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1

Topical tar: Back to the future  

SciTech Connect

The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

2009-08-15

2

Topical therapy for dermatophytoses: should corticosteroids be included?  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses, commonly known as ringworm or tinea, represent superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes, which are among the most common infections encountered in medicine. The use of corticosteroid-containing combinations in dermatophyte infections that are usually treated with topical medications is still a much-debated issue. The addition of a corticosteroid to local antifungal therapy may be of value in reducing local inflammatory reaction and thus carries the theoretical advantage of rapid symptom relief in acute dermatophyte infections associated with heavy inflammation. However, the use of such combinations requires caution as they have some potential risks, especially with long-term use under occlusive conditions. Corticosteroid-induced cutaneous adverse effects have been reported primarily in pediatric patients due to inappropriate application of these preparations on diaper areas. Additionally, the corticosteroid component may interfere with the therapeutic actions of the antifungal agent, or fungal growth may accelerate because of decreased local immunologic host reaction, such that underlying infection may persist, and dermatophytes may even acquire the ability to invade deeper tissues. Analysis of the literature documenting clinical study data and adverse reactions related to combination therapy, drew the following conclusions: (i) combination products containing a low potency nonfluorinated corticosteroid may initially be used for symptomatic inflamed lesions of tinea pedis, tinea corporis, and tinea cruris, in otherwise healthy adults with good compliance; (ii) therapy should be substituted by a pure antifungal agent once symptoms are relieved, and should never exceed 2 weeks for tinea cruris and 4 weeks for tinea pedis/corporis; and (iii) contraindications for the use of these combinations include application on diaper or other occluded areas and facial lesions, as well as in children <12 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients for any reason. PMID:15663334

Erbagci, Zulal

2004-01-01

3

Topical Treatment in Acne: Current Status and Future Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, the number of topical and systemic drugs for the treatment of acne vulgaris has been enriched. Topical drugs on the one hand have been newly discovered or further developments of already available agents such as in the group of retinoids or galenic formulation have improved efficacy or local tolerance. Topical retinoids are a mainstay in

Harald P. M. Gollnick; Andrea Krautheim

2003-01-01

4

Selecting Research Topics: Personal Experiences and Speculations For the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rapidly changing field of information systems, every researcher faces important choices about what research topics to explore and how to pursue that research. This paper addresses these questions by summarizing a panel discussion at the 2001 Decision Sciences Institute (DSI) annual meeting. The first part of this paper provides a framework explaining factors that can be used in

Steven Alter; Alan R. Dennis

2002-01-01

5

Recent topics in photoelectrochemistry: achievements and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous amount of research that has been carried out in the two closely related fields of semiconductor photoelectrochemistry and photocatalysis during the past three decades continues to provide fundamental insights and practical applications. The present review paper will attempt to describe some of the progress and resulting achievements in these two areas and to briefly discuss the future prospects.

D. A Tryk; A Fujishima; K Honda

2000-01-01

6

Topical Minoxidil in Extensive Alopecia areata, Including 3Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of topical minoxidil is the fact that this drug can promote hair growth in two unrelated conditions: alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia. The two conditions have quite different underlying mechanisms. In AA, hair follicles respond to some signal or cell injury by entering a state of aborted cyclical activity; this state can reverse itself

V. H. Price

1987-01-01

7

Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

Mathematics Teaching, 1970

1970-01-01

8

Effects of foot care intervention including nail drilling combined with topical antifungal application in diabetic patients with onychomycosis.  

PubMed

We performed periodical foot care intervention including nail drilling combined with topical antifungal application for 6 months or more in 24 diabetic patients with onychomycosis who were not receiving oral antifungals, and evaluated its effects. The type of onychomycosis was superficial white onychomycosis (SWO) in eight patients, and distal-lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) in 16. The state of onychomycosis was evaluated according to the Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO). Of the eight patients with SWO, none showed aggravation of the onychomycosis state, and two were cured 6 months after the initiation of intervention and two after 1 year (total of four patients, 50%). In the patients with DLSO, the SCIO score was 18.1 +/- 6.5 before intervention but significantly decreased to 14.6 +/- 6.6 6 months after intervention. In 12 patients who we were able to consecutively follow up for 1 year, the SCIO score also significantly decreased compared with the score before intervention. Thus, foot care intervention including nail drilling combined with topical antifungal application had effects on onychomycosis and achieved cure in some patients with SWO. In addition, intervention increased patients' awareness of foot care, showing educational effects. Therefore, foot care intervention including nail drilling may be useful. PMID:17584323

Sumikawa, Masuko; Egawa, Takako; Honda, Ikumi; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Minoru

2007-07-01

9

Theory including future not excluded: Formulation of complex action theory II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time TB and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition, we show that the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large TB - t and large t - TA corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - TA. Hence, the CAT with future explicitly present in the formalism and influencing in principle the past is not excluded phenomenologically, because the effects are argued to be very small in the present era. Furthermore, we explicitly derive the Hamiltonian for the future state via a path integral, and confirm that it is given by the Hermitian conjugate of the Hamiltonian for the past state.

Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech

2013-02-01

10

Futurity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Futurity website features "the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada and Australia." Currently, some of the participating universities include Boston University, Duke University, McGill University, and the University of Sheffield. Visitors to the homepage will note that there are four areas on the site: Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Technology, and Society & Culture. Recently profiled news items include a compelling new discovery from New York University about the reality of a tractor beam that can pull microscopic particles. The Society & Culture section is a real find, as it contains engaging pieces like "Is zero tolerance too hard on students?" and "Big banks loom over finance 'ecosystem'." Also, visitors can browse news items by school or by topic area. Finally, the Week's Most Discussed area is a great way to learn about compelling new stories from around the globe.

11

TOPICAL REVIEW: TeV mini black hole decay at future colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally believed that mini black holes decay by emitting elementary particles with a black body energy spectrum. The original calculation leads to the conclusion that about the 90% of the black hole mass is radiated away in the form of photons, neutrinos and light leptons, mainly electrons and muons. With the advent of string theory, such a scenario must be updated by including new effects coming from the stringy nature of particles and interactions. The main modifications with respect to the original picture of black hole evaporation come from recent developments in non-perturbative string theory globally referred to as TeV-scale gravity. By taking for granted that black holes can be produced in hadronic collisions, then their decay must take into account that: (i) we live in a D3 brane embedded into a higher dimensional bulk spacetime; (ii) fundamental interactions, including gravity, are unified at the TeV energy scale. Thus, the formal description of the Hawking radiation mechanism has to be extended to the case of more than four spacetime dimensions and includes the presence of D-branes. This kind of topological defect in the bulk spacetime fabric acts as a sort of 'cosmic fly-paper' trapping electro-weak standard model elementary particles in our (3 + 1)-dimensional universe. Furthermore, unification of fundamental interactions at an energy scale many orders of magnitude lower than the Planck energy implies that any kind of fundamental particle, not only leptons, is expected to be emitted. A detailed understanding of the new scenario is instrumental for optimal tuning of detectors at future colliders, where, hopefully, this exciting new physics will be tested. In this review, we study higher dimensional black hole decay, considering not only the emission of particles according to the Hawking mechanism, but also their near-horizon QED/QCD interactions. The ultimate motivation is to build up a phenomenologically reliable scenario, allowing a clear experimental signature of the event.

Casanova, Alex; Spallucci, Euro

2006-02-01

12

TOPICAL REVIEW: The discovery, development and future of GMR: The Nobel Prize 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One hundred and one years after J J Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the electron, the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Professors Peter Grünberg and Albert Fert for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in which the spin as well as the charge of the electron is manipulated and exploited in nanoscale magnetic materials. The journey to GMR started with Lord Kelvin who 150 years ago in 1857 made the first observations of anisotropic magnetoresistance and includes Sir Neville Mott who in 1936 realized that electric current in metals could be considered as two independent spin channels. Modern technology also has a significant role to play in the award of this Nobel Prize: GMR is only manifest in nanoscale materials, and the development of nanotechnology growth techniques was a necessary pre-requisite; further, the considerable demands of the magnetic data storage industry to drive up the data density stored on a hard disk fuelled an enormous international research effort following the initial discovery with the result that more than 5 billion GMR read heads have been manufactured since 1997, ubiquitous in hard disks today. This technology drive continues to inspire exploration of the spin current in the field now known as spintronics, generating new ideas and applications. This review explores the science underpinning GMR and spintronics, the different routes to its discovery taken by Professors Grünberg and Fert, the new science, materials and applications that the discovery has triggered and the considerable potential for the future.

Thompson, Sarah M.

2008-05-01

13

Physics Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains in-depth notes with examples and practice problems for several topics in introductory physics and astronomy. Some of these topics include classical mechanics, geometric optics, celestial mechanics, and stellar atmospheres. All of the topics may be downloaded for use offline.

Tatum, J. B.

2006-07-18

14

A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

1974-01-01

15

Including Impacts of Climate Change in Long-Range Forecasts of Future Tuolumne River Streamflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future streamflow is assessed for the Tuolumne River, a representative watershed in Sierra Nevada Mountains in California that provides 85% of the San Francisco Public Utility Commission's water supply for 2.5 million Bay Area residents and water to 8000 agricultural customers and over 200,000 electrical customers of the Turlock and Modesto Irrigation Districts. The Hydrocomp Forecasting and Analysis Model (HFAM) is a hydrologic simulation model which provides probabilistic inflow forecasts based on a continuous long-term simulation of a watershed driven by a historical meteorological database. The HFAM model is used to assess potential changes in the timing and volume of streamflow by driving the model with a long-term meteorological database that has been altered to represent the future climate in a specific year, for a given climate change scenario. In the Tuolumne, historical trends show increases to daily minimum temperatures but not to daily maximum temperatures. A static meteorological database that represents the current climate condition is generated by removing trends from historical data. Climate change scenarios for paired changes in temperature and precipitation were developed based on the range of predictions by global climate models. For each future climate condition, hourly temperature increases to the static database are calculated that are consistent with historical trends in daily minimum temperatures, while retaining a reasonable daily range in temperatures. Changes in future seasonal and annual probabilistic inflow forecasts are given for the Tuolumne River for each climate change scenario. The results show the importance of using probabilistic methods to assess climate change rather than mean values because impacts are more significant in low streamflow years.

Kenward, T.; Crawford, N. H.; Dufour, A.; McGurk, B. J.; Monier, W.

2011-12-01

16

Future Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay on educating children for the 21st century discusses lifelong learning, fundamental skill development, topics future-oriented curriculums should include, and educational trends. Agencies specializing in various aspects of the future are listed in teaching resource guide. Instructional materials including software, learning kits, books, and…

Cornish, Edward; And Others

1986-01-01

17

FASE — Future Astronomical Software Environment: How to Include Tools and Systems into the FASE Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new OPTICON Network 9.2 (FP7) is working on a concrete prototype of shared astronomical software environment for scalable and desktop systems (FASE). A prototype of packaging system has been defined that allows to include new tools and programs as well as major legacy systems (e.g. AIPS, CASA, IRAF/PyRAF, Starlink and ESO Common Pipeline Library) within FASE environment.

Granet, Y.; Paioro, L.; Surace, C.; Garilli, B.; Grosbøl, P.; Tody, D.; Fase Consortium

2011-07-01

18

Topical Therapies for Pruritus  

PubMed Central

Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies.

Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

2011-01-01

19

Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: An Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Chromatography--Part 2. Applications and Future Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are selected application and future trends in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The greatest application for SFC involves those analytes that are difficult to separate using GC or LC methods. Optimum conditions for SFC are examined. Provided are several example chromatograms. (MVL)

Palmieri, Margo D.

1989-01-01

20

Effectiveness of topical use of natural polyphenols for the treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: a retrospective study including 192 patients.  

PubMed

Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) is a common disorder. None of the current treatment methods seems to be the ideal treatment for SPSD. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of polyphenols produced from the components of natural organic matter in soil in the treatment of SPSD. One hundred and ninety two patients with SPSD who used topical polyphenols for the treatment of their disease were studied retrospectively. Information on the characteristics of patients and treatment and results of treatment were obtained from the patient files and/or by telephone surveys. The median duration for total treatment was 12 weeks and the mean follow up period was 22 months. One hundred and sixty six (86.5%) patients got benefit from the treatment. Fifty one (26.6%) patients had minor temporary side effects. In 64 (33.3%) patients SPSD relapsed. Patients were able to continue their normal daily activities during the treatment period and there was no loss of work days. Locally applied natural polyphenols are one step in the direction of finding an ideal treatment of SPSD. They are easy to apply, cheap, safe and associated with a low risk of complications. Their use was not associated with time off work, unnecessary hospital stay or any anatomical distortion of the natal cleft. PMID:20406728

Aksoy, Hasan Mete; Aksoy, Berna; Egemen, Didem

2010-01-01

21

Headache Topics  

MedlinePLUS

Home » My Headache » Headache Topic Sheets Headache Topic Sheets Consumer Topics Consumer Medications Spanish Abdominal Migraine Acupuncture Alcohol and Headaches Allergy and Headaches Analgesic Rebound Anemia Arteriovenous Malformation Arthritis ...

22

Topic Essentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of TOPIC is provided, a knowledge-based text information system for the analysis of German-language texts. TOPIC supplies text condensates (summaries) on variable degrees of generality and makes available facts acquired from the texts. The presentation focuses on the major methodological principles underlying the design of TOPIC: a frame representation model that incorporates various integrity constraints, text parsing with

Udo Hahn; Ulrich Reimer

1986-01-01

23

Finding scientific topics  

PubMed Central

A first step in identifying the content of a document is determining which topics that document addresses. We describe a generative model for documents, introduced by Blei, Ng, and Jordan [Blei, D. M., Ng, A. Y. & Jordan, M. I. (2003) J. Machine Learn. Res. 3, 993-1022], in which each document is generated by choosing a distribution over topics and then choosing each word in the document from a topic selected according to this distribution. We then present a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for inference in this model. We use this algorithm to analyze abstracts from PNAS by using Bayesian model selection to establish the number of topics. We show that the extracted topics capture meaningful structure in the data, consistent with the class designations provided by the authors of the articles, and outline further applications of this analysis, including identifying “hot topics” by examining temporal dynamics and tagging abstracts to illustrate semantic content.

Griffiths, Thomas L.; Steyvers, Mark

2004-01-01

24

Acyclovir Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Zovirax® Ointment ... herpes simplex) on the face or lips. Acyclovir ointment is used to treat first outbreaks of genital ... Topical acyclovir comes as a cream and an ointment to apply to the skin. Acyclovir cream is ...

25

Oxybutynin Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract ... the bladder even when it is not full). Oxybutynin gel is in a class of medications called ...

26

Fluorouracil Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

27

The Future Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews earlier predictions about technological change in libraries, finds that providing equal access to information remains the library's mission, and forecasts the future. Topics include ownership versus access, electronic resources, information infrastructure, users, levels of service fees, circulation, librarians as "information specialists,"…

Mason, Marilyn Gell

1996-01-01

28

Reclaiming Our Technological Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the future of libraries and librarians focuses on the effects of the information explosion and new technology. The topics considered include the information industry, electronic publishing, and the role of libraries. The importance of professional librarians in determining developments in library services is stressed. (eight…

Schuman, Patricia Glass

1990-01-01

29

MIT: Shaping the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides 16 essays by faculty and staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) concerning what MIT is like today and offering a guide to its possible future. Emphasis is placed on local, national, and global issues, providing a current sampling of the state of concerns and opinions around MIT. Topics include the question of…

Manning, Kenneth R., Ed.

30

Spotlight Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

31

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

32

Topic Overviews and the Processing of Topic Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments, involving 197 undergraduates, studied the information that is included in a topic overview accessed during reading. The presence of topic, but not order, information resulted in faster topic sentence reading times. Information about global passage structure was also encoded from the overview. (SLD)

Murray, John D.; McGlone, Chadd

1997-01-01

33

The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives  

PubMed Central

Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States’ energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future.

2012-01-01

34

Evolutionary multi-objective optimization: some current research trends and topics that remain to be explored  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a short review of some of the main topics in which the current research in evolutionary multi-objective\\u000a optimization is being focused. The topics discussed include new algorithms, efficiency, relaxed forms of dominance, scalability,\\u000a and alternative metaheuristics. This discussion motivates some further topics which, from the author’s perspective, constitute\\u000a good potential areas for future research, namely, constraint-handling techniques,

Carlos A. Coello Coello

2009-01-01

35

TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA  

PubMed Central

Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

2009-01-01

36

Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical NSAIDs, most notably formulations of diclofenac and ketoprofen, have shown efficacy significantly superior to placebo and similar to oral NSAIDs. Most topical NSAIDs (piroxicam being the exception) have shown improved safety and tolerability compared with oral NSAIDs. Topical salicylates and capsaicin are available in the US without a prescription, but neither has shown substantial efficacy in clinical trials, and both have potential to cause serious AEs. Accidental poisonings have been reported with salicylates, and concerns exist that capsaicin-induced nerve desensitization is not fully reversible and that its autonomic nerve effects may increase the risk of skin ulcers in diabetic patients. PMID:21770475

Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard

2011-07-01

37

Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

Chronic rhinosinusitis is a multifactorial disorder that may be heterogeneous in presentation and clinical course. While the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgery revolutionized surgical management and has led to significantly improved patient outcomes, medical therapy remains the foundation of long-term care of chronic rhinosinusitis, particularly in surgically recalcitrant cases. A variety of devices and pharmaceutical agents have been developed to apply topical medical therapy to the sinuses, taking advantage of the access provided by endoscopic surgery. The goal of topical therapy is to address the inflammation, infection, and mucociliary dysfunction that underlies the disease. Major factors that impact success include the patient’s sinus anatomy and the dynamics of the delivery device. Despite a growing number of topical treatment options, the evidence-based literature to support their use is limited. In this article, we comprehensively review current delivery methods and the available topical agents. We also discuss biotechnological advances that promise enhanced delivery in the future, and evolving pharmacotherapeutical compounds that may be added to rhinologist’s armamentarium. A complete understand of topical drug delivery is increasingly essential to the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when traditional forms of medical therapy and surgery have failed.

Liang, Jonathan; Lane, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

38

SpaceWire Architectures: Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on current and future spacewire architectures is shown. The topics include: 1) Current Spacewire Architectures: Swift Data Flow; 2) Current SpaceWire Architectures : LRO Data Flow; 3) Current Spacewire Architectures: JWST Data Flow; 4) Current SpaceWire Architectures; 5) Traditional Systems; 6) Future Systems; 7) Advantages; and 8) System Engineer Toolkit.

Rakow, Glen Parker

2006-01-01

39

LD Topics: Math & Dyscalculia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of articles for parents and educators addresses learning disabilities in the area of mathematics. The articles address a variety of topics, including strategies for working with children with dyscalculia, parent-teacher collaboration, identification of disabilities, use of technology, and developing number sense.

2011-01-01

40

Preparing for the Uncertain Future of Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interview with Anthony Bates talks about the effects of technological change on distance education, its implications for colleges and universities, and how to prepare for it. Topics include infrastructure decisions; faculty support and training; and future possibilities. (LRW)

Distance Education Report, 2001

2001-01-01

41

Additional Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes resources to teach quality cost analysis, combination testing, regression testing, GUI regression automation, high volume test automation, requirements analysis, test documentation, test scripts, and scripted testing and inattentional blindness. Resources include lecture videos, slides, activities, and suggested readings.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

42

The Future of Public Broadcasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This script of "National Town Meeting," a public affairs program on National Public Radio, contains a panel discussion on the future of public broadcasting, during which panel members also answer questions from the audience. The topics discussed include programming and program content, production costs, public participation, funding, the influence…

Bachrach, Judy

43

Teacher Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

Chemecology, 1995

1995-01-01

44

Efficacy of topical tacrolimus in atopic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Mainstay treatments for atopic dermatitis include cutaneous hydration, antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. To avoid side effects associated with long term and higher potency topical corticosteroids, further topical immunosuppressive agents should be tried. Topical tacrolimus has been extensively studied and shows promise in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of

MM Rashid; AU Sikder; N Akhtar; LA Banu; MA Wahab; AZMM Islam; MSI Bhuiyan

45

Taboo Topics in Addiction Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract- This article reviews II taboo topics, that is, research findings that question traditional assumptions and teachings of addiction treatment. These topics include: (I) the lack of empirical support for the Minnesota Model; (2) questions about the necessity of Alcoholics Anonymous for maintaining abstinence; (3) the existence of spontaneous remission; (4) the detrimental aspects of labeling; (5) the value of

Emil J. Chiauzzi; Steven Liljegren

46

Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.  

PubMed

Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose to favorable outcomes. PMID:24945127

Sawynok, Jana

2014-07-01

47

Esther Dyson's Vision of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a vision of the future based on Esther Dyson's views of the proliferation of the Internet. Topics include the Internet as a communication medium; electronic commerce; the role of education, including the role of teachers; intellectual property rights; and friction freedom in a new digital economy relating to pricing. (LRW)

Runyan, Andy

1999-01-01

48

[Topical corticosteroids versus topical inhibitors of calcineurin].  

PubMed

Topical corticosteroids (TCC) have significantly shaped dermatological therapy for five decades. A few months ago the TCC were joined by competition, the topical inhibitors of calcineurin (TIC), wrongly termed topical immunomodulators. The present paper reviews the pharmacological effects and clinical efficacy of TIC, compares the risks, benefits and costs of those two groups of topical drugs and develops a position on the use of TIC. While TIC have ushered in a new era of topical anti-inflammatory therapy, the age of TCC is far from over. PMID:12669205

Niedner, R

2003-04-01

49

EFF HOT Topics. Volume 2, Number 1, Spring 2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"EFF HOT (Highlights on Teaching Topics) Topics" is a publication of the EFF (Equipped for the Future) Center for Training and Technical Assistance. Each issue concentrates on a specific topic, highlighting examples of actual practice and offering strategies and tools for using EFF in the classroom. This issue of "HOT Topics" introduces a ten-step…

National Institute for Literacy, 2002

2002-01-01

50

Voices From The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Foundation's "Voices From the Future" is a lecture series designed to honor the Foundation's 60th anniversary. The anniversary lectures were all recorded and then archived and placed here for the general public, scientists, and anyone else interested. The site has three lectures, including talks by Professor Luis von Ahn of Carnegie Mellon University and Paul Y. Oh, the director of the Autonomous Systems Lab at Drexel University. Each lecture is quite engaging and covers topics that include human computation and the reasons why earthquakes occur. Educators in a range of science fields may wish to also use these videos in their classrooms to inspire and educate students.

2011-03-11

51

Health Topic XML File Description  

MedlinePLUS

... this topic. This can be either English or Spanish. date-created - The date the health topic was ... topic> For English topics, this is the equivalent Spanish health topic, For Spanish topics, this is the ...

52

A Theme-Based Course: Hydrogen as the Fuel of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theme-based course focusing on the potential role of hydrogen as a future fuel is described. Numerous topics included in typical introductory courses can be directly related to the issue of hydrogen energy. Beginning topics include Avogadro's number, the mole, atomic mass, gas laws, and the role of electrons in chemical transformations. Reaction…

Shultz, Mary Jane; Kelly, Matthew; Paritsky, Leonid; Wagner, Julia

2009-01-01

53

Topical report review status  

SciTech Connect

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

NONE

1997-08-01

54

Hot topics from the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01

55

The present status and the future direction of second order closure models for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include: (1) basic equations and model terms; (2) model constraints and assumptions; (3) the present state of various closure models; and (4) future directions.

Shih, T.-H.

1992-01-01

56

Marine actinobacteria: perspectives, challenges, future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate the current state of research on the biology and biotechnology of marine actinobacteria. The topics covered include the abundance, diversity, novelty and biogeographic distribution of marine actinobacteria, ecosystem function, bioprospecting, and a new approach to the exploration of actinobacterial taxonomic space. An agenda for future marine actinobacterial research is suggested based upon consideration of the

Alan T Bull; James E. M Stach; Alan C Ward; Michael Goodfellow

2005-01-01

57

Powering the Future of Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's future of science and space exploration. The topics include: 1) NASA's strategic goals; 2) NASA around the Country; 3) Marshall's History; 4) Marshall's Missions; 5) Marshall Statistics: From Exploration to Opportunity; 6) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 7) Life Support systems; 8) Earth Science; 9) Space Science; 10) NASA Innovation Creates New Jobs, Markets, and Technologies; 11) NASA Inspires Future Generations of Explorers; and 12) Why Explore?

Miley, Steven C.

2009-01-01

58

Fiber for the future  

SciTech Connect

This is an interview with J.P. van Buijtenen, principal geneticist of the Texas Forest Service and professor at the Texas Agriculture Experiment Station, College Station, Texas. The maintenance of adequate supplies of wood and fiber for the pulp and paper industry is discussed. Tree improvement and more intensive forestry are highlighted as critical in attaining increased yields. Other topics discussed include: the establishment of second generation southern pine seed orchards, the economics of hardwood production in the South, and the future of short rotation energy plantations.

Not Available

1982-08-01

59

Topical microbicides and HIV prevention in the female genital tract.  

PubMed

Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D M

2014-06-01

60

USSOCOM Research Topics 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USSOCOM Research Topics 2012 list represents an effort to identify, categorize, and list SOF-related research topics for research by PME students, JSOU senior fellows, and other SOF researchers who desire to make timely and meaningful contributions to...

2012-01-01

61

Topics in SCHISMA dialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important part of dialogue management in a dialogue system is topic management. The system has to keep track of topic aspects (current topic, context, obligations, ...) in order to be able to resolve ambiguities and to respond in a cooperative and sensible way. In the Schisma project, we are developing a system that takes part in a conversation about

Joris Hulstijn; Ren'e Steetskamp; Doest ter Hugo; Burgt van de Stan; Anton Nijholt; Susann LuperFoy; Gert Veldhuijzen van Zanten

1996-01-01

62

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

63

Selected Topics in Overset Technology Development and Applications At NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a general overview of overset technology development and applications at NASA Ames Research Center. The topics include: 1) Overview of overset activities at NASA Ames; 2) Recent developments in Chimera Grid Tools; 3) A general framework for multiple component dynamics; 4) A general script module for automating liquid rocket sub-systems simulations; and 5) Critical future work.

Chan, William M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

64

The International Marketing Literature: Topics, Trends and Contributors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the topics of 1,645 articles in 20 scholarly journals with an international marketing perspective published from 1987 through 1993. Classification of articles based on content yielded 24 distinct topic categories. Topical trends and frequent contributors in the literature are identified, and implications for future research are…

Javalgi, Rajshekhar, G,; And Others

1997-01-01

65

Future GPD Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) have grown into one of the main topics in hadron physics. They are playing a central role in the physics of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade as well as in the future physics programme of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. This paper explores the future of GPD measurements in the short, medium and long term. The short term includes the analysis of already existing data from HERMES and JLab and planned measurements at JLab before the 12 GeV upgrade. In the medium term this concerns the JLab programme after the upgrade, measurements at COMPASS and at PANDA/FAIR. The EIC project or possible alternatives form the long term perspective. The main focus of the considerations lies on DVCS measurements and related experiments.

Kaiser, Ralf

2009-08-01

66

Major research topics in combustion  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G. (eds.)

1992-01-01

67

Soviet Future War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the following topics: The Methodology of Foresight and Forecasting in Soviet Military Affairs; Impact of the Dialectical Process: Periods of Military Development; The Future Development of the Soviet Army: Weaponry, Military Doctrin...

1987-01-01

68

[Topical therapy of rosacea].  

PubMed

Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control. PMID:23780475

Schöfer, H

2013-07-01

69

CSA Hot Topics Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hot Topics series provides a free sampling of the resources in Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) and the Internet Database Service (IDS). The 30 topics span subjects in the humanities, engineering, environmental policy, and medicine. Each Hot Topic gives an overview of the subject, key citations with abstracts, a list of Websites, a glossary, a comment form so that users can correspond with the editors, and a "source" section, which explains from which of CSA's paid services the resources were culled. The latest hot topic is MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS), "small integrated devices or systems that combine electrical and mechanical components."

70

USGS Science Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This topical directory provides an alternate way to browse United States Geological Survey (USGS) science programs and activities. It is not an exhaustive list of all USGS science topics but provides a categorization using a thesaurus of related terms that will give definitions, links to science content, and a structured approach to discovery. The directory is divided into fourteen major topic headings, each with an associated listing of subtopics and related topics. USGS websites that have been identified as primary portals are always shown first. Remaining search results appear in order of decreasing priority as matches against a list of criteria applied to their titles.

71

TOPICAL REVIEW: Biopolymeric nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C.

2010-02-01

72

Chance, Change and the Future in the Information Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses changes in the information science field based on personal reminiscences and suggests an agenda for the future. Topics addressed include information relevance; the reference process, including question negotiation; curriculum changes in information science; the value of information; and how people use information. (LRW)

Taylor, Robert S.

1993-01-01

73

Photoaging: prevention and topical treatments.  

PubMed

A rapidly increasing number of people visit dermatologists for the prevention and treatment of aging skin. Sun avoidance and sunscreen use are widely accepted strategies of primary prevention against photoaging. Convincing evidence shows that topical application of retinoids has an effect on reversing, at least partially, mild to moderate photodamage. Antioxidants and alpha-hydroxy acids can alter the skin structure and function. Enzymes that repair DNA damage or oligonucleotides that enhance the endogenous capacity for DNA damage repair may prove to be future preventive/therapeutic interventions for aging skin. PMID:20141230

Antoniou, Christina; Kosmadaki, Maria G; Stratigos, Alexandros J; Katsambas, Andreas D

2010-01-01

74

Choosing a Research Topic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Chronicle of Higher Education features tips for graduate students on choosing a research topic. The author explains a variety of ways that a topic should be matched to the individual. A good choice can help lead to long-term career success.

Reis, Richard M.; Education, The C.

75

Mapping topics and topic bursts in PNAS  

PubMed Central

Scientific research is highly dynamic. New areas of science continually evolve; others gain or lose importance, merge, or split. Due to the steady increase in the number of scientific publications, it is hard to keep an overview of the structure and dynamic development of one's own field of science, much less all scientific domains. However, knowledge of “hot” topics, emergent research frontiers, or change of focus in certain areas is a critical component of resource allocation decisions in research laboratories, governmental institutions, and corporations. This paper demonstrates the utilization of Kleinberg's burst detection algorithm, co-word occurrence analysis, and graph layout techniques to generate maps that support the identification of major research topics and trends. The approach was applied to analyze and map the complete set of papers published in PNAS in the years 1982-2001. Six domain experts examined and commented on the resulting maps in an attempt to reconstruct the evolution of major research areas covered by PNAS.

Mane, Ketan K.; Borner, Katy

2004-01-01

76

Topical diclofenac solution.  

PubMed

Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

Moen, Marit D

2009-01-01

77

Web Page's Blocks Based Topical Crawler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Link context has been widely used in information retrieval and classification. In topical crawlers or vertical crawlers, the link contexts are used to forecast whether the links are related to topics. The context of a link or link context usually includes the anchor text of the link, the whole web page text or the words in the fixed scope near

Weifeng Zhang; Baowen Xu; Hong Lu

2008-01-01

78

Topic Tracking in a News Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a Topic Tracking system based on unigrammodels, submitted by Dragon Systems in the December 1998 TopicDetection and Tracking (TDT) Evaluation. We focus on the mostrecent developments, including improvements in the smoothing ofsparse unigram models, a better discriminator, and the implementationof unsupervised adaptation. We give results on the default testconditions, namely, tracking in newswire and automatically

J. p. Yamron; I. Carp; L. Gillick; S. Lowe

1999-01-01

79

TOPICS IN MACROECONOMICS AND FINANCE SOMMERSEMESTER 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Objective This course presents topics on the new area of Household Finance, on the interface between Macroeconomics and Finance. This is not only an active area of frontier academic research, but also interesting and useful to people working in the financial sector, including central banks. The broad overall theme of the topics presented is household wealth management, namely analysis

Michael Haliassos

80

PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http:\\/\\/cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http:\\/\\/cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole

Mirjana Bozic; Margarita Man'ko

2009-01-01

81

Topic in Depth - Gyroscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores gyroscopes and gyroscopic effect, from introductory materials about how gyroscopes are used in bicycles to research and commercial applications to hypothetical uses, such as in Rosie the Robot from The Jetsons cartoon.

2010-09-14

82

USSOCOM Research Topics 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) 2011 Research Topics list is intended to guide research projects for Professional Military Education (PME) students, JSOU faculty, research fellows, and others writing about special operations during ...

2010-01-01

83

USSOCOM Research Topics 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) 2010 Research Topics list, produced by the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), is intended to guide research projects for Professional Military Education (PME) students, JSOU faculty, research...

2010-01-01

84

Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)  

MedlinePLUS

... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

85

Research on algorithm of Chinese BBS topic detection based on content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through analyzing and studying the BBS topic model, topic similarity, topic inspection, topic evaluation standards and topic developing trends, This paper designs and implements the Chinese BBS topic detection algorithm based on the content analysis, which includes obtaining BBS information by web crawler, processing BBS information based on the URL and Xpath page templates, realizing BBS information participle by ICTLAS,

Zhe Nie

2011-01-01

86

IP Internal Movement and Topicalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

Kuo, Pei-Jung

2009-01-01

87

NAS Forums Focus on National Science Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of public meetings designed to focus on complex and persistent problems of national importance involving science has been launched. Topics such as drugs, energy, and natural disasters are included. (DF)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

88

Germany: Bio-Fuels. Read-Out from Fuels of the Future Congress in Berlin, 2008. GAIN Report Number GM8051.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hot topics of the 6th Fuels of the Future Congress in Berlin included the proposed changes in the German biofuels laws, sustainability criteria for biofuels, and the food versus fuel debate. German biofuels organizations criticized the proposed reduct...

S. Lieberz

2008-01-01

89

A Two-Century-Old Vision for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the necessity of acquiring and developing technological advances for use in the classroom to provide a vision for the future. Topics discussed include microcomputers; workstations; software; networks; cooperative endeavors in industry and academia; artificial intelligence; and the necessity for financial support. (LRW)

Fuchs, Ira H.

1988-01-01

90

Assessment of Emerging Networks to Support Future NASA Space Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various issues associated with assessing emerging networks to support future NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Emerging commercial satellite systems; 2) NASA LEO satellite support through commercial systems; 3) Communications coverage, user terminal assessment and regulatory assessment; 4) NASA LEO missions overview; and 5) Simulation assumptions and results.

Younes, Badri; Chang, Susan; Berman, Ted; Burns, Mark; LaFontaine, Richard; Lease, Robert

1998-01-01

91

Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

1980-01-01

92

Applied controls research topics in the aerospace industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes applied controls research topics of current interest in the aerospace community. The topics discussed include integrated controls, reconfigurable flight control, aircraft performance improvements, and aircraft\\/missile robust nonlinear control

Kevin A. Wise

1995-01-01

93

The future of energy, issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many issues surrounding the use of energy today. This section of a series about the future of energy introduces students to four different issues: consumption, efficiency, infrastructure, and environment. Descriptions of the issues investigate such topics as environmental considerations, clean air, dependence on foreign fuels, environmental impacts, an aging energy grid, and appliance efficiency, among others. In the descriptions, students can access glossary definitions of highlighted terms and feature articles related to energy issues. Some of the descriptions include PBS NewsHour links to energy-related stories, as well as other links to additional information. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

94

Conventional topical delivery systems.  

PubMed

Effective dermatologic therapy depends on both the active drug and the properties of the delivery system. A topical delivery system, or vehicle, is defined as the substance that carries a specific drug into contact with and through the skin. The challenge to topical drug delivery is the transport across the skin barrier. Depending on the delivery system, penetration of the active drug can be quite variable and this is largely due to the physiochemical properties of the constituent components of that vehicle. Selection of the appropriate drug delivery system will depend on the active, anatomic site of disease and patient preferences. PMID:22353153

Weiss, Stefan C

2011-01-01

95

Topic in Depth - Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores data mining, also known as knowledge discovery in databases. Data mining is used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. It is a blend of three main subjects: statistics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Often, true data mining is characterized by a self-acting program and a unique blend of knowledge discovery and prediction that allows individuals and businesses to sort and classify very large amounts of data quickly and efficiently. Data mining programs can be tailored to meet the needs of the users, whether that need is for the forecasting of future investments, or simply the need to recognize patterns among the data being analyzed.

2010-09-06

96

Science Curriculum Topic Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need help making the connection between science standards, teacher practice, and improved student achievement? Science Curriculum Topic Study is your missing link. The book offers a systematic professional development strategy that brings together science standards and research with curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Writing in the book's foreword, Harold Pratt, former NSTA President, calls Science Curriculum Topic Study "by far the best thing I have seen on how to effectively use the standards." The CTS process will help you: � Improve your understanding of science content � Clarify a hierarchy of content and skills in a learning goal from state or local standards � Define formative and summative assessment goals and strategies � Learn to recognize and address learning difficulties � Design or use instructional materials effectively � Increase opportunities for students of all backgrounds to achieve science literacy Science Curriculum Topic Study is rich with features that make it both easy to use and illuminating. It contains 147 separate curriculum topic study guides arranged in 11 categories representing the major domains of science. You get worksheets to help you apply the CTS process to curriculum, instruction, and assessment, plus a quick-reference guide to the major standards and research documents. In addition, teacher vignettes show how to use the CTS process to enrich your own teaching immediately.

Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

97

Employment: Topic Paper B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper focuses on employment programs and initiatives. Described are (1) the transition model of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), which emphasizes a solid educational foundation and adequate…

National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

98

Transportation: Topic Paper E.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

99

Topical negative pressure therapy.  

PubMed

Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) has been available for clinical use in wound management since the late 1990s. It has been shown to be of particular benefit for the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds and has also recently been positively linked to wound bed preparation. PMID:12640796

Collier, Mark

100

Ciclopirox Topical Solution  

MedlinePLUS

Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails (an infection ... Ciclopirox comes as a solution to apply to nails and the skin immediately surrounding and under the nails. It is usually applied once a day. ...

101

Integrating Local Governmental Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who pursue business and professional careers in natural resources and life science (NRLS) will have a decided need for a basic understanding of local government topics that shape public policy. Suggests that a responsible curriculum in NRLS should provide students with opportunities to explore these issues, and discusses methods for…

Centner, Terence J.

1994-01-01

102

Students' Interest in Geoscience Topics, Contexts and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geoscience topics are playing an increasingly important role with regard to the future of our planet. Consequently, they have been moving into the educational foreground because of their societal relevance. The question is, however: Are pupils interested in these topics? This is important didactically, for interest is both a prerequisite and a…

Hemmer, Ingrid; Bayrhuber, Horst; Haubler, Peter; Hemmer, Michael; Hlawatsch, Sylke; Hoffmann, Lore; Raffelsiefer, Marion

2007-01-01

103

EFF HOT Topics. Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HOT Topics is a new quarterly publication from the Equipped for the Future (EFF) National Center. HOT stands for Highlights On Teaching, and this publication is committed to providing teachers and tutors with tools and ideas for teaching using the EFF Framework and Standards. This first issue of HOT Topics focuses on strategies that use the EFF…

National Institute for Literacy, 2001

2001-01-01

104

Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic topic models are a popular tool for the unsupervised analysis of text, providing both a predictive model of future text and a latent topic representation of the corpus. Practitioners typically assume that the latent space is semantically meaningful. It is used to check models, summarize the corpus, and guide explo- ration of its contents. However, whether the latent space

Jonathan Chang; Jordan Boyd-Graber; Sean Gerrish; Chong Wang; David M. Blei

105

Toward Ada Verification: A Collection of Relevant Topics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

IDA Paper P-1900, Towards Ada Verification: A Collection of Relevant Topics, is a survey of various topics in Ada verification, the state of progress in both near-term and far-term goals, and some possible directions for future work. Chapter 1 studies the...

D. Gauspari D. Webber J. Hird J. McHugh R. Platek

1986-01-01

106

Topical management of facial burns.  

PubMed

The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed. PMID:18538480

Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

2008-11-01

107

Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

1989-01-01

108

Investigation of piping failure at BI-GAS pilot plant. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This is a topical report covering an investigation by Stearns-Roger into several incidents of piping failure in the BI-GAS pilot plant. It includes decisions that have been made with regard to piping replacements and operating procedures that will be effected to avoid future failures. To that objective all piping systems have been reviewed. Because stress corrosion cracking has been found to be the culprit, only stainless steel systems are discussed in this report.

None

1980-01-01

109

Future Mission Trends and their Implications for the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses the direction of future missions and it's significance to the Deep Space Network. The topics include: 1) The Deep Space Network (DSN); 2) Past Missions Driving DSN Evolution; 3) The Changing Mission Paradigm; 4) Assessing Future Mission Needs; 5) Link Support Trends; 6) Downlink Rate Trends; 7) Uplink Rate Trends; 8) End-to-End Link Difficulty Trends; 9) Summary: Future Mission Trend Drivers; and 10) Conclusion: Implications for the DSN.

Abraham, Douglas S.

2006-01-01

110

Social network driven indexing system for instantly clustering people with concurrent focus on same topic into on-topic chat rooms and/or for generating on-topic search results tailored to user preferences regarding topic  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A machine-implemented social networking system includes a hierarchy tree containing topic nodes. New nodes are added as new topics emerge in online public forums. Each topic node can link to an on-topic real time chat room whose occupants are currently discussing the topic of the node. A node-seeking automated process operates in the background and seeks out nodes that currently have topics appearing to be the same as or similar to what topics the user appears to have in mind. Content browsing experience of the user is enhanced by addition of an invitations displaying subsystem that automatically invites him or her to co-compatible chat rooms currently discussing the topic(s) the user appears to have in mind.

2013-09-17

111

New topical antifungal drugs.  

PubMed

The new antifungal drugs used for topical treatment of superficial, skin and mucosal mycoses are reviewed. Amorolfine and allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine) are promising original molecules with new and different modes of action against fungi. Rilopirox is a new pyridone derivative under study. A great number of azole derivatives, such as oxiconazole, isoconazole, sulconazole, and terconazole, are used as topical antifungals. Three of them are synthesized in Barcelona by pharmaceutical laboratories: sertaconazole, flutrimazole and eberconazole. All of them are now in the register process for commercialization. The combination of antifungals with active products, such as keratoplastics, is used mainly for the treatment of onychomycoses; 40% urea associated with 1% bifonazole has shown high efficacy for this indication. PMID:8118161

Torres-Rodríguez, J M

1993-01-01

112

Topic in Depth - Chlorine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chlorine, a chemical element whose name means âÂÂpale green,â is explored from a number of angles in this informative Topic in Depth.WeâÂÂve all heard of chlorine being used in swimming pools and drinking water, but this jack-of-all-trades chemical element is also used in making everything from plastics and dry cleaning products to insecticides and pharmaceuticals.

2010-09-15

113

Topic in Depth - Bioinformatics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computational molecular biology, which now is commonly called bioinformatics, draws on mathematics and computer science to inform research in biology. In this folder, you'll find informational and educational sites alike to explore the topic of bioinformatics. This evolving area of research advances our knowledge of biological systems and contributes to medical research, but also raises ethical issues and demands increased collaboration among scientists.

2010-09-10

114

Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

Newkirk, L.

1997-12-01

115

The Author-Topic Model for Authors and Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the author-topic model, a gen- erative model for documents that extends La- tent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA; Blei, Ng, & Jordan, 2003) to include authorship informa- tion. Each author is associated with a multi- nomial distribution over topics and each topic is associated with a multinomial distribution over words. A document with multiple au- thors is modeled as a

Michal Rosen-Zvi; Thomas L. Griffiths; Mark Steyvers; Padhraic Smyth

2004-01-01

116

LiveScience Topic: Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

So what is nanotechnology, you ask? Nanotechnology is defined as the science and technology of building electronic circuits and devices from single atoms and molecules, or the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers. This site details the future benefits that nanotechnology research could serve including advances in telecommunications, information technology, healthcare and pharmaceuticals. For additional information on nanotechnology, what it consists of, as well as nanotech's current and future impacts on the world of science, simply select any nanotechnology article or other interactive feature.

2010-11-26

117

Management of surgical hemostasis: topical agents.  

PubMed

Intraoperative control of bleeding during any surgical procedure is vital for achieving a positive patient outcome. Hemostasis can be achieved through practical and effective systemic or topical approaches. A variety of hemostatic methods can be employed, ranging from simple manual pressure application with one finger to electrical tissue cauterization, systemic administration of blood products, and systemic administration or topical application of procoagulation agents. The key to surgical success is critically dependent on knowledgeable use of a method appropriate for the level of bleeding experienced by the patient. Topical agents can be effective as adjuncts to aid in hemostasis when bleeding is not controllable with pressure application, vessel ligation, or electrocautery. Such adjunctive hemostatic treatments include topical gelatins, collagens, oxidized celluloses, thrombin and fibrin sealants, synthetic glues, and glutaraldehyde-based glues. As with the use of systemically delivered hemostatic agents, topical treatments also carry risks with their use, and their efficacy has not been extensively studied in large randomized, placebo-controlled prospective studies. The effective use of topical agents is highly dependent on the surgeon's experience or preference and their availability in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the currently available topical hemostatic agents, compare their efficacy, and give general recommendations for their use in the operating room. PMID:18544302

Sileshi, Bantayehu; Achneck, Hardean E; Lawson, Jeffrey H

2008-01-01

118

Organization's Orderly Interest Exploration: Inception, Development and Insights of AIAA's Topics Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2003, AIAA's Computer Systems and Software Systems Technical Committees (TCs) have developed a database that aids technical committee management to map technical topics to their members. This Topics/Interest (T/I) database grew out of a collection of charts and spreadsheets maintained by the TCs. Since its inception, the tool has evolved into a multi-dimensional database whose dimensions include the importance, interest and expertise of TC members and whether or not a member and/or a TC is actively involved with the topic. In 2005, the database was expanded to include the TCs in AIAA s Information Systems Group and then expanded further to include all AIAA TCs. It was field tested at an AIAA Technical Activities Committee (TAC) Workshop in early 2006 through live access by over 80 users. Through the use of the topics database, TC and program committee (PC) members can accomplish relevant tasks such as: to identify topic experts (for Aerospace America articles or external contacts), to determine the interest of its members, to identify overlapping topics between diverse TCs and PCs, to guide new member drives and to reveal emerging topics. This paper will describe the origins, inception, initial development, field test and current version of the tool as well as elucidate the benefits and insights gained by using the database to aid the management of various TC functions. Suggestions will be provided to guide future development of the database for the purpose of providing dynamics and system level benefits to AIAA that currently do not exist in any technical organization.

Marshall, Jospeh R.; Morris, Allan T.

2007-01-01

119

Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics  

SciTech Connect

Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-11-01

120

Topics in CP violation  

SciTech Connect

Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

Quinn, H.R.

1993-02-01

121

Topic in Depth - Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

2010-09-17

122

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Division of Economic Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the mission "to assure that futures markets operate competitively," the CFTC Division of Economic Analysis is a central source of commodity market surveillance, analysis, and research. Available publications include policy statements and reports on derivative markets, price differentials, agricultural trade options, and foreign competitiveness, among other topics. Weekly statistical data on open interest contracts is distributed on a bi-weekly basis via the Commitments of Traders (COT) Reports. Researchers may view the current compressed COT Report in "long" or "short" format and download historical data according to "Futures only" (1986 to present) or "Futures and Options Combined" (1995 to present) criteria.

1998-01-01

123

Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

Rowland, Jane Thomas

1974-01-01

124

University of Iowa Hospitals Health Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by staff members at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, the materials on this website include articles and patient guides that cover health topics such as colon cancer, burn care, ear health, and eating disorders. The page is part of their larger health library site, and visitors can scroll through the topic list here, which includes over two dozen headings. One rather nice section is the "Healthy Recipes" area, which features breakfast recipes for items like buckwheat pancakes and banana nut bread. Visitors also shouldn't forget to look at the "Sports Medicine" area where they will find answers to commonly asked questions about torn ankle ligaments and ACL problems.

125

TOPICAL REVIEW: Semiconductor nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) represent a unique system for exploring phenomena at the nanoscale and are also expected to play a critical role in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we review recent advances in growth, characterization, assembly and integration of chemically synthesized, atomic scale semiconductor NWs. We first introduce a general scheme based on a metal-cluster catalyzed vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism

Wei Lu; Charles M. Lieber

2006-01-01

126

Effects of Treatment on the Topic Performance of a School-Age Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language-delayed five-year-old underwent a pragmatic treatment program on topic performance involving the initiation of memory- and future-related topics. Within six months, the child exhibited an increase in such topic initiation and in general level of syntactic development. (Author/CB)

Bedrosian, Jan L.; Willis, Tracy L.

1987-01-01

127

The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

2007-01-01

128

Current topics on sonoelectrochemistry.  

PubMed

Sonoelectrochemistry is undergoing a reemerging activity in the last years with an increasing number of papers appearing in a wide range of peer review journals. Applied studies which cover environmental treatments, synthesis or characterization of nanostructures, polymeric materials synthesis, analytical procedures, films preparations, membrane preparations among other interesting applications have been reviewed. The revised fundamental analyses trying to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions between the ultrasound and electrical fields, are focused on test electrochemical processes, on the use of unconventional solvents and combination with other techniques. After the review of the achievements and faults of sonoelectrochemistry, future research lines are suggested. PMID:19853270

González-García, José; Esclapez, María Deseada; Bonete, Pedro; Hernández, Yolanda Vargas; Garretón, Luís Gaete; Sáez, Verónica

2010-02-01

129

Topics in Quantum Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study some aspects of conformal field theory, wormhole physics and two-dimensional random surfaces. In spite of being rather different, these topics serve as examples of the issues that are involved, both at high and low energy scales, in formulating a quantum theory of gravity. In conformal field theory we show that fusion and braiding properties can be used to determine the operator product coefficients of the non-diagonal Wess-Zumino-Witten models. In wormhole physics we show how Coleman's proposed probability distribution would result in wormholes determining the value of theta_{rm QCD}. We attempt such a calculation and find the most probable value of theta_ {rm QCD} to be pi . This hints at a potential conflict with nature. In random surfaces we explore the behaviour of conformal field theories coupled to gravity and calculate some partition functions and correlation functions. Our results throw some light on the transition that is believed to occur when the central charge of the matter theory gets larger than one.

Trivedi, Sandip P.

130

Topics in statistical mechanics  

SciTech Connect

This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

Elser, V.

1984-05-01

131

Quark-gluon plasma (Selected Topics)  

SciTech Connect

Introductory lectures to the theory of (strongly interacting) quark-gluon plasma given at the Winter School of Physics of ITEP (Moscow, February 2010). We emphasize theoretical issues highlighted by the discovery of the low viscosity of the plasma. The topics include relativistic hydrodynamics, manifestations of chiral anomaly in hydrodynamics, superfluidity, relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics, effective stringy scalars, holographic models of Yang-Mills theories.

Zakharov, V. I., E-mail: vzakharov@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

132

Water: A Topic for All Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

2008-01-01

133

Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

Awkerman, Gary L.

134

Surfing the Net with Kids: Science Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse page provides links to hundreds of online science resources for children. It is arranged by topic: animals, experiments, space, the human body, Earth sciences, and "other science." Materials include activities and experiments, games and puzzles, graphic materials, webcams, and many other kinds of resources.

Feldman, Barbara J.

2002-07-15

135

Topics in Number Theory: The Number Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains nine topics in number theory. Suggested questions for the teacher, short investigations, and possible exercises for the student are included. Chapter 1 is an introduction to sequences and series using geoboard activities involving triangular numbers, square numbers, rectangular numbers, and pentagonal numbers. The…

Batra, Laj, Ed.; And Others

136

Mining nonterrestrial resources: Information needs and research topics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline of topics we need to understand better in order to apply mining technology to a nonterrestrial environment is presented. The proposed list is not intended to be complete. It aims to identify representative topics that suggest productive research. Such research will reduce the uncertainties associated with extrapolating from conventional earthbound practice to nonterrestrial applications. One objective is to propose projects that should put future discussions of nonterrestrial mining on a firmer, less speculative basis.

Daemen, Jaak J. K.

1992-01-01

137

Composition for topical application to skin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition for topical application to an animal's skin for relief from a variety of symptoms caused by medical conditions or physical injuries. The composition includes at least one compound having analgesic activity, at least one compound having anti-inflammatory activity, at least one compound having antioxidant activity, at least one compound having anti-neuralgic activity, at least one compound having blood circulation promotion activity, and at least one compound having antidepressant activity. A method for relieving pain by topical application of the composition is also provided.

2003-06-17

138

Topical hemostatic agents in surgical practice.  

PubMed

Hemostasis is of critical importance in achieving a positive outcome in any surgical intervention. Different hemostatic methods can be employed and topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings. Procoagulation agents have different hemostatic properties and the choice of a specific one is determined by the type of surgical procedure and bleeding. Hemostatic treatments include fibrin sealants, microfibrillar collagen, gelatin hemostatic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose and cyanoacrylates adhesives. Surgeons should be familiar with topical hemostatics to ensure an appropriate use. Our purpose is to illustrate the currently available agents, their mechanism of action and their effective applications, in order to ensure an optimal use in operating room. PMID:22040778

Emilia, Masci; Luca, Santoleri; Francesca, Belloni; Luca, Bottero; Paolo, Stefanini; Giuseppe, Faillace; Gianbattista, Bertani; Carmela, Montinaro; Luigi, Mancini; Mauro, Longoni

2011-12-01

139

Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic, objective,…

Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

140

Prevention & Detection Topics  

Cancer.gov

Links to information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach. Links within DCP and throughout NCI offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts.

141

The Database Business: Managing Today--Planning for Tomorrow. Issues and Futures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current issues and the future of the database business are discussed in five papers. Topics covered include aspects relating to the quality of database production; international ownership in the U.S. information marketplace; an overview of pricing strategies in the electronic information industry; and pricing issues from the viewpoints of online…

Aitchison, T. M.; And Others

1988-01-01

142

Development of Mobile Communications in Slovenia: Looking to the Future Global Information (Mobile/Internet) Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the planning and provision of mobile communications in Slovenia and suggests areas that will be developed in the future. Topics include the global mobile market; digital mobile networks; evolution from voice to multimedia services; wireless application protocol; the Internet; general packet radio service; and universal mobile…

Simonic, Tomaz; Mlinar, Tomi

2000-01-01

143

Developing Modern Information Systems and Services: Africa's Challenges for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the current state of information systems and services in Africa, examines future possibilities, and suggests areas for improvement. Topics include the lack of automation; CD-ROM databases for accessibility to information sources; developing low-cost electronic communication facilities; Internet connectivity; dependence on imported…

Chowdhury, G. G.

1996-01-01

144

Topics in particle theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the standard model (SM) of elementary particles and show that it is afflicted by a large fine tuning of the tree level Higgs mass parameter. We solve this problem by eliminating the Higgs scalar from the theory and defining a Higgsless model based on an SU(2) N+1 x U(1) gauge symmetry. We show that the scale of unitarity violation of the new theory is higher than that of the SM without the Higgs, and we show that the new model satisfies the electroweak experimental constraints. We determine model-independent constraints on new physics contributions from precision electroweak measurements. We then test the viability of top-color assisted technicolor models using these constraints, and find that one of the models studied is indeed consistent with the experimental results. We introduce a simple extension of the SM which implements custodial symmetry, that protects electroweak observables from large corrections, in a top-quark mass generation sector of the Lagrangian. We then study the phenomenological viability of the model, and show that the new physics gives an unusual negative contribution to one of the electroweak parameters. Finally, we study the consequences of a noncommutative space, which is characterized by a non-zero minimal measurable distance, on the particle physics phenomenology. We study e+e - gammagammagamma scattering in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics at future colliders, and extract lower limits on space noncommutativity in function of cross sections relative to that process.

di Chiara, Stefano

145

Special Operations Research Topics 2014.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The JSOU Research Topics 2014 list represents an effort to identify, categorize, and list SOF-related research topics for research by PME students, JSOU Senior Fellows, and other SOF researchers who desire to make timely and meaningful contributions to SO...

2014-01-01

146

Sensitive research topics: netnography revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper discusses how netnography can be applied in order to conduct covert research on sensitive research topics. An analysis of a Danish internet message board on cosmetic surgery illustrates suggestions concerning modifications of netnography guidelines. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Owing to the relevance of studying sensitive research topics – in particular when access to informants is difficult – netnography

Roy Langer; Suzanne C. Beckman

2005-01-01

147

IceCube: Physics, status, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IceCube observatory is the first cubic kilometre scale instrument in the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy and cosmic rays. In 2009, following five successful deployment seasons, IceCube consisted of 59 strings of optical modules in the South Pole ice, together with 118 air shower detectors in the IceTop surface array. The range of physics topics includes neutrino signals from astrophysical sources, dark matter, exotic particle physics, cosmic rays, and atmospheric neutrinos. The current IceCube status and selected results are described. Anticipated future developments are also discussed, in particular the Deep Core low energy subarray which was recently deployed.

Hultqvist, Klas; IceCube Collaboration

2011-01-01

148

Scorecard: Investigate Pollution Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can search this site for information on environmental pollution in the areas where they live. The materials presented here include a pollution ranking that shows regions and companies with the worst environmental records, environmental justice analyses that identify which ethnic or income groups bear more than their share of environmental burdens, and a searchable listing of toxic chemicals.

149

MPI Advanced Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module will introduce you to some of the advanced capabilities of MPI beyond ordinary message passing, including how to customize your environment in the following areas: derived datatypes; groups of processes and their associated communicators; virtual topologies among processes; and parallel I/O using MPI-IO. Application to specific architectures such as Ranger, Lonestar, etc. will be discussed.

150

Topic Guide: Paleoclimate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of California, Santa Barbara mini-study teaches students about determining paleoclimate (or past climate) based on recently collected data. Web links to data and background information are included, as are worksheet templates and guides for an optional student presentation.

Prothero, W. A.; University Of California, Santa B.

151

A Professional Development Framework for E-Learning. Topics: Leadership, Training and Learning Packages for E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topics outlined here have been developed to complement the policies and methodologies outlined in the professional development framework for e-learning. They include: (1) a core topic: e-learning fundamentals; (2) pedagogically based practitioner topics; (3) specialist e-learning developer topics; and (4) leadership topics (developed by the…

Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

152

Topical and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Sunscreens are a valuable method of sun protection. Several new compounds are now available. It is important to remember, however, that photoprotection includes more than the use of sunscreens. There are a number of sun-protective behaviors that people can use to decrease their exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dermatologists and other health professionals can work toward changing public policy, greatly increasing the ability of people to access shade. In addition, there is growing evidence about the effectiveness of other sun-protective agents. The only systemic medication for sun protection is beta-carotene, which is effective in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). PMID:12919121

Rosen, Cheryl F

2003-01-01

153

Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

Kim, Grace K.

2013-01-01

154

Hot Topics on the Web: Strategies for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents strategies for researching topics on the Web that are controversial or current in nature. Discusses topic selection and overviews, including the use of online encyclopedias; search engines; finding laws and pending legislation; advocacy groups; proprietary databases; Web site evaluation; and the continuing usefulness of print materials.…

Diaz, Karen R.; O'Hanlon, Nancy

2001-01-01

155

Topical Diclofenac Patch Relieves Minor Sports Injury Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports-related soft tissue injuries, such as sprains, strains, and contusions, are a common painful condition. Current treatment includes oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have a high incidence of intolerable gastrointestinal side effects. Topically applied drugs have the potential to act locally in the soft tissues without systemic effects. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac (NSAID)

Bradley S Galer; Michael Rowbotham; Jill Perander; Allison Devers; Erika Friedman

2000-01-01

156

Parental Preferences Regarding Sex Education Topics for Sixth Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaire responses from parents (N=146) of sixth graders indicated strong support for the inclusion of a broad range of sex education topics including more sensitive topics, regardless of parental age, sex, marital status, income, education, or child's sex. Results suggest that these parents found a broad sex education program in the school…

Silverstein, Cynthia D.; Buck, Germaine M.

1986-01-01

157

Topical Prophylaxis against Schistosomal Infections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this patent applications, an improved method is provided for the prevention of schistosomal infections in animals. The topical application of a 2-hydroxy-benzoic anilide provides prophylactic protection against penetration by infective cercariae of the...

R. E. Miller W. A. Reid

1985-01-01

158

Conversational topics in transsexual persons.  

PubMed

Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons. PMID:24446798

Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

2014-06-01

159

Topic in Depth - Quantum Dots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This topic-in-depth addresses the characteristics and numerous applications of the semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum dots. Find out how quantum dot are being used in computer science, chemistry, and medicine.

2010-09-20

160

Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical  

MedlinePLUS

The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide works by killing ...

161

Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical  

MedlinePLUS

The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide works by killing ...

162

Topics in finite time thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific topics of principal concern are: (1) principles of optimized heat engines; (2) availability and dissipation for finite time systems; (3) finite time processes doing chemical work; and (4) zero work controls of energy using systems.

163

Topical Corticosteroids Class Labeling Guideline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announces the availability of a class labeling guideline for the professional labeling of topical corticosteroids. Class labeling is appropriate for these products because they are all closely related in chemical str...

M. Y. Chun

1981-01-01

164

Resources for the Future: Wholesale Electricity Markets and Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Tim Brennan, a senior fellow at Resources for the Future, provides an overview of Wholesale Electricity Markets and Policy. Based in Washington, D.C., Resources for the Future (RFF), is an "independent institute dedicated exclusively to analyzing environmental, energy, and natural resource topics." (See also Scout Report from August 23, 1998.) The article is adapted from a book by Brennan published by RFF. In the article, Brennan discusses the challenges and benefits of "replacing regulation with competition" and provides an overview of the electricity market. He concludes that "while reasons for optimism exist, policy-makers should always keep in mind that electricity's crucial nature and unique characteristics may render it unsuitable for extensive competition." The Publications section includes numerous other Discussion Papers, Issue Briefs and Reports on environmental topics which are available free of charge.

Brennan, Timothy J.

165

Contact dermatitis from topical antiviral drugs.  

PubMed

The literature has been reviewed for contact dermatitis from topical antiviral drugs. 15 agents have been identified including acyclovir, imiquimod, podophyllin, podofilox, cidofovir, penciclovir, vidarabine, idoxuridine, trifluridine, tromantadine, lamivudine, interferon intralesional injections and ophthalmic solution, fomivirsen and foscarnet intravitreal injections and ganciclovir intraocular implants. Patch testing has been documented in certain individuals and cross-sensitization has been observed to contribute significantly to some allergic reactions. PMID:11298689

Holdiness, M R

2001-05-01

166

Astronomical Society of the Pacific Educational Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomical Society of the Pacific and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have collaborated to create monthly guides highlighting a different theme and object in the sky for each month of 2009. The IYA Discovery Guides contain an article, finder chart for the featured object, a hands on activity that brings the theme of the month as well as links to additional activities related to the topic. Most activities include a short video that can be downloaded showing it in use.

2009-05-08

167

Future challenges of NEPA: A panel discussion  

SciTech Connect

One portion of a plenary session during the conference was a forum on The Future Challenges of NEPA.'' The session was a panel discussion. Each of the panelists was to spent 10 to 15 minutes talking about their observations on how NEPA is operating, some of the trends they observed, and how they thought NEPA might change in the future. Topics discussed in this forum included Congressional proposals to amend NEPA; possible changes at the CEQ; post-decision monitoring, mitigation, and follow-up studies; applicability of NEPA to international actions of the US government; assessment of global change impacts; and the relationship between NEPA and state little NEPA'' laws. The individual presentations and the subsequent discussion are described in this paper. 5 refs.

Smith, E.D.

1989-01-01

168

Future directions for EPA Superfund research.  

PubMed

The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) identifies and prioritizes future research areas through a Waste Research Coordination Team. The team works together to plan the ORD Superfund research program, and it has members from each of the ORD laboratories as well as representatives from the Superfund office. Superfund scientists have identified several research topics in applied research areas to improve risk assessment methods and reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessments. Research areas include: dermal exposure models and toxicity values, improved methods for exposure factors, pharmaco-kinetic dose-response models, bioavailability and statistical methods. This paper presents ORD future research plans in response to these identified research areas. PMID:12018011

Wentsel, Randall S; Blaney, Ben; Kowalski, Lorelei; Bennett, David A; Grevatt, Peter; Frey, Sharon

2002-03-01

169

Growth of solar in Wisconsin. [Includes glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: solar energy use in Wisconsin, climate and residential energy use, the Wisconsin alternative energy system tax credit program, and a catalog of solar installations in Wisconsin. Included in appendices are: solar energy terminology, sources of solar information, and solar professionals in Wisconsin. (MHR)

Albright

1978-01-01

170

Statement of Stephen S. Trott, Associate Attorney General, United States Department of Justice before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives concerning the Federal Government's Present and Future Efforts in Eradication, Interdiction, Law Enforcement, Education and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony of Associate Attorney General Stephen S. Trott on the federal government's present and future efforts in drug law enforcement before the Congressional Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control is presented in this document. Three topic areas are included in the testimony. The first topic of management initiatives discusses…

Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

171

Distillations: Extracts from the Past, Present and Future of Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This weekly science podcast focuses on the past, present, and future of chemistry. Program content includes interviews, monologues, reviews, features, and other items intended to provide historical perspective on current scientific issues. Topics covered include, for example, chemistry as technology, performance-enhancing drugs, catalysts, the chemistry of brewing, and preservation. The web site offers a brief synopsis and timeline for each program, and links for streaming the audio or downloading files for later listening. Other materials include links to a selection of science blogs and to other science-oriented podcasts.

172

Ulisses: Um Navegador Conceptual para Topic Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ISO standard ISO-IEC 13250 - Topic Maps - provide a bridge between the domains of knowledge representation and information management. Topics and topic associations build a structured semantic link network above informa- tion resources. This research aims at visualizing this semantic layer efficiently, which is a critical issue as topic maps may contain millions of topics and associations. This

Giovani Rubert Librelotto; Jose Carlos Ramalho; Pedro Rangel Henriques

2005-01-01

173

Topics in Particle Physics Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis consists of topics in quantum field theory. In part A: (Chapter 1) A short review of heavy -quark physics, (Chapter 2) Spin-dependent forces in heavy -quark systems, (Chapter 3) Bound state effects in the (UPSILON) (--->) (gamma)+ resonance, and in part B, The compatibility of free fractional charge and Dirac magnetic monopoles. In Chapter 2, using the results of the fourth -order quark-antiquark interactions in perturbative QCD, we show that the spin-dependent potentials in the formalism of Eichten and Feinberg and Gromes have to be generalized to include the quark mass dependence. The recently observed hyperfine and fine structure splittings in the J/(psi) and (UPSILON) systems are found to agree with the purely perturbative QCD results for the scale parameter (LAMDA)(,MS) = 0.30 (+OR-) 0.06 GeV. With this value for (LAMDA)(,MS) we give some predictions on the T and toponium spectroscopies. In Chapter 3 we study the effect of b(')b bound state dynamics on the reaction (UPSILON) (--->) (gamma)+ resonance. We argue from our results that the recently discovered (zeta)(8320) must have a scalar, rather that a pseudoscalar, coupling to the b quark. In Part B, the existence of a free fractionally charged particle together with a monopole that has magnetic charge g = 1/2 e poses an apparent conflict. This conflict may be resolved by enlarging the exact gauge symmetry. The resulting constraint on GUTs is discussed and illustrated with an SU(9) GUT. Under certain assumptions, SU(9) is the smallest group to satisfy the constraints.

Pantaleone, James Thomas

174

Letters to Future Generations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization), an organization composed of 188 Member States, attempts to contribute expertise across all of the sciences to enrich both today and tomorrow's world. In developing Letters to future generations, essays written by 22 world leaders and thinkers, UNESCO has done just that. Addressed to people living in 2050, the letters share reflections and concerns on topics ranging from beauty to biological infections. Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the UN, suggests "a culture of peace," while Rita Colwell, of the National Science Foundation, discusses the benefits of a diverse scientific culture, and Hubert Reeves, an astrophysicist, entreats us to be environmentally aware so we can ensure that a future generation will greet the 21st century. To paraphrase philosopher Fernando Savater, while UNESCO's Letters to future generations may not be a new idea, this "mental registry" is nonetheless thought-provoking.

1999-01-01

175

Perceived importance of topics in a model foreign language in the elementary school (FLES*) methodology course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify topics for a model foreign language in the elementary school (FLES*) methodology course and to assess the extent to which foreign language methodology course instructors believe these topics should be included in a model FLES* methodology course curriculum.The research and literature review included topics on elementary school teacher preparation, foreign language teacher

Gilda Maureen Oran Ashbal

1990-01-01

176

Future accelerators (?)  

SciTech Connect

I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

John Womersley

2003-08-21

177

Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... in Mining Topic Page Ergonomic Interventions in the Building, Repair, and Dismantling of Ships Eye Safety Topic Page Slips, trips and falls PREVENTION THROUGH DESIGN NIOSH Safety and Health Topic: Industry and Occupation ...

178

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of Guanazole NSC-1895 to New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation potential of topically applied Guanazole NSC-1895 on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied Guanazole a...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1977-01-01

179

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of 6-Mercaptopurine (NSC 755) to New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation potential of topically applied 6-mercaptopurine (NSC No. 755) on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1977-01-01

180

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of 6-Thioguanine (NSC 752) to New Zealand White Rabbits. .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation potential of topically applied 6-Thioguanine (NSC No. 752) on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied 6-...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1976-01-01

181

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of 5-Fluorouracil NSC-19893 to New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation potential of topically applied 5-fluorouracil NSC-19893 on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied 5-Flu...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1977-01-01

182

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of Dichloromethotrexate NSC-29630 to New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation of topically applied Dichloromethotrexate NSC-29630 on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied Dichlorom...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1977-01-01

183

Combining Chemistry and Music to Engage Student Interest: Using Songs to Accompany Selected Chemical Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of recorded music to add interest to a variety of lecture topics is described. Topics include the periodic table, the formation of ionic compounds, thermodynamics, carbohydrates, nuclear chemistry, and qualitative analysis. (Contains 1 note.)

Last, Arthur M.

2009-01-01

184

EJS Mechanics Package: Challenging Intro Physics Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Mechanics Package: Challenging Intro Physics Topics contains Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used in a high-level Introductory Physics course for physics majors. The topics include vector kinematics in polar coordinates and linear momentum with rockets. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_mechanics_sampler_klepner_kolenkow.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to modify the simulations (and see how they are designed), if you have Ejs installed, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/. Additional models can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Trinh, Jen; Bug, Amy

2009-03-17

185

Topical and intralesional therapies for alopecia areata.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is a common form of nonscarring alopecia. It affects males and females equally and has no racial predilection. It usually affects the scalp, but any hair-bearing area can be involved. It presents as patchy hair loss, loss of hair on the entire scalp (alopecia totalis), or the whole body (alopecia universalis). The histopathology varies according to the disease stage, but usually a perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate is seen. The course of the disease and response to treatment are unpredictable. Various therapeutic modalities are used including topical, intralesional, and systemic agents, although none are curative or preventive. This article will review the available topical and intralesional agents that are used in the treatment of alopecia areata and suggest a management approach based on the age of the patient and extent of the disease. PMID:21689245

Alkhalifah, Abdullah

2011-01-01

186

Topics in the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, four topics related to the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars are studied. Two first topics deal with microscopical physics processes in the star outer crust and the last two with macroscopical properties of a star, such as mass and radius. In the first topic, the thermodynamical and transport properties of a dilute gas in which particles interact through a delta-shell potential are investigated. Through variations of a single parameter related to the strength and size of the delta-shell potential, the scattering length and effective range that determine the low-energy elastic scattering cross sections can be varied over wide ranges including the case of the unitary limit (infinite scattering length). It is found that the coefficients of shear viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusion all decrease when the scattering length becomes very large and also when resonances occur as the temperature is increased. The calculated ratios of the shear viscosity to entropy density as a function of temperature for various interaction strengths (and therefore scattering lengths) were found to lie well above the recently suggested minimal value of (4pi)-1h/kB. A new result is the value of (4/5) for the dimensionless ratio of the energy density times the diffusion coefficient to viscosity for a dilute gas in the unitary limit. Whether or not this ratio changes upon the inclusion of more than two-body interactions is an interesting avenue for future investigations. These investigations shed pedagogical light on the issue of the thermal and transport properties of an interacting system in the unitary limit, of much current interest in both atomic physics and nuclear physics in which very long scattering lengths feature prominently at very low energies. In the second topic, the shear viscosity of a Yukawa liquid, a model for the outer crust of a neutron star, is calculated in both the classical and quantum regimes. Results of semi-analytic calculations in both regimes are presented for various temperatures and densities, and compared with those of classical molecular dynamical simulations performed for the same system by collaborators from Indiana University. For heavy-ion plasmas, as energetically favored in the outer crust of a neutron star, excellent agreement was found between the results of semi-analytic calculations and those of molecular dynamical simulations. However, in the case of light-ion plasmas, substantial differences were found between the results of quantum and classical cases, which underscores the importance of incorporating quantum effects in molecular dynamical simulations, even in the dilute limit. In the third topic, first steps are taken to reconstruct the uncertain high-density nuclear equation of state from the measured masses and radii of several individual stars. Inherent errors of the measurements are incorporated into the analysis. A new inversion procedure of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov stellar structure equation is developed so that a model independent dense matter of equation can be derived from observations. Successful tests of the inversion procedure emphasize the need to determine the masses and especially the radii of several individual stars. The aim here is to provide a benchmark equation of state for theoretical advances to be made. The fourth topic is concerned with the emerging field of gravitational-wave detections and its ability to shed light on the dense matter equation of state. In an external tidal gravitational field, as for example in binary star configurations, each star deforms and acquires a quadrupole moment. The quadrupole polarizability given by the coefficient of proportionality between the induced moment and the field called the tidal Love number after the English mathematician Love. By calculating Love numbers for several model equations of state, connections between the underlying equation of state, star structure and the tidal Love numbers of normal neutron stars and self-bound strange quark matter stars are established. It is shown that the meas

Postnikov, Sergey

187

Topics in elementary particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate solution converges to known analytical solutions around the fixed point, around which the approximate solution is constructed. Although the closed-form solutions for Schroeder's equations can not always be approached analytically, by fitting the approximation solutions, one can still obtain closed-form solutions sometimes. Based on Schroeder's theory, approximate solutions for trajectories, velocities and potentials can also be constructed. The approximate solution is significantly useful to calculate the beta function in renormalization group trajectory. By "wrapping" the series solutions with the conjugations from different inverse functions, we generate different branches of the trajectory, and construct a counterexample for a folk theorem about limited cycles.

Jin, Xiang

188

Using NASA Space Imaging Technology to Teach Earth and Sun Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We teach an experimental college-level course, directed toward elementary education majors, emphasizing "hands-on" activities that can be easily applied to the elementary classroom. This course, Physics 240: "The Sun-Earth Connection" includes various ways to study selected topics in physics, earth science, and basic astronomy. Our lesson plans and EPO materials make extensive use of NASA imagery and cover topics about magnetism, the solar photospheric, chromospheric, coronal spectra, as well as earth science and climate. In addition we are developing and will cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. We strive to free the non-science undergraduate from the "fear of science" and replace it with the excitement of science such that these future teachers will carry this excitement to their future students. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. The course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. We have designed this course to provide the non-science student a confident basic understanding of physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards that are addressed in grades K-8. The course focuses on helping education majors: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conduct data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we face while teaching this course.

Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.

2011-12-01

189

Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes on divisibility using manipulative materials, cyclic groups of functions, Horner's method of synthetic division, arc lengths of cycloids and cardioids, number squares, and students' concepts of mathematics. (MM)

Mathematics Teaching, 1971

1971-01-01

190

Research Topics in Statistical Database Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report identifies research topics in statistical database management. These topics are grouped into four major areas: characteristics of statistical databases, functionality\\/usage, metadata, and logical models.

Dorothy E. Denning; Wesley Nicholson; Gordon Sande; Arie Shoshani

1983-01-01

191

Future perspectives on space psychology: Recommendations on psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects of human spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.

De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya

2012-12-01

192

Cleaner energy for sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of the Journal of Cleaner Production focuses on “Energy for Sustainable Future”. It is designed to mirror the increasing relevance of renewable energy sources and improved efficiency as crucial topics for practitioners in industry, for governmental policy makers, as well as for civic service providers, researchers, and educators. The purpose of this special issue is to serve

Vincenzo Giorgio Dovia; Ferenc Friedler; Donald Huisingh; Ji?í Jaromír Klemeš

2009-01-01

193

Futurity.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research news from leading universities in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. A free online resource updated frequently, with engaging, plain-speaking presentations meant for the general public as well as researchers and professionals. Topic areas include Earth & Environment, Health & Medicine, Science & Design, Society & Culture. There are links to science-related blogs.

194

Future Facilities Summary  

SciTech Connect

For the session on future facilities at DIS09 discussions were organized on DIS related measurements that can be expected in the near and medium –or perhaps far– future, including plans from JLab, CERN and FNAL fixed target experiments, possible measurements and detector upgrades at RHIC, as well as the plans for possible future electron proton/ion colliders such as the EIC and the LHeC project.

Albert De Roeck, Rolf Ent

2009-10-01

195

Oil-futures markets  

SciTech Connect

This book on oil futures trading takes a look at a market and its various hedging strategies. Growing interest in trading of commodity futures has spread to petroleum, including crude oil, and key refined products such as gasoline and heating oil. This book describes how the international petroleum trade is structured, examines the working of oil futures markets in the United States and the United Kingdom, and assesses the possible courses of further developments.

Prast, W.G.; Lax, H.L.

1983-01-01

196

TOPICAL REVIEW: Advances and challenges in computational plasma science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This should produce the scientific excitement which will help to (a) stimulate enhanced cross-cutting collaborations with other fields and (b) attract the bright young talent needed for the future health of the field of plasma science.

Tang, W. M.; Chan, V. S.

2005-02-01

197

Subject and Topic in Tagalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is my purpose in this paper to re-examine the notions of subject and topic in Tagalog and to make a formal distinction between them. In discussing the term subject, the voice phenomenon and the ergative\\/accusative controversy must be taken into account. The two types of ng pronounced (na?) can be distinguished from each other in terms of their distribution,

TAKANORI HIRANO

198

Three topics in Zernike polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different topics concerning the Zernike polynomials are investigated. First, the Zernike expansion of a function only of the coordinate x is considered. Second, a set of functions orthogonal for an electromagnetic optical system of high aperture are developed. Third, the effect of Zernike aberrations on the three-dimensional optical transfer function (OTF) is described.

Colin J. R. Sheppard

2004-01-01

199

Topical nitroglycerin for levator spasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide donor, has been shown to induce relaxation of the internal anal sphincter.1 We hypothesized that decreasing anal canal pressures might have a beneficial effect on the symptoms of proctalgia. We performed a small pilot study to assess the efficacy of nitroglycerin ointment in the management of patients with refractory levator syndrome. The study population consisted

Neil Hyman; Peter Cataldo

1999-01-01

200

Topics in optics and music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

Sparks, Andrew W.

2012-10-01

201

Topic Development in USENET Newsgroups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

USENET newsgroup topics are created, and they evolve, mutate, and become extinct in ways fundamentally different from spoken dialog. These differences can be explained partially by the asynchronous nature of electronic communication, as well as by other factors unique to such wide-scale multi-user media. (Author)

Osborne, Larry N.

1998-01-01

202

Software traceability with topic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software traceability is a fundamentally important task in software engineering. The need for automated traceability increases as projects become more complex and as the num- ber of artifacts increases. We propose an automated tech- nique that combines traceability with a machine learning technique known as topic modeling. Our approach auto- matically records traceability links during the software de- velopment process

Hazeline U. Asuncion; Arthur U. Asuncion; Richard N. Taylor

2010-01-01

203

Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

2003-06-01

204

Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.

2010-09-14

205

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications.

Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; dell'Omo, Roberto

2013-01-01

206

Visual Impairment, Including Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments where we live and move, including approaching hazards. When a child has a ...

207

Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to develop a topical formulation of imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier, to induce local cytokine production for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. A pH-solubility profile and titration data were used to calculate a pKa of 7.3, indicative of a weak base. Solubility experiments were conducted to identify a solvent that dissolves imiquimod to achieve a 5% formulation concentration. Studies to select surfactants, preservatives, and viscosity-enhancing excipients to formulate an oil-in-water cream indicated that fatty acids were the preferred solvent for topical imiquimod formulations, and isostearic acid (ISA) was selected. A relationship existed between the fatty acid composition of four commercially available ISA sources and the solubility of imiquimod. A combination of polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, and xanthan gum was used to produce a physically stable cream. The preservative system included parabens and benzyl alcohol to meet the USP criteria for preservative activity. An in vitro method was developed to demonstrate that imiquimod was released from the formulation. Topical application of the formulation induced local cytokine activity in mice. PMID:10027211

Chollet, J L; Jozwiakowski, M J; Phares, K R; Reiter, M J; Roddy, P J; Schultz, H J; Ta, Q V; Tomai, M A

1999-01-01

208

Webwise 2010: Imagining the Digital Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Libraries and Museums in the Digital World" was the topic of the Webwise 2010 Conference in Denver, CO. The proceedings were faithfully recorded and offered as a webcast so that visitors who could not attend could still listen to all the lectures and discussions. Some of the topics that were covered at the conference include "interoperability, the future of collaboration, standards & best practices, technology and systems development, [and] training a 21st century cultural heritage information workforce." Visitors will find the webcast archive is at the bottom of the homepage, and it is divided up into "Pre-Conference #1", "Webwise 2010 - Day 1", and "Webwise 2010 - Day 2". Some of the Pre-Conference panels are "Digital Resources for Learning Spaces" and "21st Century Learners". "Webwise 2010 - Day 2" offers a lecture on the further education of librarians and information specialists, with "Skills for the Future: Educational Opportunities for Library and Museum". There's a great deal of material here for information technology specialists, librarians, and others.

2010-06-03

209

Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line book, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), covers the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state. There is a discussion of the events leading up to the eruption, as well as an explanation of the mountain's volcanic history. Immediate effects are covered, including the ash falls, pyroclastic flows, and debris. Post-eruption topics include subsequent activity after the May 18th blast, comparison with other volcanoes, and possible future behavior. Additional reading resources are given for further reference.

Tilling, Robert; Swanson, Donald

210

Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

2003-01-01

211

A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Nair, Bindu; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina

2010-01-01

212

Listening to Include  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

Veck, Wayne

2009-01-01

213

Future of Nuclear Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Present conditions and future prospects for the nuclear power industry in the United States are discussed. The presentation includes a review of trends in electrical production, the safety of coal as compared to nuclear generating plants, the dangers of r...

H. J. Zeile

1987-01-01

214

Man Quests the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends noted in four literary works discussing the future are discussed. Works include (1) "The People Puzzle" (Morris Massey); (2) "Megatrends" (John Naisbitt); (3) "The Third Wave" (Alvin Toffler); and (4) "A Vision" (William B. Yeats). (CJB)

Frazier, Robert

1984-01-01

215

Selected topics in robotics for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

Montgomery, Raymond C. (editor); Kaufman, Howard (editor)

1993-01-01

216

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-07-01

217

TOPICAL REVIEW: Quantum dot micropillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This topical review provides an overview of quantum dot micropillars and their application in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) experiments. The development of quantum dot micropillars is motivated by the study of fundamental cQED effects in solid state and their exploitation in novel light sources. In general, light-matter interaction occurs when the dipole of an emitter couples to the ambient light

S. Reitzenstein; A. Forchel

2010-01-01

218

Topic in Depth - Mathematical Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some of the most fundamental problems in engineering, science, and mathematics would take the most powerful computer in the world several lifetimes to find an optimal solution. However, near-optimal solutions to many of these problems have been discovered thanks to various methods of mathematical optimization. This Topic in Depth looks at some optimization techniques and the areas to which they have been applied.

2010-09-09

219

Topic-Sensitive Language Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a new framework to construct topic-sensitive language models for large vocabulary speech recognition. Identifying\\u000a a domain of discourse, a model appropriate for the current domain can be built. In our experiments, the target domain was\\u000a represented with a piece of text. By using appropriate features, sub-corpus of a large collection of training text was extracted.\\u000a Our feature

Mirjam Sepesy Maucec; Zdravko Kacic

2000-01-01

220

Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides.  

PubMed

The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel, Carraguard, and PRO 2000. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela D M

2012-08-01

221

Supportive Therapy Including Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern head and neck cancer treatment, including accelerated and hyperfractionated fractionation schedules, are known to increase\\u000a acute side effects to radiation. Furthermore, concurrent chemoradiation aggravates acute mucosal reaction (Brizel et al. 1998),\\u000a which now has become the limiting factor in radical head and neck cancer treatment. For this reason, supportive care strategies\\u000a are necessary to prevent, treat, and alleviate discomfort

JøRGEN Johansen; JøRN Herrstedt

222

Topical honey: for bears, not for ICU catheters?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Catheters are most often colonized and become infected via the skin and their external surfaces in the ICU. Therefore, topical antimicrobials, including medical honey, placed at the insertion site should decrease skin colonization and catheter infections. This commentary reviews the main studies on, and the possible reasons of, topical antimicrobial failure in ICUs compared to the reported efficacy of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings. PMID:23320929

Timsit, Jean-François

2013-01-15

223

Paleopalynology, 2nd edition; Topics in Geobiology Series, Volume 28  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynology, the study of pollen and spores, is a field of study pursued by at least three groups of people, who, as the author of this book notes, tend to have little contact among them. The first group consists of botanists interested in topics such as plant biology, evolution, or allergens (palynology in the strict sense). The other two groups include Quaternary paleoecologists interested in paleoecology and climate change, among other topics, and geologists interested in subjects such as stratigraphic correlation and evolution.

Gajewski, Konrad

2008-03-01

224

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06

225

Future directions for research on youth with bipolar spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The past 25 years has witnessed significant advances in our knowledge of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BPSD) in youth. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are clarifying the unique features of its pediatric presentation, including continuities and discontinuities across the spectrum of severity. Advances have been made, both in the pharmacological and psychological management of BPSD in youth. Current investigations may ultimately shed light on new treatment strategies. Future research is anticipated to be influenced by NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). With this article, we summarize what is currently known about the basic phenomenology of pediatric BPSD, its clinical course, assessment and treatment, beginning with a summary of the major studies that have shed light on the topic. Next, we present a tally and content review of current research as an indicator of trends for the future. Then, we describe what we believe are important future directions for research. Finally, we conclude with implications for contemporary clinicians and researchers. PMID:23915232

Fristad, Mary A; Algorta, Guillermo Perez

2013-01-01

226

Future Studies and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and discusses implications of future scenarios proposed by Herman Kahn and the Hudson River Institute and by the Club of Rome. Includes a decision-tree exercise appropriate for the classroom which involves five different future scenarios. (DC)

Howard, Jeanne

1981-01-01

227

A Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research analyzed the most widely used foundations of education textbooks for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content. Because foundations of education coursework routinely introduces other diversity topics in education, the authors hold it is a good place to introduce LGBT topics. The ways in which LGBT topics are included in…

Macgillivray, Ian K.; Jennings, Todd

2008-01-01

228

A Content Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Multicultural Education Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics in 12 popular multicultural education textbooks. Following a line-by-line analysis of each textbook, the findings report the extent to which LGBT topics were included in each text and the themes that became apparent in how LGBT topics were treated. The…

Jennings, Todd; Macgillivray, Ian K.

2011-01-01

229

Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

Wright, Richard A.

1987-01-01

230

International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics. Technical Digest Including High Speed Photonics Components Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This meeting is intended to bring together scientists and engineers who are interested in microwave photonics. They will present recent advances and exchange freely ideas in this multi-disciplinary research area, ranging from novel devices to systems depl...

A. S. Daryoush

1998-01-01

231

Topical antimicrobials for burn infections - an update.  

PubMed

The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature's way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections. PMID:24215506

Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-12-01

232

High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):395-402.

Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

2013-01-01

233

Topic in Depth - Cloud Seeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth is about cloud seeding, a type of weather modification in which substances, such as silver iodide or dry ice, are added to the air in order to produce changes in the weather. Cloud seeding is most commonly used to increase precipitation, but may also be used to suppress certain weather patterns as well, such as hail and high winds. While there is some controversy about whether or not cloud seeding actually does produce more precipitation, it can be a highly useful tool for areas that have very arid conditions and need additional rainfall to help produce more viable crops and minimize drought-like conditions.

2010-09-09

234

Preformulation, Formulation, and In Vivo Efficacy of Topically Applied Apomine  

PubMed Central

Apomine is a novel compound that inhibits the mevalonate/isoprenoid pathway of cholesterol synthesis and may prove effective as a skin cancer chemoprevention therapy. This research was focused on the development of a new delivery approach for the topical treatment of melanoma using topically delivered Apomine. This included evaluating the effect of several factors on the stability of Apomine in solution, utilizing these to develop a topical formulation, and conducting efficacy studies with the developed topical formulation in the TPras mouse model. Preformulation included the influence of pH, buffer species, ionic strength, and organic solvents on the stability of Apomine at four different temperatures. Apomine was determined to undergo apparent first-order degradation kinetics for all conditions evaluated. Apomine undergoes base catalyzed degradation with less than 15% degradation seen in >200 days under acidic conditions. Long-term stability studies were performed on two different topical cream formulations and indicate that both formulations are chemically stable for over 1 year at both 4 and 23°C. The efficacy of topically applied Apomine, from ethanol and developed 1% cream, was evaluated in vivo against the incidence of melanoma Regardless of delivery vehicle Apomine treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence. Ethyl alcohol application of Apomine resulted in a greater tumor incidence reduction when compared to the development cream formulation; however, this difference was not significant.

Kuehl, Philip J.; Stratton, Steven P.; Powell, Marianne B.; Myrdal, Paul B.

2009-01-01

235

Topical therapies for the treatment of plaque psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the US population. Plaque psoriasis, characterized by erythematous lesions covered with silvery scales, is the most common form. In the absence of a cure, long-term control is important for the management of this disease. Topical corticosteroids are the primary treatment strategy for most mild to moderate cases of psoriasis. For more severe cases, topical corticosteroids often are combined with other antipsoriatic agents to prolong the remission period between disease outbreaks, manage isolated flares during therapy, and ease the transition between therapies. With the availability of multiple formulations of topical antipsoriatic agents, including multiple formulations of topical corticosteroids with different potencies, physicians have a large number of treatment strategies for their patients with psoriasis. PMID:19916297

Bagel, Jerry

2009-10-01

236

76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...when cattle are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is...ivermectin) Pour-On, a topical solution used on cattle to control...

2011-12-29

237

75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...when cattle are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is...PRIVERMECTIN (ivermectin), a topical solution used on cattle to control...

2010-05-12

238

TOPICAL REVIEW: Medical applications of synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medical imaging and therapeutic technologies that are based on the use of radiation are reviewed briefly, with special emphasis on the recent developments of synchrotron radiation (SR) methods. New results have been achieved in all of these areas since the last comprehensive reviews were written in this field. This topical review is intended to make the latest possible results and complete set of references available. The different contrast mechanisms in imaging by x-rays are described. The applications range from whole-body imaging to studies of atomic and molecular structures. The SR imaging applications include coronary angiography, bronchography, mammography, computed tomography, x-ray microscopy and imaging by scattering. The therapy applications include photon activation therapy and microbeam radiation therapy.

Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

2003-07-01

239

Mesoscale Aspects of Winter Weather Forecasting Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mesoscale Aspects of Winter Weather Forecasting effort is comprised of a growing series of in-depth case exercises bundled with supporting topics. This site provides access to the supporting topics seperate from the case exercises.

Spangler, Tim

2003-10-12

240

The Market Place: An Internal View of the Future of CD-ROM--The Perspective of the H. W. Wilson Company.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological developments in library reference services focuses on contributions of the H. W. Wilson Company and highlights CD-ROM technology. Topics discussed include online access; menu-driven systems; CD-ROM hardware and software concerns; user response to CD-ROM; quality control of databases; pricing considerations; and future

Miller, Frank W.; Loeding, Deborah Voigt

1989-01-01

241

The Forgiving Building: A Library Building Consultants' Symposium on the Design, Construction, and Remodeling of Libraries to Support a High-Tech Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains contributions by seven library building consultants on designing a forgiving building, i.e., a building that can be modified easily and inexpensively to meet new conditions. Topics include (1) small library design; (2) academic library design; (3) adapting libraries to current and future needs; (4) designing space; (5) the changing…

Dahlgren, Anders C.; And Others

1987-01-01

242

The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

NONE

2007-04-15

243

Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

Accomazzi, Alberto

244

Topical report review status: Volume 10  

SciTech Connect

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report is published annually.

NONE

1996-03-01

245

Finding topic trends in digital libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a generative model based on latent Dirichlet allocation for mining distinct topics in document collections by integrating the temporal ordering of documents into the generative process. The document collection is divided into time segments where the discovered topics in each segment is propagated to influence the topic discovery in the subsequent time segments. We conduct experiments on the

Levent Bolelli; Seyda Ertekin; Ding Zhou; C. Lee Giles

2009-01-01

246

Novel topical therapies for distal colitis  

PubMed Central

Distal colitis (DC) can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents. Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure. Used in combination with oral 5ASAs, the control of the inflammation is even more effective. Unfortunately, resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage. In these patients, the use of steroids, immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor ? agents are often required. These, however, can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective. The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent. Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate, cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus, ecabet sodium, arsenic, lidocaine, rebamipide and Ridogrel® enemas. Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts. Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials. This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

Lawrance, Ian Craig

2010-01-01

247

``Family Guides" to Hot Topics in Space Science and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken the development, field testing, and dissemination of a new series of "Family Guides" on hot topics in space science and astronomy. Each Guide includes an innovative collection of puzzles, pictures, poetry, and projects, all designed to stimulate enjoyable co-learning, inquiry-based experiences between kids aged 6-12 and the caring adults in their lives. Family Guides generally intend to raise awareness and understanding of Earth's place in the wondrous Universe in which we live. The Guides endeavor to be accessible to those who are not familiar with astronomy. They coach adults how to lead inquiry with kids without knowing all the answers. They provide background on questions commonly asked by children and they challenge common misconceptions. The Guides also provide leads to more information and useful products related to family learning. Guide content is related to national science education standards and is valuable to home-schooled students as well as to educators who run family education programs or after-school programs. Although primarily intended for use in informal educational settings, many classroom teachers have expressed interest in the Guide's activities as engagement pieces for more formal lessons. We released the field test version of the Family Guide to the Sun in late summer 2003. In December 2003 we released the field test version of the Family Guide to Mars in time for use with educational programs associated with the Mars Exploration Rover landings. Future projects include Guides to Saturn and to the Search for Life Elsewhere. This paper will provide details of the Guides' contents and early results from field testing in various educational settings. We are still exploring the best ways to publish and effectively disseminate the Guides.

Morrow, C. A.; Dyches, P.; Wilkerson, A. D.; McLain, B. D.; Garvin-Doxas, K.

2003-12-01

248

Topical immunotherapy in alopecia areata.  

PubMed

Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, Ms

2010-01-01

249

Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata  

PubMed Central

Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata.

Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

2010-01-01

250

[Regulatory requirements for topical preparations].  

PubMed

Professional use of topical treatment in dermatological practice requires not only knowledge about the pharmacological properties, efficacy, safety and pharmaceutical quality of a preparation, but also about its regulatory classification. The latter essentially determines the physician's prescription practice and therapeutic freedom. The regulatory framework with which one is confronted unfortunately lacks transparency. It regulates not only the prescribability and reimbursability of proprietary medicinal products and extemporaneous preparations, but also the obligation to give information as well as the details of liability of both the prescriber (physician) and the manufacturer (pharmaceutical company or pharmacist). The prescriber needs to be aware of to what extent the pharmacist has the possibility and even obligation to change the prescribed preparation. In some cases this can directly affect the therapeutic concept of the physician and even impair the effectiveness and safety of the chosen therapy. PMID:24622851

Wohlrab, J; Klauck, D; Savtcheva, E

2014-03-01

251

Radon programme: presence and future.  

PubMed

An overview of radon programme experience is presented. The paper summarises broad topics concerning radon issue: philosophy of radon policy, radon measurements strategies with respect to indoor radon variation, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), national programmes, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions for radon issues in the future. PMID:18420575

Hulka, J

2008-01-01

252

The Future of Poultry Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contemplating the future of poultry welfare, one must be aware of the current situation in the context of how this issue\\u000a has evolved. From this perspective, one may project forward to identify opportunities for continued advancements and barriers\\u000a that must be negotiated. In this chapter, we will explore the development of poultry welfare as a topic of public concern

Suzanne T. Millman; Joy A. Mench; Anne E. Malleau

253

Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia  

PubMed Central

Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Topical treatment is an inexpensive and safe therapy that is easy to apply, noninvasive, free of systemic adverse effects and effective over a long period of time. The aim of this study was to present a review of the literature for topical therapy for OHL. Gentian violet, retinoids, podophyllin, acyclovir and podophyllin associated with topical antiviral drugs were used to treat OHL. Reports with this focus are limited, and since 2010, no new studies have been published that discuss the efficacy of topical treatments for OHL. Podophyllin with acyclovir cream was found to be effective, causing regression of lesions with no recurrences. Additional searches are necessary to provide clinical evidence of topical management effectiveness.

Brasileiro, Claudia B; Abreu, Mauro Henrique NG; Mesquita, Ricardo A

2014-01-01

254

Future Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These lectures contain (a) an overview of what might be learned from experiments at future (e bar)e, pp and ep colliders, (b) a review of limitations on circular and linear colliders, and (c) a description of some novel ideas for acceleration.

C. H. Llewellyn Smith

1986-01-01

255

Newer approaches in topical combination therapy for acne.  

PubMed

Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology is multifactorial and complex, including obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit due to increased sebum production, abnormal keratinization, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and inflammation. Topical agents are the most commonly used therapy for acne. First generation topicals mainly consist of single agent retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and antibacterials that target comedones, P. acnes, and inflammation. Novel topical therapies include combination products with advanced vehicle formulations that target multiple acne pathophysiologies and offer simplified treatment regimes. For example, the combination of clindamycin and tretinoin in a unique vehicle formulation allows for progressive follicle penetration and decreased irritation, resulting in increased efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene or clindamycin with BPO combinations target comedones, inflammation, and P. acnes synergistically. These newer combination products have the potential to increase both efficacy and patient adherence when compared with single agent treatment. PMID:22089505

Fu, Lisa W; Vender, Ronald B

2011-10-01

256

Biomedical applications reviewed: Hot topic areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making reference to the British Journal of Radiology and competitor journal titles, we look at the general area of biomedical physics, reviewing some of the associated topics in ionising radiation research attracting interest over the past 2 years. We also reflect on early developments that have paved the way for these endeavours. The talk is illustrated by referring to a number of biomedical physics areas in which this group has been directly involved, including novel imaging techniques that address compositional and structural makeup as well as use of elastically scattered X-ray phase contrast, radiation damage linking to possible pericardial effects in radiotherapy, simulation of microvascularity and oxygenation with a focus of radiation resistant hypoxic tumours, issues of high spatial resolution dosimetry and tissue interface radiotherapy with doses enhanced through use of high atomic number photoelectron conversion media.

Bradley, D. A.; Wells, K.

2013-04-01

257

The Mac: A CNet Topic Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the introduction of the powerful G3 line, the warm reception of the innovative iMac, and two new OS's on the way, some computer industry analysts believe that the Mac may indeed be back. In response to the new found interest in the Mac CNet.com has introduced a new special topic center. Mac veterans, new users, or those considering trading in their PCs will find numerous items of interest at the site. Features include Mac News, resources and information on OS 8.5 and OS X, reviews of the iMac and several G3 machines, useful downloads, and price checks. Users will also find links to a variety of other Mac resources and Mac fan sites.

1999-01-01

258

Topical therapies in the management of chronic pain.  

PubMed

Chronic pain, whether localized or generalized, is a widespread, often debilitating condition affecting > 25% of adults in the United States. Oral agents are the cornerstone of chronic pain treatment, but their use may be limited in certain patients, particularly the elderly. Topical therapies offer advantages over systemically administered medications, including the requirement of a lower total systemic daily dose for patients to achieve pain relief, site-specific drug delivery, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism, major drug interactions, infections, and systemic side effects. Several types of topical agents have been shown to be useful in the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Both capsaicin and topical diclofenac have been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic soft-tissue pain. In patients with hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA), the American College of Rheumatology generally recommends oral treatments (acetaminophen, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], tramadol, and intra-articular corticosteroids) and topical NSAIDs equally, favoring topical agents only for patients who have pre-existing gastrointestinal risk or are aged ? 75 years. Topical NSAIDs have been shown to provide relief superior to that of placebo and comparable to that of oral ibuprofen. Similarly, ketoprofen gel has been shown to be superior to placebo and similar to oral celecoxib in reducing pain in patients with knee OA. Different formulations of topical diclofenac (including the diclofenac hydroxyethyl pyrrolidine patch, diclofenac sodium gel, and diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide USP) have been shown to be superior to placebo and comparable to oral diclofenac in the treatment of patients with pain due to knee OA, with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal complaints than with the oral formulation. In patients with neuropathic pain, topical forms of both capsaicin and lidocaine have been shown to be useful in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Lidocaine has also demonstrated efficacy in relieving patient pain due to complex regional pain syndrome and may be useful in the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain who have cancer, although clinical trial results have not been consistent. Data suggest that topical therapies may offer a safe, well-tolerated, and effective alternative to systemic therapies in the treatment of patients with chronic, localized musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. PMID:24547601

Stanos, Steven P; Galluzzi, Katherine E

2013-07-01

259

Public understanding of geoscientific topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz Centre Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (HZG). Further participating centres are: the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Research Centre Jülich (FZJ), the Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Sciences (GEOMAR), the Karlsruher Institute for Technology (KIT) and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). The webpage will be accessible at www.eskp.de.

Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

2014-05-01

260

HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.  

PubMed

Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics. PMID:24051766

Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

2013-12-01

261

Ethical issues in research on sensitive topics: participants' experiences of distress and benefit.  

PubMed

While many studies ask participants to disclose sensitive information or to participate in emotionally arousing tasks, little is known about participants' subjective experiences of discomfort and benefit. Ethics review committees, therefore, have little information about participant experiences to guide their informed decision-making. We asked undergraduate females about their experiences in a study that included an experimental session, interviews, and self-report measures on sensitive topics. We examined results overall, and compared the responses of individuals with and without childhood abuse experiences. Participants who had experienced child abuse were more likely to report distress due to remembering the past, but also more likely to report that participation was helpful. Implications for future research, and recommendations for review boards, are discussed. PMID:21931238

Decker, Suzanne E; Naugle, Amy E; Carter-Visscher, Robin; Bell, Kathryn; Seifert, Abby

2011-09-01

262

Emerging topics and new developments in the field: the 2012 International Breath Analysis meeting.  

PubMed

The 2012 International Breath Analysis meeting was held in Sonoma, CA (USA) from 28 October-01 November 2012. The focus of the meeting covered several important topics within the research area, including both engineering and the biomedical sciences. As human breath analysis further develops as a multi-disciplinary field, it is clear that sensor development, instrumentation systems and algorithms play critical roles. Although much emphasis in the last decade has focused on breath biomarker compound identification and physiological relevance, we increasingly turn our attention toward portable, fieldable sensor platforms for non-invasive breath monitoring. The mission of this workshop was to assemble a group of leading experts to discuss their own research, debate trends and future directions of the field, and contemplate areas of research that deserve special attention moving forward. PMID:23999878

Davis, Cristina E; Epton, Michael; Frank, Matthias; Gryshuk, Amy; Kenyon, Nicholas J

2013-09-01

263

Topics in theoretical surface science  

SciTech Connect

The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

Todd, R.

1991-10-25

264

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on Tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic beatings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2000-01-01

265

Bibliography of subsidence and related topics for in situ coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics included are: (1) subsidence, (2) subsidence models, (3) material properties and in situ measurements, and (4) hydrology of fractured media. Each topic is indexed by year and then alphabetically by author within each year. Abstracts of each article were included when available; abstracts were usually composed in cases where a paper could be obtained but no abstract was

C. R. McKee; A. Serafini

1978-01-01

266

Using Conversation Topics for Predicting Therapy Outcomes in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Previous research shows that aspects of doctor-patient communication in therapy can predict patient symptoms, satisfaction and future adherence to treatment (a significant problem with conditions such as schizophrenia). However, automatic prediction has so far shown success only when based on low-level lexical features, and it is unclear how well these can generalize to new data, or whether their effectiveness is due to their capturing aspects of style, structure or content. Here, we examine the use of topic as a higher-level measure of content, more likely to generalize and to have more explanatory power. Investigations show that while topics predict some important factors such as patient satisfaction and ratings of therapy quality, they lack the full predictive power of lower-level features. For some factors, unsupervised methods produce models comparable to manual annotation.

Howes, Christine; Purver, Matthew; McCabe, Rose

2013-01-01

267

Topical ciclosporin in the treatment of ocular surface disorders  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that inflammation is the key factor in the pathogenesis of various ocular surface diseases, with a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and psychosocial factors. Management of these conditions is often challenging. Topical corticosteroids, with their associated side effects, are the mainstay of current treatments for patients with vision threatening disease. Ciclosporin A is an immunomodulator that specifically inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation. Recently, a topical ciclosporin preparation was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and became available for use in ophthalmology. Given the increasing use of ciclosporin eye drops, the goal of this article is to provide the reader with an overview of the well established uses of ciclosporin and to help refine the questions that should be addressed by future investigations.

Tatlipinar, S; Akpek, E K

2005-01-01

268

"Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

Larson, James H.

1982-01-01

269

Topics for a statistical description of radar cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive guide to the statistical description of radar cross section (RCS) is presented. The topics discussed include: definition of field quantities and Maxwell's equations, constitutive relations, boundary conditions and surface currents, Green's functions, diffraction of a plane wave by a perfectly absorbing half-plane, asymptotic approximation methods, and diffraction approximation methods. Also considered are: numerical approximations and numerical methods, RCS

Andrew Lewis Maffett

1989-01-01

270

Selected topics of fluid mechanics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

Kindsvater, Carl E.

1958-01-01

271

Topics in strongly correlated electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis is a collection of three topics connected together by the common themes of strong interactions, magnetism and quantum phases, such as the Aharonov-Bohm or Berry phase. The first part of the present dissertation discusses the possibility of examining microscopic origins of magnetism in strongly interacting systems by exploiting the setting of ultra-cold atomic gases in optical lattices. We discuss signatures of correlation in the trap, and propose an experiment to measure the phase diagram of itinerant magnetism directly. The second part focuses on the exotic phase of matter exhibiting the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, which emerges when interacting particles are placed in a very strong magnetic field. We propose a trial ground state wave-function and prove that it is the unique highest density ground state of a well-motivated pseudo-potential Hamiltonian. The exchange statistics of quasiparticles are shown to be exotic, and overlaps with results of exact diagonalization are also discussed. The final part of the thesis studies frustrated magnetic systems, in which competing forces cannot not be satisfied simultaneously, doped with electrons. The interplay of frustration and itinerant behavior generates Berry phases associated with charge transport. We study the effects of these phases on electronic behavior, as well as the effect electrons have on the underlying magnetic textures. In the quasi-classical limit, we conjecture a field-driven metal-insulator transition, and discuss persistent currents arising in ground states selected by the presence of charge. In the quantum regime we derive the full Hamiltonian and discuss small fluctuations about the classical results.

Berdnikov, Ilya

272

Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure") in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. Results We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Conclusion Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings.

Lee, Minsuk; Wang, Weiqing; Yu, Hong

2006-01-01

273

Investigation of aerosol characteristics and their measurement. [including computer programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various techniques for the measurement of aerosol properties are described. Methods considered include: solar aureole photographic technique; densitometric techniques; and video electronic isodensity mapper. Other topics briefly discussed include: multiple scattering experiment; multiple scattering computer program; the generation of the Mie theory results; and the NASA/OAST technology workshop.

Deepak, A.

1976-01-01

274

Topical Analysis for Identification of Web Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional link-based schemes for identification of web commu- nities focus on partitioning the web graph more sophisticatedly, without concerning the topical information inherently held by web pages. In this paper, we give a novel method of measuring the topicality of a hyperlink according to its context. Based on this, we propose a topical maxflow-mincut algorithm which incorporates topical information into the traditional maxflow-mincut algorithm. Experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the traditional algorithm in identifying high-quality web communities.

Miao, Yajie; Li, Chunping

275

Through the '80s: thinking globally, acting locally. [Combined Canadian Futures Society and Third General Assembly of World Future Society  

SciTech Connect

This volume was prepared in conjunction with the First Global Conference on the Future, held in Toronto, Canada, July 20-24, 1980. The conference combined the Third General Assembly of the World Future Society and the fifth annual conference of the Canadian Futures Society. The 59 papers presented here were selected from the very large number submitted to the conference committee; space limitations permitted only a small number of papers to be published in this volume. Included also are: the foreword, Mystery of the Future, by Edward R. Schreyer, Governor General of Canada; preface, A Time for Action, by Maurice F. Strong; introduction, Transition to Harmonic Globalism, by Frank Feather; conclusion, What We Must Do: An Agenda for Futurists; and postscript, The Challenge of the '80s, by Aurelio Peccei. The papers were presented under the following topics: The Trauma of Change (4); A Global Perspective (7); Inventorying Our Resources (7); The International Context (8); Economics: Getting Down to Business (9); Human Values: Personal, Social, Religious (6); Communications: Connecting Ourselves Together (4); Education: Learning to Meet Tomorrow (4); Health: New Approaches to Staying Fit (3); Futurism as a Way of Life (5); and Dreams into Action: Methods and Real-Life Experience (2).

Feather, F. (ed.)

1980-01-01

276

Topical and systemic therapy for recurrent aphthous stomatitis.  

PubMed

The cause of recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU), the lesions of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, is incompletely understood but appears to involve immune system dysfunction. Treatment options include no treatment, treatment of associated systemic diseases or conditions (eg, celiac sprue, vitamin deficiencies), systemic medications, topical medications, conversion of the aphthous ulcer to a wound, and palliative treatments. The most effective treatments (systemic or topical corticosteroids, thalidomide) involve agents that suppress or modulate immune system function. In general, topical agents are preferred because they have fewer associated side effects; however, inability to obtain adequate contact time may limit their effectiveness. Adjunct pain control is sometimes necessary, either with pain medications or with adherent agents that coat the ulcers. PMID:9421222

MacPhail, L

1997-12-01

277

Rasch model estimation: further topics.  

PubMed

Building on Wright and Masters (1982), several Rasch estimation methods are briefly described, including Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MMLE) and minimum chi-square methods. General attributes of Rasch estimation algorithms are discussed, including the handling of missing data, precision and accuracy, estimate consistency, bias and symmetry. Reasons for, and the implications of, measure misestimation are explained, including the effect of loose convergence criteria, and failure of Newton-Raphson iteration to converge. Alternative parameterizations of rating scales broaden the scope of Rasch measurement methodology. PMID:14757994

Linacre, John M

2004-01-01

278

Technologies of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the future, the requirements of industry will generate a wide range of hardware devices and software programs that will significantly alter and improve the quality of education. The driving forces behind the development of new technological devices include economics; emotional factors, e.g., the desire to develop aids for the handicapped;…

Lipson, Joseph I.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

1985-01-01

279

Future plans at COMPASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

After successfully running since several years with polarized muon and hadron beams to study the spin structure of the nucleon and spectroscopy of hadrons, the COMPASS (Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) experiment enters a second phase with a new extended physics program to obtain deeper insight in the partonic structure of matter. These future plans include

J. Pretz

2010-01-01

280

Optimizing topical therapies for treating psoriasis: a consensus conference.  

PubMed

In 2010, an expert committee of physicians and researchers in the field of dermatology working together as the Psoriasis Process of Care Consensus Panel developed consensus guidelines for the treatment of psoriasis. As much as possible, the guidelines were evidence based but also included the extensive clinical experience of the dermatologists. Psoriasis is a lifelong disease that requires long-term treatment and 80% of psoriasis patients have mild to moderate disease. Topical therapies play an important role in the treatment of psoriasis, especially in patients with mild to moderate disease. Patients usually start with monotherapy; however, in more severe cases (> 10% body surface area [BSA], severely impaired quality of life [QOL], or recalcitrant psoriatic lesions), multiple treatment modalities may be used as part of combination, sequential, or rotational therapeutic regimens. Main treatment options include topical steroids, systemic therapies, topical vitamin D treatments such as vitamin D3 ointment, retinoids, phototherapy, and biologic therapies. Other topical therapies include the following steroid-sparing agents: coal tar, anthralin, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytics, and emollients. Therapeutic considerations also should focus on adherence, improving QOL, and promoting a good patient-physician relationship. PMID:21049712

Zeichner, Joshua A; Lebwohl, Mark G; Menter, Alan; Bagel, Jerry; Del Rosso, James Q; Elewski, Boni E; Feldman, Steven R; Kircik, Leon H; Koo, John; Gold, Linda Stein; Tanghetti, Emil

2010-09-01

281

Topics in Precipitation Type Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents an overview of various aspects of precipitation type forecasting. It includes sections on microphysics and the ice crystal process, application of partial thickness analysis, application precipitation type analysis.

Spangler, Tim

2005-09-27

282

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch  

PubMed Central

The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.

Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

2010-01-01

283

Selected topics in gauge theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

Bég, M. A. G.; Hernández Galeana, A.

1986-06-01

284

Future directions for QCD  

SciTech Connect

New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC.

Bjorken, J.D.

1996-10-01

285

Photoallergic contact dermatitis from topical diclofenac in Solaraze gel.  

PubMed

Solaraze gel (Shire Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG, Cologne, Germany) containing 3% diclofenac has been licensed in 2001 as a topical treatment for actinic keratoses. It is commonly used in dermatological practice. Undesirable effects are believed to be rare but include pruritus, paresthesia and application-site reactions (dry skin, rash, erythema, contact dermatitis and vesicobullous eruptions). Recently, a few cases of contact dermatitis due to three different allergens including diclofenac have been reported (1,2). PMID:16787462

Kowalzick, L; Ziegler, H

2006-06-01

286

Future semi-submersible drilling units  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum industry, over the past 20 years, has increased its capability to drill in rough ocean environments by developing the semi-submersible type hull form drilling vessel. This paper presents the past history, present achievements, and predicts the future of the semi-submersible hull form. The petroleum industry is experienced in using the column-stabilized semi-submersible (SSM) to drill and survive severe ocean storms in which other marine vessels either go to sheltered water or run from the storm. Two recent major accidents, the OCEAN RANGER and the ALEXANDER KIELLAND, involving the SSM hull form have resulted in a re-examination of inspection and regulation requirements. This paper describes some of the actions that designers, operators, classification societies and the petroleum industry are taking to insure that accidents like these two do not occur again. The impact of these accidents on worldwide usage of existing and future SSMs is also discussed. The conclusion of this paper outlines design modifications which are required for safe worldwide use of the SSM and includes topics such as structural redundancy, reserve buoyancy, secondary ballast and lifesaving facilities.

Hammett, D.S.

1983-02-01

287

Learnable topic-specific web crawler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topic-specific web crawler collects relevant web pages of interested topics from the Internet. There are many previous researches focusing on algorithms of web page crawling. The main purpose of those algorithms is to gather as many relevant web pages as possible, and most of them only detail the approaches of the first crawling. However, no one has ever mentioned some

Arnon Rungsawang; N. Angkawattanawit

2005-01-01

288

Topical web crawlers: Evaluating adaptive algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical crawlers are increasingly seen as a way to address the scalability limitations of universal search engines, by distributing the crawling process across users, queries, or even client computers. The context available to such crawlers can guide the navigation of links with the goal of efficiently locating highly relevant target pages. We developed a framework to fairly evaluate topical crawling

Filippo Menczer; Gautam Pant; Padmini Srinivasan

2004-01-01

289

Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac  

PubMed Central

Albeit uncommon, photosensitivity reaction induced by diclofenac can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as a topical analgesic. We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. The lesions healed with conservative management without extensive scarring or other complications.

Akat, Pramod B.

2013-01-01

290

Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

1977-01-01

291

Discovering promising new topics on the WWW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon that a `little' topic can make a big difference is called `The Tipping Point'. As a strategy for marketing this phenomenon could be a great economic opportunity. For instance, at is a good strategy to promote items associated with a certain fashion. The Tipping Point refers to a situation where the topic matches potential needs of customers. We

Naohiro Matsumuraf; Y. Ohsawa; M. Ishizuka

2000-01-01

292

Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and t...

A. F. Cardenas D. J. Buttler R. K. Pon T. J. Critchlow

2007-01-01

293

Tracking Topic Birth and Death in LDA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose a...

A. T. Wilson D. G. Robinson

2011-01-01

294

Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac.  

PubMed

Albeit uncommon, photosensitivity reaction induced by diclofenac can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as a topical analgesic. We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. The lesions healed with conservative management without extensive scarring or other complications. PMID:24014923

Akat, Pramod B

2013-01-01

295

Future Fab: International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Future Fab International offers a large selection of articles and white papers related to the semiconductor industry. With contributors from hundreds of companies and an editorial board comprised of IBM, Intel, and Texas Instruments representatives, it is a well respected publication. The last six volumes are currently online, with about 280 white papers listed. Articles deal with many aspects of fabrication, including wafer processing and contamination control. Major press releases are also given on the site. Future Fab is an annual publication, according to the Web site, but it appears to be released twice per year.

2006-01-26

296

Future plans at COMPASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After successfully running since several years with polarized muon and hadron beams to study the spin structure of the nucleon and spectroscopy of hadrons, the COMPASS (Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) experiment enters a second phase with a new extended physics program to obtain deeper insight in the partonic structure of matter. These future plans include a measurement of deep virtual Compton scattering in order to determine generalized parton distributions and the study of the polarized DrellYan process giving access to transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions. Recent results and these future plans will be presented in this document.

Pretz, J.

2010-04-01

297

Tender Topics: Exploring Sensitive Issues with Pre-K through First Grade Children through Read-Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topics including bullying, family diversity, homelessness, disabilities, and incarceration are often referred to as "tender topics." They can be difficult for teachers to explain to or discuss with children. In their work with children, families, and teachers, the authors have seen that it is not necessarily the topic that makes conversations…

Mankiw, Sue; Strasser, Janis

2013-01-01

298

Foreign Languages: Internationalizing the Future. Dimension: Language '92-'93. Selected Papers from the Joint Meeting of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the Foreign Language Association of Georgia (Atlanta, Georgia, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers selected for this report of a conference on foreign language teaching with a view to "internationalizing the future" cover a wide range of topics and levels of study, including teaching Latin, using contemporary popular music in the curriculum, negotiating oral tasks, incorporating higher-order thinking skills into the curriculum,…

Terry, Robert M., Ed.

299

Topic in Depth - Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.

2010-09-09

300

Special Issue Topic: School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "The Choice Movement" (Brogan); "Choice in American Education" (Witte); "Role of Parents in Education" (Mawdsley); "As Arrows in the Hand" (Coons); "Vouchers in Wisconsin" (Underwood); "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP)" (Grover); "Civil Liberties and the MPCP" (Bolick); "Comments on School Choice" (Jauch); "Two Classes of…

Brogan, Bernard R.; And Others

1991-01-01

301

Topics in Polar Low Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents an overview of the climatology, formation, evolution, detection, and forecasting of polar lows. The presentation has five sections: Disturbances in Cold Air Masses; Climatology of Cold Air Vortices and Polar Lows; Monitoring and Nowcasting of Polar Lows; Polar Lows and NWP; and Forecasting Process for Polar Lows. It also includes a printable forecasting checklist.

Spangler, Tim

2004-04-02

302

Crystal Gazing into the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a use study of library materials to emphasize the need for an "access" philosophy of providing library service. Other topics considered in this "forecast" include resource-sharing library networks, network topologies, and library and network functions. (Author/JD)

Kent, Allen

1978-01-01

303

Treatment of compensatory gustatory hyperhidrosis with topical glycopyrrolate.  

PubMed

Gustatory hyperhidrosis is facial sweating usually associated with the eating of hot spicy food or even smelling this food. Current options of treatment include oral anticholinergic drugs, the topical application of anticholinergics or aluminum chloride, and the injection of botulinum toxin. Thirteen patients have been treated to date with 1.5% or 2% topical glycopyrrolate. All patients had gustatory hyperhidrosis, which interfered with their social activities, after transthroacic endoscopic sympathectomy, and which was associated with compensatory focal hyperhidrosis. After applying topical glycopyrrolate, the subjective effect was excellent (no sweating after eating hot spicy food) in 10 patients (77%), and fair (clearly reduced sweating) in 3 patients (23%). All had reported incidents of being very embarrassed whilst eating hot spicy foods. Adverse effects included a mildly dry mouth and a sore throat in 2 patients (2% glycopyrrolate), a light headache in 1 patient (1.5% glycopyrrolate). The topical application of a glycopyrrolate pad appeared to be safe, efficacious, well tolerated, and a convenient method of treatment for moderate to severe symptoms of gustatory hyperhidrosis in post transthoracic endoscopic sympathectomy or sympathicotomy patients, with few side effects. PMID:12950111

Kim, Won-Oak; Kil, Hae-Keum; Yoon, Duck-Me; Cho, Min-Jeong

2003-08-30

304

Palomar College: Wayne's Word-Biology 101 Lecture Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by Professor Wayne P. Armstrong as part of his online Biology 101 course at Palomar College in San Marcos, Calif. This site is also part of Professor Armstrong's larger website: Wayne's Word: An Online Natural History Textbook. The Biology 101 Lecture Topics site organizes lectures into five major categories: The Kingdoms of Life; Biochemistry and Cell Structure & Function; Mitosis, Meiosis & Life Cycle Patterns; Mendelian Genetics and Immunology; and Ecology, Adaptations & Population Growth. Lecture pages are well-written, and include a list of references as well as excellent photographs, diagrams, and illustrations. Examples of lecture topics include Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells; Archaebacteria & Life on Mars; The Five Kingdoms of Life; and Biomes of North America. Site visitors can also link to other sections of Wayne's Word including Botany lectures, and in-depth information about Duckweeds.

305

The Beginning of Life. A Topic Worthy of Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delineates four compelling reasons for placing bioethical issues, including abortion, in a curricular context. These include linking ethics and civics, preparing informed decision makers, public debate, and studying the future today. Includes activities and questions designed to provide students with a conceptual focus. (MJP)

O'Brien, Joseph

1995-01-01

306

Climate Change Impacts on Forest Succession and Future Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change in ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics with forest succession is a long-studied topic in ecology, and secondary forests currently comprise a significant proportion of the global land base. Although mature forests are generally more important for conserving species and habitats, early successional trees and stands typically have higher rates of productivity, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP), which represents carbon available for sequestration. Secondary forests undergoing successional development are thus major players in the current global carbon cycle, yet how forests will function in the future under warmer conditions with higher atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is unknown. Future forest C dynamics will depend, in part, on future species composition. Data from "Forests of the Future" research in a number of global change experiments provide insights into how forests may look in terms of dominant species composition, and thus function, in a future world. Studies at Free-Air Carbon Dioxide (FACE) experiments at Duke Forest and other facilities, plus climate warming experiments such as those at the Harvard Forest, suggest a common underlying principle of vegetation responses to environmental manipulation: Namely, that shade-tolerant woody species associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi show greater growth stimulation than ectomycorrhizal-associating (ECM) trees which are more common in temperate and boreal forests (Fig. 1 of relative growth rates standardized by pre-treatment rates). This may be due in part to the role of AM fungi in obtaining soil phosphorus and inorganic forms of nitrogen for plant associates. In combination, these results suggest a shift in future forest composition towards less-productive tree species that generally acquire atmospheric CO2 at lower annual rates, as well as a competitive advantage extended to woody vines such as poison ivy. Due to higher atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures, forests of the future may become less-productive than those of today.

Mohan, J. E.; Melillo, J. M.; Clark, J. S.; Schlesinger, W. H.

2012-12-01

307

A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V  

PubMed Central

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is considered to be the gold standard manual for assessing the psychiatric diseases and is currently in its fourth version (DSM-IV), while a fifth (DSM-V) has just been released in May 2013. The DSM-V Anxiety Work Group has put forward recommendations to modify the criteria for diagnosing specific phobias. In this manuscript, we propose to consider the inclusion of nomophobia in the DSM-V, and we make a comprehensive overview of the existing literature, discussing the clinical relevance of this pathology, its epidemiological features, the available psychometric scales, and the proposed treatment. Even though nomophobia has not been included in the DSM-V, much more attention is paid to the psychopathological effects of the new media, and the interest in this topic will increase in the near future, together with the attention and caution not to hypercodify as pathological normal behaviors.

Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

2014-01-01

308

Including All Learners: QCA's Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Principal Manager for Equal Opportunities and Access of the British Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) outlines recent and future developments initiated by the QCA concerning inclusion of students with special educational needs. Discussion focuses on general principles of the QCA, the National Curriculum, "target setting" for pupils…

Wade, Judith

1999-01-01

309

Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) ?3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) ?10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7.5 points on a 30 point scale in the ibuprofen-treated group; treatment with Arnica gel reduced function by 0.4 points (MD ?0.4, 95% CI ?1.75 to 0.95), absolute improvement 1% (6% improvement to 3% decline)). Total adverse events were higher in the Arnica gel group (13% compared to 8% in the ibuprofen group): relative risk (RR) 1.65 (95% CI 0.72 to 3.76). Moderate quality evidence from a single trial of 99 people with knee osteoarthritis indicated that compared with placebo, Capsicum extract gel probably does not improve pain or knee function, and is commonly associated with treatment-related adverse events including skin irritation and a burning sensation. At four weeks follow-up, mean pain in the placebo group was 46 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Capsicum extract reduced pain by 1 point (MD ?1, 95%CI ?6.8 to 4.8), absolute reduction of 1%(7%reduction to 5% increase). Mean knee function in the placebo group was 34.8 points on a 96 point scale at four weeks; treatment with Capsicum extract improved function by a mean of 2.6 points (MD ?2.6, 95% CI ?9.5 to 4.2), an absolute improvement of 3% (10% improvement to 4% decline). Adverse event rates were greater in the Capsicum extract group (80% compared with 20% in the placebo group, rate ratio 4.12, 95% CI 3.30 to 5.17). The number needed to treat to result in adverse events was 2 (95% CI 1 to 2). Moderate evidence from a single trial of 220 people with knee osteoarthritis suggested that comfrey extract gel probably improves pain without increasing adverse events. At three weeks, the mean pain in the placebo group was 83.5 points on a 100 point scale. Treatment with comfrey reduced pain by a mean of 41.5 points (MD ?41.5, 95% CI ?48 to ?34), an absolute reduction of 42% (34% to 48% reduction). Function was not reported. Adverse events were similar: 6%(7/110) reported adverse events in the comfre

Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2014-01-01

310

Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.  

SciTech Connect

This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

2013-10-01

311

Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK). Objectives To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305) of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01): 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05). Conclusion This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved adherence rates.

Shergill, Bav; Zokaie, Simon; Carr, Alison J

2014-01-01

312

Corneal Penetration of Topical and Subconjunctival Bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the ability of bevacizumab to penetrate the cornea after topical application or subconjunctival injection. Methods. Bevacizumab 1% was topically applied three times a day to the corneas of mice (BALB/c) with intact corneas (n = 14), and with corneal neovascularization (n = 14). Animals were euthanized at 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours, and 2, 4, and 7 days for immunohistochemical analyses. Donkey anti-human IgG labeled with Cy3 was used for bevacizumab immunoreactivity detection. Additionally, one-time topical bevacizumab 1% was tested in corneas with denuded epithelium (n = 16). In another group (n = 16), a single dose of 0.5 mg bevacizumab was injected subconjunctivally. Animals were euthanized at 1, 6, and 24 hours, and 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days for immunohistochemical studies. Results. Bevacizumab was barely detected beyond the very superficial layer of the corneal epithelium in mice with intact corneas even after 7 days of topical administration. Application of bevacizumab in mice with corneal neovascularization; however, showed variable penetration into the corneal stroma. Experimentation with single application of topical bevacizumab in corneas with denuded epithelium or subconjunctivally injected bevacizumab showed intense staining for bevacizumab. Conclusions. Topically applied bevacizumab has limited capacity to penetrate the corneas with intact epithelium. However, bevacizumab can penetrate the neovascularized cornea after topical application. This study demonstrates that subconjunctivally injected bevacizumab in eyes with an intact cornea penetrates well into the corneal stroma.

Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Sadrai, Zahra; Saban, Daniel R.; Zhang, Qiang

2011-01-01

313

System and method for classifying legal concepts using legal topic scheme  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An economic, scalable machine learning system and process perform document (concept) classification with high accuracy using large topic schemes, including large hierarchical topic schemes. One or more highly relevant classification topics is suggested for a-given document (concept) to be classified. The invention includes training and concept classification processes. The invention also provides methods that may be used as part of the training and/or concept classification processes, including: a method of scoring the relevance of features in training concepts, a method of ranking concepts based on relevance score, and a method of voting on topics associated with an input concept. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is applied to the legal (case law) domain, classifying legal concepts (rules of law) according to a proprietary legal topic classification scheme (a hierarchical scheme of areas of law).

2002-12-31

314

The future of human spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Apollo Moon program, the international space station represents a further milestone of humankind in space. International follow-on programs like a manned return to the Moon and a first manned Mars Mission can be considered as the next logical step. More and more attention is also paid to the topic of future space tourism in Earth orbit, which is currently under investigation in the USA, Japan and Europe due to its multibillion dollar market potential and high acceptance in society. The wide variety of experience, gained within the space station program, should be used in order to achieve time and cost savings for future manned programs. Different strategies and roadmaps are investigated for space tourism and human missions to the Moon and Mars, based on a comprehensive systems analysis approach. By using DLR's software tool FAST ( Fast Assessment of Space Technologies), different scenarios will be defined, optimised and finally evaluated with respect to mission architecture, required technologies, total costs and program duration. This includes trajectory analysis, spacecraft design on subsystem level, operations and life cycle cost analysis. For space tourism, an expected evolutionary roadmap will be described which is initiated by short suborbital tourism and ends with visionary designs like the Space Hotel Berlin and the Space Hotel Europe concept. Furthermore the potential space tourism market, its economic meaning as well as the expected range of the costs of a space ticket (e.g. 50,000 for a suborbital flight) will be analysed and quantified. For human missions to the Moon and Mars, an international 20 year program for the first decades of the next millennium is proposed, which requires about 2.5 Billion per year for a manned return to the Moon program and about $2.6 Billion per year for the first 3 manned Mars missions. This is about the annual budget, which is currently spend by the USA only for the operations of its Space Shuttle fleet which generally proofs the affordability of such ambitious programs after the build-up of the International Space Station, when corresponding budget might become again available.

Reichert, M.

2001-08-01

315

Polymethacrylate Microparticles Gel for Topical Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Evaluating the potentials of particulate delivery systems in topical drug delivery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Polymethacrylate microparticles (MPs) incorporating verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) as a model hydrophilic drug with potential\\u000a topical clinical uses, using Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit L100 were prepared for the formulation of a composite topical gel.\\u000a The effect of initial drug loading, polymer composition, particularly the proportion of Eudragit L100 as an

Hagar Ibrahim Labouta; Labiba K. El-Khordagui

2010-01-01

316

Teachers as Curriculum Decision Makers: The Selection of Topics for High School Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 26 high-school physics teachers completed a card-sorting task to prioritize their choices of topics to include in the physics curriculum. Mechanics, electricity, and magnetism emerged as most important. Covering these topics conflicted with teachers' goals to impart deep conceptual understanding of physics in their students. (33…

Feldman, Allan; Kropf, Aaron

1999-01-01

317

Taboo topics in addiction treatmentAn empirical review of clinical folklore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews II taboo topics, that is, research findings that question traditional assumptions and teachings of addiction treatment. These topics include: (I) the lack of empirical support for the Minnesota Model; (2) questions about the necessity of Alcoholics Anonymous for maintaining abstinence; (3) the existence of spontaneous remission; (4) the detrimental aspects of labeling; (5) the value of addicted

Emil J. Chiauzzi; Steven Liljegren

1993-01-01

318

Mining contrastive opinions on political texts using cross-perspective topic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel opinion mining research problem, which is called Contrastive Opinion Modeling (COM). Given any query topic and a set of text collections from multiple perspectives, the task of COM is to present the opinions of the individual perspectives on the topic, and furthermore to quantify their difference. This general problem subsumes many interesting applications, including opinion

Yi Fang; Luo Si; Naveen Somasundaram; Zhengtao Yu

2012-01-01

319

A Review of Subject Matter Topics Researched in Agricultural and Extension Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 402 articles in the Journal of Agricultural Education and 451 National Agricultural Education Research Meeting papers (1986-1996) yielded 30 categories of topics. The top five were secondary agriculture programs, learning styles, extension education, professionalism, and ag mechanics/engineering. Emerging topics included distance…

Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Xu, Wenwei

1997-01-01

320

Making leisure and recreation research a scholarly topic: Views of a journal editor, 1972–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The founding co?editor of Leisure Sciences provides a critical analysis of the events of 1972–1982 that shaped the topics of leisure and recreation research. Specific topics include: the development of publication outlets for research; leisure in the hierarchy of scholarly activity; the attempt to establish boundaries on leisure research; what are the criteria for acceptable research; and who does leisure

Rabel J. Burdge

1983-01-01

321

Research Topics in Statistical and Scientific Database Management: the IV SSDBM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presented at the IV SSDBM describe the different results reached in the context of Statistical and Scientific Database Management. In addition to the traditional topics (e.g., data model, physical organization and data retrieval, user interface and security) new topics emerged which appear to be growing in importance. Those include temporal data, statistical knowledge based decision support systems, geographical

Maurizio Rafanelli

1988-01-01

322

Future time perspective in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

34 schizophrenic patients and 34 general medical patients were given tasks which involved the spontaneous and later forced ordering of a series of future events, 4 stories in response to verbal instructions which included the beginning of each story, and estimates of the age of occurrence of 15 future events supplied by the examiner which were later placed in order

Melvin Wallace

1956-01-01

323

Alignment and stability of future machines  

SciTech Connect

Leading accelerator laboratories mount serious efforts in alignment and vibration studies concerning stability of future accelerator facilities such as photon and meson factories, future linear colliders (LCs), and hadron supercolliders (HCs). Some 200 publications covered the topic since late 80s, following pioneering works of G.E. Fischer. Four International workshops on accelerator alignment were held since 1989 at SLAC, DESY, CERN and KEK. The SSCL hosted the workshop on vibration control and dynamic alignment (1992). This article briefly covers some present achievements and issues in the field. We discuss major effects and tolerances for the future accelerators, results of measurements up-to-date, correction techniques and make some conclusions.

Shiltsev, V.D.

1996-06-01

324

Future Visions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four responses to Britain's proposed Further and Higher Education Bill: "Community Education: A Broken Shoestring" (Yates); "The Voluntary Sector: This Year, Next Year" (Woodman); "The Local Authority: Juggling with Models" (Cara); and "The Further Education College: Changing the Educational Culture" (Flint). (SK)

Yates, Trevor; And Others

1991-01-01

325

Resources for the Future (RFF)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Washington DC, Resources for the Future (RFF) is an independent, nonprofit organization devoted to the economic aspects of environmental issues. RFF scholars examine topics such as government regulation, risk, biodiversity, climate, Superfund policy, technology, and outer space in a variety of freely available discussion papers, articles, project summaries, and reports [.pdf]. An archive of the RFF quarterly publication Resource dating back to 1995 [.pdf] is also available in addition to an on-site glossary and list of up-coming seminars.

Future., Resources F.

326

Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.  

PubMed

This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies. PMID:23054971

Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

2013-01-01

327

Selected topics in peritoneal pathology.  

PubMed

This essay considers selected peritoneal lesions many of which were the subject of studies coauthored by Dr Robert E. Scully. His article on multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts has largely led to these lesions being considered non-neoplastic, eschewing the term cystic mesothelioma. These cysts are often associated with reactive mural mesothelial proliferations that can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis of mesothelioma. Clinical findings, such as a common association with endometriosis or prior operations, can prompt consideration of a reactive lesion. Mesothelial hyperplasia may be difficult to distinguish, when florid, from mesothelioma but a variety of gross and microscopic features will aid their recognition. Nodular peritoneal aggregates of histiocytes (sometimes admixed with mesothelial cells) may occasionally be a striking finding that can be misdiagnosed as a metastasis if the patient has a known neoplasm. Appreciation of their bland nuclear features and histiocytic nature, confirmed by immunohistochemical markers, facilitate the diagnosis. Various forms of peritonitis are briefly considered including sclerosing peritonitis, a process sometimes associated with luteinized thecomas (thecomatosis) of the ovaries, an entity first appreciated by Dr Scully. Mesotheliomas are briefly reviewed emphasizing the caution that should be used in applying the designation "well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma." Many interpret the latter as benign, but multifocal lesions must be thoroughly examined histologically because of potential overlapping features with malignant mesothelioma. The morphologic spectrum of malignant mesothelioma and its usually straightforward distinction from müllerian neoplasms is considered, as is its occasional presentation as a dominant ovarian mass. The spectrum of low-grade serous peritoneal neoplasms including the "psammocarcinoma" is reviewed. Finally, various benign müllerian lesions, particularly endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, may be conspicuous in peritoneal specimens and sometimes are grossly striking. The usual presence of benign endometrioid epithelium and stroma should facilitate the correct diagnosis of endometriosis, but in cases in which the stroma is atrophic or the sole component (stromal endometriosis), diagnostic problems may arise. PMID:24901399

Baker, Patricia M; Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

2014-07-01

328

Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

Ford, K. S.

2012-12-01

329

Topical Microbicides: Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Few good strategies exist for preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Indeed, women currently have no way to protect themselves from STDs that does not require male cooperation. Topical microbicides could change this. If you have no...

2003-01-01

330

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Past Funding - Contract Topics  

Cancer.gov

Additionally, please refer to the following cancer-related topic issued by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The funding was provided by NIDDK while the receipt, review, and contracting was handled by NCI.

331

Topics in Social Psychology: Further Classroom Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for stimulating students' interest in college level sociology courses by involving students in individual v group decision making, nonverbal communication, romantic love, and ethnic stereotypes. Tips for organizing classroom demonstrations around these topics are presented. (Author/DB)

Singleton, Royce, Jr.; Kerber, Kenneth W.

1980-01-01

332

Back to the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will compare aerial photos of their area from the past with current photos, noting differences and then conducting ground truth investigations to determine what happened. Finally, students will use the information they gather about past changes to make predictions about the future, and consider how past choices have impacted their current environment and how their own choices now will impact the future. Resources required include a pair of aerial photographs or satellite images taken several years apart, a ruler, and graph paper. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

333

Results from Symposium on Future Orbital Power Systems Technology Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology deficiencies, adequacy of current programs, and recommendations for reducing the testing and risks involved in future orbital energy systems made at the NASA Symposium are summarized. Photovoltaic space power system problems, including structural dynamics and attitude control problems due to solar array flexing; solar cell radiation resistance, manufacturing capability, and cost reduction; solar arrays including inflatable arrays, spectrum selection to increase efficiency, and polymer coatings for cells; battery technology; the endurance data base for fuel cell and electrolysis technology, and power management were discussed. Other topics considered were laser/microwave power transmission, thermal management, nuclear power systems, and environmental interactions. It was concluded that a 'front end' system study is needed in each area and current programs for multi-hundred-kW power systems are underscoped.

Gorland, S.

1979-01-01

334

Learnable Topic-specific Web Crawler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Topic-specific web,crawler collects relevant web,pages of interested topics from the Internet. There are many,previous researches focusing on algorithms of web page crawling. The main purpose of those algorithms is to gather as many relevant web pages as possible, and most of them only detail the approaches of the first crawling. However, no one has ever mentioned some important questions,

N. Angkawattanawit; Arnon Rungsawang

2002-01-01

335

Tracking multiple topics for finding interesting articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on

Raymond K. Pon; Alfonso F. Cardenas; David Buttler; Terence Critchlow

2007-01-01

336

Selected topics in nuclear and atomics physics  

SciTech Connect

Three topics of current interest are briefly discussed: direct radiative capture of slow neutrons, global systematics of B(E2;0/sub 1//sup +/ ..-->.. 2/sub 1//sup +/) values, and advances in the study of heavy-ion-induced x-ray satellite emission. An interested reader is provided with a list of recent references on the above topics. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Raman, S.

1987-01-01

337

Reaction or infection: topical chloramphenicol treatment  

PubMed Central

Chloramphenicol is a topical treatment that is used widely, especially in wounds around the eyes. In our practice there have been a number of cases of delayed hypersensitivity to chloramphenicol that has been mismanaged initially as an infective cellulitis. We hope to share some of our experience of this uncommon reaction to highlight the delayed reaction that can occur with topical application of this drug.

Livingston, RJ; Belt, P

2013-01-01

338

Reaction or infection: topical chloramphenicol treatment.  

PubMed

Chloramphenicol is a topical treatment that is used widely, especially in wounds around the eyes. In our practice there have been a number of cases of delayed hypersensitivity to chloramphenicol that has been mismanaged initially as an infective cellulitis. We hope to share some of our experience of this uncommon reaction to highlight the delayed reaction that can occur with topical application of this drug. PMID:23317719

Livingston, R J; Butterworth, J W; Belt, P

2013-01-01

339

Topical fluconazole therapy of Candida keratitis.  

PubMed

A prospective clinical trial of topical fluconazole solution (2 mg/ml) was undertaken in six consecutive eyes of microbiologically proven Candida keratitis with abscess formation. All eyes responded well to the medical therapy. Average duration required for healing was 22.6 +/- 2.3 days. The findings of our study suggest that topical fluconazole is a safe and effective antifungal drug for the management of Candida keratitis with deep abscess. PMID:8776563

Panda, A; Sharma, N; Angra, S K

1996-07-01

340

Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

2010-01-01

341

Flammable gas project topical report  

SciTech Connect

The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

Johnson, G.D.

1997-01-29

342

Topics in particle physics phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy quark physics, spine dependent forces in heavy quark systems, bound state effects in the Upsilon yields gamma + resonance, compatibility of free fractional charge, and Dirac magnetic monopoles are discussed. Using the results of the fourth-order quark-antiquark interactions in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the spin dependent potentials in the formalism of Eichten and Feinberg and Gromes have to be generalized to include the quark mass dependence. The recently observed hyperfine and fine structure splittings in the J/Psi and Tau systems are found to agree with the purely perturbative QCD results for the scale parameter. The effect of particle-antiparticle bound state dynamics on the reaction Upsilon yields gamma + resonance were studied. The existence of a free fractionally charged particle together with a monopole that has magnetic charge g = 1/2 e poses an apparent conflict. This conflict may be resolved by enlarging the exact gauge symmetry. The resulting constraint on GUTs is discussed and illustrated with an SU(9) GUT. Under certain assumptions, SU(9) is the smallest group to satisfy the constraints.

Pantaleone, J. T.

1985-12-01

343

Future Trends in Our Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses future trends affecting school business management, including greater state funding and involvement in policy issues, increased competition from alternative schools, controversy over vouchers, new educational technologies, fewer specialized administrator training programs, expanded educational services, integrated social services, and…

Pichel, Frank M.; Piper, Wallace B.

1998-01-01

344

Launch Options for the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adequate, reliable space transportation is the key to this Nation's future in space. Over the next several years, Congress must make critical decisions regarding the direction and funding of U.S. space transportation systems. These decisions include impro...

1988-01-01

345

Future wireless tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future wireless systems must find ways to make use of the increase of availability of spectrum for wireless applications that can co-exist with higher-priority users. Such techniques include: (1) Ultra Wideband (UWB) which attempts to share the spectrum by transmitting at very low power so as not to interfere with narrow-band transmissions, (2) Cognitive Radios that use spectrum sampling techniques

Michael A. Soderstrand

2010-01-01

346

Toward the Greening of Our Minds: A New Special Topics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new special-topics course on green chemistry would help students to critically evaluate policy decisions in an environmentally conscientious manner. The actively acquired knowledge would allow students to spread the word about green chemistry in the long term to the world, where they would pursue their future goals of life.

Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

2007-01-01

347

Enhancing the undergraduate industrial engineering curriculum : Defining desired characteristics and emerging topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present the results of an initial research study conducted to identify the desired professional characteristics of an industrial engineer with an undergraduate degree and the emerging topic areas that should be incorporated into the curriculum to prepare industrial engineering (IE) graduates for the future workforce. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was administered to faculty and

Hamidreza Eskandari; Serge Sala-Diakanda; Sandra Furterer; Luis Rabelo; Lesia Crumpton-Young; Kent Williams

2007-01-01

348

Enhancing the Undergraduate Industrial Engineering Curriculum: Defining Desired Characteristics and Emerging Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of an initial research study conducted to identify the desired professional characteristics of an industrial engineer with an undergraduate degree and the emerging topic areas that should be incorporated into the curriculum to prepare industrial engineering (IE) graduates for the future workforce.…

Eskandari, Hamidreza; Sala-Diakanda, Serge; Furterer, Sandra; Rabelo, Luis; Crumpton-Young, Lesia; Williams, Kent

2007-01-01

349

[Successful treatment of diabetic gustatory hyperhidrosis with topical glycopyrrolate].  

PubMed

Gustatory hyperhidrosis is a condition characterised by excessive craniofacial sweating in relation to food intake and is associated with diabetic neuropathy. The existing guidelines for treatment of this condition include antiperspirants, oral anticholinergic treatment, ionophoresis, botulinum toxin injections and endothoracic surgery. In this case a patient with diabetes suffering from gustatory hyperhidrosis was treated successfully with topical glycopyrrolate, an anticholinergic agent applied directly on the affected area. PMID:21893005

Lund, Ninna Sønderby; Maxel, Trine; Rungby, Jørgen

2011-09-01

350

Semi-Supervised Sequence Modeling with Syntactic Topic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been significant previous work on semi-supervised learning for classification, there has been relatively little in sequence modeling. This pa- per presents an approach that leverages recent work in manifold-learning on sequences to discover word clus- ters from language data, including both syntactic classes and semantic topics. From unlabeled data we form a smooth, low-dimensional feature space, where

Wei Li; Andrew Mccallum

2005-01-01

351

International Committee of the Red Cross: Issues and Topics: Landmines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides interested Internauts with valuable information on the terrific problem of the millions of undetonated landmines world wide. The International Committee of the Red Cross offers many resources on the topic, including a recently released Information Paper: Anti-personnel mines: An overview (under The Problem). The Ottawa declaration and Global Plan of Action (1996) can be found under the International Humanitarian Law section. There is also a photo essay entitled Seven Days in a Minefield.

1997-01-01

352

The future of PACS.  

PubMed

How will the future of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) look, and how will this future affect the practice of radiology? We are currently experiencing disruptive innovations that will force an architectural redesign, making the majority of today's commercial PACS obsolete as the field matures and expands to include imaging throughout the medical enterprise. The common architecture used for PACS cannot handle the massive amounts of data being generated by even current versions of computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanners. If a PACS cannot handle today's technology, what will happen as the field expands to encompass pathology imaging, cone-beam reconstruction, and multispectral imaging? The ability of these new technologies to enhance research and clinical care will be impaired if PACS architectures are not prepared to support them. In attempting a structured approach to predictions about the future of PACS, we offer projections about the technologies underlying PACS as well as the evolution of standards development and the changing needs of a broad range of medical imaging. Simplified models of the history of the PACS industry are mined for the assumptions they provide about future innovations and trends. The physicist frequently participates in or directs technical assessments for medical equipment, and many physicists have extended these activities to include imaging informatics. It is hoped that by applying these speculative but experienced-based predictions, the interested medical physicist will be better able to take the lead in setting information technology strategies that will help facilities not only prepare for the future but continue to enjoy the benefits of technological innovations without disruptive, expensive, and unexpected changes in architecture. A good PACS strategy can help accelerate the time required for innovations to go from the drawing board to clinical implementation. PMID:17821975

Nagy, Paul G

2007-07-01

353

Toward Challenging Peaks: Education Personnel for Alternative Futures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictions of possible future changes in society are made in this paper, and the role of the teacher in the future is discussed. Several broad topics are introduced and their implications for the teacher examined: (1) Social values will change with mass media a leveling agent -- how can teachers help individuals to attain personally meaningful…

Burdin, Joel L.

354

Hop-by-hop toward future mobile broadband IP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We try to give some perspectives on likely trends in future wireless broadband networking. The treatment is an exploration of some technologies; due to the requirement to cover the topic from a broad perspective, it is not possible to go into technical details. We review current developments toward future mobile broadband networks, and then present the 4G paradigm of trying

Petri Mähönen; Janne Riihijärvi; Marina Petrova; Zach Shelby

2004-01-01

355

Virginia Future Business Leaders of America State Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides information on starting and conducting a Future Business Leaders of America program in Virginia schools. The guide is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: introduction to Future Business Leaders of America (organization, organization chart, map, pledge, creed, goals); bylaws; dues and…

Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

356

Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines: A Workshop to Identify the Challenges and Set Future Directions. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following report represents a compendium of selected speaker presentation materials and observations made by Prof. O. Pinkus at the NASA/ASME/Industry sponsored workshop entitled "Tribological Limitations in Gas Turbine Engines" held on September 15-17, 1999 in Albany, New York. The impetus for the workshop came from the ASME's Research Committee on tribology whose goal is to explore new tribological research topics which may become future research opportunities. Since this subject is of current interest to other industrial and government entities the conference received cosponsorship as noted above. The conference was well attended by government, industrial, and academic participants. Topics discussed included current tribological issues in gas turbines as well as the potential impact (drawbacks and advantages) of future tribological technologies especially foil air bearings and magnetic bearings. It is hoped that this workshop report may serve as a starting point for continued discussions and activities in oil-free turbomachinery systems.

DellaCorte, Chris; Pinkus, Oscar

2002-01-01

357

Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

1976-01-01

358

Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed.

Puri, Anu

2013-01-01

359

ADA clinical recommendations on topical fluoride for caries prevention.  

PubMed

Scope and purposeThis guideline is intended to assist practitioners with decision making about the use of topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. It presents evidence-based clinical recommendations on professionally applied and prescription strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. Three clinical questions on the use of topical fluoride caries-preventive agents are addressed: In primary and permanent teeth, does the use of a topical fluoride compared to no topical fluoride reduce the incidence of new lesions, or arrest or reverse existing coronal and/or root caries?For primary and permanent teeth, is one topical fluoride agent more effective than another in reducing the incidence of, or arresting or reversing coronal and/or root caries?Does the use of prophylaxis before application of topical fluoride reduce the incidence of caries to a greater extent than topical fluoride application without prophylaxis?Sodium, stannous and acidulated phosphate fluoride for professional and prescription home use, including varnishes, gels, foams, rinses and prophylaxis pastes were evaluated.MethodologyThe previous version of this review (2006 ADA policy) was based on assimilation of evidence from systematic reviews. However, this update synthesises primary evidence collected through systematic review and appraisal of the literature.The Cochrane Library and Medline (via PubMed) were searched. Relevant systematic reviews and other selected articles were hand-searched.Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, with one reviewer assessing all manuscripts in full for meeting the inclusion criteria. Two different members of the expert panel then approved the exclusion list. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion with the Chair of the workgroup. The USPSTF grading system was used.Review and updatingFive-year interval update in line with the ADA policy.Recommendations For individuals at risk of dental caries: 2.26% fluoride varnish or 1.23% fluoride (APF) gel, or prescription strength, home-use 0.5% fluoride gel or paste, or 0.09% fluoride mouth rinse for children who are aged six or over.The panel judged that the benefits outweighed the potential for harm for all professionally applied and prescription strength, home-use topical fluoride agents and age groups except for children aged under six years. Only 2.26% fluoride varnish was recommended for children less than six years old, as the panel considered the risk of adverse events (particularly nausea and vomiting) associated with swallowing all other professionally applied topical fluoride agents outweighed the potential benefits.There was insufficient data to answer the question on arresting and reversing coronal and/or root caries, so these outcomes were not addressed in the clinical recommendations.Research recommendationsThese focused on development of standard methodologies for well-designed trials with standardised reporting and trial registration. Specific areas for research included: investigation of mechanisms of fluoride action and effects against a background fluoride exposure; investigation of specific sub-groups such as high-risk elderly; research on specific products; measure and outcome development for arrested caries; economics and dissemination/implementation to realise guideline use. PMID:24971851

Maguire, Anne

2014-06-01

360

Future Climate Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this report provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the following reports: ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]), ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504]), ''Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170012]), and ''Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170013]). Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one available forecasting method for establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The selection of different methods is directly dependent on the available evidence used to build a forecasting argument. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. While alternative analyses are possible for the case presented for Yucca Mountain, the evidence (data) used would be the same and the conclusions would not be expected to drastically change. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Other alternative approaches could include simulation of climate over the 10,000-year period; however, this modeling extrapolation is well beyond the bounds of current scientific practice and would not provide results with better confidence. A corroborative alternative approach may be found in ''Future Climate Analysis-10,000 Years to 1,000,000 Years After Present'' (Sharpe 2003 [DIRS 161591]). The current revision of this report is prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]).

C. G. Cambell

2004-09-03

361

An Ontology-Based Adaptive Topical Crawling Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problems of the veracity of the topical Web crawler which can not get the information interrelated with the given topical. A design framework and algorithm of the ontology-based adaptive topical crawling is brought forwards. We use the ontology technology to reduce the topical Web crawler to get the disrelated information with the topical, in order

Jin-Xing Shen

2008-01-01

362

Taboo Topics: Cultural Restraint on Teaching Social Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the taboo topics that social studies teachers avoid or de-emphasize, such as topics that tend to provoke strong emotional reactions. Addresses the reasons for the stifling of taboo topics and finds that the closer a topic is to students' lives the more likely the topic is labeled as taboo. (CMK)

Evans, Ronald W.; Avery, Patricia G.; Pederson, Patricia Velde

1999-01-01

363

Contact dermatitis due to topical drugs.  

PubMed

The management of patients who have developed a contact dermatitis due to topical drugs requires to stop the suspected drug application, to treat the patient with corticosteroid ointments, to perform dermatoallergological investigations e.g. drug patch tests in case of contact eczema and diluted prick tests in case of contact urticaria in order to determine whether the adverse drug reaction was due to excipients or to the drug itself. Patients with chronic leg ulcers have a high risk of contact dermatitis to topical drugs and to antiseptics. It is necessary to advise the patient concerning the avoidance of topical but also systemic readministration of the responsible molecule. An excipient responsible in inducing a contact sensitization to a topical drug can also be found in cosmetics, the name of the responsible excipient has to be given to the patient under the common name but also under the INCI name. In most of the cases there is no risk in systemically administering iodine, sulfites or vehicles in a sensitized patient who had developed a contact dermatitis to topical medications. When the drug itself is responsible in inducing a contact allergy it is necessary to determine if cross reactions with other drugs can occur and if the responsible molecule can induce systemic cutaneous adverse drug reactions if the drug is systemically readministered. Among NSAID there is no cross reactions between bufexamac and diclofenac, between salicylamide, glycol salicylate, salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. In case of photosensitization 1) to ketoprofen or 2) piroxicam the topical and/or systemic administration of the following molecules are contraindicated with respectively 1) ketoprofen, tiaprofenic acid, fenofibrate, oxybenzone or 2) piroxicam, thimerosal. A patient sensitized to corticosteroid ointment has to be tested in order to determine which corticosteroid classes are sensitizing. The topical and systemic administrations of molecules belonging to the sensitizing classes (A, B, C, D1 or D2) have to be forbidden. PMID:19834431

Barbaud, A

2009-10-01

364

75 FR 64351 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global Supply Chains AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...included in prior reports, include an overview of global supply chains, including the economic forces behind them and...

2010-10-19

365

The future of bibliographic standards in a networked information environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main mission of the CENDI Cataloging Working Group is to provide guidelines for cataloging practices that support the sharing of database records among the CENDI agencies, and that incorporate principles based on cost effectiveness and efficiency. Recent efforts include the extension of COSATI Guidelines for the Cataloging of Technical Reports to include non-print materials, and the mapping of each agency's export file structure to USMARC. Of primary importance is the impact of electronic documents and the distributed nature of the networked information environment. Topics discussed during the workshop include the following: Trade-offs in Cataloging and Indexing Internet Information; The Impact on Current and Future Standards; A Look at WWW Metadata Initiatives; Standards for Electronic Journals; The Present and Future Search Engines; The Roles for Text Analysis Software; Advanced Search Engine Meets Metathesaurus; Locator Schemes for Internet Resources; Identifying and Cataloging Web Document Types; In Search of a New Bibliographic Record. The videos in this set include viewgraphs of charts and related materials of the workshop.

1997-01-01

366

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of Cytoxan (NSC 26271) to New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation potential of Cytoxan NSC No. 26271 on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied Cytoxan at concentrations ...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1976-01-01

367

Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

1997-01-01

368

Proceedings of the 7th topical workshop on proton-antiproton collider physics  

SciTech Connect

This proceeding contains papers on proton-antiproton collider physics. Included are the following topics: W, Z, physics, minimum bias physics, QCD jets, new detector technology, accelerator upgrades, heavy flavor production and physics beyond the standard model.

Raja, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Tollestrup, A.; Yoh, J. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

1988-01-01

369

Topical delivery system for antiaging and skin whitening agents  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to certain hydroxyaryl alkanols, alkyl amines, alkyl amino acids, alkyl amino esters, and alkyl amino alkanols ("Hydroxyaryl compounds") of formula (I). A method of topical application of said hydroxyaryl compounds is also disclosed. The treatment of certain enzyme dysfunctions that cause skin or hair condition such as darkened skin including age spots, dark circles around the eyes, and discoloration of skin from stretch marks; skin conditions related to acne including excess facial oil and facial pore size; premature hair aging including hair loss and graying; inflammation including intra-cellular and extra-cellular inflammation; skin aging including wrinkles and fine lines; loss of collagen including thinning skin and loss of skin pliability; malfunction of tyrosinase group of enzymes; and malfunction of matrix metalloprotease group of enzymes with said hydroxyaryl compounds is also disclosed: ##STR00001##

2010-08-17

370

Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.  

PubMed

Vaginally applied antimicrobial agents are widely used in the vagina in women with lower genital tract infections. An 'antimicrobial' is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that are effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Topical treatments can be prescribed for a wide variety of vaginal infections. Many bacterial infections, such as bacterial vaginosis, desquamative inflammatory vaginitis or, as some European authors call it, aerobic vaginitis as well as infection with Staphylococcus aureus or group A streptococci, may be treated in this way. Candida vulvovaginitis is a fungal infection that is very amenable to topical treatment. The most common viral infections which can be treated with topical medications are condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex. The most often encountered protozoal vaginitis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, may be susceptible to topical medications, although this infection is treated systemically. This chapter covers the wide variety of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents for these diseases and focuses on the individual therapeutic agents and their clinical efficacy. In addition, potential difficulties that can occur in practice, as well as the usage of these medications in the special setting of pregnancy, are described in this chapter. PMID:21325838

Frey Tirri, Brigitte

2011-01-01

371

Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem.

Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

2012-01-01

372

Future Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some disturbing signs that appear on the horizon as phenolic resins enter their second century of existence. The large area of wood adhesives application (~60% of the total volume of phenolic resins in North America) is under intense pressure due to many factors that are contributing to continuing reduction in the sales volume of wood adhesives. These factors include the known slow cure speed of phenolic resins compared to Urea Formaldehyde (UF), Melamine Formaldehyde (MF), or Methylene Diphenyl Isocyanate (MDI); installation of new machinery/ equipment with fast continuous lines; continued decrease in plywood consumption at the expense of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) where phenolic resin is the preferred adhesive for plywood; further reduction in formaldehyde emissions through California Air Resources Board (CARB) Phase I and Phase II; uncertainty of whether formaldehyde will be identified as a human carcinogen pending the anticipated 2009 study; and the environmental movement to reduce or eliminate formaldehyde-containing resins in wood and thermal insulation consumer products (U.S. Green Building Council and other Environmental groups like the Sierra Club). Consumers are being urged by environmental organizations to purchase composite wood products with lower formaldehyde emission levels or none at all. This is illustrated by examining the news media reports after the Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The home trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were used for Louisiana and Mississippi residents after Katrina hurricane as temporary housing further accelerated concerns over formaldehyde emissions since higher than typical indoor exposure levels of formaldehyde in travel trailers and mobile homes were determined for the FEMA trailers.

Pilato, Louis

373

Reversal of skin aging with topical retinoids.  

PubMed

Topical skin care and its place in plastic surgery today are often overlooked by clinicians formulating a plan for facial rejuvenation. Not only is it important to consider topical skin care as part of comprehensive care, but clinicians should also be educated with the data available in today's literature. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the biological processes of skin aging and evidence-based clinical outcomes afforded by various topical therapies. Furthermore, this review will focus on solar damage, the value of retinoids, and how they can be used in conjunction with forms of treatment such as chemical peel, dermabrasion, and lasers. Finally, guidelines will be provided to help the physician administer appropriate skin care based on the data presented. PMID:24675201

Hubbard, Bradley A; Unger, Jacob G; Rohrich, Rod J

2014-04-01

374

Efinaconazole: a new topical treatment for onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Efinaconazole is an emerging antifungal therapy for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole is an inhibitor of sterol 14?-demethylase and is more effective in vitro than terbinafine, itraconazole, ciclopirox and amorolfine against dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. Phase II studies indicate that efinaconazole 10% nail solution is more effective than either the 5% strength or 10% solution with semi-occlusion. In duplicate Phase III clinical trials, complete cure rates of 17.8% and 15.2% were demonstrated. The mean mycological cure rate for efinaconazole is similar to the oral antifungal itraconazole and exceeds the efficacy of topical ciclopirox. Efinaconazole showed minimal localized adverse events, which ceased upon stopping treatment. Overall, efinaconazole 10% nail solution is an effective topical monotherapy for distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (<65% nail involvement, excluding the matrix) that shows further potential use as an adjunct to oral and device-based therapies. PMID:24570290

Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

2014-01-01

375

Topical pharmacotherapy for skin cancer: part II. Clinical applications.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to provide an in-depth, evidence-based analysis of the clinical use of topical treatments for skin cancer. A comprehensive review of topical drugs has been performed, including 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, ingenol mebutate, retinoids, resiquimod, piroxicam, dobesilate, and betulinic acid. The evaluated studies were rated according to their level of evidence level (I-V), as indicated by recent guidelines for evidence-based medicine, The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence. Therapeutic response is generally related to tumor type, extent, and localization, and also to patient compliance. Careful patient selection is required in order to achieve the desired goal of complete tumor clearance. PMID:24831325

Micali, Giuseppe; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Nasca, Maria Rita; Ferraro, Salvatore; Schwartz, Robert A

2014-06-01

376

Brian Barry: innovative contributions to transdermal and topical drug delivery.  

PubMed

Brian Barry published over 300 research articles across topics ranging from colloid science, vasoconstriction and the importance of thermodynamics in dermal drug delivery to exploring the structure and organisation of the stratum corneum barrier lipids and numerous strategies for improving topical and transdermal drug delivery, including penetration enhancers, supersaturation, coacervation, eutectic formation and the use of varied liposomes. As research in the area blossomed in the early 1980s, Brian wrote the book that became essential reading for both new and established dermal delivery scientists, explaining the background mathematics and principles through to formulation design. Brian also worked with numerous scientists, as collaborators and students, who have themselves taken his rigorous approach to scientific investigation into their own research groups. This paper can only describe a small fraction of the many significant contributions that Brian made to the field during his 40-year academic career. PMID:23921110

Williams, A C

2013-01-01

377

Combination topical therapy in the treatment of acne.  

PubMed

Many medications are available for the management of acne. The armamentarium includes topical retinoids (ie, adapalene, tazarotene, tretinoin), antimicrobial and antibacterial agents (ie, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfacetamide with or without sulfur), oral antibiotics (ie, doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline), hormonal agents (ie, oral contraceptives, spironolactone), and systemic retinoids (ie, isotretinoin). Acne usually is treated with combination therapy to address its multifactorial pathophysiology. The combination of clindamycin 1%-benzoyl peroxide 5% gel, available as a stable formulation in a single tube, is efficacious and well-tolerated. The product's excipients, glycerin and dimethicone, minimize treatment-related irritation, thereby increasing patient compliance. Clindamycin-benzoyl peroxide may be well-tolerated when applied with topical retinoids, creating a more targeted and complete treatment strategy. PMID:17966494

Del Rosso, James Q

2006-08-01

378

Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

Lee, Tom E.; And Others

379

[Aged-related principles of topical therapy].  

PubMed

Topical therapy should always be adapted to patients' age due to changes in skin physiology. This is particularly applicable when choosing a cream or ointment and the active substances. The expectations for therapy also change with age. The motivation to perform therapy as well as the physical ability to do so also changes with age. Children and elderly patients often need help in applying topical agents. In addition, range and cause of diseases varies considerably within age groups. Finally, the penetration of the active substance from creams and ointments may also change with age. PMID:24419476

Proksch, E

2014-03-01

380

A neural network approach to topic spotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of nonlinear neural\\u000a networks to topic spotting. Neural networks allow us to\\u000a model higher-order interaction between document terms and\\u000a to simultaneously predict multiple topics using shared\\u000a hidden features. In the context of this model, we compare\\u000a two approaches to dimensionality reduction in\\u000a representation: one based on term selection and another\\u000a based on Latent Semantic Indexing

Erik D. Wiener; Jan O. Pedersen; Andreas S. Weigend

1995-01-01

381

Topics in Lake Effect Snow Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lake and ocean effect processes can have a significant impact on snowfall amounts in many parts of North America, and can be very tricky to forecast. This short module is a collection of narrated reference material on many aspects of lake effect snow forecasting. It is divided into three main topics: Basic Ingredients of Lake/Ocean Snow, Banding Processes, and Satellite Detection. These materials are also available as the separate Supporting Topics within the case exercise module, Ocean Effect Snow: New England Snow Storm, 14 January 1999.

Spangler, Tim

2005-02-09

382

Topic Congruence and Topic Interest: How Do They Affect Second Language Reading Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because human memory is largely reconstructive, people tend to reorganize and reevaluate an event in a way that is coherent to the truth values held in their belief system. This study investigated the role of topic congruence (defined as whether the reading content corresponds with readers' prior beliefs towards a contentious topic) in second…

Lee, Sang-Ki

2009-01-01

383

Through a Glass Darkly: Glimpses into the Future of Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The paper has three parts, (i) a brief overview of the main achievements made using mass spectrometry across all the fields of science, (ii) a survey of some of the topics currently being pursued most activity, including both applications and fundamental studies, and (iii) some hints as to what the future of mass spectrometry might hold with particular emphasis on revolutionary changes in the subject. Emphasis is given to ambient methods of ionization and their use in disease diagnosis and to their use in combination with miniature mass spectrometers for in-situ measurements. Special attention goes to the chemical aspects of mass spectrometry, including its emerging role as a preparative method based on accelerated bimolecular reaction rates in solution and on ion soft landing as a means of surface tailoring. In summary, the paper covers the proud history, vibrant present and expansive future of mass spectrometry.

Cooks, R. Graham; Mueller, Thomas

2013-01-01

384

Thermal insulation handbook. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

The handbook presents the manner in which thermal insulation can be properly designed and used to conserve heat energy. Basic information is provided as to material and accessory properties and requirements of processes and environment to guide the designer as to selections which will serve satisfactorily. A comprehensive list of commercially available insulating materials is included. This book provides the mathematical formula, in both British and Metric S.I. Units for the calculation of heat transfer and temperature gradients. It covers the field of industrial thermal insulation in depth, including complete instructions for design of insulation systems for process pipe and equipment. Included are examples covering the design of high temperature applications, low temperature applications, cyclic application, heat traced applications, underground applications, maximum heat gain or loss services, and the use of thermal insulation for fire protective services. Specific recommendations are presented as to the design of insulation systems to correctly provide for expansion and contraction of piping and equipment. Equations and tables are provided for design of heat traced systems. This includes the use of heat transfer cements and precast heat transfer elements. Material and application specifications are needed to correctly obtain installation of systems as designed. The suggested methods of preparing such specifications are presented. This includes references to the ASTM Test Method for evaluation and testing of materials. A sample of a correctly prepared material and application specification is given. A set of guide lines to use in the preparation of an insulation contract is included. A list of potential application trouble spots is included for inspectors' use. A glossary of nearly 500 words is presented in the appendix. (MCW)

Turner, W.C.; Malloy, J.F.

1981-01-01

385

Problem-Based Learning Research in Anesthesia Teaching: Current Status and Future Perspective  

PubMed Central

The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching.

Chilkoti, G.; Mohta, M.; Wadhwa, R.; Saxena, A. K.

2014-01-01

386

Problem-based learning research in anesthesia teaching: current status and future perspective.  

PubMed

The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching. PMID:24982673

Chilkoti, G; Mohta, M; Wadhwa, R; Saxena, A K

2014-01-01

387

Retention and application of Skylab experiences to future programs. [a postflight review of technical programs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems encountered and special techniques and procedures developed on the Skylab program are described along with the experiences and practical benefits obtained for dissemination and use on future programs. Three major topics are discussed: electrical problems, mechanical problems, and special techniques. Special techniques and procedures are identified that were either developed or refined during the Skylab program. These techniques and procedures came from all manufacturing and test phases of the Skylab program and include both flight and GSE items from component level to sophisticated spaceflight systems.

Gillespie, V. G.; Kelly, R. O.

1974-01-01

388

Topical Prostaglandin Analogue Drugs Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effects of topical prostaglandin analogue drugs on the differentiation of adipocytes. Methods Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was induced with isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin. 3T3-L1 cells were exposed to 0.008, 0.08, 0.2 µM of latanoprost and travoprost. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? 2 (PPAR?2), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) assays were performed to examine the effects on early and late differentiation, respectively. Also, glycerol assays were done to evaluate the effect of prostaglandin analogues on lipolysis after differentiation. Results Both prostaglandin analogues inhibited differentiation of preadipocytes. Topical prostaglandin analogues significantly decreased G3PDH activity, a marker of late differentiation. However, topical prostaglandin analogues did not change mRNA expressions of lipoprotein lipase and PPAR?2, markers of early differentiation. The activities of the early markers of differentiation were not changed significantly before and after growth arrest. Compared to latanoprost, travoprost decreased G3PDH activity more significantly (p < 0.05). Both prostaglandin analogues did not affect the lipolysis of differentiated adipocytes (p > 0.05). Conclusions Prostaglandin analogues display an inhibitory effect on the differentiation of adipocytes when the cells start to differentiate especially in the late stage of differentiation. Thus, commercial topical prostaglandin analogues may decrease the fat contents of eyelids.

2014-01-01

389

Topic in Depth - Harvesting the Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rain harvesting has experienced a bit of a renaissance in recent years through the promotion and installation of rain gardens and rain barrels. These water collection mechanisms help to curb erosion and the spread of pollution; conserve precious freshwater; and support water-loving plants. This Topic in Depth presents websites and electronic publications containing instructive and descriptive information about rain gardens and barrels.

2010-09-03

390

Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles  

SciTech Connect

We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

2007-02-15

391

Topical Cyclosporine A in Corneal Graft Rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corneal graft rejection is now the most common cause of graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty. This study was designed to determine whether, addition of 2% topical cyclosporine (CSA) to local and systemic steroids in treatment of endothelial corneal allograft rejection, would improve the outcome. A prospective randomized treatment trial was carried out on 40 consecutive corneal graft recipients, presenting with

Mahmood Nejabat; Jafar Khoshghadam; Masoomeh Eghtedari; Hamid Hosseini

2006-01-01

392

Bibliography of Nonparametric Statistics and Related Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography contains 999 references on nonparametric statistics and related topics, classified as follows: (A) Surveys and Discussions (39), (B) Theory (31), (C) Tchebycheff Inequalities (94), (D) Tolerance Sets (21), (E) Goodness of Fit (122), (F) Multisample Problems (53), (G) Parameter Problems (135), (H) Contingency Tables (75), (I) Randomness (109), (J) Correlation and Curve Fitting (96), (K) Comparative Studies (49),

I. Richard Savage

1953-01-01

393

Phonological Awareness. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Topical Bibliography and Commentary examines recent studies on phonological awareness, finding the evidence conclusive that teaching phonological awareness to young children greatly facilitates the reading process. Researchers have studied problems children experience in reading for many years. The focus of research during the 1990s has been…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

394

Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…

Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

1996-01-01

395

Making Presentations. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This topical bibliography and commentary consists of research summaries which address the challenges of creating an effective public presentation. The research articles discussed in the bibliography/commentary are geared toward teaching students to better present information with an emphasis on the primary importance of content above empty…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

396

Topical treatment options for conjunctival neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Topical therapies offer a nonsurgical method for treating conjunctival tumors by delivering high drug concentrations to the ocular surface. Over the past ten years, topical agents have been used by investigators to treat various premalignant and malignant lesions of the conjunctiva, such as primary acquired melanosis with atypia, conjunctival melanoma, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and pagetoid spread of the conjunctiva arising from sebaceous cell carcinoma. Despite the enthusiasm generated by the success of these agents, there are unanswered questions regarding the clinical efficacy of this new nonsurgical approach, and whether a single topical agent can achieve cure rates comparable with traditional therapies. Furthermore, the long-term consequences of prolonged courses of topical chemotherapeutic drugs on the ocular surface are unknown, and the ideal regimen for each of these agents is still being refined. In this review, we present specific guidelines for treating both melanocytic and squamous neoplasms of the conjunctiva, utilizing the available data in the literature as well as our own clinical experience at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

Kim, Jonathan W; Abramson, David H

2008-01-01

397

Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections  

PubMed Central

Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance.

Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-01-01

398

Teaching Mathematical Trade Topics for Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to assist trade and industrial education teachers in teaching mathematical trade topics in a way that will increase students' conceptual understanding of them. The first chapter provides an overview of the book's contents and suggests ways of using it. The next five chapters address the following aspects of using principles…

Larkin, Alan; Phillips, Keith

399

Topic in Depth - Surface Chemistry Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the field of surface chemistry, which is the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter at the transition of states such as solid-to-liquid and liquid-to-gas. This folder contains information about the research and applications of surface chemistry.

2010-09-03

400

Topical regional neuro-affective therapy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of treating a disease state or condition in humans via topical brainstem afferent stimulation therapy via the administration of a drug to the back of the neck of a human patient at the hairline in close proximity to and under or on the area of skin above the brain stem to provide regional neuro-affective therapy is disclosed.

2013-11-26

401

Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections.  

PubMed

Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multidrug resistance. PMID:20429870

Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R

2010-06-01

402

Strategy of topical vaccination with nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liposomes in the nanosize range have been recognized as a versatile drug delivery system of both hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules. In order to develop a liposome-based topical vaccination strategy, five different types of liposomes were tested as a putative vaccine delivery system on pig ear skin. The investigated liposomes mainly varied in size, lipid composition, and surface charge. Using hydrophilic

Sascha Jung; Alexa Patzelt; Nina Otberg; Gisela Thiede; Wolfram Sterry; Juergen Lademann

2009-01-01

403

Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

Fakhri, Ahmed

404

On topic identification and dialogue move recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialogue move recognition is cited as being representative of a class of problem which may be of concern in data driven natural language processing. The dialogue move recognition problem is formulated as a keyword-based topic identification problem, and is shown to be sensitive to the issue of unknown vocabulary. A model based on the multiple Poisson distribution is shown to

Philip N. Garner

1997-01-01

405

SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation.

BANDETTINI, PETER A.

2010-01-01

406

Tinea nigra: successful treatment with topical butenafine*  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years.

Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Ce Bella

2012-01-01

407

Active Research Topics in Human Machine Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies active research topics concerning human machine interfaces for intelligent machine systems. The paper was compiled by performing a series of literature searches and organizing the information according to the author's interest in better directing his own Human Machine Interface (HMI) research. Introductory literature from outside the HMI communities is also referenced to provide context.

Michael J. McDonald

2000-01-01

408

Alternative Approaches to Traditional Topics in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who otherwise seem unreachable through traditional approaches to algebra require some alternative teaching methods. So do teachers who seek to add elements of freshness and innovation to their classrooms or who simply appreciate variety. This article offers some unconventional techniques for teaching a few conventional algebra topics.…

Coburn, John W.

2010-01-01

409

Anaphylaxis to Topically Applied Sodium Fusidate  

PubMed Central

Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is effective primarily on gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species. It is often topically applied to the skin, but is also given systemically as a tablet or injection. Allergic contact dermatitis, or urticaria, has been reported as a side effect of fusidic acid treatment, whereas anaphylaxis to topically administered fusidic acid has not been reported previously. A 16-year-old boy visited an outpatient clinic for further evaluation of anaphylaxis. He suffered abrasions on his arms during exercise, which were treated with a topical ointment containing sodium fusidate. Within 30 minutes, he developed urticaria and eyelid swelling, followed by a cough and respiratory difficulty. His symptoms were relieved by emergency treatment in a nearby hospital. To investigate the etiology, oral provocation with fusidate was performed. After 125 mg (1/2 tablet) of sodium fusidate was administered, he developed a cough and itching of the throat within 30 minutes, which was followed by chest discomfort and urticaria. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dropped from 4.09 L at baseline to 3.50 L after challenge, although wheezing was not heard in his chest. After management with an inhaled bronchodilator using a nebulizer, chest discomfort was relieved and FEV1 rose to 3.86 L. The patient was directed not to use fusidate, especially on abrasions. Here we report the first case of anaphylaxis resulting from topical fusidic acid application to abrasions.

Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Jihyun

2013-01-01

410

Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF  

SciTech Connect

Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

2005-01-01

411

Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

Horton, Linda

2010-03-01

412

TOPICAL REVIEW: Charge transport through molecular switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology.

van der Molen, Sense Jan; Liljeroth, Peter

2010-04-01

413

EDITORIAL: The present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neural engineering has grown substantially in the last few years and it is time to review the progress of the first journal in this field. Journal of Neural Engineering (JNE) is a quarterly publication that started in 2004. The journal is now in its third volume and eleven issues, consisting of 114 articles in total, have been published since its launch. The editorial processing times have been kept to a minimum, the receipt to first decision time is 41 days, on average, and the time from receipt to publication has been maintained below three months. It is also worth noting that it is free to publish in Journal of Neural Engineering—there are no author fees—and once published the articles are free online for the first month. The journal has been listed in Pubmed® since 2005 and has been accepted by ISI® in 2006. Who is reading Journal of Neural Engineering? The number of readers of JNE has increased significantly from 8050 full-text downloads in 2004 to 14 900 in 2005 and the first seven months of 2006 have already seen 12 800 downloads. The top users in 2005 were the Microsoft Corporation, Stanford University and the University of Michigan. The list of top ten users also includes non-US institutions: University of Toronto, University of Tokyo, Hong Kong Polytechnic, National Library of China and University College London, reflecting the international flavor of the journal. What are the hot topics in neural engineering? Based on the number of downloads and citations for 2004-2005, the top three topics are: (1) Brain-computer interfaces (2) Visual prostheses (3) Neural modelling Several other topics such as microelectrode arrays, neural signal processing, neural dynamics and neural circuit engineering are also in the top ten. Where are Journal of Neural Engineering articles cited? JNE articles have reached a wide audience and have been cited in of some of the best journals in physiology and neuroscience such as Nature Neuroscience, Journal of Neuroscience, Trends in Neuroscience, Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science as well as in engineering and physics journals such as Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Physical Review Letters and IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. However, the number of citations in clinical journals is limited. What is special about Journal of Neural Engineering? JNE has published two special issues: (1) The Eye and the Chip (visual prostheses) (vol. 2, (1), 2005) and (2) Sensory Integration: Role of Internal Models (vol. 2, (3), 2005). These special issues have attracted a lot of attention based on the number of article downloads. JNE also publishes tutorials intended to provide background information on specific topics such as classification, sensory substitution and cortical neural prosthetics. A series of tutorials from the 3rd Neuro-IT and Neuroengineering Summer School has been published with the first appearing in vol. 2 (4), 2005. What is in the future for Journal of Neural Engineering? The goal of any journal should be to provide a particular field with the best venue for scientists and engineers to make their work available and noticeable to the rest of the community. In particular, attracting a strong readership base and high quality manuscripts should be the first priority. Providing accurate, reliable and speedy reviews should be the next. With an international board of experts in the field of neural engineering, a solid base of reviewers, readers and contributors, JNE is in a strong position to continue to serve the neural engineering community. However, this is still a small community and growth is essential for continued success in this area. There are two areas of expansion of great interest for the field of neural engineering currently poised between basic science on one hand and clinical implementation on the other: translational neuroscience and therapeutic neural engineering. We should strive to bridge the gap between basic neuroscience, clinical science and engineering by attracting contributions from neuroscientists and clinicians w

Durand, Dominique M.

2006-09-01

414

Evidence for Future Cognition in Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence concerning the possibility of mental time travel into the future by animals was reviewed. Both experimental laboratory studies and field observations were considered. Paradigms for the study of future anticipation and planning included inhibition of consumption of current food contingent on future receipt of either a larger quantity or…

Roberts, William A.

2012-01-01

415

Future of PACS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts to forecast tow to five years to understand the future PACS environment and is the result of reviews of literature and interviews with nearly thirty organization sand individuals representing the PACS community. Two to five years was set as a realistic limit to projections although thoughts for the future of digital medical imaging beyond five years are included. The variance in projections even in the short term is significant and any projection beyond five years will be even more uncertain. The organizations that contributed to the interviews include academic centers, the federal government, consultants and vendors of PACS technology. The vendor products span the industry to include capture of images at the modality level, image management and distribution systems, services, and speech recognition. This paper will place the changes that will occur in PACS within the context of the larger changes that are occurring in health care, the practice of image acquisition and interpretation, and information systems. Selected technologies that will influence PACS are reviewed in more depth with a view towards the affect that they will have on PACS and the interpretation of images.

Kirchdoerfer, Richard G.

1997-05-01

416

Teacher Education in Global Futures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines goals for social studies and outlines principles for selecting content, activities, resources, and strategies for training social studies teachers. Goals include awareness of key global issues, concern for the future, and willingness to take responsibility. A list of resource materials is also included. (KC)

Raach, Marilyn; Bixler, Jim

1980-01-01

417

Caregivers Who Refuse Preventive Care for Their Children: The Relationship Between Immunization and Topical Fluoride Refusal  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine caregivers’ refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Methods. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Results. The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.32, 1.96; P?topical fluoride (P?topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.

2014-01-01

418

Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.  

PubMed

Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Methods. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Results. The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.32, 1.96; P?topical fluoride (P?topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children. PMID:24832428

Chi, Donald L

2014-07-01

419

Future Optical Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents views on the future of optical networking. A historical look at the emergence of optical networking is first taken, followed by a discussion on the drivers pushing for a new and pervasive network, which is based on photonics and can satisfy the needs of a broadening base of residential, business, and scientific users. Regional plans and targets for optical networking are reviewed to understand which current approaches are judged important. Today, two thrusts are driving separate optical network infrastructure models, namely 1) the need by nations to provide a ubiquitous network infrastructure to support all the future services and telecommunication needs of residential and business users and 2) increasing demands by the scientific community for networks to support their requirements with respect to large-scale data transport and processing. This paper discusses these network models together with the key enabling technologies currently being considered for future implementation, including optical circuit, burst and packet switching, and optical code-division multiplexing. Critical subsystem functionalities are also reviewed. The discussion considers how these separate models might eventually merge to form a global optical network infrastructure.

O'Mahony, Michael J.; Politi, Christina; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

2006-12-01

420

Portal to the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Museums are a portal connecting us to a deeper understanding of the world in which we live, from our own backyards to the most distant galaxies; an access point to the incredible discoveries we have made about the natural world and a flashpoint for inspiring the next generation of explorers. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is poised to redefine what a natural history museum can be, offering visitors an opportunity to travel through space and time to explore the origins of our planet, follow the evolution of life on Earth and project into -- and plan for -- the future. The Museum will launch visitors into the future this summer via SmartHome Cleveland -- an extremely energy-efficient "passive house" that will demonstrate the future of green building technology. This unique exhibit is part of a special series of exhibits, programs and workshops on sustainability, including a major exhibit on Climate Change, which will be featured at the Museum this summer and fall.

Gates, Evalyn

2011-04-01

421

Facing the Future (TM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Facing the Future(TM) provides educational materials and professional development opportunities for educators that address environmental issues such as population growth, poverty and equity, consumption trends, peace and conflict, health, climate change, and sustainability. These materials include textbooks for students, service learning and action projects, and curriculum units with activities and lesson plans that meet educational standards. The organization's web site provides information on downloading and/or purchasing these materials, information on a featured curriculum unit, news and event announcements, and information on professional development opportunities for in-service and pre-service educators.

422

Microstrip dispersion including anisotropic substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A perturbation-iteration solution based on potential theory is develoepd for determining the effective dielectric constant, characteristic impedance, and current-charge distribution on a microstrip transmission line with isotropic and anisotropic substrates. The numerical implementation of the theory is described and is suitable for use on a personal computer. Computed data for several common substrate materials are included.

Kretch, Brian E.; Collin, Robert E.

1987-01-01

423

Topical Treatment of Nonhealing Venous Leg Ulcer with Propolis Ointment  

PubMed Central

An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78?cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4?cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone.

Kucharzewski, M.; Kozka, M.; Urbanek, T.

2013-01-01

424

Topical treatment of nonhealing venous leg ulcer with propolis ointment.  

PubMed

An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9-9.78?cm(2)) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2-9.4?cm(2)) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121

Kucharzewski, M; Kózka, M; Urbanek, T

2013-01-01

425

Compatibility of a protein topical gel with wound dressings.  

PubMed

The compatibility between several dressing materials and a recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) topical methylcellulose gel formulation was investigated. The dressings being studied were Adaptic, Non-stick Dressing, Conformant 2, Opsite and Tegapore. The criteria to select a compatible dressing include protein stability, absence of leachables from the dressing, and ability to retain gel on wound. An LC-MS method with sample treatment using cellulase was developed to determine protein oxidation in gel formulations. Results showed that rhVEGF was significantly oxidized by Adaptic dressing in 24 h. Protein oxidation was likely due to the peroxides, as determined by FOX assay, released into the protein solution from the dressing. Furthermore, Adaptic dressing caused protein adsorption loss, formation of high MW protein adducts, and released leachables as determined by RP-HPLC, LC-MS, and SEC. No protein oxidation or loss was observed after exposure to the other four alternative dressings. However, unknown leachables were detected in the presence of Opsite and Non-stick Dressing. The pore sizes of the Conformant 2 and Non-stick dressings were too large to hold the topical gel within the wound area, making them unsuitable for patient use. No rhVEGF bioactivity loss was observed in the presence of Tegapore. In conclusion, Tegapore was considered suitable for the rhVEGF topical gel. PMID:18623201

Ji, Junyan A; Borisov, Oleg; Ingham, Erika; Ling, Victor; Wang, Y John

2009-02-01

426

Once-daily topical treatment for psoriasis: calcipotriene + betamethasone two-compound topical formulation  

PubMed Central

Background Topical treatments are usually effective in mild psoriasis. However, the complexity of their use may result in low patient adherence with treatment. Combination of a vitamin D analog and a corticosteroid into a two-compound topical formulation has increased efficacy compared with either drug administered alone. Once-daily application of such a product would likely improve adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether twice-daily application of a calcipotriene + betamethasone topical formulation can provide improved clinical outcomes compared with once-daily treatment with the same product. Methods A review of the literature was performed seeking clinical trials comparing once-daily versus twice-daily application of calcipotriene + betamethasone topical formulations for the treatment of psoriasis. Results We found only one relevant clinical trial. This study showed similar efficacy and safety with once-daily versus twice-daily application of a topical calcipotriene + betamethasone formulation in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Conclusion Once-daily application of a topical calcipotriene + betamethasone formulation may offer increased patient convenience and potentially increased patient adherence with long-term treatment, compared with twice-daily use, without reducing the efficacy. In order to enhance adherence, patient preference regarding frequency of application of topical treatments should be considered when prescribing medications.

Shepherd, Jonisha; Taheri, Arash; Feldman, Steven R

2014-01-01

427

NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

1987-01-01

428

A status report on topical tazarotene in the management of acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

Tazarotene is a synthetic retinoid that, depending on the concentration and vehicle, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris (AV) and plaque psoriasis. Tazarotene is also used as adjunctive treatment for specified clinical manifestations of chronically photodamaged skin (facial fine wrinkling, mottled facial hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, and benign facial lentigines), along with comprehensive skin care and photoprotection from sunlight. The gel formulation was released in the United States in 1997, with the cream formulation made available in 2000. Multiple studies are available supporting the effective and safe use of topical tazarotene for each of its indications. This article provides an overview of the pharmacology of topically applied tazarotene, discussing in particular up-to-date information on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of topical tazarotene for AV, including monotherapy and combination therapy studies. Topical tazarotene 0.1% in both formulations is highly effective in reducing both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions, and can be used in combination with other topical agents, including formulations containing benzoyl peroxide or dapsone 5% gel. Although many patients tolerate the use of topical tazarotene without significant issues or concerns, some patients experience application-site tolerability reactions, which can usually be managed with proper skin care and are less frequent with the cream formulation. PMID:23545935

Del Rosso, James Q; Tanghetti, Emil

2013-03-01

429

Health-related hot topic detection in online communities using text clustering.  

PubMed

Recently, health-related social media services, especially online health communities, have rapidly emerged. Patients with various health conditions participate in online health communities to share their experiences and exchange healthcare knowledge. Exploring hot topics in online health communities helps us better understand patients' needs and interest in health-related knowledge. However, the statistical topic analysis employed in previous studies is becoming impractical for processing the rapidly increasing amount of online data. Automatic topic detection based on document clustering is an alternative approach for extracting health-related hot topics in online communities. In addition to the keyword-based features used in traditional text clustering, we integrate medical domain-specific features to represent the messages posted in online health communities. Three disease discussion boards, including boards devoted to lung cancer, breast cancer and diabetes, from an online health community are used to test the effectiveness of topic detection. Experiment results demonstrate that health-related hot topics primarily include symptoms, examinations, drugs, procedures and complications. Further analysis reveals that there also exist some significant differences among the hot topics discussed on different types of disease discussion boards. PMID:23457530

Lu, Yingjie; Zhang, Pengzhu; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Deng, Shasha

2013-01-01

430

Health-Related Hot Topic Detection in Online Communities Using Text Clustering  

PubMed Central

Recently, health-related social media services, especially online health communities, have rapidly emerged. Patients with various health conditions participate in online health communities to share their experiences and exchange healthcare knowledge. Exploring hot topics in online health communities helps us better understand patients’ needs and interest in health-related knowledge. However, the statistical topic analysis employed in previous studies is becoming impractical for processing the rapidly increasing amount of online data. Automatic topic detection based on document clustering is an alternative approach for extracting health-related hot topics in online communities. In addition to the keyword-based features used in traditional text clustering, we integrate medical domain-specific features to represent the messages posted in online health communities. Three disease discussion boards, including boards devoted to lung cancer, breast cancer and diabetes, from an online health community are used to test the effectiveness of topic detection. Experiment results demonstrate that health-related hot topics primarily include symptoms, examinations, drugs, procedures and complications. Further analysis reveals that there also exist some significant differences among the hot topics discussed on different types of disease discussion boards.

Lu, Yingjie; Zhang, Pengzhu; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Deng, Shasha

2013-01-01

431

Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Topical Report [SEC 1 THRU 6  

SciTech Connect

In February 1995, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project's ''Path Forward'' recommendation for resolution of the safety and environmental concerns associated with the deteriorating SNF stored in the Hanford Site's K Basins (Hansen 1995). The recommendation included an aggressive series of projects to design, construct, and operate systems and facilities to permit the safe retrieval, packaging, transport, conditioning, and interim storage of the K Basins' SNF. The facilities are the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site and the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The K Basins' SNF is to be cleaned, repackaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), removed from the K Basins, and transported to the CVDF for drying. The MCOs would then be moved to the CSB and weld sealed (Loscoe 1996) for interim storage (about 40 years). One of the major tasks associated with the initial Path Forward activities is the development and maintenance of the safety documentation. In addition to meeting the construction needs for new structures, the safety documentation for each must be generated. A common thread that was identified among the structures was the MCO. Each structure exists for the specific purpose of treating or storing the MCO and its contents. Normally, an extensive amount of MCO-related documentation would be generated for each of the facility safety analysis reports. However, the expedited schedule for removing spent fuel from the K Basins requires that the documentation effort be minimized and repetitious activities be eliminated. Therefore, this topical report has been prepared to address those aspects of the MCO that will be common to the facilities. The MCO will be included in each facility's safety documentation by reference to this topical report. By capturing the design of the MCO and its safety evaluation in a single document, repetition, inconsistency, and duplication of effort is minimized. As changes are made to the MCO, the MCO Topical Report can be updated to retain the validity of references to the report. By submitting the topical report for early review and approval, it will be possible for the facility safety analysis reports to reference the Topical Report for much of the MCO design information.

GARVIN, L.J.

2002-01-21

432

Selecting Topics for Journals: Some Advice for Beginners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides suggestions for prospective authors searching for topics for manuscripts. The article first provides examples of topics for non-data-based articles, then for research topics. Authors are invited to submit manuscripts on these, and on any other topics to this journal.

Maddux, Cleborne D.

2004-01-01

433

Medical Problems Referred to a Care of the Elderly Physician: Insight for Future Geriatrics CME  

PubMed Central

Purpose Family physicians provide the majority of elderly patient care in Canada. Many experience significant challenges in serving this cohort. This study aimed to examine the medical problems of patients referred to a care of the elderly physician, to better understand the geriatric continuing medical education (CME) needs of family doctors. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients assessed at an urban outpatient seniors’ clinic between 2003 and 2008 was conducted. Data from 104 charts were analyzed and survey follow-up with 28 of the referring family physicians was undertaken. Main outcomes include the type and frequency of medical problems actually referred to a care of the elderly physician. Clarification of future geriatric CME topics of need was also assessed. Results Preventive care issues were addressed with 67 patients. Twenty-four required discussion of advance directives. The most common medical problems encountered were osteoarthritis (42), hypertension (34), osteoporosis (32), and depression or anxiety (23). Other common problems encountered that have not been highly cited as being a target of CME included musculoskeletal and joint pain (41), diabetes (23), neck and back pain (20), obesity (11), insomnia (11), and neuropathic, fibromyalgia and “leg cramps” pain (10). The referring family physicians surveyed agreed that these were topics of need for future CME. Conclusions The findings support geriatric CME for the common medical problems encountered. Chronic pain, diabetes, obesity and insomnia continue to be important unresolved issues previously unacknowledged by physicians as CME topics of need. Future CME focusing more on process of geriatric care may also be relevant.

Lam, Robert; Gallinaro, Anna; Adleman, Jenna

2013-01-01

434

TOPICAL REVIEW: Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustics has been broadly studied in biomedicine, for both human and small animal tissues. Photoacoustics uniquely combines the absorption contrast of light or radio frequency waves with ultrasound resolution. Moreover, it is non-ionizing and non-invasive, and is the fastest growing new biomedical method, with clinical applications on the way. This review provides a brief recap of recent developments in photoacoustics in biomedicine, from basic principles to applications. The emphasized areas include the new imaging modalities, hybrid detection methods, photoacoustic contrast agents and the photoacoustic Doppler effect, as well as translational research topics.

Li, Changhui; Wang, Lihong V.

2009-10-01

435

Animations to Assist Learning Some Key Computer Science Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of eight interactive modules was developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute to give undergraduate computer science students a unique online resource for introductory course material. "Each module consists of a set of lessons and review questions with embedded interactive components." Topics include non-decimal number systems and arithmetic, operating systems, programming languages, and software engineering, to name a few. There is even a module that breaks down the fundamental hardware components of a computer's architecture. The animations are of high quality and demonstrate various concepts quite well.

2007-08-05

436

Tomorrow is Today: A Plan for Implementing the Study of the Future in the English Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course, designed to help students explore serious thoughts about the future of society, is intended for an English literature class at the advanced secondary level. The course consists of nine interrelated modules that deal with the following topics: current predictions about the future, with special attention to the film "Future Shock";…

Thompson, David

437

Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

Talay, T. A.

1975-01-01

438

Creating the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity lets students create and write scenarios for the future related to hazardous waste pollution and its cleanup in the United States. Students describe their scenarios using one of a variety of formats; for example, a newspaper opinion/editorial article, a short story, a play, or a poem. Students will illustrate the facts that many familiar products contain hazardous substances; that hazardous substance is a broad term that includes many chemicals and materials, including poisonous or toxic chemicals; that improper use and disposal of these products can result in the production of hazardous waste that can pollute our environment; and that becoming more aware of the hazardous substances we encounter every day and of the types of hazardous waste they produce, is the first step in learning how to properly handle and dispose of them, thereby protecting ourselves and our environment.

439

Angola: a great future  

SciTech Connect

The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

Not Available

1980-11-01

440

Craniofacial hyperhidrosis successfully treated with topical glycopyrrolate.  

PubMed

Treatment of craniofacial hyperhidrosis currently consists of thoracic sympathectomy, which is not widely available. Oral anticholinergic agents and beta-blockers may be effective but also carry significant side effects. We describe a healthy, active 27-year-old male resident physician who had excessive facial sweating with minimal exertion or stress. The sweating was especially pronounced on the forehead, nose, and upper lip. Daily topical application of a 0.5% glycopyrrolate solution to the face and forehead was offered. After the first treatment, facial sweating was significantly reduced and was well controlled under stressful situations, without any discomfort to the skin. No loss of efficacy was seen after multiple face washings. Facial hyperhidrosis recurred after withdrawal of the glycopyrrolate for 2 days, confirming its therapeutic effect. Two years later, he continues to use glycopyrrolate as needed. We conclude that topical glycopyrrolate is effective in treating craniofacial hyperhidrosis and is associated with few adverse effects. PMID:12144084

Luh, Join Y; Blackwell, Thomas A

2002-07-01

441

Topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for cutaneous metastatic melanoma.  

PubMed

Topical immunotherapy with contact sensitizers for metastatic melanoma was first reported more than 30 years ago. Diphencyprone (DPCP) immunotherapy is frequently used to treat cutaneous warts and alopecia areata, and we have previously reported the use of DPCP as a single agent to successfully treat extensive, radiotherapy-resistant melanoma metastases on the scalp. We now report DPCP treatment of a further six patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma. Of seven patients treated with DPCP thus far, four have demonstrated complete responses of their cutaneous lesions and three have had partial responses. The treatment was well-tolerated by all patients. Topical immunotherapy with DPCP is inexpensive and relatively non-invasive and should be considered in patients with locally advanced skin metastases that are unsuitable for other therapies. PMID:19916970

Damian, Diona L; Shannon, Kerwin F; Saw, Robyn P; Thompson, John F

2009-11-01

442

Contact sensitivity to topical antimicrobials. (II). Sensitizing potentials of some topical antimicrobials.  

PubMed

A predictive study comparing the sensitizing potentials of some topical antimicrobials, using a modified Beuhler's technique, showed that over-the-counter (OTC) antimicrobials were more sensitizing than prescribed topical antibiotics. Among OTC antimicrobials, proflavine was the most potent sensitizer (4/10 guinea pigs); parachlorometaxylenol, benzalkonium chloride and propamidine isethionate moderate sensitizers (2/10 guinea pigs); iodine a weak sensitizer (1/10 guinea pigs); and chlorhexidine and cetrimide very weak sensitizers (0/10 guinea pigs). Among prescribed topical antibiotics, neomycin was a moderate sensitizer (2/10 guinea pigs); gentamycin and chloramphenicol weak sensitizers (1/10 guinea pigs); kanamycin, clioquinol, polymyxin B, bacitracin, tetracycline, sodium fusidate and fusidic acid very weak sensitizers (0/10 guinea pigs). There was good correlation between sensitizing potentials in animal studies and clinical experience of contact allergy to these topical antimicrobials. PMID:2791540

Goh, C L

1989-09-01

443

Topical application of DEET for schistosomiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also known as DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent that is used extensively against both human and animal pests, worldwide. Recent studies show that topical lipid formulations of DEET, such as LipoDEET, are highly effective in killing schistosome cercariae in the skin. Minimal systemic absorption, low manufacturing cost, and a wide range of activity against insects and schistosomes

Kalyanasundaram Ramaswamy; Yi-Xun He; Buz Salafsky; Takeshi Shibuya

2003-01-01

444

Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

445

[Topics on anaerobic bacteria and anaerobic infection].  

PubMed

Considerable information has been accumulated in the field of anaerobic bacteria and anaerobic infections in the last ten years. Here we tried to briefly introduce several selected topics of clinical importance in this field: Proposal of the term "Nanaerobe", Changes of classification and nomenclature of anaerobes, Anaerobic bacteremia, Lemierre's syndrome as a revival anaerobic infection, Atopobium vaginae as Bacterial Vaginosis-associated bacteria, and new actions of the Clostridium perfringens toxins. PMID:16629490

Watanabe, Kunitomo

2006-03-01

446

Alopecia areata: more on topical sensitizers.  

PubMed

Our experience on treating alopecia areata with topical sensitizers (diphencyprone, squaric acid dibutylester) is reported: staging, prognosis, side effects, follow-up, and psychological attitude of the patients towards this therapy and wigs are the focused aspects. The possible mechanisms of action of these allergens are discussed, reporting the case of a female patient with concomitant appearance of hair regrowth and psoriatic plaques in the same area after SADBE therapy. PMID:2311796

Orecchia, G; Marelli, M A; Perfetti, L; Rabbiosi, G

1990-01-01

447

Parent-Teen Communication About Sexual Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent-teen communication about sexual topics was examined in 666 mother-teen and 510 father-teen pairs. Parents and their 8th- through 12th-grade children completed parallel surveys that assessed demographic, relationship, and attitudinal variables hypothesized to be linked to sexual communication. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine which variables were linked to teens' reports of “one good talk” about each of three

MARCELA RAFFAELLI; KAREN BOGENSCHNEIDER; MARY FRAN FLOOD

1998-01-01

448

Sorbent development for mercury control. final topical report including semiannual for january 1, 1998 through june 30, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources liste...

D. J. Hassett E. S. Olson G. E. Dunham R. K. Sharma R. C. Timpe S. J. Miller

1998-01-01

449

SORBENT DEVELOPMENT FOR MERCURY CONTROL. Final topical report including semiannual for January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998.  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources listed were coal (72 tons/yr), medical waste incinerators (65 tons/yr), and municipal waste combustors (64 tons/yr). The emissions from both medical waste incinerators and municipal waste combustors were recently regulated, which, together with the reduction of mercury in consumer products such as batteries and fluorescent lights, has already reduced the emissions from these sources, as stated in the final EPA Mercury Report to Congress (2). EPA now estimates total point-source mercury emissions to be 158 tons/yr, with coal remaining at 72 tons/yr, while medical waste incinerators are down to 16 tons/yr and municipal waste combustors are at 30 tons/yr. Coal is now the primary source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the US, accounting for 46%. In addition, the use of coal in the US has been increasing every year and passed the 1-billion-ton-per-year mark for the first time in 1997 (3). At the current rate of increase, coal consumption would reach 1.4 billion tons annually by the year 2020. On a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current US coal consumption level. Therefore, in the US coal will be the dominant source of mercury emissions and worldwide coal may be the cause of significantly increased mercury emissions unless an effective control strategy is implemented. However, much uncertainty remains over the most technically sound and cost-effective approach for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and a number of critical research needs will have to be met to develop better control (2).

David J. Hassett; Edwin S. Olson; Grant E. Dunham; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ronald C. Timpe; Stanley J. Miller

1998-10-01

450

SORBENT DEVELOPMENT FOR MERCURY CONTROL. Final topical report including semiannual for January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons\\/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons\\/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources listed were coal (72 tons\\/yr), medical waste incinerators (65 tons\\/yr), and municipal waste combustors (64 tons\\/yr). The emissions from both medical waste incinerators

David J. Hassett; Edwin S. Olson; Grant E. Dunham; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ronald C. Timpe; Stanley J. Miller

1998-01-01

451

Topical cyclosporine A for the dry eye findings of thyroid orbitopathy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the beneficial effect of topically administered Cyclosporine A (CsA) for the dry eye findings of thyroid orbitopathy patients.Patients and methodsThis prospective pilot study included 73 eyes of 42 patients with thyroid orbitopathy who had documented dry eye findings. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: in group 1 (48 eyes), patients received topical artificial tear-drop treatment. In group

U E Altiparmak; D E Acar; P A Ozer; S D Emec; R Kasim; H Ustun; S Duman

2010-01-01

452

[Topical therapy of inflammatory dermatoses, pruritus and pain, as well as hyperhidrosis].  

PubMed

In this review, substances suitable for the topical treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, pruritus, pain and hyperhidrosis are presented. Both non-specific and specific topical treatments are discussed with respect to their mode of action, indications and side effects; included are corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, dithranol, coal tar, liquor carbonis detergens, vitamin D analogues, metronidazole, azelaic acid, retinoids, and benzoyl peroxide. Additionally, practical directions for the treatment of these common skin diseases are provided. PMID:24500042

Schultheis, K; Messerschmidt, A; Ochsendorf, F

2014-03-01

453

Eprinomectin: A novel avermectin for use as a topical endectocide for cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eprinomectin (MK-397 or 4?-epi-acetylamino-4?-deoxy-avermectin B1) is a novel avermectin selected for development as a topical endectocide for all cattle, including lactating dairy cows. Herein, we show its anthelmintic, insecticidal and miticidal activity. To determine its anthelmintic capabilities, eprinomectin was tested topically on Jersey calves at 0.08, 0.2, or 0.5 mg kg?1 in a probe formulation against experimental infections of adult

W. L. Shoop; J. R. Egerton; C. H. Eary; H. W. Haines; B. F. Michael; H. Mrozik; P. Eskola; M. H. Fisher; L. Slayton; D. A. Ostlind; B. J. Skelly; R. K. Fulton; D. Barth; S. Costa; L. M. Gregory; W. C. Campbell; R. L. Seward; M. J. Turner

1996-01-01

454

Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles  

SciTech Connect

We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

2008-01-03

455

Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy  

PubMed Central

Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye symptoms. LWE may be related to mechanical forces during blinking resulting in inflammation of the ocular surface. Rebamipide also has various anti-inflammatory effects. In this report, we tried treatment with topical rebamipide for two cases of LWE. One case had been treated with sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution and diquafosol sodium eye drops by other doctors for several weeks. The other case was not previously treated. In both cases, fluorescein staining of the cornea and lid margin was remarkably improved, ocular symptoms decreased, and tear film break-up times increased with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2–3 weeks. Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal and conjunctival disorders in LWE. This drug may provide a novel approach to the treatment of LWE.

Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Mariko; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

2013-01-01

456

Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy.  

PubMed

Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye symptoms. LWE may be related to mechanical forces during blinking resulting in inflammation of the ocular surface. Rebamipide also has various anti-inflammatory effects. In this report, we tried treatment with topical rebamipide for two cases of LWE. One case had been treated with sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution and diquafosol sodium eye drops by other doctors for several weeks. The other case was not previously treated. In both cases, fluorescein staining of the cornea and lid margin was remarkably improved, ocular symptoms decreased, and tear film break-up times increased with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2-3 weeks. Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal and conjunctival disorders in LWE. This drug may provide a novel approach to the treatment of LWE. PMID:24204116

Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Mariko; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

2013-01-01

457

Large, Multilingual, Broadcast News Corpora For Cooperative Research in Topic Detection And Tracking: The TDT2 and TDT3 Corpus Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the creation and content two corpora, TDT-2 and TDT-3, created for the DARPA sponsored Topic Detection and Tracking project. The research goal in the TDT program is to create the core technology of a news understanding system that can process multilingual news content categorizing individual stories according to the topic(s) they describe. The research tasks include segmentation

Christopher Cieri; David Graff; Mark Liberman; Nii Martey; Stephanie Strassel

2000-01-01

458

Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity  

SciTech Connect

In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

Candy, J.; Belli, E. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2011-06-10

459

Designing real terrorism futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2003, the Policy Analysis Market (PAM) was described as terrorism futures, and immediately cancelled. While PAM was not in fact designed to be terrorism futures, I here consider five design issues with implementing and using real terrorism futures: combinatorics, manipulation, moral hazard, hiding prices, and decision selection bias. As neither these nor other problems seem insurmountable, terrorism futures

Robin D. Hanson

2006-01-01

460

The future of energy, environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lasting effects of energy consumption on the environment continue to be a problem as the world's population requires more and more energy. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to environmental issues related to the use and production of energy. Fossil fuels, nuclear energy, hydropower, and clean air are discussed in the context of environmental quality. Students can read about the development of environmentally friendly vehicles and follow a link that describes current environmental problems in the hydropower industry. Links to eight PBS NewsHour articles on environmental issues and energy are also provided. Seven additional energy-related links discuss global warming, ethanol fuel use, biodiesel, and air quality, among others topics. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

461

Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia  

PubMed Central

Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. Results: Five clinical studies showed positive effects of a topical melatonin solution in the treatment of AGA in men and women while showing good tolerability: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm2; M3: 159/cm2; M6: 173/cm2;) (P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant (P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% (P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Conclusions: Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was good, the topical application of a cosmetic melatonin solution can be considered as a treatment option in androgenetic alopecia.

Fischer, Tobias W; Trueb, Ralph M; Hanggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

2012-01-01

462

TOPICAL REVIEW: Multifunctional nanoassemblies of block copolymers for future cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoassemblies from amphiphilic block copolymers are promising nanomedicine platforms for cancer diagnosis and therapy due to their relatively small size, high loading capacity of drugs, controlled drug release, in vivo stability and prolonged blood circulation. Recent clinical trials with self-assembled polymeric micelles incorporating anticancer drugs have shown improved antitumor activity and decreased side effects encouraging the further development of nanoassemblies for drug delivery. This review summarizes recent approaches considering stimuli-responsive, multifunctionality and more advanced architectures, such as vesicles or worm-like micelles, for tumor-specific drug and gene delivery.

Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

2010-02-01

463

Gap analysis methodology for identifying future ICT related eGovernment research topics - case of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern ICT enables governments all over the world to improve their operation in order to become more efficient and effective. Despite of all possible benefits of using modern ICT, governments still struggle with the problems of inefficiency of their operation. eGovernment is being discussed in many contexts. Expectations of research and implementation in this field were high. However, many investments

Andreja Pucihar; Kristina Bogataj; Maria Wimmer

464

Framework for Estimating Future Lower-48 Natural Gas Processing Costs. Topical Report January-April 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reported study was undertaken to combine the results of the database of the chemical composition of current natural gas reserves and undiscovered natural gas resources with gas production projections taken from the 1994 edition of the Gas Research Ins...

H. E. Vidas D. S. Haverkamp

1994-01-01

465

Brake assembly including torque monitor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a brake assembly for selectively braking rotation of an input shaft extending from a control rod drive having a longitudinal centerline axis, the shaft being rotatable for selectively inserting and withdrawing a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a stationary base; an annular bearing mounted to the base; a brake mounted to the bearing; a backing plate mounted to the bearing; a first braking pad fixedly joined to the backing plate; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the input shaft and disposed adjacent to the first pad; a second braking pad disposed adjacent to the rotor disc; and means for selectively clamping the first and second pads against the rotor disc for braking the input shaft; means for torsionally restraining the brake including: a pin extending outwardly from the backing plate toward the base; and a spring extending from the base to the pin and generally perpendicular to the centerline axis; and means for monitoring the angle for monitoring braking torque capability of the brake.

Dillmann, C.W.

1992-07-21

466

Topic models: A novel method for modeling couple and family text data  

PubMed Central

Couple and family researchers often collect open-ended linguistic data – either through free response questionnaire items or transcripts of interviews or therapy sessions. Because participant's responses are not forced into a set number of categories, text-based data can be very rich and revealing of psychological processes. At the same time it is highly unstructured and challenging to analyze. Within family psychology analyzing text data typically means applying a coding system, which can quantify text data but also has several limitations, including the time needed for coding, difficulties with inter-rater reliability, and defining a priori what should be coded. The current article presents an alternative method for analyzing text data called topic models (Steyvers & Griffiths, 2006), which has not yet been applied within couple and family psychology. Topic models have similarities with factor analysis and cluster analysis in that topic models identify underlying clusters of words with semantic similarities (i.e., the “topics”). In the present article, a non-technical introduction to topic models is provided, highlighting how these models can be used for text exploration and indexing (e.g., quickly locating text passages that share semantic meaning) and how output from topic models can be used to predict behavioral codes or other types of outcomes. Throughout the article a collection of transcripts from a large couple therapy trial (Christensen et al., 2004) is used as example data to highlight potential applications. Practical resources for learning more about topic models and how to apply them are discussed.

Atkins, David C.; Rubin, Tim N.; Steyvers, Mark; Doeden, Michelle A.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew

2012-01-01

467

The Community of the Future. The Drucker Foundation Future Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of 25 essays that explore what communities will look like in the future. They include: "Introduction: Civilizing the City" (Peter F. Drucker); (1) "The Paradox and Promise of Community" (Margaret J. Wheatley and Myron Kellner-Rogers); (2) "Economic Community and Social Investment" (Lester C. Thurow); (3) "The…

Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Goldsmith, Marshall, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.; Schubert, Richard F., Ed.

468

Hot topics in epigenetic mechanisms of aging: 2011  

PubMed Central

Summary Aging is a complex process that results in compromised biological functions of the organism and increased susceptibility to disease and death. Although the molecular basis of aging is currently being investigated in many experimental contexts, there is no consensus theory to fully explain the aging process. Epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression, may play central roles in controlling changes in gene expression and genomic instability during aging. In this Hot Topic review, we first examine the mechanisms by which these epigenetic factors contribute to aging in diverse eukaryotic species including experimental models of yeasts, worms, and mammals. In a second section, we will emphasize in the mammalian epigenetic alterations and how they may affect human longevity by altering stem cell function and/or somatic cell decline. The field of aging epigenetics is ripe with potential, but is still in its infancy, as new layers of complexity are emerging in the epigenetic network. As an example, we are only beginning to understand the relevance of non-coding genome to organism aging or the existence of an epigenetic memory with transgenerational inheritance. Addressing these topics will be fundamental for exploiting epigenetics phenomena as markers of aging-related diseases or as therapeutic targets.

Berdasco, Maria; Esteller, Manel

2012-01-01

469

Hot topics in epigenetic mechanisms of aging: 2011.  

PubMed

Aging is a complex process that results in compromised biological functions of the organism and increased susceptibility to disease and death. Although the molecular basis of aging is currently being investigated in many experimental contexts, there is no consensus theory to fully explain the aging process. Epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression, may play central roles in controlling changes in gene expression and genomic instability during aging. In this Hot Topic review, we first examine the mechanisms by which these epigenetic factors contribute to aging in diverse eukaryotic species including experimental models of yeasts, worms, and mammals. In a second section, we will emphasize in the mammalian epigenetic alterations and how they may affect human longevity by altering stem cell function and/or somatic cell decline. The field of aging epigenetics is ripe with potential, but is still in its infancy, as new layers of complexity are emerging in the epigenetic network. As an example, we are only beginning to understand the relevance of non-coding genome to organism aging or the existence of an epigenetic memory with transgenerational inheritance. Addressing these topics will be fundamental for exploiting epigenetics phenomena as markers of aging-related diseases or as therapeutic targets. PMID:22321768

Berdasco, María; Esteller, Manel

2012-04-01

470

Cutaneous Irritation in the Topical Application of BUdR NSC-38297 to New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin irritation potential of topically applied BUdR NSC-38297 on New Zealand white rabbits was evaluated utilizing the method of Draize. Histologic studies of selected tissues including skin test sites were performed. Topically applied BUdR at concent...

J. C. Murphy P. Skierkowski E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1977-01-01

471

Nifedipine in compounded oral and topical preparations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate nifedipine oral and topical compounding formulas and procedures. Topical preparations were compounded in Plastibase 50 W, using combinations of two drug sources and four types of light exposure. Oral preparations were compounded using combinations of two drug sources, two types of light exposure, and four suspending vehicles. Drug sources consisted of the contents of commercial nifedipine soft-gelatin capsules and nifedipine powder USP. Light exposures were ambient, red-shaded, gold-shaded fluorescent light. Topical formulations were assessed for potency, uniformity, and usability characteristics such as acceptable look and feel of the preparation. Oral formulations were assessed for potency, uniformity, and usability characteristics, such as acceptable look and taste of the preparation. Preparations which were compounded, in entirety, under gold-shaded fluorescent light with nifedipine powder USP as the drug source resulted in a potency of 90% to 110% of intended value. Preparations that were exposed to ambient or red-shaded fluorescent light at any time in the compounding procedure resulted in sub potent preparations. Nifedipine is sensitive to certain wavelengths of light resulting in rapid degradation. When exposed to fluorescent room light, significant degradation may occur in a time frame less than what may be required to compound a preparation, necessitating the need for compounding to take place under a spectrum of light that will not degrade the drug. Gold fluorescent lighting appears to prevent nifedipine degradation during compounding procedures. Concerning the drug source, the use of commercial nifedipine soft-gelatin capsules was problematic, while nifedipine powder USP is a suitable choice for the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:23696085

McCluskey, Susan V; Brunn, Gregory J

2011-01-01

472

Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous tear production.

Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

2012-01-01

473

Topical rapamycin (sirolimus) for facial angiofibromas  

PubMed Central

Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a fungal fermentation product that inhibits the proper functioning of a serine/threonine protein kinase in mammalian cells eponymously named mammalian target of rapamycin, or mTOR. Rapamycin is a novel class of anticancer and immunosuppressant drugs targeting the proteins at molecular level. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is routinely incorporated in drug-eluting stents used for cardiac angioplasty. In recent years, rapamycin was found to be efficacious in managing the symptom complex of tuberous sclerosis, i.e. renal angiomyolipoma, giant cell astrocytoma and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Various investigators have also proved that topically applied rapamycin causes regression of facial angiofibromas, giving better cosmetic results.

Madke, Bhushan

2013-01-01

474

Accurate searching using XML and topic maps.  

PubMed

Most clinical data is narrative text and often not accessible and searchable at the clinical workstation. We have therefore developed a search engine that allows indexing, searching and linking different kinds of data using web technologies. Text matching methods fail to represent implicit relationships between data, e.g. the relationship between HIV and AIDS. The ISO topic maps standard provides a data model that allows representing arbitrary relationships between resources. Such relationships form the basis for context sensitive searching and accurate search results. XML standards are used for the interchange of data relationships. Our approach has been applied to medical classification systems and clinical practice guidelines with promising results. PMID:14664036

Schweiger, Ralf; Hölzer, Simon; Dudeck, Joachim

2003-01-01

475

[Topical administration of cyclosporin in psoriasis vulgaris].  

PubMed

Two groups of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were topically treated either with 10% cyclosporin in a jelly base or with 5% cyclosporin in an ointment base under occlusion. We found that cyclosporin penetrates into the lower epidermis and the dermis, when it is applied under occlusion. Obviously, the target cells are neutrophil granulocytes, since they decrease in number under cyclosporin, whereas the other inflammatory cells as well as the epidermal proliferation remain unchanged. In contrast to systemic application of cyclosporin, we did not observe any clinical differences between plaques treated with cyclosporin and those treated with placebo. PMID:2202163

Bunse, T; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G

1990-06-01

476

Topical application of DEET for schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also known as DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent that is used extensively against both human and animal pests, worldwide. Recent studies show that topical lipid formulations of DEET, such as LipoDEET, are highly effective in killing schistosome cercariae in the skin. Minimal systemic absorption, low manufacturing cost, and a wide range of activity against insects and schistosomes potentially makes compounds such as LipoDEET an excellent prophylactic agent against human and animal schistosomiasis in endemic areas, especially for travelers, until an effective vaccine is available.

Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram; He, Yi-Xun; Salafsky, Buz; Shibuya, Takeshi

2009-01-01

477

Specific topics and complications of parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims  Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has proven a tremendous advance in all disciplines in medicine but itself introduces a spectrum\\u000a of possible complications related to both the parenteral nutritional solution as well as the technique of intravenous delivery.\\u000a Our aim is to review the specific complications of TPN.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This article presents a critical literature review of relevant topics in

Eduardo E. Montalvo-Jave; José L. Zarraga; Michael G. Sarr

2007-01-01

478

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOPICAL STEROIDS, TOPICAL TRETENOIN (0.05%) AND DITHRANOL PASTE IN ALOPECIA AREATA  

PubMed Central

Background: There have been various controversial reports regarding the efficacy of topical agents in topical therapy of alopecia areata. Aim: The study aims to find out the effective ones among the readily available ones for a dermatologist. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients were chosen from the skin OPD of Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, after evaluating the exclusion criterions. Treatments were continued for 3 month period and a follow up after further 3 months. After dividing them into four groups–group-I (topical steroids), group-II (topical tretinoin 0.05%) group-III (dithranol paste 0.25%), and group-IV (white soft petrolatum jelly)–patients were evaluated. Results: Seventy percent of group-I, 55% of group-II, 35% of group-III, and 20% of the control group (white soft petrolatum jelly) responded favorably. Side effects in the form of dermatitis and hyperpigmentation were seen in group-III. However, no patient discontinued from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that both topical steroids and tretinoin were fairly effective in limited variant of alopecia areata.

Das, Sudip; Ghorami, R C; Chatterjee, T; Banerjee, Gautam

2010-01-01

479

Indications for the use of topical sodium fluoride in areas with water fluoridation.  

PubMed

If maximum benefit from the use of sodium fluoride compounds in reducing dental caries is expected, topical sodium fluoride therapy should not be discontinued immediately after the initiation of a water fluoridation program in the community. The most important indication for the use of topical fluorides in water fluoridated areas is in the case of children up to and including the age of sixteen in an area which has had water fluoridation in effect for eight years or less. Further reduction in caries among children as a result of topical fluoride therapy after fluoridation has been in effect for eight years has not been observed. The use of topical fluorides on adults, in fluoride or nonfluoride areas, has not been observed to be significant benefit in reducing dental caries. PMID:18360940

Winters, A H

1960-10-01

480

The Future of the Universe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of the universe is discussed in terms of several models. These include the closed, open, and critical models of the universe. Black holes and speculation on what may happen to life in the cosmological models are also discussed. (JN)

Page, Don N.; McKee, M. Randall

1983-01-01

481

The future of nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present conditions and future prospects for the nuclear power industry in the United States are discussed. The presentation includes a review of trends in electrical production, the safety of coal as compared to nuclear generating plants, the dangers of radiation, the economics of nuclear power, the high cost of nuclear power in the United States, and the public fe