partnerships between…

Howitt, Christine; Rennie, Leonie; Heard, Marian; Yuncken, Liz

2009-01-01

424

Career Advice for Life Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume represents selected articles from the acclaimed Women in Cell Biology column of the award-winning ASCB Newsletter, those ranked by WICB members as providing the most helpful career advice for life scientists. We trust that the compilation will...

E. Marincola

2002-01-01

425

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

426

Scientists at Work. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes activities related to the development, field testing, evaluation, and marketing of the "Scientists at Work" program which combines computer assisted instruction with database tools to aid cognitively impaired middle and early high school children in learning and applying thinking skills to science. The brief report reviews…

Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.

427

NICHD-Supported Scientists Design Test for Prenatal Diagnosis of PKU.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Using genetic engineering techniques, scientists have succeeded in developing a procedure to diagnose phenylketonuria (PKU) in unborn children as well as in healthy ...

1984-01-01

428

Publish or perish: Scientists must write or How do I climb the paper mountain?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This will be an interactive workshop for scientists discussing strategies for improving writing efficiency. Topics covered include database search engines, reference managing software, authorship, journal determination, writing tips and good writing habits....

429

REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

Jortner, Joshua

2006-05-01

430

Scientists Sift Through Urban Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City soil gets tramped on, dumped on, and pushed around, but some soil scientists are carefully examining what is underfoot in urban areas. During a 3 May session on urban soils at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, scientists discussed various aspects of city dirt. In a presentation about the large amount of rubble from buildings that were bombed during World War II, Beate Mekiffer with the Soil Protection Group at the Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany, noted that the sulfate concentration in Berlin's upper aquifer has increased continuously for decades. Many areas in Berlin now exceed a 240-milligram-per-liter “precaution value” for sulfate in drinking water, according to Mekiffer.

Showstack, Randy

2010-05-01

431

Theory into practice: Connecting theory and practice: Women scientist role models in television programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bern's gender schema theory (Bern 1981, 1983, 1993) provides a useful framework for examining the influence of women scientist role models on girls’ perceptions of science and scientists. The purpose of this paper is (1) to describe how Bern's gender schema theory serves as a framework for guiding future research, (2) to examine the fundamental premises of Bern's gender schema

Jocelyn Steinke

1998-01-01

432

Research Integrity of Individual Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

Haklak, Rockbill

433

Planetary Scientist Profile: Lynn Carter  

NASA Video Gallery

The dry, ancient surfaces of the moon, Venus, and Mars look nothing like the dynamic planet we live on, but the same forces that shape our world have also driven the evolution of our closest neighbors. As part of NASA’s Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory, scientist Lynn Carter discusses her passion for volcanoes, impact cratering, and tectonic activity throughout the solar system. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-10-16

434

Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

435

Future Flights!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is an exciting conclusion to the airplanes unit that encourages students to think creatively. After a review of the concepts learned, students will design their own flying machine based on their knowledge of the forces involved in flight, the properties of available materials, and the ways in which their flying machine could benefit society. Students will also learn how the brainstorming process helps in creative thinking and inventing and that scientists and engineers use this technique to come up with new products or modify and improve exiting products.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

436

The Futures Channel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1999, the goal of The Futures Channel (TFC) is to use "new media technologies to create a channel between the scientists, engineers, explorers and visionaries who are shaping the future, and today's learners who will one day succeed them." The site provides visitors with access to new movies and educator favorites at no charge, and visitors can also purchase compilations of past programs online here as well. In the "Featured Movies" area, visitors can learn how baseball bats are tested, the intricacies involved with making dolls, and the daily life of a weather forecaster. On the right-hand side of the homepage, visitors can also sign up to receive the free weekly newsletter. Visitors looking for more specific short videos can click on one of the thirteen subject areas on the left-hand side of the homepage. The site is rounded out by some special features, like "Behind the Sound of TFC" which features an interview with Stephen Jay, the composer of the music for these innovative films.

437

Politics and scientific expertise: scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy.  

PubMed

To study the homogeneity and influences on scientists' perspectives of environmental risks, we have examined similarities and differences in risk perceptions, particularly regarding nuclear wastes, and policy preferences among 1011 scientists and engineers. We found significant differences (p < 0.05) in the patterns of beliefs among scientists from different fields of research. In contrast to physicists, chemists, and engineers, life scientists tend to: (a) perceive the greatest risks from nuclear energy and nuclear waste management; (b) perceive higher levels of overall environmental risk; (c) strongly oppose imposing risks on unconsenting individuals; and (d) prefer stronger requirements for environmental management. On some issues related to priorities among public problems and calls for government action, there are significant variations among life scientists or physical scientists. We also found that--independently of field of research--perceptions of risk and its correlates are significantly associated with the type of institution in which the scientist is employed. Scientists in universities or state and local governments tend to see the risks of nuclear energy and wastes as greater than scientists who work as business consultants, for federal organizations, or for private research laboratories. Significant differences also are found in priority given to environmental risks, the perceived proximity of environmental disaster, willingness to impose risks on an unconsenting population, and the necessity of accepting risks and sacrifices. PMID:8234951

Barke, R P; Jenkins-Smith, H C

1993-08-01

438

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

Hand, M.; Mai, T.

2012-08-01

439

How scientists use social media to communicate their research  

PubMed Central

Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population.

2011-01-01

440

Comment on ``Improving How Scientists Communicate About Climate Change''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As former director of communications for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and a writer and editor who has worked in the science and engineering fields for more than 20 years, I applaud Susan Joy Hassol's summary of what scientists need to know to communicate with the public accurately and clearly about climate change in this time of rising demand for information (see Eos, 89(11), 11 March 2008).

Kent, James M.

2008-08-01

441

Scientists are still keeping the faith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the suggestion eighty years ago that four in ten scientists did not believe in God or an afterlife was astounding to contemporaries, the fact that so many scientists believe in God today is equally surprising.

Edward J. Larson

1997-01-01

442

How scientists commercialise new knowledge via entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore how university-based scientists overcome the barriers to appropriating the returns from new knowledge\\u000a via entrepreneurship; and we examine how a university-based technology transfer office (TTO), with an incubation facility,\\u000a can assist scientists in the commercialisation process. We identify how scientists overcome three barriers to commercialisation.\\u000a First, we find that scientists take account of traditional academic

Colm O’Gorman; Orla Byrne; Dipti Pandya

2008-01-01

443

Resources for Scientists Teaching Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Cornell University, this site offers a number of resources and tips for scientists who teach. Collected from undergraduate courses in evolution, ecology, and animal behavior, but applicable to a range of science courses, the materials include writing assignment ideas, peer review guidelines, discussion tips, hints on using the Web, reading lists, exam questions, and sample syllabi, among others. The site also contains some annotated links for teaching, biology, writing, and TAs. A nice, straightforward collection of useful resources, many of which may be of use to teachers in any discipline.

444

ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leonardo Testi. He took up the appointment in May 2007. Leonardo Testi received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence in 1997. Subsequently he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory of Caltech. In 1998 he joined staff of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, and later on of INAF, for which he also served on the Science Council. Leonardo has been chair of the European ALMA Science Advisory committee and a member of the ALMA Science Advisory committee, so he well knows the details of the project as well as the science that can be carried out with ALMA.

Wilson, T.

2007-06-01

445

New Scientist: Commercial Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from New Scientist highlights the most recent actions that are bringing us closer to commercial space flight -- the granting of the first licence to a private company. The one-year license authorizes the launching of people up to 100 kilometers. Apparently, the company is competing with other companies to win a prize being offered by the X Prize Foundation, which will be awarded to "the first private group to send three people to the sub-orbital height of 100 kilometers twice in two weeks." The president of X Prize, Peter Diamandis, is quoted as saying he expects a winner by October 2004. So stay tuned!

446

Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

Miclea, Mircea

2008-01-01

447

Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

448

Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

Robinson, George

2004-01-01

449

Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

450

Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one of these venues for a YSS event; co-hosting a YSS event for an audience with educators or other local partners; or hosting a YSS event at your own institution. YSS offers rich and diverse ways for scientists to actively engage with the public about planetary science; we invite you to get involved!

Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

2011-12-01

451

In the trenches: lessons for scientists from California's Proposition 71 campaign  

PubMed Central

I describe a number of valuable lessons I learned from participating in California's Proposition 71 effort about the role that scientists and rigorous scientific advice can play in a public political process. I describe how scientists can provide valuable information and advice and how they can also gain a great deal from the experience that is valuable to a practicing research scientist. Finally, I argue that in the future, building similar broad coalitions to support biomedical and other areas of scientific research will be essential to protect publicly funded science. Thus, a key lesson from the Proposition 71 experience is that engagement of scientists with diverse nonscientific groups can make a big difference and that scientists must actively engage with the public in the future if we are to contribute robustly to the medical and economic health of our communities.

Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

2011-01-01

452

Review of Fructosyl Amino Acid Oxidase Engineering Research: A Glimpse into the Future of Hemoglobin A1c Biosensing  

PubMed Central

Glycated proteins, particularly glycated hemoglobin A1c, are important markers for assessing the effectiveness of diabetes treatment. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on the enzyme fructosyl amino acid oxidase (FAOD) have become attractive alternatives to conventional detection methods. We review the available FAOD-based assays for measurement of glycated proteins as well as the recent advances and future direction of FAOD research. Future research is expected to lead to the next generation of convenient, simple, and economical sensors for glycated protein, ideally suited for point-of-care treatment and self-monitoring applications.

Ferri, Stefano; Kim, Seungsu; Tsugawa, Wakako; Sode, Koji

2009-01-01

453

Review of fructosyl amino acid oxidase engineering research: a glimpse into the future of hemoglobin A1c biosensing.  

PubMed

Glycated proteins, particularly glycated hemoglobin A1c, are important markers for assessing the effectiveness of diabetes treatment. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on the enzyme fructosyl amino acid oxidase (FAOD) have become attractive alternatives to conventional detection methods. We review the available FAOD-based assays for measurement of glycated proteins as well as the recent advances and future direction of FAOD research. Future research is expected to lead to the next generation of convenient, simple, and economical sensors for glycated protein, ideally suited for point-of-care treatment and self-monitoring applications. PMID:20144298

Ferri, Stefano; Kim, Seungsu; Tsugawa, Wakako; Sode, Koji

2009-05-01

454

The mentoring of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mentoring relationships of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies were examined. Male and female biologists, chemists, engineers and physicists were compared regarding the importance of doctoral students receiving career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring from their doctoral chairperson and student colleagues. Scientists' satisfaction with their chairperson and colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions was also investigated. In addition, scientists identified individuals other than their chairperson and colleagues who were positive influencers on their professional development as scientists and those who hindered their development. A reliable instrument, "The Survey of Accomplished Scientists' Doctoral Experiences," was developed to assess career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring of doctoral chairpersons and student colleagues based on the review of literature, interviews with scientists and two pilot studies. Surveys were mailed to a total of 400 men and women scientists with earned doctorates, of which 209 were completed and returned. The findings reveal that female scientists considered the doctoral chairperson furnishing career enhancing mentoring more important than did the men, while both were in accordance with the importance of them providing psychosocial mentoring. In addition, female scientists were not as satisfied as men with their chairperson providing most of the career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring functions. For doctoral student colleagues, female scientists, when compared to men, indicated that they considered student colleagues more important in providing career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring. However, male and female scientists were equally satisfied with their colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions. Lastly, the majority of male scientists indicated that professors served as a positive influencer, while women revealed that spouses and friends positively influenced their professional development as scientists. Several recommended changes in science departments are provided.

Filippelli, Laura Ann

455

Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

Turkmen, Hakan

2008-01-01

456

Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

2000-06-01

457

High Energy Physics Advisory Panel's subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report's own origins and development.

1994-05-01

458

Scientists Turn Healthy Cells Cancerous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research recently announced in the journal Nature that they have been able to genetically alter a healthy human cell to create a cancerous one. The discovery is being hailed as an important step forward towards the development of anti-cancer drugs. Previously, scientists have been able to turn normal cells cancerous by using chemicals and e-rays, but this is the first time it has been accomplished through genetic manipulation. This holds promise for a relatively new approach to treating cancer, one that attempts to remove the underlying genetic flaws that cause cancer instead of attacking both healthy and cancerous cells with present-day chemotherapy treatments. The sites listed provide information about this important new development in cancer research.

De Nie, Michael W.

459

AC 2007-1614: A DELPHI STUDY TO PROJECT THE FUTURE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AND ITS IMPLICATION TO ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The future of energy supplies in our world is largely in question. It is widely accepted that the world’s inhabitants cannot continue to depend on traditional, non-renewable, fuels as they harm the environment,and are in limited supply. Researchers and research organizationsworldwide have committed,themselves to the research and development,of alternative energies and its storage and must put out a similar

David Rouch; Adam Stienecker

2007-01-01

460

Technical and Economical Demands on 25K - 77K Refrigerators for Future HTS - Series Products in Power Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the future high temperature superconductivity, HTS, series products new refrigerators are essential. Demands are made on these which are only partly fulfilled by refrigerators available in the market today. This refers to cooling power, initial cost and in particular reliability. Without proper refrigeration techniques it will be almost impossible to bring HTS products to the market. Based on the experiences made by the construction and operation of HTS prototypes within our company, like the 400 kW motor, 1.2 MVA current limiter and 1 MVA traction-transformer provided with refrigerators which are available in the market today, criteria have been established to identify the future technical and economical requirements. These criteria apply to efficiency, maintainability, operation flexibility, feasibility of integration and performance/cost ratio. For the temperature range of 20 K to 77 K cooling with Gifford-McMahon, Pulse Tube, Stirling and Mixture-Cascade refrigerators are applicable. The development potential of these processes are compared for the different applications in future series products. Presented are the necessary steps towards reliable and economic refrigerators from the viewpoint of an equipment manufacturer. These are essential for a market entry in the year 2008.

Gromoll, B.

2004-06-01

461

From Laboratories to Classrooms: Involving Scientists in Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists play a key role in science education: the adventure of making new discoveries excites and motivates students. Yet, American science education test scores lag behind those of other industrial countries, and the call for better science, math and technology education is widespread. Thus, improving American science, math and technological literacy is a major educational goal for the NSF and NASA. Today, funding for research often carries a requirement that the scientist be actively involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) to enhance the science literacy of students, teachers and citizens. How can scientists contribute effectively to E/PO? What roles can scientists take in E/PO? And, how can this be balanced with research requirements and timelines? This talk will focus on these questions, with examples drawn from the author's projects that involve scientists in working with K-12 teacher professional development and with K-12 curriculum development and implementation. Experiences and strategies for teacher professional development in the research environment will be discussed in the context of NASA's airborne astronomy education and outreach projects: the Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment project and the future Airborne Ambassadors Program for NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Effective partnerships with scientists as content experts in the development of new classroom materials will be described with examples from the SETI Institute's Life in the Universe curriculum series for grades 3-9, and Voyages Through Time, an integrated high school science course. The author and the SETI Institute wish to acknowledge funding as well as scientific and technical support from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Hewlett Packard Company, the Foundation for Microbiology, and the Combined Federated Charities.

DeVore, E. K.

2001-12-01

462

Mesenchymal stem cells and progenitor cells in connective tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: is there a future for transplantation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Transplantation surgery suffers from a shortage of donor organs worldwide. Cell injection and tissue engineering (TE), thus\\u000a emerge as alternative therapy options. The purpose of this article is to review the progress of TE technology, focusing on\\u000a mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a cell source for artificial functional tissue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  MSC from many different sources can be minimally invasively harvested: peripheral

Andres Hilfiker; Cornelia Kasper; Ralf Hass; Axel Haverich

2011-01-01

463

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

Fletcher, Samuel

2008-04-01

464

Engineering sustainable engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is one of the global grand challenges of the 21st century. In order for future generations to enjoy a satisfactory quality of life, the current generation must find ways to meet humanity's needs for energy, shelter, food and water in ways that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Engineers must be trained to design systems and technologies that have

M. L. Sattler; K. Alavi; V. C. P. Chen; S. P. Mattingly; K. J. Rogers; Y. P. Weatherton; B. Afotey; M. Rani

2010-01-01

465

Yes! We Are Rocket Scientists!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is an outline of what the author did in his classroom to incorporate the help of two volunteer engineers to create a powerful learning unit and cumulative review for his eighth-grade physical science students. This unit reviews what students have learned during the school year regarding force, motion, Newton's laws, gas laws, and…

Macduff, J. Trevor

2006-01-01

466

Scientific Literacy through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding on the GLOBE Programs investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy of both content and the nature of science. Through the use of the Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships model Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve both the needs of the classroom and the scientific investigation requirements. During the proof of concept phase of the partnership model implementation numerous high school students developed scientific plans, through consultation with scientists that teachers facilitated, and collected data sets that provided useful to all members of the partnership. The students and teachers learned many of the best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This talk will focus primarily on one example Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships started in 2002 and is still running in Washington DC, "Expanding the GLOBE Aerosol Protocol through Cross-Ground Validation AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements." Other science investigation opportunities and examples will be discussed.

Niepold, F.

2006-05-01

467

Climate Literacy Through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding on the GLOBE Program's Atmosphere and Aerosol investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy in both content and the science process. Through the use of Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships, Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve the needs of the classroom as well as participating scientific investigators. During the proof-of-concept phase of this partnership model, teachers and their students developed science plans, through consultation with scientists, and began collecting atmospheric and aerosol data in support of the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) campaign in Houston Texas. This effort uses some pre-existing GLOBE materials, but draws on a variety of other resources to tailor the teacher development activities and intended student participation in a way that addresses local and regional problems. Students and teachers have learned about best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped to expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This work began with a Student-Teacher-Scientist partnership started in 2002 during a GLOBE Aerosol Protocol Cross- Ground Validation of AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements. Several other GLOBE schools, both national and international, have contributed to this research. The current project support of the intensive GoMACCS air quality and atmospheric dynamics field campaign during September and October of 2006. This model will be evaluated for wider use in other project-focused partnerships led by NOAA's Climate Program Office.

Niepold, F.; Brooks, D.; Lefer, B.; Linsley, A.; Duckenfield, K.

2006-12-01

468

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Simulation Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of developing an observing program for a given observatory, the planner requires a number of inputs regarding the target and scientific instrument that need to be calculated, found, and/or confirmed. Thus, preparation of a program can be quite a daunting task. The task can be made easier by providing observers with a software tools environment. NGST funded the initial development of the Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) to research new visual approaches to proposal preparation. Building on this experience, work has begun on a new integrated SEA simulation facility. The main objective is to develop the framework for a flexible simulation facility to allow astronomers to explore the target/instrument/observatory parameters and to 'simulate' the quality of data they will attain. The goal is a simulation pipeline that will allow the user to manage the complex process of simulating and analyzing images without heroic programming effort. Tying this into SEA will allow astronomers to effectively come 'full circle' from retrieving archival images, to data analysis, to proposing new observations. The objectives and strategies for the SEA simulation facility are discussed, as well as current status and future enhancements.

Wolf, K. R.; Li, C.; Jones, J.; Matusow, D.; Grosvenor, S.; Koratkar, A.

469

Scientist, researchers, and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The role of the hidden participants in agenda-setting for environmental issues is discussed. These personnel involve academics, researchers, career bureaucrats, congressional staffers, consultants, and administration appointees below the top level. Scientists have been publicly involved in the acid rain issue from the beginning, using the media to dramatize the possible catastrophic consequences of acid rain. Presently, the scientific community is not in consensus about the solutions to the problem. Since the initial enactment of the National Acid Precipitation Act in 1980, not a single acid rain law has been passed, although many bills have been proposed. Spokesman for the coal and utility industries and Reagan administration personnel have used the scientific disagreements to delay abatement actions and refute claims that acid rain is a severe problem. Another result of the confusion is a distrust and even disdain for academic work. One possible solution to the stalemate is an accurate form for resolving scientific disputes that have a strong political component and that the forum should have a mechanism for converging on accurate science. 19 refs.

Alm, L.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))

1989-01-01

470

Current and future helmet-mounted displays for piloted systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and Engineers in the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are constantly asked what are the new technologies and concepts that are being developed to significantly increase the warfighters capabilities. The warfighting communities have different opinions and priorities based on their platform capabilities and operational requirements that the Laboratory has to make trade-offs to maximize the payoff on investment for the Air Force operator community in this tighter budget era. This paper will discuss the current state of helmet mounted displays in rotorcraft and fast jets as well as the future technology advancements needed to increase warfighter productive and/or reduce life cycle costs.

Franck, Doug; McIntire, John; Marasco, Peter; Havig, Paul

2009-05-01

471

Applying systems engineering to astronomical projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the award of the VISTA project to the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC), the need for a formal systems approach and dedicated systems engineering management was identified as a key requirement for the success of that project. The structuring of projects within the UK ATC has been increasingly biased toward a systems engineering approach. ROE projects such as CGS4, while very successful, were based on a traditional engineering discipline approach. The systems responsibility was split between the Project Scientist and the Project Manager. Such an approach can be made to work on internal projects where the entire team and project sponsor are in close proximity. As instrumentation projects have grown larger, become more complex and increasingly geographically distributed through international collaboration, the need for technical discipline enforced by a formal system engineering approach has correspondingly grown. Internal projects also benefit and are becoming increasingly reliant on systems engineering as a means to mitigating both schedule and budget risks. This paper describes and analyses the ongoing introduction of a formal systems approach within the UK ATC. Structuring of projects through a sub-system approach rather than by discipline, formal requirements capture, traceability and the use of systems tools to monitor performance are described. The introduction of systems engineering as a discipline is discussed and progress to date reported. Systems engineering activities in previous projects and ongoing implementation in current projects are analysed. Lessons learnt are described and future development in the systems approach outlined.

Craig, Simon C.; Born, Andrew J.

2004-09-01

472

Factors Related to Successful Engineering Team Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The perceptions of a sample of 49 engineers and scientists from NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. The respondents rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also complete...

R. H. Nowaczyk T. A. Zang

2004-01-01

473

Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program bridges the gap between scientists and classrooms. Scientists work with students as mentors, participate in student presentations, and interact with students through distance learning events.

Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

2012-03-01

474

Yes! We are Rocket Scientists!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launch your middle school students' interest, incorporate hands-on/minds-on learning, and focus on inquiry learning while still meeting state and national standards by implementing the following water-bottle rocket activity into your physical science curriculum. This article is an outline of how one teacher enlisted the help of two volunteer engineers to create a powerful learning unit and cumulative review for eighth-grade physcial science students. This unit reviews what students have learned during the school year regarding force, motion, Newton's laws, gas laws, and center of gravity.

Macduff, J. T.

2006-09-01

475

The Training and Work of Ph.D. Physical Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doctoral education has often been viewed as the pinnacle of the formal education system. How useful is doctoral training in one's later career? In an NSF-funded project, we set out to perform a study of the training, careers, and work activities of Ph.D. physical scientists. The study included both in-depth interviews and a survey sent out to a sample of Ph.D. holders 4-8 years after graduation. Come and find out the results of this study: What skills are most Ph.D. physical scientists using? What should graduate programs be teaching? Are Ph.D.'s who are working in their specific field of training happier than their counterparts working different jobs? What skills and preparation lead to future job satisfaction, perhaps the most important indicator of the "success" of graduate education? A preprint and further details can be found at the project web site at: spot.colorado.edu/ phdcarer.

Smith, S. J.; Schweitzer, A. E.

2003-05-01

476

Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

2011-12-01

477

The Dentist Scientist Award program and prosthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dentist Scientist Award (DSA) program was started by the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) in 1984 to prepare dentists for careers as clinical research scientists who would be highly skilled investigators and potential leaders in the full scope of oral health research. The DSA program provides support for dentists to undertake 5 years of intensive preparation in a

James A Lipton

1996-01-01

478

Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

Lee, Tiffany R.

2010-01-01

479

Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.

2012-01-01

480

Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing

Chris Newhall; Shigeo Aramaki; Franco Barberi; Russell Blong; Marta Calvache; Jean-Louis Cheminee; Raymundo Punongbayan; Claus Siebe; Tom Simkin; Stephen Sparks; Barry Tjetjep

1999-01-01

481

Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)|

Condon, Marty

1991-01-01

482

Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.

2012-01-01

483

Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and…

Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

2008-01-01

484

Elementary School Children's Perceptions of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study looked at the potential of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) as a quick, reliable method of assessing elementary school children's images of scientists. Two schools were chosen from very different environments in Western Australia. Results indicated that the DAST is potentially useful to assess global images. (MP)|

Schibeci, Renato A.; Sorensen, Irene

1983-01-01