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Sample records for gaas bipolar transistor

  1. Fabrication and high temperature characteristics of ion-implanted GaAs bipolar transistors and ring-oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerbeck, F. H.; Yuan, H. T.; Mclevige, W. V.

    1981-01-01

    Ion implantation techniques that permit the reproducible fabrication of bipolar GaAs integrated circuits are studied. A 15 stage ring oscillator and discrete transistor were characterized between 25 and 400 C. The current gain of the transistor was found to increase slightly with temperature. The diode leakage currents increase with an activation energy of approximately 1 eV and dominate the transistor leakage current 1 sub CEO above 200 C. Present devices fail catastrophically at about 400 C because of Au-metallization.

  2. InP/In0:53Ga0:47As/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors on GaAs substrates using InP

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    InP/In0:53Ga0:47As/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors on GaAs substrates using InP operating junction temperature, high-thermal-conductivity InP metamorphic buffer layers were employed. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Metamorphic growth; Heterojunction bipolar

  3. Evaluation of GaAs Schottky gate bipolar transistor (SGBT) by electrothermal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossin, M.; Johnson, C. M.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    A GaAs alternative to the Si IGBT, employing an implanted lateral channel in place of the usual MOSFET inversion channel, is proposed. A simplified analytical model shows that the relatively high ratio of electron to hole mobility in GaAs allows much lower anode emitter injection efficiencies to be used without compromising conductivity modulation of the base region. This, in turn, means that a higher proportion of the total device current is carried by electrons. Design strategies for the GaAs SGBT are investigated and applied in the design of an optimised unit cell. The optimised structure is compared with an equivalent Si IGBT structure by means of electrothermal and transient simulation. Electrothermal simulation shows the GaAs device to have useable performance at junction temperatures in excess of 300°C, a feature which is consistent with the wide band-gap of GaAs. Transient simulations show reduced minority carrier tailing effects at both turn-on and turn-off, with initial turn-off tail currents being reduced by a factor of 5 compared to the Si IGBT. The resulting reduction in turn-off loss allows switching frequencies to be increased by a factor of 4 for the same total losses. The excellent switching performance derives from the relatively low proportion of hole current needed to ensure effective conductivity modulation of the structure.

  4. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  5. Npn double heterostructure bipolar transistor with ingaasn base region

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Ping-Chih; Baca, Albert G.; Li, Nein-Yi; Hou, Hong Q.; Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2004-07-20

    An NPN double heterostructure bipolar transistor (DHBT) is disclosed with a base region comprising a layer of p-type-doped indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) sandwiched between n-type-doped collector and emitter regions. The use of InGaAsN for the base region lowers the transistor turn-on voltage, V.sub.on, thereby reducing power dissipation within the device. The NPN transistor, which has applications for forming low-power electronic circuitry, is formed on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate and can be fabricated at commercial GaAs foundries. Methods for fabricating the NPN transistor are also disclosed.

  6. Super Matched Bipolar Transistor Pair Sets New

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    Super Matched Bipolar Transistor Pair Sets New Standards for Drift and Noise Matched bipolar transistor pairs are a very powerful design tool, yet have received less and less attention over the last few transistor pairs was being limited by statistical fluctuations in the material itself and in the processing

  7. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  8. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  9. Exploratory antimony containing heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikossi-Anastasiou, Kiki

    1992-09-01

    The advantages of using Sb containing III-V compounds in bipolar type devices are discussed with recent experimental results of two different applications of GaAsSb in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs). The performance of a prototype AlGaAs/GaAsSb/GaAs double HBT (DHBT) that exhibits a current gain of five and a maximum collector current density of 5 X 104 A/cm2 and a pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT with a superlattice GaAsSb emitter ohmic contact, with specific contact resistivity of 5 +/- 1 X 10-7 (Omega) -cm2 across the sample, are examined.

  10. Handout 2 for EE-203 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    that `iC' is independent of VCB , for VCB 0. So collector behaves as an ideal constant current sourceHandout 2 for EE-203 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Sheikh Sharif Iqbal (Ref: Text book in the Syllabus) #12;Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Saturation Cutoff Active Mode Table 5.1: BJT

  11. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  12. Study of radiation effects on bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colder, A.; Croitoru, N.; D'Angelo, P.; De Marchi, M.; Fallica, G.; Leonardi, S.; Levalois, M.; Marcolongo, S.; Marie, P.; Modica, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Seidman, A.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper it was shown that the irradiation with neutrons and carbon ions leads to gain degradation in bipolar transistors due to generation of defects. The density of these generated defects is independent of the type of irradiation (neutrons or carbon ions). Thus, it is possible to evaluate ?(1/ ?), once the expected Frenkel pair density is known. The dependence of the damage constant on collector current is a power law function, with the exception of the lateral pnp transistors, that shows a higher sensitivity to radiation and a different behaviour. Neutrons give a smaller density of Frenkel pairs (CF) than the two sorts of carbon ions of high energy (CHE) and medium energy (CME). It was found that CME causes a higher concentration of CF. The calculated ratio R=CF/ ?, where CF is the Frenkel pair density and ? fluence does not depend on ?, for a given type of radiation. However, it depends on the incoming particle type. Its smallest calculated value was obtained for neutrons ( R=6.1×10), which increases to 1.25×10 3 for CHE and to 1.1×10 4 for CME.

  13. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    DOEpatents

    Short, James Evans (Monongahela, PA); West, Shawn Michael (West Mifflin, PA); Fabean, Robert J. (Donora, PA)

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  14. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2013-11-04

    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77–450?K.

  15. Heterojunction bipolar transistor technology for data acquisition and communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, M.; Beccue, S.; Nubling, R.; Zampardi, P.; Sheng, N.; Pierson, R.

    1992-01-01

    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) technology has emerged as one of the most promising technologies for ultrahigh-speed integrated circuits. HBT circuits for digital and analog applications, data conversion, and power amplification have been realized, with speed performance well above 20 GHz. At Rockwell, a baseline AlGaAs/GaAs HBT technology has been established in a manufacturing facility. This paper describes the HBT technology, transistor characteristics, and HBT circuits for data acquisition and communication.

  16. Silicon carbide and silicon carbide:germanium heterostructure bipolar transistors

    E-print Network

    Kolodzey, James

    Silicon carbide and silicon carbide:germanium heterostructure bipolar transistors K. J. Roe,a) G HBTs based on silicon carbide SiC and a silicon carbide:germanium SiC:Ge alloy. The SiC:Ge base alloy: 10.1063/1.1358851 Silicon carbide has garnered considerable attention as a promising material for use

  17. Bipolar Transistors Can Detect Charge in Electrostatic Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, L.

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors is described that can be used in various electrostatic experiments. Its behaviour enables us to elucidate links between 'static electricity' and electric currents. In addition it allows us to relate the sign of static charges to the sign of the terminals of an ordinary battery. (Contains 7 figures…

  18. Experiments with Charge Indicator Based on Bipolar Transistors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Leos; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors described recently enables us to perform a number of experiments suitable for high-school physics. Several such experiments are presented and discussed in this paper as well as some features of the indicator important for its use in schools, namely its sensitivity and robustness, i.e. the…

  19. Theory of semiconductor magnetic bipolar transistors M. E. Flattea)

    E-print Network

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Theory of semiconductor magnetic bipolar transistors M. E. Flatte´a) and Z. G. Yu Optical Science to generate almost 100% spin-polarized current injection into nonmagnetic semiconductors. Optical control.1063/1.1586996 One motivation for semiconductor spin electronics has been the seminal suggestion of Datta and Das

  20. Design, Simulation and Modeling of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor 

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Kaustubh

    2013-07-09

    The market for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is growing and there is a need for techniques to improve the design, modeling and simulation of IGBT. In this thesis, we first developed a new method to optimize the layout and dimensions...

  1. Development of a planar heterojunction bipolar transistor for very high speed logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Stephen I.; Kroemer, Herbert; Rao, M. A.

    1987-10-01

    The following describes the results of research on 3 to 5 molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth, material characterization and the fabrication of heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) for very-high-speed logic applications. Work on the InGaP/GaAs heterojunction (HJ) was completed. Isotype HJs were grown and evaluated by a CV reconstruction method in order to determine the energy band offsets. It was found that delta Ec = 0.22 eV and delta Ev = 0.24 eV for the lattice matched composition. An inverted AlGaAs GaAs HBT was investigated, and it was shown that an undoped, graded region between emitter and base would eliminate the conduction band spike and provide a buffer for Be diffusion. A new direction toward improvement in performance and fabrication techniques for the AlGaAs/GaAs HBT was successfully demonstrated. Graded-bandgap nonalloyed ohmic contacts using n+ InAs for the AlGaAs emitter and p+ GaSb for the GaAs base were provided by selective epitaxial regrowth. The MBE growth conditions for grading from GaAs to InAs and GaAs to GaSb were determined. Low specific contact resistances were observed for both contact types. A self-aligned AlGaAs/GaAs HBT with graded-gap contacts to both base and emitter was demonstrated.

  2. Monolithic Barrier-All-Around High Electron Mobility Transistor with Planar GaAs Nanowire Channel

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiuling

    integrated AlGaAs barrier- all-around planar GaAs NW high electron mobility transistors (NW- HEMTs on both (100) and (110) GaAs substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through gold was carried out on semi- insulating GaAs (100) substrates in an Aixtron 200 MOCVD reactor under atmospheric

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES 1 Bipolar Charge-Plasma Transistor

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    IEEEProof IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES 1 Bipolar Charge-Plasma Transistor: A Novel Three approach for forming a lateral bipolar4 charge-plasma transistor (BCPT) is explored using 2-D simu-5-p-n transistor. Electrical characteristics of the proposed9 device are simulated and compared

  4. InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors on a GaAs Substrate Using InP Metamorphic Buffer Layer

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    P Metamorphic Buffer Layer Y.M. Kim, M. Dahlstrom, S. Lee, M.J.W. Rodwell, A.C. Gossard Double heterojunction metamorphic growth of InP-based DHBTs on GaAs substrates [4]. Here we report InP-based DHBTs grown on GaAs using InP as the metamorphic buffer layer. While AlGaAsSb and InAlAs have been explored

  5. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  6. Investigation of the tunneling emitter bipolar transistor as spin-injector into silicon

    E-print Network

    Van Veenhuizen, Marc Julien

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis is discussed the tunneling emitter bipolar transistor as a possible spin-injector into silicon. The transistor has a metallic emitter which as a spin-injector will be a ferromagnet. Spin-polarized electrons ...

  7. Development of a planar heterojunction bipolar transistor for very high speed logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, S. I.; Kroemer, H.; Rao, M. A.

    1986-03-01

    The following report describes the results of research on III-V molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth, material characterization and the fabrication of heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) for very high speed logic applications. During the reporting period work on the InGaP/GaAs heterojunction (HJ) was completed. Isotype HJs were grown and evaluated by a CV reconstruction method in order to determine the energy band offsets. It was found that Ec=0.21 eV and Ev=0.25 eV for the lattice matched composition. A new direction toward improvement in performance and the fabrication techniques for the AlGaAs/GaAs HBT was successfully demonstrated. Graded-bandgap nonalloyed ohmic contacts using n+ InAs and GaAs for the AlGaAs emitter and p+ GaSb for the GaAs base were provided by selective epitaxial regrowth. The MBE growth conditions for grading from GaAs to InAs to GaSb were determined. Low specific contact resistances were observed for both contact types. A AlGaAs/GaAs graded-gap contact HBT was grown. A current gain of 20 was measured with only simple wire probes on the base and emitter.

  8. A review of radiation effects in heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B. D.

    2005-09-01

    We present a review of radiation effects studies on heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in order to develop a framework for qualifying devices for application in the harsh radiation environment of space. Radiation effects in different HBT material systems are considered here, including Si/SiGe, GaAs/AlGaAs, and InP/InGaAs. We discuss the different effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation on device performance and review the strong role that device geometry plays in determining the overall radiation tolerance. We present a new comparison of radiation tolerance in conventional transistors, HBTs, and high electron mobility transistors. Finally, we conclude that with proper design, HBTs are excellent candidates for application in space.

  9. A New SiGe Base Lateral PNM Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistor on SOI for Non-Saturating

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    A New SiGe Base Lateral PNM Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistor on SOI for Non-Saturating VLSI Logic Design Abstract- A novel bipolar transistor structure, namely, SiGe base lateral PNM Schottky collector bipolar transistor (SCBT) in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) substrate is explored using two

  10. AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.C.; Baca, A.G.; Li, N.Y.; Sharps, P.R.; Hou, H.Q.; Laroche, J.R.; Ren, F.

    2000-01-04

    The authors demonstrated a functional PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using AlGaAs, InGaAsN, and GaAs. The band alignment between InGaAsN and GaAs has a large {triangle}E{sub c} and negligible {triangle}E{sub v}, this unique characteristic is very suitable for PnP DHBT applications. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}/GaAs PnP DHBT is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (E{sub g}=1.20eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, which is 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. And because GaAs is used for the collector, its BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with BV{sub CEO} of AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs.

  11. Correlated noise in bipolar transistors: Model implementation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszka, Zoltan; Chakravorty, Anjan

    2015-12-01

    A new orthogonalization scheme is suggested for implementing correlated noise of bipolar transistors. The scheme provides a necessary condition on the non-quasi-static (NQS) models that can be used to obtain an implementation-suitable correlated noise model. One of the solutions presented here corresponds to a single node realization not reported so far. The gm -factor is introduced in the noise analysis explaining the deviations of a former noise model from device simulations. The model is extended to include the collector space-charge-region induced noise by retaining the simplicity of the realization and preserving the model parameter count.

  12. Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT): a solid state switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-05-01

    A Copper Vapor Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT),--1200 volts, 400 Amps, each--in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapor Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 Volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17,000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonance circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30,000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapor Laser.

  13. Bipolar snapback in junctionless transistors for capacitorless dynamic random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Parihar, Mukta; Ghosh, Dipankar; Alastair Armstrong, G.; Kranti, Abhinav

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we analyze the snapback effect and extract the effective bipolar current gain in junctionless nanotransistors. The optimal electron and hole concentrations required to trigger and sustain bipolar snapback in junctionless transistors have been evaluated. The occurrence of snapback at lower drain bias (? 2 V) in junctionless devices in comparison to conventional inversion mode transistors demonstrates the enormous potential for static power reduction in capacitorless dynamic random access memories. High values (40-70) of effective bipolar current gain achieved in optimally designed junctionless transistors can be utilized to improve the sensing margin for dynamic memories.

  14. Neutron effects on the electrical and switching characteristics of NPN bipolar power transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactors to generate electrical power for future space missions will require the electrical components used in the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem to operate in the associated radiation environments. An initial assessment of neutron irradiation on the electrical and switching characteristics of commercial high power NPN bipolar transistors was investigated. The results clearly show the detrimental effects caused by neutron irradiation on the electrical and switching characteristics of the NPN bipolar power transistor.

  15. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyun; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Ye, Peide D.; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G.; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.

    2015-02-16

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1??m gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64?mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135?mV/dec, and an I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of greater than 10{sup 7}.

  16. Characteristics of Novel InGaAsN Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    LI,N.Y.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; BACA,ALBERT G.; LAROCHE,J.R.; REN,F.; ARMOUR,E.; SHARPS,P.R.; HOU,H.Q.

    2000-08-01

    The authors demonstrate, for the first time, both functional Pnp AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs (Pnp InGaAsN) and Npn InGaP/InGaAsN/GaAs (Npn InGaAsN) double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) using a 1.2 eV In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} as the base layer for low-power electronic applications. The Pnp InGaAsN DHBT has a peak current gain ({beta}) of 25 and a low turn-on voltage (V{sub ON}) of 0.79 V. This low V{sub ON} is {approximately} 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGAAs/GaAs HBT. For the Npn InGaAsN DHBT, it has a low V{sub ON} of 0.81 V, which is 0.13 V lower than in an InGaP/GaAs HBT. A peak {beta} of 7 with nearly ideal I-V characteristics has been demonstrated. Since GaAs is used as the collector of both Npn and Pnp InGaAsN DHBTs, the emitter-collector breakdown voltage (BV{sub CEO}) are 10 and 12 V, respectively, consistent with the BV{sub CEO} of Npn InGaP/GaAs and Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs of comparable collector thickness and doping level. All these results demonstrate the potential of InGaAsN DHBTs as an alternative for application in low-power electronics.

  17. InGaAsN/AlGaAs Pnp Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    BACA,ALBERT G.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; HOU,H.Q.; LAROCHE,J.R.; LI,N.Y.; REN,F.; SHARPS,P.R.

    1999-11-03

    The authors have demonstrated a functional Pnp heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) using InGaAsN. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} HBT takes advantage of the narrower bandgap energy (E{sub g} = 1.25eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}, which is lattice matched to GaAs. Compared with the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs material system, the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} material system has a larger conduction band offset, while the valence band offset remains comparable. This characteristic band alignment is very suitable for Pnp HBT applications. The device's peak current gain is 23 and it has a turn on voltage of 0.77V, which is 0.25V lower than in a comparable Pnp Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs HBT.

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 48, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2001 2455 Bipolar Transistor Technology: Past and Future

    E-print Network

    Asbeck, Peter M.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 48, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2001 2455 Bipolar Transistor transistor. The emergence of the transistor from Bell Laboratories in late 1947 and early 1948 was the first step in the development of today's semiconductor electronics industry. Currently transistor production

  19. Device characteristics of the PnP AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,PING-CHIH; LI,N.Y.; LAROCHE,J.R.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HOU,H.Q.; REN,F.

    2000-02-09

    The authors have demonstrated a functional PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using AlGaAs, InGaAsN, and GaAs. The band alignment between InGaAsN and GaAs has a large {triangle}E{sub C} and a negligible {triangle}E{sub V}, and this unique characteristic is very suitable for PnP DHBT applications. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}/GaAs PnP DHBT is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (Eg = 1.20 eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, which is 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. And because GaAs is used for the collector, its BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with BV{sub CEO} of AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs of comparable collector thickness and doping level.

  20. Complementary GaAs junction-gated heterostructure field effect transistor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The first circuit results for a new GaAs complementary logic technology are presented. The technology allows for Independently optimizable p- and n- channel transistors with junction gates. Excellent loaded gate delays of 179 ps at 1.2 V and 319 ps at 0.8 V have been demonstrated at low power supply voltages. A power-delay product of 8.9 fJ was obtained at 0.8 V.

  1. 1070 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 49, NO. 6, JUNE 2002 A New Lateral PNM Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistor

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Collector Bipolar Transistor (SCBT) on SOI for Nonsaturating VLSI Logic Design M. Jagadesh Kumar and D transistor (SCBT) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) are explored using two-dimensional (2-D) simulation. The collector-base junction of the proposed lateral PNM transistor consists of a Schottky junction between n

  2. New Silicon Carbide Schottky-gate Bipolar Mode Field Effect Transistor (SiC SBMFET)

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    New Silicon Carbide Schottky-gate Bipolar Mode Field Effect Transistor (SiC SBMFET) without PN for the gate cannot be done on a SiC wafer since most dopants in SiC have negligible diffusion coefficients. Therefore, a SiC BMFET can be formed only if the PN junction gates are replaced by a Schottky gate. For a P

  3. Realising wide bandgap P-SiC-emitter lateral heterojunction bipolar transistors with low

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    performance [4, 5]. In the recent past, SiC as an emitter has also been shown to be a potential candidate of their compatibility with the silicon technology and the excellent properties of SiC. In spite of a large lattice mismatch, wide bandgap SiC emitter hetero- bipolar transistors with large current gains have been

  4. 300 Degree C GaN/AlGaN Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.G.; Cho, H.; Chow, P.P.; Han, J.; Hichman, R.A.; Jung, K.B.; Kopf, R.F.; La Roche, J.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Van Hove, J.M.; Wilson, R.G.

    1998-10-14

    A GaN/AIGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor has been fabricated using C12/Ar dry etching for mesa formation. As the hole concentration increases due to more efficient ionization of the Mg acceptors at elevated temperatures (> 250oC), the device shows improved gain. Future efforts which are briefly summarized. should focus on methods for reducing base resistance.

  5. Using Animation to Improve the Students' Academic Achievement on Bipolar Junction Transistor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoabi, W.; Sabag, N.; Gero, A.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching abstract subjects to students studying towards a degree in electronics practical engineering (a degree between a technician and an engineer) requires didactic tools that enable understanding of issues without using advanced mathematics and physics. One basic issue is the BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) that requires preliminary…

  6. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) modelization for circuit simulation and utilization in pulse modulated inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Ernst-Karl

    A model is developed for the IGBT, which can be used on components for the simulation of power electronics circuits. The use of IGBT in a typical utilization case is examined, e.g., a quick switching pulse inverter for the control of asynchronous machines. The starting point of IGBT model production is an equivalent circuit from a bipolar transistor and from a controlling field effect transistor. The stationary behavior of the bipolar transistor is described by analytically produced nonlinear equations. Available model equations are collected in a dynamic IGBT model. New and modified processes are developed, with which all relevant IGBT parameters can be obtained by electrical measurements in simple test circuits. The validity of the developed IGBT model is demonstrated, using typical load conditions, by comparison with simulation and measurement results.

  7. Transferred substrate heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A.; Samoska, L.; Siegel, P.; Rodwell, M.; Urteaga, M.; Paidi, V.

    2003-01-01

    We present ongoing work towards the development of submillimeter wave transistors with goals of realizing advanced high frequency amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and traditional high-speed digital circuits.

  8. Energy dependence of neutron damage in silicon bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, M.H.; Flanders, T.M.; Sallee, W.W.; Meason, J.L. ); Williams, J.G. ); Kelly, J.G. ); Roknizadeh, M. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports on 2N222A transistors exposed in various neutron fields ranging in energy from thermal to 14 MeV. New spectrum characterization data are reported for three fast reactors used in hardness testing. The neutron energy dependence of transistor damage response was measured and compared with predictions based on ASTM Standards and recent compilations of the silicon kerma factors calculated using NJOY.

  9. Abstract--Basic SiC bipolar transistors have been studied in the past for their applications where high power or high

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Abstract--Basic SiC bipolar transistors have been studied in the past for their applications where high power or high temperature operation is required. However since the current gain in SiC bipolar, it is important to enhance the current gain of SiC bipolar transistors. Using two dimensional mixed mode device

  10. Fabrication of sub-m bipolar transistor structures by scanning probe Shachar Richter, David Cahen,a)

    E-print Network

    Manassen, Yishay

    Fabrication of sub- m bipolar transistor structures by scanning probe microscopy Shachar Richter by a conducting atomic force microscope tip. The structures are characterized by nm scale scanning spreading

  11. Radiation Effects on Bipolar and MOS Transistors Made in Bicmos Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codegoni, D.; Croitoru, N.; D'Angelo, P.; Fallica, G.; Favalli, A.; Leonardi, S.; Modica, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Seidman, A.

    2004-07-01

    Bipolar transistors were irradiated by neutrons, ions, or by both of them. Fast neutrons, as well as other types of particles, produce defects, mainly by displacing silicon atoms from their lattice positions to interstitial locations, i.e. generating vacancy-interstitial pairs, the so-called Frenkel pairs. The experimental results indicate that the gain variation is linearly related to the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) deposition for both neutrons and incoming ions.

  12. Unified planar process for fabricating heterojunction bipolar transistors and buried-heterostructure lasers utilizing impurity-induced disordering

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, R.L.; Mosby, W.J.; Chung, H.F.

    1988-12-26

    We describe results on a novel geometry of heterojunction bipolar transistor that has been realized by impurity-induced disordering. This structure is fabricated by a method that is compatible with techniques for the fabrication of low threshold current buried-heterostructure lasers. We have demonstrated this compatibility by fabricating a hybrid laser/transistor structure that operates as a laser with a threshold current of 6 mA at room temperature, and as a transistor with a current gain of 5.

  13. Effect of High-Voltage Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Collector Design on f(T) and f(MAX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Hietala, V.M.

    1999-03-02

    High-speed InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) for high-voltage circuit applications have been investigated. In order to obtain ideal IV characteristics, a lightly doped (N{sub DC} = 7.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}) thick (W{sub C} = 3.5 {micro}m) layer of GaAs was used as the collector layer. The devices fabricated have shown breakdown voltage exceeding 65 V. Device operated at up to a 60V bias, which is the highest operating voltage reported up to date for single heterojunction HBTs. Peak {line_integral}{sub T} and {line_integral}{sub MAX} values of 18 GHz and 29 GHz, respectively, have been achieved on a device with emitter area of 4x 12.5 {micro}m{sup 2}. Both {line_integral}{sub T} and {line_integral}{sub Max} degrades with higher bias, which is related to the elongation of the collector depletion width.

  14. Technology for LSI circuits combining integrated injection logic and bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauss, H.

    1983-10-01

    Large scale integrated circuits combining integrated injection logic (I2L) and bipolar circuits are described. By shrinking the lateral dimensions of the I2L-gates the packing density is increased from 230 to 640 gates/sqmm. Some I2L-Logic and bipolar transistors with breakdown voltage 30 V were combined. For compact integrated circuits a gate array with 700 I2L-gates and bipolar periphery circuits was developed and tested. For short time realization of special mask designs a computer assisted design system was prepared. A high speed I2L allows 6 nsec delay time. The speed power product is 0,1 pJ at low currents and 0,5 pJ at 10 nsec delay. The packing density is 900 gates/sqmm.

  15. Bipolar transport in organic field-effect transistors: organic semiconductor blends versus contact modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Kraus, Michael; Bronner, Markus; Wagner, Julia; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The achievement of bipolar transport is an important feature of organic semiconductors, both for a fundamental understanding of transport properties and for applications such as complementary electronic devices. We have investigated two routes towards organic field-effect transistors exhibiting bipolar transport characteristics. As a first step, ambipolar field-effect transistors are realized by mixtures of p-conducting copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and n-conducting buckminsterfullerene (C60). As a second step, bipolar transport in copper-phthalocyanine is achieved by a modification of the gate dielectric in combination with a controlled variation of the electrode materials used for carrier injection. The analysis involves the determination of charge-carrier mobilities and contact resistances by a single curve analysis and by the transfer length method. Comparison of both types of samples indicates that percolation is a crucial feature in mixtures of both materials to achieve ambipolar carrier flow, whereas in neat films of one single material suitable contact modification allows for bipolar charge-carrier transport. In the latter case, the obtained electron and hole mobilities differ by less than one order of magnitude.

  16. Experimental Analysis of Proton-Induced Displacement and Ionization Damage Using Gate-Controlled Lateral PNP Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, D. R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Barnaby, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of proton-irradiated bipolar transistors are affected by ionization damage to the insulating oxide and displacement damage to the semiconductor bulk. While both types of damage degrade the transistor, it is important to understand the mechanisms individually and to be able to analyze them separately. In this paper, a method for analyzing the effects of ionization and displacement damage using gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors is described. This technique allows the effects of oxide charge, surface recombination velocity, and bulk traps to be measured independently.

  17. On the AlGaInP-bulk and AlGaInP/GaAs-superlattice confinement effects for heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2015-02-09

    The confinement effect and electrical characteristics of heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors with an AlGaInP bulk-confinement layer and an AlGaInP/GaAs superlattice-confinement layer are first demonstrated and compared by experimentally results. In the two devices, the relatively large valence band discontinuity at AlGaInP/GaAs heterojunction provides excellent confinement effect for holes to enhance current gain. As to the AlGaInP/GaAs superlattice-confinement device, part of thermionic-emission electrons will be trapped in the GaAs quantum wells of the superlattice. This will result in lower collector current and current gain as compared with the bulk-confinement device. Nevertheless, the superlattice-confinement device exhibits a larger current-gain cutoff frequency, which can be attributed that the tunneling behavior is included in the carrier transportation and transporting time across the emitter region could be substantially reduced.

  18. Investigation and application of neutron damage to bipolar transistors in light water reactor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Roknizadeh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fast neutron metrology and a basis for prediction of changes in performance parameters of semiconductor devices in power plant radiation environments has been established using Cf-252 sources. Three general purpose NPN bipolar transistors (PN2222A, ECG-196, and ECG-184) were chosen as the neutron damage monitors and the change in inverse d.c. current gain before and after irradiation was chosen as the damage parameter for the measurement. The main findings of the investigation were as follows: the change in inverse d.c. current gain for PN2222A transistors was approximately a linear function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/cm/sup 2/. The concept of 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence which characterizes an incident energy-fluence spectrum in terms of the fluence of monoenergetic neutrons at 1 MeV, is in error for application to common transistors in a typical power plant environment. Finally, the normalized damage coefficient which is the ratio of damage to 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence divided by the measured base transit time of individual transistors, for all three types of transistors is nearly the same with an average value of 1.27E - 7 +/- 15.0% cm/sup 2//m(1 MeV).Sec.

  19. Optical reduction of low frequency noise in cryogenic GaAs junction field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nagata, H.; Matsuo, H.; Sasaki, M.

    2008-07-01

    We demonstrated optical low frequency noise reduction in a n-type SONY GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) (gate width: 5?m; length: 1?m) operating at 4.2K. At 1Hz, a 6dB decrease and a 10dB increase in noise were observed when the JFET (band gap: 1.51eV) was illuminated by light with wavelengths of 1650 and 1550nm, respectively, for a drain voltage of 0.5V and drain current of 0.25?A. When the drain current was 0.5?A, 1650nm illumination increased the noise; moreover, hysteretic behavior in response to the illumination was also observed. These results show that deep level trapped charges apparently affect low frequency noise, which can be controlled by illumination using photons whose energies are below the band gap energy at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Passivation Effects of 100 nm In0:4AlAs/In0:35GaAs Metamorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistors with a Silicon Nitride Layer

    E-print Network

    Seo, Kwang Seok

    Passivation Effects of 100 nm In0:4AlAs/In0:35GaAs Metamorphic High-Electron-Mobility TransistorsAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (MHEMTs) have been successfully fabricated. In order to reduce.2341] KEYWORDS: GaAs, metamorphic, high-electron-mobility transistor, remote PECVD, recess, passivation

  1. Numerical analysis of distortion characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piramasubramanian, S.; Ganesh Madhan, M.; Nagella, Jyothsna; Dhanapriya, G.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical analysis of harmonic and third order intermodulation distortion of transistor laser is presented in this paper. The three level rate equations are numerically solved to determine the modulation and distortion characteristics. DC and AC analysis on the device are carried out to determine its power-current and frequency response characteristics. Further, the effects of quantum well recombination time and electron capture time in the quantum well, on the modulation depth and distortion characteristics are examined. It is observed that the threshold current density of the device decreases with increasing electron lifetime, which coincides with earlier findings. Also, the magnitude of harmonic distortion and intermodulation products are found to reduce with increasing current density and with a reduction of spontaneous emission recombination lifetime. However, an increase of electron capture time improves the distortion performance. A maximum modulation depth of 18.42 dB is obtained for 50 ps spontaneous emission life time and 1 ps electron capture time, for 2.4 GHz frequency at a current density of 2Jth. A minimum second harmonic distortion magnitude of -66.8 dBc is predicted for 50 ps spontaneous emission life time and 1 ps electron capture time for 2.4 GHz frequency, at a current density of 7Jth. Similarly, a minimum third order intermodulation distortion of -83.93 dBc is obtained for 150 ps spontaneous emission life time and 5 ps electron capture time under similar biasing conditions.

  2. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  3. Evaluation of Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity in Discrete Bipolar Junction Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Ladbury Raymond; LaBel, Kenneth; Topper, Alyson; Ladbury, Raymond; Triggs, Brian; Kazmakites, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the low dose rate sensitivity in several families of discrete bipolar transistors across device parameter, quality assurance level, and irradiation bias configuration. The 2N2222 showed the most significant low dose rate sensitivity, with low dose rate enhancement factor of 3.91 after 100 krad(Si). The 2N2907 also showed critical degradation levels. The devices irradiated at 10 mrad(Si)/s exceeded specifications after 40 and 50 krad(Si) for the 2N2222 and 2N2907 devices, respectively.

  4. Large-scale transient sensitivity analysis of a radiation damaged bipolar junction transistor.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, Robert John; Gay, David M.; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Phipps, Eric Todd

    2007-11-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is useful in transient sensitivity analysis of a computational simulation of a bipolar junction transistor subject to radiation damage. We used forward-mode AD, implemented in a new Trilinos package called Sacado, to compute analytic derivatives for implicit time integration and forward sensitivity analysis. Sacado addresses element-based simulation codes written in C++ and works well with forward sensitivity analysis as implemented in the Trilinos time-integration package Rythmos. The forward sensitivity calculation is significantly more efficient and robust than finite differencing.

  5. The peripheral bipolar junction transistor and its relation to predictability in device modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Burk, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    In advanced bipolar junction transistors, the peripheral transistor at the sidewall of the emitter junction may conduct a significant portion of the total collector current. Because the dopant profiles and carrier transport in this peripheral region are poorly defined, the device- and circuit-level performance of the peripheral transistor are not predictive. We investigate an approach for modeling the peripheral collector current (and base current) to be used in an arbitrary circuit model. This approach is shown to be consistent with two-dimensional numerical device simulation. The ratio of peripheral-to-intrinsic collector current at one bias point is extrapolated from that at an earlier bias point and the variation in emitter debiasing across the intrinsic base resistor. The problem of predictability arises when comparing the above approach with experimental data. Although the approach is consistent with numerical device simulation, the results from the numerical simulations are themselves in disagreement with the measured data. The device simulator and circuit model have to be "tuned" by fitting experimental data for a minimum of two devices and two bias conditions (one low and one high) for a given technology. This allows the correct Gummel number and current gain of the peripheral transistor to be determined and, hence, the definition of other model parameters.

  6. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  7. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Carr, S. M.

    2015-05-18

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR?=?1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5??W for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  8. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carr, S. M.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10-100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 ?W for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  9. Preliminary measurements of gamma ray effects on characteristics of broad-band GaAs field-effect transistor preamplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.G.; Shimizu, T.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on electrical characteristics of cryogenically cooled broad-band low-noise microwave preamplifiers has been preliminarily evaluated. The change in the gain and noise figure of a 1-2 GHz preamplifier using GaAs microwave transistors was determined at gamma doses between 10/sup 5/ rad to 5 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rad. The gain and noise figure was measured at ambient temperatures of 300 K and 80 K. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Study of Radiation (neutron, ?-RAY, and Carbon-Iron Effects on Npn Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colder, A.; Levalois, M.; Marie, P.; Croitoru, N.; D'Angelo, P.; de Marchi, M.; Marcolongo, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Seidman, A.; Fallica, G.; Leonardi, S.; Modica, R.

    2002-11-01

    Integrated microscopic investigations of bipolar junction damages in silicon detectors following neutron irradiation and studies of the degradation of the performance of bipolar transistors, due to generation of defects in silicon irradiated with neutron and ion carbons, were performed. The integrated microscopic investigations were studied by means of an advanced contact potential difference (CPD) method in atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was shown that gain degradation appears and that the density of generated defects is the same for neutron and carbon irradiation, but the density of created Frenkel pairs (interstitial-vacancy) is smaller for neutrons than for carbon ions. The value of ?(1/?) of the transistor was evaluated from the density of Frenkel pairs (CF), for given value of ?. The dependence of ?(1/?) on concentration of CF for lateral and vertical pnp juntions at Ic=1?m, was shown. Fron the data of density of Frenkel pairs as a function of ratio ? (R), was obtained, R=CF/?. Ratio R was independent on ?, for a given type of irradiation (neutrons or carbon ions). For carbon ions, R depends on the value of the energy of incident particles (medium energy 11.1 MeV/a and high energy 95.0 MeV/a of the carbon ions.

  11. Proposal and design of a new SiC-emitter lateral NPM Schottky collector bipolar transistor on

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    , a SiC emitter lateral NPM Schottky collector bipolar transistor (SCBT) with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI structure with its equivalent Si lateral NPN BJT and an SiC emitter lateral NPN HBT is presented. Based on simulation results, the authors demonstrate for the first time that the proposed SiC emitter lateral NPM

  12. Negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect/bipolar hybrid transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2014-11-24

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into Si transistors in a manner amenable to industrial fabrication has proven challenging. Hybrid field-effect/bipolar Si transistors fabricated on an industrial 45?nm process line are shown to demonstrate explicit quantum transport signatures. These transistors incorporate a lateral ion implantation-defined quantum well (QW) whose potential depth is controlled by a gate voltage (V{sub G}). Quantum transport in the form of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) is observed to temperatures >200?K. The NDTC is tied to a non-monotonic dependence of bipolar current gain on V{sub G} that reduces drain-source current through the QW. These devices establish the feasibility of exploiting quantum transport to transform the performance horizons of Si devices fabricated in an industrially scalable manner.

  13. Complementary GaAs junction-gated heterostructure field effect transistor fabrication for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    A new GaAs junction-gated complementary logic technology that integrates a modulation doped p-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (pHFET) and a fully ion implanted n-channel JFET has recently been fabricated. High-speed, low-power operation has been demonstrated with loaded ring oscillators that show gate delays of 179 ps/stage for a power-delay product of 28 fJ at 1.2 V operation and 320 ps/stage and 8.9 fJ at 0.8 V operation. The principal advantages of this technology include the ability to independently set the threshold voltage of n- and p-channel devices and to independently design the pHFET for high performance. A self-aligned refractory gate process based on tungsten and tungsten silicide gate metal has been used to fabricate the FETs. Novel aspects of the fabrication include the simultaneous formation of non-alloyed, refractory ohmic contacts for the junction gates and the formation of shallow p-n junctions by ion implantation.

  14. Growth and Fabrication of GaN/AlGaN Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.G.; Cao, X.A.; Cho, H.; Dang, G.T.; Donovan, S.M.; Han, J.; Jung, K.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Wilson, R.G.; Zhang, A.P.; Zhang, L

    1999-03-16

    A GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor structure with Mg doping in the base and Si Doping in the emitter and collector regions was grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition in c-axis Al(2)O(3). Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements showed no increase in the O concentration (2-3x10(18) cm(-3)) in the AlGaN emitter and fairly low levels of C (~4-5x10(17) cm (-3)) throughout the structure. Due to the non-ohmic behavior of the base contact at room temperature, the current gain of large area (~90 um diameter) devices was <3. Increasing the device operating temperature led to higher ionization fractions of the mg acceptors in the base, and current gains of ~10 were obtained at 300 degree C.

  15. SiGe:C Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors: From Materials Research to Chip Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, H.; Heinemann, B.; Knoll, D.; Ehwald, K.-E.

    Incorporation of substitutional carbon ( ~10^20 cm^-3) into the SiGe region of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) strongly reduces boron diffusion during device processing. We describe the physical mechanism behind the suppression of B diffusion in C-rich Si and SiGe, and explain how the increased thermal stability of doping profiles in SiGe:C HBTs can be used to improve device performance. Manufacturability of SiGe:C HBTs with transit frequencies of 100 GHz and maximum oscillation frequencies of 130 GHz is demonstrated in a BiCMOS technology capable of fabricating integrated circuits for radio frequencies with high yield.

  16. Analysis of the dynamic avalanche of punch through insulated gate bipolar transistor (PT-IGBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, P.; Planson, D.; Morel, H.; Bergogne, D.

    2009-09-01

    In the paper proposed here, we are studying the dynamic avalanche from experimental results first, dynamic avalanche is identified on a punch through insulated gate bipolar transistor (PT-IGBT) module 1200 V-300 A from Mitsubishi. Secondly, the phenomenon is analysed thanks to simple solid state devices equations. Numerical simulations are used to confirm experimental results. Simulation results allows us locating the active area of the dynamic avalanche during turn-off under over-current conditions. A PT-IGBT cell is described with MEDICI™, a finite element simulator. A mixed-mode simulation is performed thanks to MEDICI™ and SPICE™. The circuit simulated here is a buck topology with an inductive load. Finally, a thermal analysis is performed to estimate temperature increase due to dynamic avalanche.

  17. InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistors for ultra-low power circuit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.C.; Baca, A.G.; Hafich, M.J.; Ashby, C.I.

    1998-08-01

    For many modern day portable electronic applications, low power high speed devices have become very desirable. Very high values of f{sub T} and f{sub MAX} have been reported with InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), but only under high bias and high current level operating conditions. An InGaAs/InP ultra-lowpower HBT with f{sub MAX} greater than 10 GHz operating at less than 20 {micro}A has been reported for the first time in this work. The results are obtained on a 2.5 x 5 {micro}m{sup 2} device, corresponding to less than 150 A/cm{sup 2} of current density. These are the lowest current levels at which f{sub MAX} {ge} 10 GHz has been reported.

  18. InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquillat, D.; Nodjiadjim, V.; Konczykowska, A.; Dyakonova, N.; Consejo, C.; Ruffenach, S.; Teppe, F.; Riet, M.; Muraviev, A.; Gutin, A.; Shur, M.; Godin, J.; Knap, W.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents terahertz detectors based on high performance 0.7-?m InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology and reports on the analysis of their voltage responsivity over a wide frequency range of the incoming terahertz radiation. The detectors operated without any spatial antennas to couple terahertz radiation to the device and have been characterized in the 0.25 - 3.1 THz range with the responsivities (normalized to 1 W radiant power) of 5 V/W and 200 ?V/W measured at 0.35 THz and 3.11 THz, respectively. The InP DHBTs also performed as the imaging single-pixels at room temperature in the raster scanned transmission mode. A set of the sub-terahertz images of plant leaves suggest potential utility of InP DHBT detectors for terahertz imaging dedicated to non-invasive testing of plants.

  19. Design and simulation of oxide and doping engineered lateral bipolar junction transistors for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Akhoon, M. Saqib; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose new structures of lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) on silicon on insulator (SOI) with improved performance. The proposed devices are lateral bipolar transistors with multi doping zone collector drift region and a thick buried oxide under the collector region. Calibrated simulation studies have revealed that the proposed devices have higher breakdown voltage than the conventional device, that too at higher drift doping concentration. This has resulted in improved tradeoff between the on-resistance and the breakdown voltage of the proposed devices. It has been observed that the proposed device with two collector drift doping zones and a buried oxide thick step results in ?190% increase in the breakdown voltage than the conventional device. The further increase in the number of collector drift doping zones from two to three has increased the breakdown voltage by 260% than the conventional one. On comparing the proposed devices with the buried oxide double step devices, it has been found that an increase of ?15-19% in the breakdown voltage is observed in the proposed devices even at higher drift doping concentrations. The use of higher drift doping concentration reduces the on-resistance of the proposed device and thus improves the tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance of the proposed device in comparison to buried oxide double step devices. Further, the use of step doping in the collector drift region has resulted in the reduction of kink effect in the proposed device. Using the mixed mode simulations, the proposed devices have been tested at the circuit level, by designing and simulating inverting amplifiers employing the proposed devices. Both DC and AC analyses of the inverting amplifiers have shown that the proposed devices work well at the circuit level. It has been observed that there is a slight increase in ON delay in the proposed device; however, the OFF delay is more or less same as that of the conventional device.

  20. Improved switch time of I 2L at low power consumption by using a SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsteen, M.; Willander, M.

    1995-07-01

    The total switch time of bipolar integrated injected logic (I 2L) is simulated. The simulations are carried out at three different current levels: 0.1, 1, and 10 ?A. For each current the Ge fraction in the base is varied from 0 to 20%. It is shown that the introduction of Ge in the base makes it possible to reduce the amount of current needed to switch the transistor at a desired speed. At least 90% of the original current can be saved by using a well-designed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor instead of a likewise well-designed homojunction bipolar Si transistor. The necessity to reduce the amount of current used per computation is one of the most important problems that needs to be solved before evolution towards higher computational speed and the development of hand-held equipment can progress. Therefore, the possibility to save 90% of the current makes SiGe HBT an interesting device for future digital bipolar technology.

  1. The influence of a doping profile on the characteristics of an ion-implanted GaAs field-effect transistor with a Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A. K. Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2011-12-15

    A GaAs field-effect ion-implanted transistor with a Schottky barrier is simulated. The doping profile obtained when doping through an insulator mask is determined and the dependences of the static transistor characteristics on the parameters of the doping profile are calculated and analyzed. The physical processes controlling the transistor characteristics in the case of a variation in the parameters of its doping profile and the coefficient of compensation of the substrate are studied. Based on calculations, the optimal doping-profile parameters ensuring the best characteristics for transistors are predicted.

  2. Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor on Si substrate using aspect ratio trapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. Q.; Xu, M.; Ye, P. D.; Cheng, Z.; Li, J.; Park, J.-S.; Hydrick, J.; Bai, J.; Carroll, M.; Fiorenza, J. G.; Lochtefeld, A.

    2008-12-01

    High quality GaAs epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are demonstrated on a SiO2-patterned silicon substrate using aspect ratio trapping technique, whereby threading dislocations from lattice mismatch are largely reduced via trapping in SiO2 trenches during growth. A depletion-mode metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is demonstrated on a n-doped GaAs channel with atomic-layer deposited Al2O3 as the gate oxide. The 10 ?m gate length transistor has a maximum drain current of 88 mA/mm and a transconductance of 19 mS/mm. The surface mobility estimated from the accumulation drain current has a peak value of ˜500 cm2/Vs, which is comparable with those from previously reported depletion-mode GaAs MOSFETs epitaxially grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates.

  3. Soft-switching performance analysis of the clustered insulated gate bipolar transistor (CIGBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Jonathan Christopher

    The use of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) have enabled better switching performance than the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field effect Transistor (MOSFET) in medium to high power applications due to their lower on-state power loss and higher current densities. This current research focuses on the Clustered Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (CIGBT) whilst being operated under soft-switching regimes. The CIGBT is a MOS gated thyristor device that exhibits a unique self-clamping feature that protects cathode cells from high anode voltages under all operating conditions. The self-clamping feature also enables current saturation at high gate biases and provides low switching losses. Its low on-state voltage and high voltage blocking capabilities make the CIGBT suitable as a contender to the IGBT in medium to high power switching applications. For the first time, the CIGBT has been operated under soft-switching regimes and transient over-voltages at turn-on have been witnessed which have been found to be associated with a number of factors.. The internal dynamics of the CIGBT have been analysed using 2D numerical simulations and it has been shown that a major influence on the peak voltage is the P well spacing within the CIGBT structure. For example, Small adjacent P well spacings within the device results in an inability for the CIGBT to switch iv on correctly. Further to this, implant concentrations of the n well region during device fabrication can also affect the turn-on transients. Despite this, the CIGBT has been experimental analysed under soft-switching conditions and found to outperform the IGBT by 12% and 27% for on-state voltage drop and total energy losses respectively. Turn off current bumps have been seen whilst switching the device in zero voltage and zero current switching mode of operation and the internal dynamics have been analysed to show the influence upon the current at turn off. Preliminary results on the Trench CIGBT (TCIGBT) under soft switching conditions has also been analysed for the first time and was found to have a reduced peak over-voltage and better switching performance than the planer CIGBT..

  4. Long-Term Reliability of High Speed SiGe/Si Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E. (Technical Monitor); Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated lifetime tests were performed on double-mesa structure Si/Si0.7Ge0.3/Si npn heterojunction bipolar transistors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, in the temperature range of 175C-275C. Both single- and multiple finger transistors were tested. The single-finger transistors (with 5x20 micron sq m emitter area) have DC current gains approximately 40-50 and f(sub T) and f(sub MAX) of up to 22 GHz and 25 GHz, respectively. The multiple finger transistors (1.4 micron finger width, 9 emitter fingers with total emitter area of 403 micron sq m) have similar DC current gain but f(sub T) of 50 GHz. It is found that a gradual degradation in these devices is caused by the recombination enhanced impurity diffusion (REID) of boron atoms from the p-type base region and the associated formation of parasitic energy barriers to electron transport from the emitter to collector layers. This REID has been quantitatively modeled and explained, to the first order of approximation, and the agreement with the measured data is good. The mean time to failure (MTTF) of the devices at room temperature is estimated from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots of device lifetime versus reciprocal temperature. The results of the reliability tests offer valuable feedback for SiGe heterostructure design in order to improve the long-term reliability of the devices and circuits made with them. Hot electron induced degradation of the base-emitter junction was also observed during the accelerated lifetime testing. In order to improve the HBT reliability endangered by the hot electrons, deuterium sintered techniques have been proposed. The preliminary results from this study show that a deuterium-sintered HBT is, indeed, more resistant to hot-electron induced base-emitter junction degradation. SiGe/Si based amplifier circuits were also subjected to lifetime testing and we extrapolate MTTF is approximately 1.1_10(exp 6) hours at 125iC junction temperature from the circuit lifetime data.

  5. Heat removal from bipolar transistor by loop heat pipe with nickel and copper porous structures.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patrik; Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 ?m and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 ?m were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  6. Model of radiation-induced gain degradation of NPN bipolar junction transistor at different dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qifeng, Zhao; Yiqi, Zhuang; Junlin, Bao; Wei, Hu

    2015-06-01

    Ionizing-radiation-induced current gain degradation in NPN bipolar junction transistors is due to an increase in base current as a result of recombination at the surface of the device. A model is presented which identifies the physical mechanism responsible for current gain degradation. The increase in surface recombination velocity due to interface states results in an increase in base current. Besides, changing the surface potential along the base surface induced by the oxide-trapped charges can also lead to an increased base current. By combining the production mechanisms of oxide-trapped charges and interface states, this model can explain the fact that the current gain degradation is more severe at a low dose rate than at a high dose rate. The radiations were performed in a Co60 source up to a total dose of 70 krad(Si). The low dose rate was 0.1 rad(Si)/s and the high dose rate was 10 rad(Si)/s. The model accords well with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61076101, 61204092).

  7. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100??m and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25??m were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  8. Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance of a Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistor Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Junction temperature of a prototype SiC-based bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was estimated by using the base-emitter voltage (V(sub BE)) characteristic for thermometry. The V(sub BE) was measured as a function of the base current (I(sub B)) at selected temperatures (T), all at a fixed collector current (I(sub C)) and under very low duty cycle pulse conditions. Under such conditions, the average temperature of the chip was taken to be the same as that of the temperature-controlled case. At increased duty cycle such as to substantially heat the chip, but same I(sub C) pulse height, the chip temperature was identified by matching the V(sub BE) to the thermometry curves. From the measured average power, the chip-to-case thermal resistance could be estimated, giving a reasonable value. A tentative explanation for an observed bunching with increasing temperature of the calibration curves may relate to an increasing dopant atom ionization. A first-cut analysis, however, does not support this.

  9. Heterostructure confinement effect on the negative-differential-resistance (NDR) bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Chau; Tsai, Jun-Hui; Laih, Lih-Wen; Cheng-Zu; Thei, Kong-Beng; Lour, Wen-Shiung; Guo, Der-Feng

    1995-06-01

    We review the current investigation of heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors (HEBT) and pay attention to confinement effects on the common-emitter current gain and the occurrence of negative-differential resistance (NDR). Three main devices with different heterostructure emitters have been grown and discussed. These devices include single-(SHEBT), double-(DHEBT), and resonant tunneling-(RT-HEBT) structure with Al 0.5Ga 0.5As/500Å-GaAs, Al 0.5Ga 0.5As/500Å-GaAs and 5-period 50Å-Al 0.5Ga 0.5As/50Å-GaAs superlattic emitters, respectively. With respect to current gain, it is found that Al 0.5Ga 0.5As/500Å-GaAs gives the best confinement effect on hole minority carriers We obtain common-emitter current gains of 180, 18, and 65 for the SHEBT, DHEBT and RT-HEBT, respectively. Besides, all of the studied devices exhibit an interesting S-shaped negative-differential resistance (NDR) resulting from the regenerative switching process. With respect to NDR performance, the Al 0.5Ga 0.5As/500Å-GaAs, shows the best confinement effect on the ionized electrons. The controlled voltage efficiencies are 1.43, 1.77, and 1.12 for SHEBT, DHEBT, and RT-HEBT, respectively.

  10. Systematic investigation of monolithic bipolar transistors irradiated with neutrons, heavy ions and electrons for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, C.; D'Angelo, P.; Fallica, G.; Mangoni, R.; Modica, R.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, experimental results of radiation effects on a BiCMOS high speed commercial technology, manufactured by ST-Microelectronics, are reported after irradiation with 9.1 MeV electrons. The data are compared with those previously obtained by irradiations with fast-neutrons, 12C-, 13C-, Ar- and Kr-ions. Fast-neutrons, as well as other types of particles, produce defects, mainly by displacing silicon atoms from their lattice positions to interstitial locations, i.e. generating vacancy-interstitial pairs, the so-called Frenkel pairs, which results in creating recombination centers. As a consequence, the lifetime of the minority-carriers in the base is decreased and the common-emitter current gain ( ?) is degraded. The gain degradation was investigated for collector current Ic between 1 ?A and 1 mA. The linear dependence of ?(1/ ?) = 1/ ?irr - 1/ ? (where ?irr and ? are the gain after and before the irradiation) as a function of the concentration of Frenkel pairs was confirmed. The bipolar transistors made on this technology have shown to be particularly radiation resistant. Base and collector currents were systematically investigated, as well as, the effect of self-annealing.

  11. Investigation of VLSI Bipolar Transistors Irradiated with Electrons, Ions and Neutrons for Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, P.; Fallica, G.; Galbiati, A.; Mangoni, R.; Modica, R.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.

    2006-04-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation effects on a BICMOS technology manufactured by STM has been undertaken. Bipolar transistors were irradiated by neutrons, C, Ar and Kr ions, and recently by electrons. Fast neutrons, as well as other types of particles, produce defects mainly by displacing silicon atoms from their lattice positions to interstitial locations, i.e. generating vacancy-interstitial pairs (the so-called Frenkel pairs). Although imparted doses differ largely, the experimental results indicate that the gain (?) variation is mostly related to the non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) deposition for neutrons, ions and electrons. The variation of the inverse of the gain degradation, ?(1/?), is found to be linearly related (as predicted by the Messenger-Spratt equation for neutron irradiations) to the concentrations of the Frenkel pairs generated independently of the kind of incoming particle. For space applications, this linear dependence on the concentration of Frenkel pairs allows to evaluate the total amount of the gain degradation of VLSI components due to the flux of charged particles during the full life of operation of any pay-load. In fact, the total amount of expected Frenkel pairs can be estimated taking into account the isotopic spectra. It has to be point out that in cosmic rays there is relevant flux of electrons and isotopes up to Ni, which are within the range of particles presently investigated.

  12. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (–7.7 dB), THD (–74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22 % and 140 %, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:24199954

  13. The Gate-Bias Dependency of Breakdown Location in GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Jayne M.; Arnold, Norbert

    1991-12-01

    The breakdown behaviour of refractory metal self-aligned GaAs metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) has been studied by two-dimensional simulation using a drift-diffusion transport model and emission microscopy. Exact quantitative simulation of the device characteristics has been achieved for a device with a four fold implant scheme. The location of breakdown, as defined as the area of high avalanche generation rate, has been found to have a specific gate bias dependence: For open channel bias condition (Vgs{=}0 V) impact ionization is initiated at the n+ to channel implant interface, under subthreshold conditions however at the gate contact edges. The shift of the location as well as the MESFET specific gate bias dependence of drain breakdown could be explained by careful examination of the electric fields and the currents (holes and electrons) involved. These results have been experimentally verified by the light emission of the devices which were measured by high resolution emission microscopy.

  14. Copper-Based OHMIC Contracts for the Si/SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Kalyan; Hall, Harvey

    1999-01-01

    Silicon based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with SiGe base are potentially important devices for high-speed and high-frequency microelectronics. These devices are particularly attractive as they can be fabricated using standard Si processing technology. However, in order to realize the full potential of devices fabricated in this material system, it is essential to be able to form low resistance ohmic contacts using low thermal budget process steps and have full compatibility with VLSI/ULSI processing. Therefore, a study was conducted in order to better understand the contact formation and to develop optimized low resistance contacts to layers with doping densities corresponding to the p-type SiGe base and n-type Si emitter regions of the HBTS. These as-grown doped layers were implanted with BF(sub 2) up to 1 X 10(exp 16)/CM(exp 2) and As up to 5 x 10(exp 15)/CM2, both at 30 keV for the p-type SiGe base and n-type Si emitter layers, respectively, in order to produce a low sheet resistance surface layer. Standard transfer length method (TLM) contact pads on both p and n type layers were deposited using an e-beam evaporated trilayer structure of Ti/CufTi/Al (25)A/1500A/250A/1000A). The TLM pads were delineated by a photoresist lift-off procedure. These contacts in the as-deposited state were ohmic, with specific contact resistances for the highest implant doses of the order of 10(exp -7) ohm-CM2 and lower.

  15. Switching Characteristics of a 4H-SiC Based Bipolar Junction Transistor to 200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Static curves and resistive load switching characteristics of a 600 V, 4 A rated, SiC-based NPN bipolar power transistor (BJT) were observed at selected temperatures from room to 200 C. All testing was done in a pulse mode at low duty cycle (approx.0.1 percent). Turn-on was driven by an adjustable base current pulse and turn-off was accelerated by a negative base voltage pulse of 7 V. These base drive signals were implemented by 850 V, gated power pulsers, having rise-times of roughly 10 ns, or less. Base charge sweep-out with a 7 V negative pulse did not produce the large reverse base current pulse seen in a comparably rated Si-based BJT. This may be due to a very low charge storage time. The decay of the collector current was more linear than its exponential-like rise. Switching observations were done at base drive currents (I(sub B)) up to 400 mA and collector currents (I(sub C)) up to 4 A, using a 100 Omega non-inductive load. At I(sub B) = 400 mA and I(sub C) = 4 A, turn-on times typically varied from 80 to 94 ns, over temperatures from 23 to 200 C. As expected, lowering the base drive greatly extended the turn-on time. Similarly, decreasing the load current to I(sub C) = 1 A with I(sub B) = 400 mA produced turn-on times as short as 34 ns. Over the 23 to 200 C range, with I(sub B) = 400 mA and I(sub C) = 4 A, turn-off times were in the range of 72 to 84 ns with the 7 V sweep-out.

  16. Spin-charge separation in bipolar spin transport in (111) GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, M. Q.; Wu, M. W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a microscopic theory for transport of the spin polarized charge density wave with both electrons and holes in the (111) GaAs quantum wells. We analytically show that, contradicting to the commonly accepted belief, the spin and charge motions are bound together only in the fully polarized system but can be separated in the case of low spin polarization or short spin lifetime even when the spatial profiles of spin density wave and charge density wave overlap with each other. We further show that, the Coulomb drag between electrons and holes can markedly enhance the hole spin diffusion if the hole spin motion can be separated from the charge motion. In the high-spin polarized system, the Coulomb drag can boost the hole spin diffusion coefficient by more than one order of magnitude.

  17. ECE 323 Electronics II Catalog Description: Transient operation of MOSFETs and bipolar transistors; multistage

    E-print Network

    -Ku Moon Course Content: · New commands in SPICE · Dynamic operation of digital circuits · Transistor; infrared data link; oscillators; multimeter Measurable Student Learning Outcomes: At the completion

  18. Comparison of total dose effects on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors induced by different swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Fu, Jun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Jie; Li, Gao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-11-01

    The degradations in NPN silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) were fully studied in this work, by means of 25-MeV Si, 10-MeV Cl, 20-MeV Br, and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, respectively. Electrical parameters such as the base current (IB), current gain (?), neutral base recombination (NBR), and Early voltage (VA) were investigated and used to evaluate the tolerance to heavy ion irradiation. Experimental results demonstrate that device degradations are indeed radiation-source-dependent, and the larger the ion nuclear energy loss is, the more the displacement damages are, and thereby the more serious the performance degradation is. The maximum degradation was observed in the transistors irradiated by 10-MeV Br. For 20-MeV and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, an unexpected degradation in IC was observed and Early voltage decreased with increasing ion fluence, and NBR appeared to slow down at high ion fluence. The degradations in SiGe HBTs were mainly attributed to the displacement damages created by heavy ion irradiation in the transistors. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed and investigated in detail.

  19. Broadband THz detection and homodyne mixing using GaAs high-electron-mobility transistor rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, S.; Regensburger, S.; Kim, S.; Mittendorff, M.; Winnerl, S.; Malzer, S.; Lu, H.; Burke, P. G.; Gossard, A. C.; Weber, H. B.; Sherwin, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    We report on Terahertz (THz) detectors based on III-V high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors (FET). The detection results from a rectification process that is still highly efficient far above frequencies where the transistor provides gain. Several detector layouts have been optimized for specific applications at room temperature: we show a broadband detector layout, where the rectifying FET is coupled to a broadband logarithmic-periodic antenna. Another layout is optimized for mixing of two orthogonal THz beams at 370 GHz or, alternatively, 570 GHz. A third version uses a large array of FETs with very low access resistance allowing for detection of very short high-power THz pulses. We reached a time resolution of 20 ps.

  20. Effect of reduced temperature on the fT of AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, J.; Hanson, A. W.; Cunningham, B. T.; Stillman, Gregory; Kolodzey, James

    1991-06-01

    The high-frequency and dc performances of single-heterojunction Al0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been measured at temperatures between 300 and 110 K. It is found that the maximum unity-current-gain cutoff frequency increases from 26 GHz at 300 K to 34 GHz at 110 K. It is shown that electron diffusion as determined from the majority-carrier mobility does not accurately estimate the base transit time, at least until corrections for degeneracy and minority-carrier mobility enhancement are included. Reasonable agreement is obtained assuming that base transport is limited by the thermal velocity of electrons at reduced temperatures.

  1. Electrical stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors under bipolar ac stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwon; Jeon, Kichan; Park, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Sungchul; Kong, Dongsik; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Sunil; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Jae Chul; Song, Ihun; Kim, Chang Jung; Park, Youngsoo; Jung, U.-In

    2009-09-01

    Bipolar ac stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors is comparatively investigated with that under a positive dc gate bias stress. While the positive dc gate bias stress-induced threshold voltage shift (?VT) is caused by the charge trapping into the interface/gate dielectric as reported in previous works, the dominant mechanism of the ac stress-induced ?VT is observed to be due to the increase in the acceptorlike deep states of the density of states (DOS) in the a-IGZO active layer. Furthermore, it is found that the variation of deep states in the DOS makes a parallel shift in the IDS-VGS curve with an insignificant change in the subthreshold slope, as well as the deformation of the CG-VG curves.

  2. Study and fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistors for integrated injection logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamai, Jamal

    The operating conditions of integrated injection logic are recalled and the advantages resulting from the use of AlGaAs/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistors are summarized. The realization of samples by molecular beam epitaxy and ionic implantation is described, emphasizing the realization conditions used to meet the structure requirements. Electric characterization identified the physical mechanisms accounting for operation limitations. The correlation observed between the behavior of the direct and reverse operations confirms the importance of conduction and that of parasitic charge storage in the collector-base diode. The best performances obtained, highlighting maximum current gains of 500 in forward operation and 100 in reverse operation and an offset voltage as low as 3 mW, show that the properties of the realized epitaxial structures should match the operation of the projected test integrated circuits.

  3. New isolated gate bipolar transistor two-quadrant chopper power supply for a fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D. M.; Marques, G. D.; Sebastião, P. J.; Ribeiro, A. C.

    2003-10-01

    This work, presents, for the first time, an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) two-quadrant chopper power supply for a fast field cycling (FFC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. This power supply was designed to achieve a maximum current of 200 A with good efficiency, low semiconductor losses, low cost, and easy maintenance. Both energy storage circuits and dumping circuits are used to obtain switching times less than 2 ms between field levels in agreement with the FFC technique specifications. The current ripple at high currents is better than 1×10-4 and presents a specific shape which can be used for additional compensation using auxiliary circuits. The implemented power supply was tested and been continuously operating with a home-built FFC solenoidal magnet, associated cooling system, and rf units for fields between 0 and 0.2 T.

  4. Lateral carrier diffusion and current gain in terahertz InGaAs/InP double-heterojunction bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Han-Wei; Rode, Johann C.; Choudhary, Prateek; Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    2014-01-21

    The DC current gain in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP double-heterojunction bipolar transistors is computed based on a drift-diffusion model, and is compared with experimental data. Even in the absence of other scaling effects, lateral diffusion of electrons to the base Ohmic contacts causes a rapid reduction in DC current gain as the emitter junction width and emitter-base contact spacing are reduced. The simulation and experimental data are compared in order to examine the effect of carrier lateral diffusion on current gain. The impact on current gain due to device scaling and approaches to increase current gain are discussed.

  5. Mechanisms leading to erratic snapback behavior in bipolar junction transistors with base emitter shorted

    E-print Network

    to play an impor- tant role in the fast switching behavior of the matrix of tran- sistors in the Marx bank collapses due to the application of a fast voltage ramp.1 Transistorized Marx bank circuits are used

  6. Carbon-doped base GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using carbon tetrachloride as a dopant source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, B. T.; Stillman, G. E.; Jackson, G. S.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs Npn heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) grown by MOCVD, in which CCl4 was used as a carbon doping source for the base region. Transistors with the base contact either self-aligned or not self-aligned to a 3 x 10 micron emitter finger were fabricated using wet chemical etching to expose the base and subcollector contact areas; lift-off techniques were used to pattern metallized areas. Transistors with the self-aligned base contact area were found to have a dc current gain as high as 50, an emitter-base junction ideality factor of 1.2, and a current gain cut-off frequency of 26 GHz. The respective values for transistors without a self-alignment were 86, 1.2, and 20 GHz.

  7. Simulation of Npn and Pnp AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors performances: Limiting factors and optimum design

    SciTech Connect

    MONIER,C.; REN,F.; HAN,JUNG; CHANG,PING-CHIH; SHUL,RANDY J.; LEE,K.P.; ZHANG,A.P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; PEARTON,S.J.

    2000-04-25

    The performance capabilities of Npn and Pnp AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors have been investigated by using a drift-diffusion transport model. Numerical results have been employed to study the effect of the p-type Mg doping and its incomplete ionization on device performance. The high base resistance induced by the deep acceptor level is found to be the cause of limited current gain values for Npn devices. Several computation approaches have been considered to improve their performance. Reasonable improvement of the DC current gain {beta} is observed by realistically reducing the base thickness in accordance with processing limitations. Base transport enhancement is also predicted by the introduction of a quasi-electric field in the base. The impact of the base resistivity on high-frequency characteristics is investigated for Npn AlGaN/GaN devices. Optimized predictions with maximum oscillation frequency value as high as f{sub MAX} = 20 GHz and a unilateral power gain--U = 25 dB make this bipolar GaN-based technology compatible with communication applications. Simulation results reveal that the restricted amount of free carriers from the p-doped emitter limits Pnp's DC performances operating in common emitter configuration. A preliminary analysis of r.f. characteristics for the Pnp counterpart indicates limited performance mainly caused by the degraded hole mobility.

  8. Comparison of phonon scattering in nanowire field effect transistors with Si, GaAs and InGaAs cores using the NEGF formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Martinez, A.

    2015-10-01

    Using the Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism, the impact of electron- phonon scattering on the performance of different core nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs) has been investigated. Three core materials have been considered: Si, GaAs and InGaAs. The effective mass approximation has been used, with masses extracted from tight- binding simulations. The ID-VG characteristics at low and high drain bias are shown. It was found that at low drain bias, scattering caused a 86%, 72% and 50% percentage reduction in the current at high gate bias in the Si, GaAs and InGaAs core, 2.2 × 2.2 nm2 cross-section NWFETs respectively. The phonon-limited mobility and percentage tunnelling have also been calculated.

  9. Comments on determination of bandgap narrowing from activation plots. [for bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.-S.; Neugroschel, A.; Lindholm, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    A determination is made of the temperature-dependence of emitter saturation current in bipolar devices which allows the derivation of a value for bandgap narrowing that is in better agreement with other determinations than previous results based on ohmic contact measurements of temperature dependence. The new values were obtained by varying the surface recombination velocity at the emitter surface. This improves accuracy by varying the minority carrier surface recombination velocity at the emitter contacts of otherwise indistinguishable emitters.

  10. An AlGaAs double-heterojunction bipolar transistor grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    and transport properties of electrically injected minority carriers (electrons) in p-A1,,,Gac,5 As, we have tested the performance of Ab,,Gao,4As/Alo.25Ga,,~ As/Ale6Gac.,As NpN double-heterojunction bipolar for an acceptor density of 6.0~ lOI cm - 3 in p- Alc25Gac75A~. Due to the wide band-gap materials, the device has

  11. A spaceborne experiment to determine the radiation sensitivity of microwave bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, M. H.; Strijk, S. J. G.; Adams, L.

    The design and results of a spaceborne radiation experiment using the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS-2) to measure the degradation of a commonly used small-signal microwave transistor in the space environment are presented. The experiment utilizes a radiation damage monitoring unit consisting of three identical microwave transistors which are exposed to the space radiation environment plus an MOS-type dosimeter which measures the incident radiation. Any radiation-induced changes in the DC current-gain result in corresponding changes in the bias current, and these changes plus the incident radiation and the data are returned to the ground via telemetry. The results indicate that the actual space radiation levels are lower than those estimated by current prediction techniques.

  12. Non-ideal effect in 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor with double Gaussian-doped base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Song, Qing-Wen; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Men

    2015-06-01

    The non-ideal effect of 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) with a double Gaussian-doped base is characterized and simulated in this paper. By adding a specific interface model between SiC and SiO2, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment data. An obvious early effect is found from the output characteristic. As the temperature rises, the early voltage increases, while the current gain gradually decreases, which is totally different from the scenario of silicon BJT. With the same effective Gummel number in the base region, the double Gaussian-doped base structure can realize higher current gain than the single base BJT due to the built-in electric field, whereas the early effect will be more salient. Besides, the emitter current crowding effect is also analyzed. Due to the low sheet resistance in the first highly-doped base epilayer, the 4H-BJT with a double base has more uniform emitter current density across the base-emitter junction, leading to better thermal stability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60876061 and 61234006), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8012), and the Doctoral Fund of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20130203120017 and 20110203110010).

  13. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion.

    PubMed

    Martí, A; Luque, A

    2015-01-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base-emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions. PMID:25902374

  14. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion

    PubMed Central

    Martí, A.; Luque, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base–emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions. PMID:25902374

  15. New Collector of Planar Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Broad Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Shi, Lina; Yu, Wen; Li, Chengfang; Sun, Xiaowei

    A new concept of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transisitor (IGBT) with a Si/Ge layer collector is proposed to meet different requirements for turn-on voltage and turn-off time. The operation principles of IGBT are discussed and the energy band diagram of Si/Ge heterojunction is employed to explain the inner dynamic mechanism of the proposed IGBT. Two-dimensional (2D) device-circuit mixed-mode simulations indicate that the tail-current, which is a major cause of the power loss and limits the operation speed of the device, is suppressed effectively by using the Si/Ge layer collector. On the other hand, turn-on voltage is increased by the use of the Si/Ge collector. Furthermore, the turn-on voltage is increasing with the increase of the areal rate of the Ge region in the whole collector, while the turn-off time is reversed. This valuable information leads to the freely tunable planar IGBT by adapting the different areal rates of the Ge region to cast to different actual situations. Detailed physical explanations are also given.

  16. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  17. LOW LEAKAGE CURRENT METAMORPHIC InGaAs/InP DHBTs WITH f and fmax > 268 GHz ON A GaAs SUBSTRATE

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    LOW LEAKAGE CURRENT METAMORPHIC InGaAs/InP DHBTs WITH f and fmax > 268 GHz ON A GaAs SUBSTRATE Z-893-8044 Abstract Metamorphic InP/In0.53Ga0.47/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (mHBT) were grown etch and increase device yield. The metamorphic buffer layer is InP--employed because of its high

  18. AbstractAn indium-phosphide (InP) double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) based suite of terahertz monolithic

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    of terahertz monolithic integrated circuits (TMICs) fabricated using 256nm InP DHBT transistors their use in many applications. During the 1970's, the development of the microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) enabled the implementation of complex transistor-based microwave circuits monolithically

  19. Vertical electron transistor (VET) in GaAs with a heterojunction (AlGaAs-GaAs) cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Maki, P. A.; Wendt, J. R.; Schaff, W.; Kohn, E.; Eastman, L. F.

    1984-02-01

    The successful fabrication of submicrometer channel length (0.75 micron) and gate length (0.15 micron) vertical electron transistors with AlGaAs cathodes is reported. Lack of electron velocity enhancement has been proposed to be due to high operating channel temperatures, and low temperature measurements were hindered by carrier freeze-out.

  20. Investigation on phonon scattering in a GaAs nanowire field effect transistor using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Price, A. Martinez, A.

    2015-04-28

    Using quantum transport simulations, the impact of electron-phonon scattering on the transfer characteristic of a gate-all-around nanowire (GaAs) field effect transistor (NWFET) has been thoroughly investigated. The Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism in the effective mass approximation using a decoupled mode decomposition has been deployed. NWFETs of different dimensions have been considered, and scattering mechanisms including acoustic, optical and polar optical phonons have been included. The effective masses were extracted from tight binding simulations. High and low drain bias have been considered. We found substantial source to drain tunnelling current and significant impact of phonon scattering on the performance of the NWFET. At low drain bias, for a 2.2?×?2.2?nm{sup 2} cross-section transistor, scattering caused a 72%, 77%, and 81% decrease in the on-current for a 6?nm, 10?nm, and 20?nm channel length, respectively. This reduction in the current due to scattering is influenced by the increase in the tunnelling current. We include the percentage tunnelling for each valley at low and high drain bias. It was also found that the strong quantisation caused the relative position of the valleys to vary with the cross-section. This had a large effect on the overall tunnelling current. The phonon-limited mobility was also calculated, finding a mobility of 950?cm{sup 2}/V?s at an inversion charge density of 10{sup 12?}cm{sup ?2} for a 4.2?×?4.2?nm{sup 2} cross-section device.

  1. Numerical investigation of temperature field Induced by dual wavelength lasers in sub-microsecond laser annealing technology for insulated gate bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, GuoDong; Ma, Mingying; Wang, Fan; Sun, Gang; Lan, Yanping; Xu, Wen

    2015-07-01

    To enhance the performance of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), sub-microsecond laser annealing (LA) is propitious to achieve maximal dopant activation with minimal diffusion. In this work, two different lasers are used as annealing resource: a continuous 808 nm laser with larger spot is applied to preheat the wafer and another sub-microsecond pulsed 527 nm laser is responsible to activate the dopant. To optimize the system's performance, a physical model is presented to predict the thermal effect of two laser fields interacting on wafer. Using the Finite-Element method (FEM), we numerically investigate the temperature field induced by lasers in detail. The process window corresponding to the lasers is also acquired which can satisfy the requirements of the IGBT's annealing.

  2. Surface roughness in sulfur ion-implanted InP with molecular beam epitaxy regrown double-heterojunction bipolar transistor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.-C.; Chang, M.F.; Weimann, Nils; Chen Jianxin; Chen, Y.-K.

    2005-04-04

    We report on deep ion-implantation of sulfur into InP substrates to replace the epitaxial subcollector layer of double-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Using optimized implantation conditions of 350 keV energy and 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} dose, we achieved a subcollector sheet resistance of 15 {omega}/square. Under well-controlled regrowth conditions a root-mean-square roughness of 12 A is measured from DHBT epitaxial layers grown on implanted InP substrates, comparable to DHBT epitaxial layers grown on n{sup +} epiready unimplanted substrates. We observe a pronounced increase in surface roughness of epitaxial layer beyond a threshold ion dose, depending on implantation energy. Large-area DHBT devices result with sulfur-ion implanted subcollector shows similar characteristics compared to devices fabricated on n{sup +}-doped InP substrates.

  3. 1376 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 52, NO. 7, JULY 2005 Lateral High-Speed Bipolar Transistors

    E-print Network

    Ng, Wai Tung

    transistors. This sparks tremendous research effort in the development of better radio-frequency (RF) IC.-S. M. Sun and W. T. Ng are with the Edward S. Rogers, Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer

  4. AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.C.; Baca, A.G.; Li, N.Y.; Sharps, P.R.; Hou, H.Q.; Laroche, J.R.; Ren, F.

    2000-01-11

    The authors have demonstrated a functional MOCVD-grown AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAsPnP DHBT that is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain ({beta}) of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (E{sub g}=1.20eV)of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. The BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with its GaAs collector thickness and doping level.

  5. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  6. The super junction bipolar transistor: a new silicon power device concept for ultra low loss switching applications at medium to high voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Friedhelm D.

    2004-05-01

    A new silicon power device concept based on the super junction (SJ) principle for power electronics in a broad spectrum of consumer, industrial and other energy conversion applications is presented in this paper. This new concept can help to sustain the trend towards ultra low loss switching--the past, present and future dominant driving force in the development of silicon high power switches. The super junction bipolar transistor (SJBT) shares many similarities with the super junction MOSFET. It has a similar MOS control structure integrated on the cathode side on top of a base region, which is organized into a columnar structure of alternating p- and n-doped pillars. The anode consists of a p-doped emitter--the SJBT is thus a bipolar super junction power device with carrier modulation taking place in only some portion of the base. The super junction structure makes up for fundamentally different device characteristics compared to an IGBT: carrier modulation in the SJBT is made possible by elimination of the reverse bias between p- and n-doped pillars when large quantities of majority carriers are injected from the p-emitter into the p-type pillar. With the electrostatic potential being grounded at the cathode, de-biasing of the pillars as well as carrier modulation will vanish towards the cathode. The unique characteristic of the SJBT on-state is an electron-hole plasma originating at the anode, which will segregate and give place to unipolar current flow in both pillars (de-mixing of the plasma) in the base region close to the cathode. Compared to an IGBT, the SJBT offers the same or lower conduction losses at a very small fraction (25%) of the cost in terms of switching losses.

  7. Epitaxial growth and characterization of thick multi-layer 4H-SiC for very high-voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Koji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Katsunori; Ji, Shi-yang; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Ishida, Yuuki; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2015-08-01

    Techniques to fabricate thick multi-layer 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers were studied for very high-voltage p- and n-channel insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Multi-layer epitaxial growth, including a thick p- drift layer (˜180 ?m), was performed on a 4H-SiC n+ substrate to form a p-IGBT structure. For an n-IGBT structure, an inverted growth process was employed, in which a thick n- drift layer (˜180 ?m) and a thick p++ injector layer (>55 ?m) were epitaxially grown. The epitaxial growth conditions were modified to attain a low defect density, a low doping concentration, and a long carrier lifetime in the drift layers. Reduction of the forward voltage drop was attempted by using carrier lifetime enhancement processes, specifically, carbon ion implantation/annealing and thermal oxidation/annealing or hydrogen annealing. Simple PiN diodes were fabricated to demonstrate the effective conductivity modulation in the thick drift layers. The forward voltage drops of the PiN diodes with the p- and n-IGBT structures promise to obtain the extremely low-loss and very high-voltage IGBTs. The change in wafer shape during the processing of the very thick multi-layer 4H-SiC is also discussed.

  8. Carbon doping of Ga0.47In0.53As using carbontetrabromide by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy for InP-based heterostructure bipolar transistor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, R. A.; Malik, R.; Humphrey, D.; Ryan, R.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Lunardi, L.; Geva, M.

    1995-10-01

    Metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy of carbon-doped heterostructures and InP/Ga0.47In0.53As heterostructure bipolar transistors using carbontetrabromide (CBr4) as the dopant source is reported. Secondary ion mass spectrometry show H incorporation associated with the carbon doping. Hall data for as-grown and postgrowth annealed samples showed a clear increase in doping only for samples grown at the lowest temperature, 450 °C, and higher doping levels. An increase in the mobility, however, was measured for nearly all samples after annealing, indicating that the neutral C-H complexes most likely contribute to majority carrier scattering. The gain variation for various devices with base thickness, WB, and base doping, p, was found to be nearly proportional to 1/(WB×p)2 consistent with diffusive base transport and Auger dominated recombination in the heavily doped base region. It was also observed that in devices where the C-doped base was grown at temperatures ?500 °C, the gain was shifted to much lower values possibly indicating a reduced electron carrier lifetime.

  9. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School How Can I Stop Cutting? Scoliosis Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Mental Health > Bipolar Disorder Print ... Treat It? Living With Bipolar Disorder What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  10. Investigation on effects of ion-implantation on indium phosphide and gallium arsenic antimonide for high fmax double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ting-Chen

    InP/InGaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) have demonstrated excellent high-frequency performance, operating up to 400 GHz, enabling mixed-signal integrated circuit applications at 160 GHz clock-speed and beyond. Traditionally, HBTs are manufactured in a triple-mesa process leading to topography height in excess of 1mum. Replacing the subcollector mesa by ion implantation directly into substrate prior to epilayer growth, the device height can be reduced. The capacitance under the base pad can be eliminated by selective ion implantation of the subcollector layer only under the emitter and in the collector contact region. Furthermore, the ion-implanted subcollector immersed in the InP substrate can relieve the thermal impedance problem of the InGaAs subcollector. This work is focused on the n+ ion-implanted subcollector technology, including sheet resistance optimization by choosing a suitable implant profile, minimizing ohmic contact resistance with optimized metal stack and anneal step. The device-quality can be enabled from the improved MBE regrowth layer by keeping the substrate surface roughness below a critical threshold, which was found empirically. The results of this work were implemented in the first 0.25 mum ion-implanted DHBT. The subtractive technology of damage implantation will be discussed in the context of an additional reduction of the base-collector capacitance. Further, p-type implantation experiments have been carried out to explore the possibility to lower the base access resistance by converting part of the extrinsic collector to p-type. To that end, some results will be presented regarding carbon implantation into InP and GaAsSb.

  11. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... us to find out more about bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder (Easy to Read) Order a free hardcopy En ... this brochure to find out more. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  12. Broad Beam and Ion Microprobe Studies of Single-Event Upsets in High Speed 0.18micron Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Pickel, Jim; Carts, Martin A.; Irwin, TIm; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Fritz, Karl; Riggs, Pam

    2003-01-01

    SiGe based technology is widely recognized for its tremendous potential to impact the high speed microelectronic industry, and therefore the space industry, by monolithic incorporation of low power complementary logic with extremely high speed SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) logic. A variety of studies have examined the ionizing dose, displacement damage and single event characteristics, and are reported. Accessibility to SiGe through an increasing number of manufacturers adds to the importance of understanding its intrinsic radiation characteristics, and in particular the single event effect (SEE) characteristics of the high bandwidth HBT based circuits. IBM is now manufacturing in its 3rd generation of their commercial SiGe processes, and access is currently available to the first two generations (known as and 6HP) through the MOSIS shared mask services with anticipated future release of the latest (7HP) process. The 5 HP process is described and is characterized by a emitter spacing of 0.5 micron and a cutoff frequency ff of 50 GHz, whereas the fully scaled 7HP HBT employs a 0.18 micron emitter and has an fT of 120 GHz. Previous investigations have the examined SEE response of 5 HP HBT circuits through both circuit testing and modeling. Charge collection modeling studies in the 5 H P process have also been conducted, but to date no measurements have been reported of charge collection in any SiGe HBT structures. Nor have circuit models for charge collection been developed in any version other than the 5 HP HBT structure. Our investigation reports the first indications of both charge collection and circuit response in IBM s 7HP-based SiGe process. We compare broad beam heavy ion SEU test results in a fully function Pseudo-Random Number (PRN) sequence generator up to frequencies of 12 Gbps versus effective LET, and also report proton test results in the same circuit. In addition, we examine the charge collection characteristics of individual 7HP HBT structures and map out the spatial sensitivities using the Sandia Focused Heavy Ion Microprobe Facility s Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique. Combining the two data sets offers insights into the charge collection mechanisms responsible for circuit level response and provides the first insights into the SEE characteristics of this latest version of IBM s commercial SiGe process.

  13. Carbon doping of GaAs and (In,Ga)As in solid source molecular beam epitaxy using carbon tetrabromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Hwang, Wen-yen; Miller, D. L.; Kapitan, Larry W.

    1993-10-01

    We have grown C-doped GaAs and (In,Ga)As epitaxial layers of device quality in a standard solid source molecular beam epitaxy system using carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) as the carbon source. Dopant incorporation was relatively efficient for both GaAs and (In,Ga)As, requiring a CBr4 beam pressure of about 1×10-6 Torr to achieve a hole density of 1.5×1020/cm3. For doping in the 1019/cm3 range, hole mobilities were comparable to or slightly higher than those of Be-doped layers with the same carrier concentrations. Modulation-doped structures grown immediately after heavily C-doped GaAs layers exhibited reduced two-dimensional electron gas mobility, but the mobility recovered to previous values within 24 h. (Al,Ga)As/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (emitter size=25 ?m×50 ?m) with C-doped bases (p=1.2×1019 cm-3) had common emitter small signal current gains averaging 86 at an emitter current density of 970 A/cm2. The relatively low gas load during growth, the lack of long-term memory effect, and the acceptable device performance indicate that CBr4 is an attractive alternative to Be for GaAs and (In,Ga)As devices grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy.

  14. Realising high-current gain p-n-p transistors using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Realising high-current gain p-n-p transistors using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor accumulation layer transistor (SALTran) on SOI, which uses the concept of surface accumulation of holes near of the previously published conventional p-n-p lateral bipolar transistor (LBT) structure. From the simulation

  15. Space-charge recombination currents and their influence on the dc current gain of AlGaAs/GaAs Pnp heterojunction bipolar transistors

    E-print Network

    Cahay, Marc

    -speed, complementary heterojunction bipo- lar transistor HBT -based, integrated injection logic (I2 L) with 65 ps and experiment is found for the current gain variation versus collector current density for a Pnp device recently

  16. Microwave performance of an optically controlled AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistor and GaAs MESFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    1987-01-01

    Direct current and also the microwave characteristics of optically illuminated AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT are experimentally measured for the first time and compared with that of GaAs MESFET. The results showed that the average increase in the gain is 2.89 dB under 1.7 mW optical intensity at 0.83 microns. Further, the effect of illumination on S-parameters is more pronounced when the devices are biased close to pinch off. Novel applications of optically illuminated HEMT as a variable gain amplifier, high speed high frequency photodetector, and mixer are demonstrated.

  17. Low phase noise GaAs HBT VCO in Ka-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yan; Yuming, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Yimen, Zhang; Yue, Wu; Yifeng, Liu

    2015-02-01

    Design and fabrication of a Ka-band voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using commercially available 1-?m GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor technology is presented. A fully differential common-emitter configuration with a symmetric capacitance with a symmetric inductance tank structure is employed to reduce the phase noise of the VCO, and a novel ?-feedback network is applied to compensate for the 180° phase shift. The on-wafer test shows that the VCO exhibits a phase noise of -96.47 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset and presents a tuning range from 28.312 to 28.695 GHz. The overall dc current consumption of the VCO is 18 mA with a supply voltage of -6 V The chip area of the VCO is 0.7 × 0.7 mm2.

  18. A review of InP/InAlAs/InGaAs based transistors for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayan, J.; Nirmal, D.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the rapid progress being made in the development of InP based devices for high speed applications. Over the past few decades, major aero space industries have been developing InP based hetero structure devices like hetero junction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) because of their low DC power due to excellent low voltage operation and milli-meter wave frequency performance even though its widespread use has been limited by high cost. InP based HBTs, MOSFETs and HEMTs have also been developed by commercial companies for applications in high speed fiber optic communications because InP based device technologies takes advantage of the intrinsic material properties such as high thermal conductivity, high electron mobility and low energy band gap for low voltage operation compared to silicon, silicon-germenium, and GaAs based semiconductor devices.

  19. Properties of Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated on Carbon-Doped Semi-Insulating GaAs Crystal Grown by Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoki, Yoohei; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Kuma, Shoji; Takahashi, Susumu; Onishi, Masaya; Kashiwa, Mikio

    1993-09-01

    Metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) whose active layers were made by ion-implantation were fabricated on a new type of semi-insulating liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC)-grown crystal doped with carbon. The short-channel effect was suppressed and transconductance (gm), drain conductance and breakdown voltage were improved by carbon doping. These improvements were deduced as being due to a reduction in leakage under the channel. No change in the frequency dependence of the gm was recognized. Thus, the doped carbon did not generate any observable traps by which the properties of MESFET were degraded.

  20. IEEE BCTM 4.2 Study ofbipolar transistor matching at high current level with various

    E-print Network

    McNeill, John A.

    IEEE BCTM 4.2 Study ofbipolar transistor matching at high current level with various test-mail: samuel.bordez@st.com, Tel: +33 4 38 92 29 30 Abstract - Matching of bipolar transistors has been. INTRODUCTION Bipolar transistor matching is often described in a medium current zone. Yet, results at high

  1. ECE 417/ECE517 Basic Semiconductor Devices Catalog Description: Theory and physical principles of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors.

    E-print Network

    ECE 417/ECE517 ­ Basic Semiconductor Devices Catalog Description: Theory and physical principles-effect transistors · Modeling and simulation of semiconductor devices using computer aided design/analysis software-type semiconductor in a MOS structure using its C-V characteristics and energy band diagrams. 4. Understand

  2. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go from ... down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  4. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods of ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It usually starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact cause ...

  5. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ADHD and bipolar disorder. Back Continue Mania and Deep Lows In the high-energy phase of bipolar ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  6. A simple method for forming compositionally graded InxGa1-xAs1-ySby base of double-heterojunction bipolar transistors modulating CBr4-doping-precursor flow in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Takuya; Kashio, Norihide; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Kurishima, Kenji; Ida, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hideaki; Gotoh, Hideki

    2014-11-01

    We studied a CBr4-flow-modulation method as a way of simplifying the formation of a compositionally graded InxGa1-xAs1-ySby base of InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. An investigation of C-doping in InxGa1-xAs1-ySby revealed that In and Sb contents decrease as the supply ratio of CBr4 to group-III (RC) increases. We fabricated 0.25-µm-emitter HBTs with a compositionally graded InxGa1-xAs1-ySby base formed by varying RC at constant group-III, group-V, and V/III ratios. By this method, we obtained higher current-gain cut-off frequency (504 GHz) and maximum-oscillation frequency (328 GHz) than those of uniform-InxGa1-xAs1-ySby-base HBTs with the same base/collector thicknesses.

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH 2003 645 Transistor Design and Application Considerations for

    E-print Network

    Rieh, Jae-Sung

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH 2003 645 Transistor Design, and Seshadri Subbanna, Member, IEEE Invited Paper Abstract--SiGe HBT transistors achieving over 200 GHz and MAX--BiCMOS integrated circuits, bipolar transistors, heterojunctions, semiconductor devices. I. INTRODUCTION BIPOLAR

  8. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes extreme mood swings. This condition is ... stress. Learn the early warning signs of your illness. Tell your doctor when you notice changes in your mood or behavior. Join a support group. You and your family can share information and experiences with ... Alliance Questions ...

  9. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  10. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  11. Design considerations for FET-gated power transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Chin, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    An FET-bipolar combinational power transistor configuration (tested up to 300 V, 20 A at 100 kHz) is described. The critical parameters for integrating the chips in hybrid form are examined, and an effort to optimize the overall characteristics of the configuration is discussed. Chip considerations are examined with respect to the voltage and current rating of individual chips, the FET surge capability, the choice of triple diffused transistor or epitaxial transistor for the bipolar element, the current tailing effect, and the implementation of the bipolar transistor and an FET as single chip or separate chips. Package considerations are discussed with respect to package material and geometry, surge current capability of bipolar base terminal bonding, and power losses distribution.

  12. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stop this Univ. of Colorado senior USA TODAY College Bipolar disorder affects approximately 5.7 million people ... Disorder Without Medication Science 2.0 The Royal College of Psychiatrists estimates that around 1% of the ...

  13. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  14. Refined Transistor Model For Simulation Of SEU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Benumof, Reuben

    1988-01-01

    Equivalent base resistance added. Theoretical study develops equations for parameters of Gummel-Poon model of bipolar junction transistor: includes saturation current, amplification factors, charging times, knee currents, capacitances, and resistances. Portion of study concerned with base region goes beyond Gummel-Poon analysis to provide more complete understanding of transistor behavior. Extended theory useful in simulation of single-event upset (SEU) caused in logic circuits by cosmic rays or other ionizing radiation.

  15. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih (Madison, WI); Wang, Guogong (Madison, WI); Eriksson, Mark A. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Ma, Zhenqiang (Middleton, WI)

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  16. technologie transistor.

    E-print Network

    Hivert, Florent

    Éléments de technologie Les circuits intégrées c-MOS. L'élément de base est le transistor. Deux types de transistors complémentaires n-MOS et p-MOS. Avantages des c-MOS : #21; très grande intégration des impuretés. - plus récement : bombardement ionique. 2 #12; Transistor n-MOS (Metal

  17. Advancements in bipolar VLSI circuits and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, S. K.

    1984-06-01

    This paper gives an overview on bipolar circuit/device techniques for VLSI logic and memories. Due to their inherent speed advantage over FETs, bipolar circuits are widely used for high-performance masterslice and custom logic and for high-speed static memory arrays. For logic, traditional circuits such as transistor-transistor logic (TTL) and emitter-coupled logic (ECL) are still mainly applied, but also new circuit technologies such as integrated injection logic or merged transistor logic (I2L/MTL) and Schottky transistor logic (STL) or integrated Schottky logic (ISL) have been devised to manage the VLSI technology constraints. For high-speed memory applications such as caches, local stores, or registers, conventional memory cells are increasingly replaced by more advanced memory devices allowing higher bit densities and lower power dissipation. Significant progress can be expected by technology extensions such as dielectric isolation, multilayer metallization, and polysilicon techniques, in addition to shrinking the devices to 1 micron dimensions or below. Some experimental data and projections indicate the strong potentials of bipolar VLSI.

  18. GaAs Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor with Oxi-Nitrided Gate Film Formed by New Process Utilizing Al Layer as Resist Film for Selective Etching, Oxi-Nitridation and Lift-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Yuhki; Seto, Hiroki; Takebe, Masahide; Tametou, Mitoko; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Iiyama, Koichi; Takamiya, Saburo

    2006-04-01

    We have reported that the oxi-nitridation of GaAs forms an insulator-semiconductor interface without deteriorating the crystallographic order of GaAs, and is applicable to the fabrication of compound semiconductor devices with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gates. A problem with oxi-nitridation is that nitrogen plasma ashes and thins the photoresist and hence restricts the possible nitrogen processing times even if a long nitridation is desirable for a better interface quality. To counteract this restriction, we developed a new processing technique utilizing an 0.3-?m-thick Al layer as a mask for selective etching, oxi-nitridation and lift-off. A high transconductance (185 mS/mm) and sharp pinch-off were obtained by a long (8 h) nitridation.

  19. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Types of Bipolar Disorder There are several kinds of bipolar disorder. Each kind is defined by the length, frequency and pattern of ... like an illness. What is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things ...

  20. Carbon doping of GaAs NWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh Einabad, Omid

    Nanowires (NWs) have been proposed and demonstrated as the building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic devices such as NW field effect transistors and NW solar cells which rely on doping and trap-free carrier transport. Controlled doping of NWs and a high degree of structure and morphology control are required for device applications. However, doping of III-V nanowires such as GaAs nanowires has not been reported extensively in the literature. Carbon is a well known p-type dopant in planar GaAs due to its low diffusivity and high solubility in bulk GaAs; however its use as an intentional dopant in NW growth has not yet been investigated. In this work we studied the carbon doping of GaAs nanowires using CBr4 as the dopant source. Gold nanoparticles (NP) at the tip ofthe NWs have been used to drive the NW growth. We show that carbon doping suppresses the migration ofthe gold NPs from the tip of the NWs. In addition, we show that the carbon doping of GaAs NWs is accompanied by an increase of the axial growth rate and decrease of the lateral growth rate ofthe NWs. Carbon-doped GaAs NWs, unlike the undoped ones which are highly tapered, are rod-like. The origin of the observed morphological changes is attributed to the carbon adsorbates on the sidewalls ofthe nanowires which suppress the lateral growth of the nanowires and increase the diffusion length of the gallium adatoms on the sidewalls. Stacking fault formation consisting of alternating regIOns of zincblende and wurtzite structures has been commonly observed in NWs grown along the (111) direction. In this work, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we show that carbon doping ofGaAs NWs eliminates the stacking fault formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of carbon doping on the vibrational properties of the carbon-doped GaAs nanowires. Carbon doping shows a strong impact on the intrinsic longitudinal and transverse optical (La and TO) modes of the GaAs nanowires resulting in red-shifts and broadening of these modes. In addition we observed the appearance of a forbidden mode at the low energy side of the TO mode which has been activated by the breakdown of the Raman selection rule due to disorder introduced into the crystal by carbon impurities. In addition, Raman studies, consistent with TEM results, confirm that the doped NWs are free of stacking faults with pure zincblende crystal structure. This has been confirmed by the suppression ofthe wurtzite TO mode in the doped samples.

  1. Performance analysis of undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) MOSFET at subthreshold regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, B.; Pradhan, K. P.; Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.; Sahu, P. K.; Mohapatra, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this work the sensitivity of process parameters like channel length (L), channel thickness (tSi), and gate work function (?M) on various performance metrics of an undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) are systematically analyzed. Undoped GAA MOSFET is a radical invention as it introduces a new direction for transistor scaling. In conventional MOSFET, generally the channel doping concentration is very high to provide high on-state current, but in contrary it causes random dopant fluctuation and threshold voltage variation. So, the undoped nature of GAA MOSFET solves the above complications. Hence, we have analyzed the electrical characteristics as well as the analog/RF performances of undoped GAA MOSFET through Sentaurus device simulator.

  2. GaAs Optoelectronic Integrated-Circuit Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven H.; Kim, Jae H.; Psaltis, Demetri

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs optoelectronic integrated circuits developed for use as artificial neurons. Neural-network computer contains planar arrays of optoelectronic neurons, and variable synaptic connections between neurons effected by diffraction of light from volume hologram in photorefractive material. Basic principles of neural-network computers explained more fully in "Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits For Neural Networks" (NPO-17652). In present circuits, devices replaced by metal/semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFET's), which consume less power.

  3. Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier with GaAs JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Nagata, Hirohisa; Hibi, Yasunori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masahide

    2009-12-01

    A SONY n-type GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) can operate at deep cryogenic temperatures without exhibiting kink phenomena or hysteresis in its I-V characteristics. Further the GaAs JFET has small gate leakage currents(<4.6×10-19A) and a minute input capacitance (0.037 pF). Moreover, even though the gate terminal of a JFET is surrounded by high-impedance materials, the noise level does not increase and a low noise level of ˜500 nV/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz with low power dissipation (<1 ?W) was achieved. We are currently developing operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) and digital modules for cryogenically cooled high-sensitivity photodetection systems. The GaAs Op-Amp with an open loop gain of 2000 at a power dissipation of 6.5 ?W has been developed.

  4. Comparison of the degradation effects of heavy ion, electron, and cobalt-60 irradiation in an advanced bipolar process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Goben, Charles A.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of the degradation effects of high-energy particles (heavy Br ions and electrons) and Co-60 gamma-rays on the current gain of minimum-geometry bipolar transistors made from an advanced process. The data clearly illustrate the total-ionizing-dose vs particle-fluence behavior of this bipolar transistor produced by an advanced process. In particular, bulk damage from Co-60 gamma rays in bipolar transistors (base transport factor degradation) and surface damage in bipolar transistors from ionizing radiation (emitter-efficiency degradation) have been observed. The true equivalence between various types of radiation for this process technology has been determined on the basis of damage from the log K1 intercepts.

  5. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  6. Parasitic bipolar effect in ultra-thin FD SOI MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. Y.; Ionica, I.; Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2015-10-01

    The parasitic bipolar effect is investigated in fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD SOI) n-type MOSFETs with ultra-thin films (5-10 nm). Our measurements show that at low drain bias the drain leakage current is governed by the gate current. Beyond VD > 1.0 V, leakage current amplification is observed in short-channel 10-nm thick devices. With film thickness shrinking, the current amplification is suppressed. We explain this amplification by the turn-on of the lateral parasitic bipolar transistor. TCAD simulations confirm that the parasitic bipolar is activated due to holes generated by band-to-band tunneling at the drain side and accumulated in the floating body. An effective method for the extraction of bipolar gain is proposed based on the comparison of leakage current in short- and long-channel devices. The experimental method is validated through simulations.

  7. Optical orientation in bipolar spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Žuti?, Igor

    2008-11-01

    Optical orientation is a highly efficient tool for the generation of nonequilibrium spin polarization in semiconductors. Combined with spin-polarized transport it offers new functionalities for conventional electronic devices, such as pn junction bipolar diodes or transistors. In nominally nonmagnetic junctions optical orientation can provide a source for spin capacitance—the bias-dependent nonequilibrium spin accumulation—or for spin-polarized current in bipolar spin-polarized solar cells. In magnetic junctions, the nonequilibrium spin polarization generated by spin orientation in the proximity of an equilibrium magnetization gives rise to the spin-voltaic effect (a realization of the Silsbee-Johnson coupling), enabling efficient control of electrical properties such as the I-V characteristics of the junctions by magnetic and optical fields. This paper reviews the main results of investigations of spin-polarized and magnetic pn junctions, from spin capacitance to the spin-voltaic effect.

  8. A Heteroepitaxial Perovskite Metal-Base Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.; ,

    2011-08-11

    'More than Moore' captures a concept for overcoming limitations in silicon electronics by incorporating new functionalities in the constituent materials. Perovskite oxides are candidates because of their vast array of physical properties in a common structure. They also enable new electronic devices based on strongly-correlated electrons. The field effect transistor and its derivatives have been the principal oxide devices investigated thus far, but another option is available in a different geometry: if the current is perpendicular to the interface, the strong internal electric fields generated at back-to-back heterojunctions can be used for oxide electronics, analogous to bipolar transistors. Here we demonstrate a perovskite heteroepitaxial metal-base transistor operating at room temperature, enabled by interface dipole engineering. Analysis of many devices quantifies the evolution from hot-electron to permeable-base behaviour. This device provides a platform for incorporating the exotic ground states of perovskite oxides, as well as novel electronic phases at their interfaces.

  9. Enhanced current gain in SiC power BJTs using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor concept

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Enhanced current gain in SiC power BJTs using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor concept that the current gain of SiC power bipolar transistors can be improved by as large as 100% by using a novel surface. Introduction Silicon carbide (SiC) has been recognized as the choice for high voltage, high temperature, high

  10. Modeling of enclosed-gate layout transistors as ESD protection device based on conformal mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhang; Haigang, Yang; Jiabin, Sun; Le, Yu; Yuanfeng, Wei

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique for modeling the electrostatic discharge (ESD) characteristic of the enclosed-gate layout transistors (ELTs). The model consists of an ELT, a parasitic bipolar transistor, and a substrate resistor. The ELT is decomposed into edge and corner transistors by solving the electrostatic field problem through the conformal mapping method, and these transistors are separately modeled by BSIM (Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model). Fast simulation speed and easy implementation is obtained as the model can be incorporated into standard SPICE simulation. The model parameters are extracted from the critical point of the snapback curve, and simulation results are presented and compared to experimental data for verification.

  11. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, Charles E.; Mar, Alan; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  12. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  13. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality. PMID:26172635

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 5, MAY 2003 1411 [20] S. Takagi, M. Iwase, and A. Toriumi, "On the universality of inversion-

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    Buffer Materials for Growth of InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors on GaAs Substrates Y. M. Kim in fabrication. This motivates development of lattice-mis- matched metamorphic growth of InP DHBTs on Ga bipolar transistors (MDHBT) using InP or InAlP as metamorphic buffer layers were grown on GaAs substrates

  15. A silicon nanocrystal tunnel field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Drouin, Dominique; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2014-05-12

    In this work, we demonstrate a silicon nanocrystal Field Effect Transistor (ncFET). Its operation is similar to that of a Tunnelling Field Effect Transistor (TFET) with two barriers in series. The tunnelling barriers are fabricated in very thin silicon dioxide and the channel in intrinsic polycrystalline silicon. The absence of doping eliminates the problem of achieving sharp doping profiles at the junctions, which has proven a challenge for large-scale integration and, in principle, allows scaling down the atomic level. The demonstrated ncFET features a 10{sup 4} on/off current ratio at room temperature, a low 30?pA/?m leakage current at a 0.5?V bias, an on-state current on a par with typical all-Si TFETs and bipolar operation with high symmetry. Quantum dot transport spectroscopy is used to assess the band structure and energy levels of the silicon island.

  16. Bipolar thermoelectric devices

    E-print Network

    Pipe, Kevin P. (Kevin Patrick), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The work presented here is a theoretical and experimental study of heat production and transport in bipolar electrical devices, with detailed treatment of thermoelectric effects. Both homojunction and heterojunction devices ...

  17. Neutron damage equivalence for silicon, silicon dioxide, and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luera, Theodore F.; Kelly, John G.; Stein, Herman J.; Lazo, Maximo S.; Lee, Clarence E.

    1987-12-01

    Displacement-energy and ionization-energy transfers to Si, SiO2, and GaAs as functions of incident neutron energy were calculated using cross-section data and fine group structure in the NJOY code system. Neutron spectra determinations for several reactor neutron environments were made using activation cross sections and a novel technique with the SAND II code. Measurements of carrier-removal rates in GaAs and of Si transistor gain degradation were made in representative neutron environments. Experimental results are compared to damage ratios predicted with the spectra and NJOY displacement functions. For fission-like spectra, calculated Si damage ratios are in good agreement with those determined with ASTM E722-85 and with measured transistor damage ratios. Significant differences are found between Si NJOY and ASTM E722-85 for 14-MeV-to-reactor neutron damage ratios; NJOY gives better agreement with experimental data reported in the literature. In GaAs, 14-MeV-to-reactor experimental damage ratios are smaller than predicted by calculated displacement ratios. This suggests that a more complex model of damage for majority carrier removal in GaAs is required. The use of incorrect damage functions is shown to adversely affect simulation fidelity in some representative neutron environments.

  18. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  19. Investigation of irradiated monolithic transistors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codegoni, D.; Colder, A.; Croitoru, N.; D'Angelo, P.; DeMarchi, M.; Fallica, G.; Favalli, A.; Leonardi, S.; Levalois, M.; Marie, P.; Modica, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Seidman, A.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper experimental results on radiation effects on a BICMOS high speed commercial technology, manufactured by STMicroelectronics, are reported. Bipolar transistors were irradiated by neutrons, ions, or by both of them. Fast neutrons, as well as other types of particles, produce defects, mainly by displacing silicon atoms from their lattice positions to interstitial locations, i.e. generating vacancy-interstitial pairs, the so-called Frenkel pairs (FP). Defects introduce trapping energy states which degrade the common emitter current gain ?. The gain degradation has been investigated for collector current Ic between 1 ?A and 1 mA. It was found a linear dependence of ?(1/ ?)=1/ ?i-1/ ? (where ?i and ? are the gain after and before the irradiation) as a function of the concentration of FP. The bipolar transistors made on this technology have shown to be particularly radiation resistant. Both base and collector currents have been also systematically investigated.

  20. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  1. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  2. PHY327 Lab 4 --Diodes and Transistors Transistor

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    PHY327 Lab 4 -- Diodes and Transistors Diode: Transistor: #12;Silicon: the most important material exponential decay of a RC circuit. #12;Transistor ­ one of the greatest inventions A transistor (3-terminal. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern

  3. n-Type Doping of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, Christoph; Lysov, Andrey; Regolin, Ingo; Blekker, Kai; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz-Josef

    2011-12-01

    In this letter, n-type doping of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth mode on (111)B GaAs substrates is reported. A low growth temperature of 400°C is adjusted in order to exclude shell growth. The impact of doping precursors on the morphology of GaAs nanowires was investigated. Tetraethyl tin as doping precursor enables heavily n-type doped GaAs nanowires in a relatively small process window while no doping effect could be found for ditertiarybutylsilane. Electrical measurements carried out on single nanowires reveal an axially non-uniform doping profile. Within a number of wires from the same run, the donor concentrations N D of GaAs nanowires are found to vary from 7 × 1017 cm-3 to 2 × 1018 cm-3. The n-type conductivity is proven by the transfer characteristics of fabricated nanowire metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices.

  4. Calculating drain delay in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffie, R.

    2015-12-01

    An expression for the signal delay (drain delay) associated with electrons traveling through the gate-drain depletion region has been obtained for nonuniform electron velocity. Due to the presence of the gate metal, the signal delay through the gate-drain depletion region was shown to be larger than the signal delay in the base-collector depletion region of a bipolar transistor when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. Drain delay is also shown to be larger in transistors with field plates (independent of field plate connection) compared to transistors without field plates when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. For the case of constant velocity, two expressions for the proportionality constant relating drain delay and electron transit time across the depletion were obtained.

  5. A dc model for power switching transistors suitable for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P. M.; George, R. T., Jr.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed dc model for bipolar junction power switching transistors is based on measurements which may be made with standard laboratory equipment. Those nonlinearities which are of importance to power electronics design are emphasized. Measurements procedures are discussed in detail. A model formulation adapted for use with a computer program is presented, and a comparison between actual and computer-generated results is made.

  6. A dc model for power switching transistors suitable for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P. M.; George, R. T., Jr.; Owen, H. A.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    A model for bipolar junction power switching transistors whose parameters can be readily obtained by the circuit design engineer, and which can be conveniently incorporated into standard computer-based circuit analysis programs is presented. This formulation results from measurements which may be made with standard laboratory equipment. Measurement procedures, as well as a comparison between actual and computed results, are presented.

  7. Soft switch-avalanche IGBT convertor. [Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K.; Stuart, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    A full bridge dc-dc converter using a zero voltage and zero current switching technique is described. This circuit utilizes the characteristics of the IGBT to achieve power and frequency combinations that are much higher than those previously reported for this device. Experimental results are included for a 1.5 kW, 100 kHz converter with 94 percent efficiency.

  8. Transmission resonances in the bipolar quantum resonant tunneling transistor 

    E-print Network

    Mondragon, Antonio Richard

    1996-01-01

    A propagator method is introduced for calculating the transmission spectra of semiconductor nanostructures, and the bound state energies and wave functions of quantum wells. This method is then generalized to include the effects of a nonpa...

  9. Crossed Andreev reflection in a graphene bipolar transistor.

    PubMed

    Cayssol, J

    2008-04-11

    We investigate the crossed Andreev reflections between two graphene leads connected by a narrow superconductor. When the leads are, respectively, of the n and p type, we find that electron elastic cotunneling and local Andreev reflection are both eliminated even in the absence of any valley-isospin or spin polarizations. We further predict oscillations of both diagonal and cross conductances as a function of the distance between the graphene-superconductor interfaces. PMID:18518065

  10. 3654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 61, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2014 Polarity-Controllable Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    -Controllable Silicon Nanowire Transistors With Dual Threshold Voltages Jian Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Michele De) silicon nanowires enable an unprecedented electrostatic control on the semiconductor channel that can push propose a silicon nanowire tran- sistor with three independent GAA electrodes, demonstrating, within

  11. Fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A data base of mechanical and fracture properties for GaAs was generated. The data for single crystal GaAs will be used to design reusable GaAs solar modules. Database information includes; (1) physical property characterizations; (2) fracture behavior evaluations; and (3) strength of cells determined as a function of cell processing and material parameters.

  12. Polyphosphonium?based bipolar membranes for rectification of ionic currents

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Erik O.; Berggren, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar membranes (BMs) have interesting applications within the field of bioelectronics, as they may be used to create non-linear ionic components (e.g., ion diodes and transistors), thereby extending the functionality of, otherwise linear, electrophoretic drug delivery devices. However, BM based diodes suffer from a number of limitations, such as narrow voltage operation range and/or high hysteresis. In this work, we circumvent these problems by using a novel polyphosphonium-based BM, which is shown to exhibit improved diode characteristics. We believe that this new type of BM diode will be useful for creating complex addressable ionic circuits for delivery of charged biomolecules. PMID:24400035

  13. Transistor as a Rectifier

    E-print Network

    Raju Baddi

    2013-04-20

    Transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device normally used as an amplifier or as a switch. Here the alternating current (a.c) rectifying property of the transistor is considered. The ordinary silicon diode exhibits a voltage drop of ~0.6V across its terminals. In this article it is shown that the transistor can be used to build a diode or rectify low current a.c (~mA) with a voltage drop of ~0.03V. This voltage is ~20 times smaller than the silicon diode. This article gives the half-wave and full-wave transistor rectifier configurations along with some applications to justify their usefulness.

  14. Integration of GaAs epitaxial layer to Si-based substrate using Ge condensation and low-temperature migration enhanced epitaxy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Hoon Jung; Choi, Kyu Jin; Loh, Wei Yip; Htoo, Thwin; Chua, Soo Jin; Cho, Byung Jin

    2007-09-01

    A GaAs defect-free epitaxial layer has been grown on Si via a Ge concentration graded SiGe on insulator (SGOI) for application in high channel-mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor. The SGOI layer, 42 nm thick, serves as the compliant and intermediate buffer to reduce the lattice and thermal expansion mismatches between Si and GaAs. A modified two-step Ge condensation technique achieves the surface Ge concentration in SGOI as high as 71%. It is also found that low-temperature migration enhanced epitaxy during the initial GaAs nucleation on the SGOI surface is critical to obtain a device quality GaAs layer by epitaxial growth.

  15. Pleated metal bipolar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Zawodzinski, Christine (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A thin low-cost bipolar plate for an electrochemical cell is formed from a polymer support plate with first flow channels on a first side of the support plate and second flow channels on a second side of the support plate, where the first flow channels and second flow channels have intersecting locations and have a depth effective to form openings through the support plate at the intersecting locations. A first foil of electrically conductive material is pressed into the first flow channels. A second foil of electrically conductive material pressed into the second flow channels so that electrical contact is made between the first and second foils at the openings through the support plate. A particular application of the bipolar plate is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  16. Temperature vs. reliability in power GaAs FETs and MIC GaAs FET power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhemsen, F.; Yee, R.; Zee, T.; Osbrink, N. K.

    1984-05-01

    The reliability of a GaAs FET can only be determined by actual testing. One objective of reliability studies is to obtain data which can be used as a basis for making useful projections of the failure rate of the device under actual operating conditions. The common approach used to obtain information regarding the aging properties of a transistor within a practical time scale involves increasing the temperature beyond the normal operating point. The considered reliability study is concerned with the determination of the cumulative failure distribution of a sample population under some known degree of acceleration. The obtained results are extrapolated to normal operating conditions. The major test to be considered is high temperature life testing. The investigation is concerned with a channel temperature of 275 C. The data reviewed are based only on catastrophic failures, since this is the predominant failure mode in power FETs.

  17. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkal?, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included. PMID:24590850

  18. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens (Easy to Read) Order a free hardcopy En ... How is bipolar disorder different in children and teens than it is in adults? When children develop ...

  19. Electron tomography of gate-all-around nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherns, P. D.; Lorut, F.; Dupré, C.; Tachi, K.; Cooper, D.; Chabli, A.; Ernst, T.

    2010-02-01

    We present a study of gate-all-around (GAA) Si nanowire transistor structures using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) STEM tomography. Device structures have been prepared in needle shaped samples using a focused ion beam (FIB), in order to allow sample rotation to +/- 80°. Tomograms are presented, both from a full three channel device structure and also from a single wire test structure, without the hydrogen annealing step. It is observed that hydrogen annealing alters the rectangular cross section of the nanowires, narrowing them and smoothing the corners.

  20. Comparison of GaAs JFETs to MESFETs for high-temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Hietala, V.M.; Housel, M.S.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    GaAs-based Metal Semiconductor Field Effect transistors (MESFETs) and High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) have been the focus of research for high-temperature operation due to the 1.42 eV band gap of GaAs that reduces thermal carrier generation as compared to 1.1 eV silicon-based electronics. Although schemes have been proposed to minimize substrate currents at elevated temperatures, high-temperature operation of these devices is ultimately limited by the gate leakage current of the Schottky gate contact. Since a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) has a higher gate barrier to current flow than a Schottky barrier MESFET as a result of the p/n junction gate, JFETs should have superior performance at elevated temperatures. This paper compares the high-temperature performance of a self-aligned GaAs MESFET and JFET. Both devices suffer from substrate leakage at high temperature; however, the JFET has superior gate characteristics and maintains a larger fraction of its room temperature transconductance at 300 C.

  1. Total Dose Effects on Single Event Transients in Digital CMOS and Linear Bipolar Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Sibley, M.; Eaton, P.; Mavis, D.; Dusseau, L.; Roche, N. J-H.; Bernard, M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of ionizing radiation on single event transients (SETs) in circuits. The exposure of integrated circuits to ionizing radiation changes electrical parameters. The total ionizing dose effect is observed in both complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar circuits. In bipolar circuits, transistors exhibit grain degradation, while in CMOS circuits, transistors exhibit threshold voltage shifts. Changes in electrical parameters can cause changes in single event upset(SEU)/SET rates. Depending on the effect, the rates may increase or decrease. Therefore, measures taken for SEU/SET mitigation might work at the beginning of a mission but not at the end following TID exposure. The effect of TID on SET rates should be considered if SETs cannot be tolerated.

  2. Long-Wavelength-Infrared Hot-Electron Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Liu, John K.; Park, Jin S.; Lin, True-Lon

    1995-01-01

    Dark current reduced by energy-discriminating quantum filter. Very long-wavelength-infrared hot-electron transistor developed. Device detects photons at wavelengths around 16 micrometers. Comprises photodector integrated with energy-discriminating quantum filter in multiple-quantum-well structure. Made of variously doped and undoped layers of GaAs (quantum wells) and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As (barriers between wells). In transistor, bound-to-continuum GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As multiple-quantum-well infrared photodectors (QWIP) serves as photosensitive emitter. Wide quantum well serves as base, and there is thick barrier between base and collector. Combination of barrier and base quantum well acts as energy-discriminating filter: electrons with higher energies pass through filter to collector, those with lower energies blocked and diverted from output-current path through base contact.

  3. A highly selective, chlorofluorocarbon-free GaAs on AlGaAs etch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.E. . Solid State Technology Center)

    1993-07-01

    A highly selective reactive ion etching process using SiCl[sub 4], CF[sub 4], O[sub 2], and He is reported. The selectivity of the etch, which is adjustable, ranges from 308:1 to 428:1 for GaAs to Al[sub 0.11]Ga[sub 0.89]As. This variability in selectivity is achieved by adjusting the helium flow rate. One very attractive feature of this etch is that it uses no chlorofluorocarbons and therefore complies with future bans on these substances imposed at both federal and corporate levels. The etch is demonstrated on a GaAs field effect transistor structure with an underlying Al[sub 0.11]Ga[sub 0.89]As stop-etch layer. The etch can be used for both anisotropic and isotropic applications.

  4. Growth and properties of crystalline barium oxide on the GaAs(100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yasir, M.; Dahl, J.; Lång, J.; Tuominen, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Laukkanen, P. Kokko, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 ; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Polojärvi, V.; Guina, M.

    2013-11-04

    Growing a crystalline oxide film on III-V semiconductor renders possible approaches to improve operation of electronics and optoelectronics heterostructures such as oxide/semiconductor junctions for transistors and window layers for solar cells. We demonstrate the growth of crystalline barium oxide (BaO) on GaAs(100) at low temperatures, even down to room temperature. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that the amount of interface defects is reduced for BaO/GaAs, compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs, suggesting that BaO is a useful buffer layer to passivate the surface of the III-V device material. PL and photoemission data show that the produced junction tolerates the post heating around 600?°C.

  5. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  6. Tobacco use in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E; Ellegaard, Pernille K; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M

    2015-04-30

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behavior, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  7. A comparison of radiation damage in transistors from cobalt-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The total ionizing dose response of ten bipolar transistor types has been measured using Co-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons from exposure levels of 750, 1500, and 3000 Gy(Si). Gain measurements were made for a range of collector-emitter voltages and collector currents.

  8. Fin width and height dependence of bipolar amplification in bulk FinFETs submitted to heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Ting; Chen, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jian-Jun; Huang, Peng-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    FinFET technologies are becoming the mainstream process as technology scales down. Based on a 28-nm bulk p-FinFET device, we have investigated the fin width and height dependence of bipolar amplification for heavy-ion-irradiated FinFETs by 3D TCAD numerical simulation. Simulation results show that due to a well bipolar conduction mechanism rather than a channel (fin) conduction path, the transistors with narrower fins exhibit a diminished bipolar amplification effect, while the fin height presents a trivial effect on the bipolar amplification and charge collection. The results also indicate that the single event transient (SET) pulse width can be mitigated about 35% at least by optimizing the ratio of fin width and height, which can provide guidance for radiation-hardened applications in bulk FinFET technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant No. 61376109).

  9. Pulsed Molecular Beams For Growth Of InAs On GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    Pauses for annealing reduce number of defects. Deposition process that includes pulsed molecular beams produces high-quality epitaxial layers of indium arsenide on gallium arsenide substrates. Layers made as much as 30 atoms thick without introducing excessive numbers of dislocations, despite 7.4-percent mismatch between InAs and GaAs crystal lattices. Layers offer superior electrical properties in such devices as optically addressed light modulators, infrared sensors, semiconductor lasers, and high-electron-mobility transistors. Technique applicable to other epitaxial systems in which lattices highly mismatched.

  10. Vertical organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100?nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-?m structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  11. Vertical organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100?nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-?m structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. PMID:26466388

  12. Printed inorganic transistors

    E-print Network

    Ridley, Brent (Brent Alan), 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Forty years of exponential growth of semiconductor technology have been predicated on the miniaturization of the transistors that comprise integrated circuits. While complexity has greatly increased within a given area of ...

  13. Bipolar disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  14. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  15. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  16. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  17. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S. (Richland, WA)

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  18. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S. (Richland, WA)

    2004-02-24

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  19. Preventing Simultaneous Conduction In Switching Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, William T.

    1990-01-01

    High voltage spikes and electromagnetic interference suppressed. Power-supply circuit including two switching transistors easily modified to prevent simultaneous conduction by both transistors during switching intervals. Diode connected between collector of each transistor and driving circuit for opposite transistor suppresses driving signal to transistor being turned on until transistor being turned off ceases to carry current.

  20. Effect of 100MeV oxygen ion irradiation on silicon NPN power transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnaveni, S.; Ramani

    2012-06-05

    The radiation response of npn Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has been examined for 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion. Key electrical properties like Gummel characteristics, dc current gain and capacitance-voltage of 100MeV O{sup 7+} ion irradiated transistor were studied before and after irradiation. The device was decapped and the electrical characterizations were performed at room temperature. Base current is observed to be more sensitive than collector current and gain appears to be degraded with ion fluence, also considerable degradation in C-V characteristics is observed and doping concentration is found to be increased along with the increase in ion fluence.

  1. Evaluation and fabrication of GaAs integrated logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannel, Jean-Paul

    The working principles and the state of art of integrated injection logic circuits are reviewed. A fine modeling allows to evaluate the potential performances and the optimization criteria for this family, based on GaAlAs/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistors. The fabrication sequences for the integrated injection logic circuits are described. Emphasis is given to the molecular beam epitaxy and the ion implantation. The high maximum current gains, measured for the elementary transistors in forward and reverse operations (250 and 400 respectively) and the effective gains measured in the four collector gates (between 16 and 4 according to the collector rank), simultaneously testify to the possibilities brought by the double heterojunction structure concerning the fan out and the noise immunity. The performances of this technology enhanced from the seven stage ring oscillator response, give a minimum propagation delay time about one nanosecond and a 1 pJ power delay product for a 20 micrometer design rule. Both agree with theoretical previsions.

  2. [Tonsillar microsurgery by bipolar dissection].

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Hoyo, A; Lacosta Nicolás, J L; Má Salóm, J; Martínez Torre, I; Fernández Martín, M J

    1995-01-01

    The 66 amygdalectomies done by the AA. under general anesthesia and tracheal intubation are considered in two groups. The first one was composed by 32 patients operated following a dissection and coagulation procedure with the aid of a bipolar forceps and under microscopical magnification. The second group, 34 cases, underwent the classical procedure with ligature of the bleeding vessels. The usage of the bipolar forceps procure lesser loss of blood as compared with the dissection-ligature procedure. On the contrary, the bipolar clip method showed and increased postoperative pain and also the lagging of the swallow function. Both techniques presented with very similar complications (bleeding, edema, loca infection). PMID:7573857

  3. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scheidemantel, Thomas; Korobkova, Irina; Rej, Soham; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Asenapine (Saphris®) is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be similarly modest. Asenapine does not appear to cause any clinically significant QTc prolongation. The most commonly reported extra-pyramidal symptom associated with asenapine was akathisia. Overall, asenapine appears to be a relatively well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic, effective in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of BD. PMID:26674884

  4. Single electron transistor in pure silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binhui

    As promising candidates for spin qubits, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous research efforts. Currently most advanced progress is from GaAs QDs. Compared to GaAs, lateral QDs in 28silicon are expected to have a spin coherence time orders of magnitude longer, because 28Si has zero nuclear spin, and there is no hyperfine interaction between electron spins and nuclear spins. We have developed enhancement mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) single electron transistors (SETs) using pure silicon wafers with a bi-layer gated configuration. In an MOS-SET, the top gate is used to induce a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), just as in an MOS field effect transistor. The side gates deplete the 2DEG into a QD and two point contact channels; one connects the QD to the source reservoir, and the other connects the QD to the drain reservoir. We have systematically investigated the MOS-SETs at 4.2 K, and separately in a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 10 mK. The data show that there is an intrinsic QD in each point contact channel due to the local potential fluctuations in these SETs. However, after scaling down the SETs, we have found that the intrinsic QDs can be removed and the electrostatically defined dots dominate the device behavior, but these devices currently only work in the many-electron regime. In order to realize single electron confinement, it is necessary to continue scaling down the device and improving the interface quality. To explore the spin dynamics in silicon, we have investigated a single intrinsic QD by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surface. The magnetic field dependence of the ground-state and excited-state energy levels of the QD mostly can be explained by the Zeeman effect, with no obvious orbital effect up to 9 T. The two-electron singlet-triplet (ST) transition is first time directly observed in a silicon QD by excitation spectroscopy. In this ST transition, electron-electron Coulomb interaction plays a significant role. The observed amplitude spectrum suggests the spin blockade effect. When the two-electron system forms a singlet state in the dot at low fields, and the injection current from the lead becomes spin-down polarized, the tunneling conductance is reduced by a factor of 8. At higher magnetic fields, due to the ST transition, the spin blockade effect is lifted and the conductance is fully recovered.

  5. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  6. In situ passivation of GaAs surface with aluminum oxide with MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Yuki; Deura, Momoko; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2008-11-01

    In situ passivation of GaAs surface subsequent to the growth in a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor has been made possible using trimethylaluminum (TMAl). The adsorption layer on GaAs, presumably consisting of aluminum and the decomposition product of TMAl, was oxidized upon exposure to air to form thin AlO x layer. TMAl supply of only 0.5 monolayer completely prevented the oxidation of As on the surface, as confirmed by XPS. The passivation layer mostly prevented the oxidation of As upon O 2 annealing for 5 min at 250 °C. For the successful passivation, complete desorption of excess As on the GaAs surface was essential prior to the injection of TMAl. Otherwise, AlAs layer was formed and arsenic oxide was inevitably formed. The optimum length of H 2 purge to desorb As was determined to be 2 min with in situ surface monitoring using reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). This passivation method, combined with the succeeding deposition of Al 2O 3 as a gate dielectric in a different reactor, provides the GaAs/gate interface without As-oxide. The method is applicable to the MOVPE growth of electron channel layers containing As for III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs).

  7. Modulating the morphology and electrical properties of GaAs nanowires via catalyst stabilization by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zaixing; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Dong, Guofa; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, TakFu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-03-11

    Nowadays, III-V compound semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have attracted extensive research interest because of their high carrier mobility favorable for next-generation electronics. However, it is still a great challenge for the large-scale synthesis of III-V NWs with well-controlled and uniform morphology as well as reliable electrical properties, especially on the low-cost noncrystalline substrates for practical utilization. In this study, high-density GaAs NWs with lengths >10 ?m and uniform diameter distribution (relative standard deviation ? ? 20%) have been successfully prepared by annealing the Au catalyst films (4-12 nm) in air right before GaAs NW growth, which is in distinct contrast to the ones of 2-3 ?m length and widely distributed of ? ? 20-60% of the conventional NWs grown by the H2-annealed film. This air-annealing process is found to stabilize the Au nanoparticle seeds and to minimize Ostwald ripening during NW growth. Importantly, the obtained GaAs NWs exhibit uniform p-type conductivity when fabricated into NW-arrayed thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). Moreover, they can be integrated with an n-type InP NW FET into effective complementary metal oxide semiconductor inverters, capable of working at low voltages of 0.5-1.5 V. All of these results explicitly demonstrate the promise of these NW morphology and electrical property controls through the catalyst engineering for next-generation electronics. PMID:25700210

  8. Photosensitive graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Niu, Liyong; Zheng, Zijian; Yan, Feng

    2014-08-20

    High performance photodetectors play important roles in the development of innovative technologies in many fields, including medicine, display and imaging, military, optical communication, environment monitoring, security check, scientific research and industrial processing control. Graphene, the most fascinating two-dimensional material, has demonstrated promising applications in various types of photodetectors from terahertz to ultraviolet, due to its ultrahigh carrier mobility and light absorption in broad wavelength range. Graphene field effect transistors are recognized as a type of excellent transducers for photodetection thanks to the inherent amplification function of the transistors, the feasibility of miniaturization and the unique properties of graphene. In this review, we will introduce the applications of graphene transistors as photodetectors in different wavelength ranges including terahertz, infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, focusing on the device design, physics and photosensitive performance. Since the device properties are closely related to the quality of graphene, the devices based on graphene prepared with different methods will be addressed separately with a view to demonstrating more clearly their advantages and shortcomings in practical applications. It is expected that highly sensitive photodetectors based on graphene transistors will find important applications in many emerging areas especially flexible, wearable, printable or transparent electronics and high frequency communications. PMID:24715703

  9. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    E-print Network

    Seth C. Caliga; Cameron J. E. Straatsma; Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2013-09-13

    An atomtronic transistor circuit is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator. The transistor consists of Source and Drain regions separated by a narrow Gate well. Quasi-steady-state behavior is determined from a thermodynamic model, which reveals two oscillation threshold regimes. One is due to the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gate well, the other is due to the appearance of a negative transresistance regime of the transistor. The thresholds of oscillation are shown to be primarily dependent on the potential energy height difference between Gate-Drain and Gate-Source barriers. The transistor potential is established with a combination of magnetic and optical fields using a compound glass and silicon substrate atom chip. The onset of oscillation and the output matterwave are observed through in-trap imaging. Time-of-flight absorption imaging is used to determine the time dependence of the Source well thermal and chemical energies as well as to estimate the value of the closed-loop ohmic Gate resistance, which is negative and is observed to cause cooling of Source atoms.

  10. Multimode Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 104 is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 107 whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  11. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Kwok K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  12. Investigation of effective base transit time and current gain modulation of light-emitting transistors under different ambient temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao-Hsiang; Tu, Wen-Chung; Wang, Hsiao-Lun; Wu, Chao-Hsin

    2014-11-03

    In this report, the modulation of current gain of InGaP/GaAs light-emitting transistors under different ambient temperatures are measured and analyzed using thermionic emission model of quantum well embedded in the transistor base region. Minority carriers captured by quantum wells gain more energy at high temperatures and escape from quantum wells resulting in an increase of current gain and lower optical output, resulting in different I-V characteristics from conventional heterojunction bipolar transistors. The effect of the smaller thermionic lifetime thus reduces the effective base transit time of transistors at high temperatures. The unique current gain enhancement of 27.61% is achieved when operation temperature increase from 28 to 85?°C.

  13. Gate-all-around polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors with self-aligned grain-growth nanowire channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ta-Chuan; Kang, Tsung-Kuei; Lin, Chia-Min; Wu, Chun-Yu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2012-02-01

    In this letter, gate-all-around (GAA) polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (TFTs) with self-aligned grain-growth channels were fabricated using excimer laser crystallization (ELC) on a recessed-nanowire (RN) structure. Via the RN structure constructed by a simple sidewall-spacer formation, location-controlled nucleation and volume-confined lateral grain growth within the RN body during ELC process have been demonstrated with only one perpendicular grain boundary in each nanowire channel. Because of the high-crystallinity channel together with GAA operation mode, the proposed GAA-RN TFTs show good device integrity of lower threshold voltage, steeper subthreshold slope, and higher field-effect mobility as compared with the conventional planar counterparts.

  14. Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Join Home » Learn » Library Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder January 21, 2010 Overview Health insurance Child custody ... the Juvenile Justice System Families of children with bipolar disorder often face legal issues related to their child's ...

  15. Transistor Basics II PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    Transistor Basics II PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction The two basic types of transistors have specific functions related to the transistor's ability to regulate the current that flow through so you can immediately tell the type of the transistor. A typical transistor circuit is shown

  16. Pulse transformer for GaAs laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    High-radiance gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser operating at room temperature is utilized in optical navigation system. For efficient transformer-to-laser impedance match, laser should be connected directly to pulse transformer secondary winding.

  17. Functional Remediation for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Solé, Brisa; Bonnín, C. Mar; Rosa, Adriane R; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation strategies, adapted from work conducted with traumatic brain injury patients and applied to patients with schizophrenia, also need to be adapted to individuals with bipolar disorders. Early intervention using functional remediation, involves neurocognitive techniques and training, but also psychoeducation on cognition-related issues and problem-solving within an ecological framework. PMID:21687565

  18. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  19. Improved chopper circuit uses parallel transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Parallel transistor chopper circuit operates with one transistor in the forward mode and the other in the inverse mode. By using this method, it acts as a single, symmetrical, bidirectional transistor, and reduces and stabilizes the offset voltage.

  20. Gyrator employing field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochmair, E. S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A gyrator circuit of the conventional configuration of two amplifiers in a circular loop, one producing zero phase shift and the other producing 180 deg phase reversal is examined. All active elements are MOS field effect transistors. Each amplifier comprises a differential amplifier configuration with current limiting transistor, followed by an output transistor in cascode configuration, and two load transistors of opposite conductivity type from the other transistors. A voltage divider control circuit comprises a series string of transistors with a central voltage input to provide control, with locations on the amplifiers receiving reference voltages by connection to appropriate points on the divider. The circuit produces excellent response and is well suited for fabrication by integrated circuits.

  1. Metatronic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing the notion of metamaterials, in recent years the concept of a circuit and lumped circuit elements have been extended to the optical domains, providing the paradigm of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, as a powerful tool for design and study of more complex systems at the nanoscale. In this paper we present a design for a new metatronic element, namely, a metatronic transistor that functions as an amplifier. As shown by our analytical and numerical paper here, this metatronic transistor provides gain as well as isolation between the input and output ports of such two-port device. The cascadability and fan-out aspects of this element are also explored.

  2. The microtubule transistor

    E-print Network

    H. C. Rosu

    2007-03-26

    I point out the similarity between the microtubule experiment reported by Priel et al [Biophys. J. 90, 4639 (2006)] and the ZnO nanowire experiment of Wang et al [Nanolett. 6, 2768 (2006)]. It is quite possible that MTs are similar to a piezoelectric field effect transistor for which the role of the control gate electrode is played by the piezo-induced electric field across the width of the MT walls and their elastic bending features

  3. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Schneibel, Joachim H. (Knoxville, TN); Pint, Bruce A. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  4. Silicene transistors— A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quhe, Ru-Ge; Wang, Yang-Yang; Lü, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Free standing silicene is a two-dimensional silicon monolayer with a buckled honeycomb lattice and a Dirac band structure. Ever since its first successful synthesis in the laboratory, silicene has been considered as an option for post-silicon electronics, as an alternative to graphene and other two-dimensional materials. Despite its theoretical high carrier mobility, the zero band gap characteristic makes pure silicene impossible to use directly as a field effect transistor (FET) operating at room temperature. Here, we first review the theoretical approaches to open a band gap in silicene without diminishing its excellent electronic properties and the corresponding simulations of silicene transistors based on an opened band gap. An all-metallic silicene FET without an opened band gap is also introduced. The two chief obstacles for realization of a silicene transistor are silicene’s strong interaction with a metal template and its instability in air. In the final part, we briefly describe a recent experimental advance in fabrication of a proof-of-concept silicene device with Dirac ambipolar charge transport resembling a graphene FET, fabricated via a growth-transfer technique. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274016, 11474012, and 1207141) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB619304).

  5. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great questions facing the field and one that is likely to have profound treatment implications, given that fact that such a discovery would greatly increase our ability to individualize – and by extension, enhance – treatment. PMID:25202283

  6. Ultra-Thin-Film GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. L.; Shin, B. K.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Stirn, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Process based on organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition (OM/CVD) of trimethyl gallium with arsine forms economical ultrathin GaAs epitaxial films. Process has higher potential for low manufacturing cost and large-scale production compared with more-conventional halide CVD and liquid-phase epitaxy processes. By reducing thickness of GaAs and substituting low-cost substrate for single-crystal GaAs wafer, process would make GaAs solar cells commercially more attractive.

  7. All GaAs signal processing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Geideman, W.A.; Rasset, T.L.; Misko, T.A.; Wine, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    The architecture, design, simulation, and evaluation of an all-GaAs vector signal processor for on-board space-system applications are described. The vector processor, whose architecture is based on a modular, building-block approach, consists of three main units: the control/scalar processor, the vector memory, and the execution unit. Each unit functions independently from the other, enabling the data addressing, data processing, and control to operate in parallel rather than serial manner. The GaAs processor's performance was compared with the performance of several commercial processors including the CMOS MIPS processor. When the latter was substituted for the GaAs processor in the same vector processor architecture, the performance/power ratio was nearly equal to that of the GaAs processor, but GaAs has demonstrated a higher performance upper bound. It was found that, in addition to high performance, the GaAs vector processor has fault-tolerant features and is flexible and radiation hard.

  8. CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTORS: AN EVALUATION

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    -effect transistors. It is shown that, by appropriate work function engineering of the source, drain and gate contacts transistors and interconnects.1 Such circuits would be of a different form from that of today's silicon by atomic force microscopy,12 but recent reports of covalent chemical functionalization could make this task

  9. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  10. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optimization of space processing of GaAs is described. The detailed compositional, structural, and electronic characterization of GaAs on a macro- and microscale and the relationships between growth parameters and the properties of GaAs are among the factors discussed. The key parameters limiting device performance are assessed.

  11. Room temperature piezoelectric displacement detection via a silicon field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboob, I.; Nishiguchi, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2009-12-01

    An electromechanical oscillator embedded with a two dimensional electron gas is capacitively coupled to a silicon field effect transistor (Si-FET). The piezovoltage induced by the mechanical motion modulates the current passing through the Si-FET enabling the electromechanical oscillator's position to be monitored. When the Si-FET is biased at its optimal point, the motion induced piezovoltage can be amplified resulting in a displacement sensitivity of 6×10-12 mHz-1/2 for a 131 kHz GaAs resonator which is among the highest recorded for an all-electrical room temperature detection scheme.

  12. An analytic model for gate-all-around silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; He, Jin; Chan, Mansun; Du, Cai-Xia; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Wen; Deng, Wan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2014-09-01

    An analytical model of gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors (NW-TFETs) is developted based on the surface potential solutions in the channel direction and considering the band to band tunneling (BTBT) efficiency. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved to obtain the surface potential distributions in the partition regions along the channel direction for the NW-TFET, and a tunneling current model using Kane's expression is developed. The validity of the developed model is shown by the good agreement between the model predictions and the TCAD simulation results.

  13. Photoluminescence of Mn+ doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiying; Qu, Shengchun; Liao, Shuzhi; Zhang, Fasheng; Liu, Junpeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2010-10-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most useful techniques to obtain information about optoelectronic properties and defect structures of materials. In this work, the room-temperature and low temperature photoluminescence of Mn-doped GaAs were investigated, respectively. Mn-doped GaAs structure materials were prepared by Mn+ ion implantation at room temperature into GaAs. The implanted samples were subsequently annealed at various temperatures under N2 atmosphere to recrystallize the samples and remove implant damage. A strong peak was found for the sample annealed at 950 °C for 5 s. Transitions near 0.989 eV (1254 nm), 1.155 eV (1074 nm) and 1.329 eV (933 nm) were identified and formation of these emissions was analyzed for all prepared samples. This structure material could have myriad applications, including information storage, magnet-optical properties and energy level engineering.

  14. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  15. Impacts of crystal orientation of GaAs on the interfacial structures and electrical properties of Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x} films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tingting; Kimura, Hideo; Zhao, Hongyang; Yao, Qiwen; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Cheng, Xinghong; Yu, Yuehui

    2014-04-07

    One of the major challenges in realizing the GaAs channel in the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor is the degrading in electron transport properties at the interface between GaAs and the gate oxide. In this study, Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x} gate oxide films were deposited at a low temperature (200?°C) on GaAs(111)A and GaAs(100) substrates by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Microstructure analysis indicates that residuals of gallium oxide, arsenic oxide, and As element remained at the interface of Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x}/GaAs(100). On contrast, a smoother interface is observed between Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x} thin film and GaAs(111)A substrate. Furthermore, a reduction of interfacial layer is observed in Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x}/GaAs(111)A. Electrical characterization of the metal-insulator-semiconductor Pt/Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x}/n-GaAs(111)A capacitor indicated a reduction of D{sub it} and leakage current compared with the capacitor fabricated on GaAs(100)

  16. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  17. Characterizing the Switching Thresholds of Magnetophoretic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Joh, Daniel Y; Van Heest, Melissa A; Yi, John S; Baker, Cody; Taherifard, Zohreh; Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Murdoch, David M; Yellen, Benjamin B

    2015-10-01

    The switching thresholds of magnetophoretic transistors for sorting cells in microfluidic environments are characterized. The transistor operating conditions require short 20-30 mA pulses of electrical current. By demonstrating both attractive and repulsive transistor modes, a single transistor architecture is used to implement the full write cycle for importing and exporting single cells in specified array sites. PMID:26349853

  18. Transistor Basics I PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    Transistor Basics I PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction Transistors are the heart of all of our modern.6 quantum mechanical "cost" they impose. Transistors that sandwich two p-type semiconductor layers around one layer of n-type are called "pnp transistors." Conversely, two n-type semiconductors sandwiched

  19. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  20. Bipolar disorder in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, K. I.; Herrmann, N.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential. PMID:10349067

  1. Current steering detection scheme of three terminal antenna-coupled terahertz field effect transistor detectors.

    PubMed

    Földesy, Péter

    2013-08-01

    An antenna-coupled field effect transistor (FET) as a plasma wave terahertz detector is used with the current steering to record separately the gate-source and gate-drain photoresponses and their phase sensitive combination. This method is based on the observation that the plasmon-terminal coupling is cut off in saturation, resulting in only one-sided sensitivity. A polarimetric example is presented with intensity and polarization angle reconstruction using a single three-terminal antenna-coupled Si-metal-oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET). The technique is applicable to various detection schemes and technologies (high electron mobility transistors and GaAs-, GaN-, and Si-MOSFETs), and other application possibilities are discussed. PMID:23903147

  2. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  3. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  4. Submicron grating fabrication on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflinger, D.; Kirk, J.; Cordero, R.; Evans, G.

    1981-01-01

    The laboratory techniques used for the fabrication of submicron gratings in GaAs are presented. A thin (about 1250 A) film of Shipley AZ1450B photoresist on GaAs is exposed holographically with the use of the 4579 A line of argon ion laser to produce gratings with a period of approximately 0.35 micron. Data are presented that demonstrate the effects of variation of the following parameters: developer type, developer time, laser intensity, exposure time, photoresist thickness, and ion beam etching parameters. Relative grating efficiency measurements as a function of parameter variations indicate an optimum set of parameters for grating fabrication.

  5. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  6. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliga, Seth; Straatsma, Cameron; Anderson, Dana

    2013-05-01

    We perform experiments with an Rb87 Bose-condensed gas in a magnetic trap separated into three regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers, forming a transistor-like structure having large ``source'' and ``drain'' regions separated by a narrow ``gate'' region. A condensate is produced in the source by forced RF evaporative cooling. While atom number and chemical potential of the source atoms are determined by traditional time of flight methods, we observe the flux and energy of the drain atoms emerging from the gate-drain barrier with a high resolution (NA = 0.6) in-trap absorption imaging system. Asymmetric cooling of the trap causes a thermo-mechanically induced superfluid current to flow from the source to the gate over the source-gate barrier. Feedback through superfluid coupling between the source and the gate maintains near equality of the source and gate chemical potentials while superfluid flow continues to cause atoms to emerge from the gate into the drain. A resonant ``terminator'' beam illuminating the drain region effectively couples emerging gate atoms to the vacuum. By turning off the terminator beam shortly before snapping an absorption image we determine both the atom flux and the atom energy. With an appropriate choice of cooling schedule, barrier heights, and separations, the gate emits a monoenergetic beam of atoms. We establish that this system is a superfluid analog of an antenna-coupled transistor-oscillator circuit in which the dual of the electromagnetic wave is a matterwave.

  7. VCSEL`s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, R.; Hayes, E.M.; Jurrat, R.; Wilmsen, C.W.; Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.

    1997-12-01

    This letter reports the flip-chip bonding of an 8 x 8 array of free standing VCSEL`s to a foundry fabricated GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) smart pixel array. The VCSEL`s have oxide defined apertures and are co-planar bonded directly to smart pixels which perform the selection function of a data filter. The V{sub th} and series resistance of the VCSEL`s were on average approximately 2.1 V and 250 {Omega}, respectively, which indicates that good electrical contact was obtainable with this process. The I{sub th} ranged between 2--4 mA, with a corresponding output power of between 400 {micro}W and >1.0 mW depending on aperture size.

  8. [Comparative study of recurrent and bipolar depression].

    PubMed

    Ismailov, F N

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine clinical and diagnostic distinctions between the episodes of recurrent depression and bipolar depression. The subjects of the study were 79 patients meeting ICD-10 criteria for either recurrent depressive disorder or bipolar affective disorder. Patient with recurrent depression presented more prominent HDRS symptoms of depressed mood, psychomotor retardation, somatic anxiety, and gastro-intestinal somatic complains. Bipolar patients had more scores related to middle and late insomnia, agitation and suicide. In addition lower length of remission was observed in bipolar depression. The revealed differences should be taken into account in diagnostic and pharmacological treatment of various types of depression. PMID:19996503

  9. Image transfer in photorefractive GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Gheen, Gregory; Rau, Mann-Fu; Wang, Faa-Ching

    1987-01-01

    Image transfer from one beam to the other using counterpropagation beam coupling in GaAs was demonstrated. Good image quality was achieved. The results also reveal that local birefringence due to the residual stress/strain field in the crystal can degrade the image quality.

  10. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  11. Ballistic superconductivity in high mobility two dimensional electron gas in GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Rokhinson, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    Introduction of a Josephson field effect transistor (JoFET) concept sparked active research on proximity effects in semiconductors. Induced superconductivity and electrostatic control of critical current has been demonstrated in two-dimensional gases in InAs, graphene and topological insulators, and in one-dimensional systems including quantum spin Hall edges. Recently, interest in superconductor-semiconductor interfaces was renewed by the search for non-Abelian states when fractional quantum Hall edge states interface with superconductivity. However, the highest mobility 2D gases in GaAs, where variety of strongly correlated states including fractional quantum Hall effect can be observed, are notoriously absent from the list of materials where superconductivity have been induced. We report formation of transparent superconducting contacts to the high mobility 2DEG in GaAs and demonstrate induced superconductivity across several microns. Ballistic supercurrent has been observed across 0.6 ?m of 2DEG, a regime essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (> 16 Tesla) in NbN contacts enables investigation of a regime of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a 2DEG at high magnetic fields.

  12. Simulation of novel complementary bipolar inverters for low-voltage high-speed ULSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubennikov, Alexander N.; Zykov, Andrey V.

    2000-01-01

    Complementary bipolar (CBi) inverters on scaled down self-aligned transistors with highly-doped bases for advanced high-speed low-voltage low-power deep-submicron ULSI are considered and studied using a simulator PSPICE. A novel symmetrical transistor structure (STS) with undoped (lightly-doped) active base and nanometer regime, that can function as complementary n-p-n and p-n-p devices for CBi inverters at ultra-reduced supply voltages VEE, VEE=0.1-0.5 V, is investigated and simulated. It is shown that numerical mixed 2D-device-circuit simulator (DCSIM) for personal computer gives accurate knowledge of the static and dynamic properties of upward and downward self-aligned STS and CBi inverters eliminating the intermediate nonaccurate procedure of model electrical parameter extraction. This paper presents 2D numerical device-circuit simulations of the bipolar nanostructures and push-pull inverters on complementary STS with undoped active bases in ultra-low-voltage regime providing a high degree of integration, extremely high intrinsic speed and sufficiently high driving capacity. The switching problems for high-speed low-power low-action operations and optimization of sub-0.5 V Cbi inverters are studied.

  13. High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors

    PubMed Central

    Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1?kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. PMID:23851620

  14. Subthreshold bipolarity: diagnostic issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nusslock, Robin; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that current diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorders may fail to include milder, but clinically significant, bipolar syndromes and that a substantial percentage of these conditions are diagnosed, by default, as unipolar major depression. Accordingly, a number of researchers have argued for the upcoming 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to better account for subsyndromal hypomanic presentations. Methods The present paper is a critical review of research on subthreshold bipolarity, and an assessment of some of the challenges that researchers and clinicians might face if the DSM-5 were designed to systematically document subsyndromal hypomanic presentations. Results Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who display subsyndromal hypomanic features, not concurrent with a major depressive episode, have a more severe course compared to individuals with MDD and no hypomanic features, and more closely resemble individuals with bipolar disorder on a number of clinical validators. Conclusion There are clinical and scientific reasons for systematically documenting subsyndromal hypomanic presentations in the assessment and diagnosis of mood disorders. However, these benefits are balanced with important challenges, including (i) the difficulty in reliably identifying subsyndromal hypomanic presentations, (ii) operationalizing subthreshold bipolarity, (iii) differentiating subthreshold bipolarity from borderline personality disorder, (iv) the risk of over-diagnosing bipolar spectrum disorders, and (v) uncertainties about optimal interventions for subthreshold bipolarity. PMID:22085472

  15. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  16. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  17. Bipolar II disorder and self-identity 

    E-print Network

    Hannon, Julia

    2012-06-27

    Background: Studies on bipolar II disorder have covered a wide scope; many report the importance of a cohesive self-concept for recovery. In spite of this, there is a dearth of research explicitly investigating how bipolar II impacts one’s self...

  18. Solder Bonding for Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snytsheuvel, H. A.; Mandel, H.

    1985-01-01

    Indium solder boosts power rating and facilitates circuit changes. Efficient heat conduction from power transistor to heat sink provided by layer of indium solder. Low melting point of indium solder (141 degrees C) allows power transistor to be removed, if circuit must be reworked, without disturbing other components mounted with ordinary solder that melts at 181 degrees C. Solder allows devices operated at higher power levels than does conventional attachment by screws.

  19. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected system power = 100 kilowatts; discharge time = 30 seconds; discharge current density = 1.75 amps/sq in.; system weight = 86 lbs (9.7 WH/lb); and system volume = 1071 cu. in. (.78 WH/cu. in.). EPI is currently working on a development program to produce a bipolar silver-zinc battery design for NASA. The potential application would be to power electromechanical actuators for space launch vehicles.

  20. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected system power = 100 kilowatts; discharge time = 30 seconds; discharge current density = 1.75 amps/sq in.; system weight = 86 lbs (9.7 WH/lb); and system volume = 1071 cu. in. (.78 WH/cu. in.). EPI is currently working on a development program to produce a bipolar silver-zinc battery design for NASA. The potential application would be to power electromechanical actuators for space launch vehicles.

  1. Creative treatment of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Tav?ar, Rok

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder with chronic and remitting course. The disorder is related to high mortality and severely impairs everyday functioning. Therefore a scientifically sound and practical approach to treatment is needed. Making a long-term treatment plan usually also demands some creativity. The patient is interested in a number of issues, from the choice of therapy in acute phases to long-term treatment. Usual questions are how long shall I take the medications, do I really need all those pills or can we decrease the dosage of some drugs? This paper discussed the above mentioned questions in light of latest publications in this field. PMID:26400146

  2. Acoustic Wave Chemical Microsensors in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Albert G. Baca; Edwin J. Heller; Gregory C. Frye-Mason; John L. Reno; Richard Kottenstette; Stephen A. Casalnuovo; Susan L. Hietala; Vincent M. Hietala

    1998-09-20

    High sensitivity acoustic wave chemical microsensors are being developed on GaAs substrates. These devices take advantage of the piezoelectric properties of GaAs as well as its mature microelectronics fabrication technology and nascent micromachining technology. The design, fabrication, and response of GaAs SAW chemical microsensors are reported. Functional integrated GaAs SAW oscillators, suitable for chemical sensing, have been produced. The integrated oscillator requires 20 mA at 3 VK, operates at frequencies up to 500 MHz, and occupies approximately 2 mmz. Discrete GaAs sensor components, including IC amplifiers, SAW delay lines, and IC phase comparators have been fabricated and tested. A temperature compensation scheme has been developed that overcomes the large temperature dependence of GaAs acoustic wave devices. Packaging issues related to bonding miniature flow channels directly to the GaAs substrates have been resolved. Micromachining techniques for fabricating FPW and TSM microsensors on thin GaAs membranes are presented and GaAs FPW delay line performance is described. These devices have potentially higher sensitivity than existing GaAs and quartz SAW sensors.

  3. John Bardeen and transistor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Howard R.

    2001-01-01

    John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact semiconductor amplifier (transistor action) in polycrystalline germanium (also observed in polycrystalline silicon) on Dec. 15, 1947, for which they received a patent on Oct. 3, 1950. Bill Shockley was not a co-patent holder on Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier patent since Julius Lilienfeld had already received a patent in 1930 for what would have been Shockley's contribution; namely, the field-effect methodology. Shockley received patents for both his minority-carrier injection concept and junction transistor theory, however, and deservedly shared the Nobel prize with Bardeen and Brattain for his seminal contributions of injection, p-n junction theory and junction transistor theory. We will review the events leading up to the invention of Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier during the magic month of November 17-December 16, 1947 and the invention of Shockley's junction semiconductor amplifier during his magic month of December 24, 1947-January 23, 1948. It was during the course of Bardeen and Brattain's research in November, 1947 that Bardeen also patented the essence of the MOS transistor, wherein the induced minority carriers were confined to the inversion layer enroute to the collector. C. T. Sah has described this device as a sourceless MOS transistor. Indeed, John Bardeen, co-inventor of the point-contact semiconductor amplifier and inventor of the MOS transistor, may rightly be called the father of modern electronics.

  4. Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  5. Evolvable circuit with transistor-level reconfigurability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian (Inventor); Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos Harold (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An evolvable circuit includes a plurality of reconfigurable switches, a plurality of transistors within a region of the circuit, the plurality of transistors having terminals, the plurality of transistors being coupled between a power source terminal and a power sink terminal so as to be capable of admitting power between the power source terminal and the power sink terminal, the plurality of transistors being coupled so that every transistor terminal to transistor terminal coupling within the region of the circuit comprises a reconfigurable switch.

  6. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Le Bas, James; Newton, Richard; Sore, Rachel; Castle, David

    2015-02-01

    Because affective pathogenesis is a hard problem for psychiatry, it behoves researchers to develop and test novel models of causality. We examine the notion that the adaptive drive to social investment - prestige - provides clues to the bipolar spectrum. A seven node bipolar spectrum is proposed, based on a putative gradient of "bipolarity". It is conceived that this gradient may correlate with the drive to social investment (prestige). In order to test this hypothesis with proof of concept data, a case control study categorised 228 subjects into a seven node bipolar spectrum. Whilst controlling for mood elevation and depression, differences in strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) between spectrum groups were examined. The bipolar I (S1) node had a greater strategic prestige (leadership) motivation score than the controls (S7) by 21.17 points, 95% CI [8.16, 34.18], p<.001, d=1.05, while the bipolar II (S2) node was higher than the control group by 16.73 points, 95% CI [0.92, 32.54], p=.030, d=0.84. Whilst the pseudounipolar (S3) node (those with depression and bipolar family histories; n=17) had only a marginally statistical difference in MSPM compared to controls (p=.051), the mean difference (16.98) and d value (0.86) indicated an elevated MSPM level. Prestige (leadership) motivation score positively correlated with dimensional lifetime bipolarity (Mood Disorder Questionnaire) score (rp=0.47), supporting the spectrum prestige motivation gradient notion. Evidence is presented for a genetic disposition to elevated strategic prestige (leadership) motivation. Sensitivity to Social Inclusion (MSIS), Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW.av) and tension significantly predicted strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) score in a multiple regression. - suggesting that a vulnerability of the social self may be a feature of bipolar disorders. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity offers a new conceptualisation of affective disorders and has received preliminary support. PMID:25554538

  7. Bandwidth enhancement and optical performances of multiple quantum well transistor lasers

    E-print Network

    Iman Taghavi; Hassan Kaatuzian; Jean-Pierre Leburton

    2012-05-23

    A detailed rate-equation-based model is developed to study carrier transport effects on optical and electrical characteristics of the Multiple Quantum Well Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Laser in time-domain. Simulation results extracted using numerical techniques in small-signal regime predict significant enhancement in device optical bandwidth when multiple quantum wells are used. Cavity length and base width are also modified to optimize the optoelectronic performances of the device. An optical bandwidth of \\approx 60GHz is achieved in the case of 5 quantum wells each of 70A widths and a cavity length of 200um.

  8. Spectral simulation of GaAs and InAs quantum-dot terahertz detectors designed for higher-temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Wu, D. H.; Bussmann, K.; Jonker, B. T.

    2006-09-01

    The spectral properties and other performance characteristics of single-photon quantum-dot terahertz detectors incorporating single-electron transistors are analyzed for the cases of GaAs and InAs electron channels. By defining the electrostatically confined double-quantum-dot structures in shallow two-dimensional electron gas structures, these devices have the potential to operate at temperatures above the dilution refrigerator range. We calculate the interlevel plasmon absorption by using the random-phase approximation in conjunction with realistic band structures and three-dimensional confinement geometries. While the level separations increase with decreasing dot diameter, carrier depletion eventually limits the minimum size that is viable. The maximum detection frequency is about 1THz for GaAs channels, but increases to 1.5-2THz for InAs channels having a lower effective mass.

  9. Neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder: a comparison between bipolar I and II disorder and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits have been documented in patients with bipolar disorder. Further, it has been suggested that the degree and type of cognitive impairment differ between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder, but data is conflicting and remains inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the suggested differences in cognitive impairment between patients with bipolar I and II disorder in a relatively large, clinically stable sample while controlling for potential confounders. Methods 67 patients with bipolar I disorder, 43 with bipolar II disorder, and 86 randomly selected population-based healthy controls were compared. A number of neuropsychological tests were administered, assessing verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Patients were in a stable phase during testing. Results Patients with bipolar type I and type II were cognitively impaired compared to healthy controls, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two subtypes. The strongest predictor of cognitive impairment within the patient group was current antipsychotic treatment. Conclusions The present study suggests that the type and degree of cognitive dysfunction is similar in bipolar I and II patients. Notably, treatment with antipsychotics - but not a history of psychosis - was associated with more severe cognitive impairment. Given that patients with bipolar I disorder are more likely to be on antipsychotic drugs, this might explain why some previous studies have found that patients with type I bipolar disorder are more cognitively impaired than those with type II. PMID:23758923

  10. Electrical detection of the biological interaction of a charged peptide via gallium arsenide junction-field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.; Wampler, Heeyeon P.; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2008-01-01

    GaAs junction-field-effect transistors (JFETs) are utilized to achieve label-free detection of biological interaction between a probe transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and the target trans-activation-responsive (TAR) RNA. The TAT peptide is a short sequence derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 TAT protein. The GaAs JFETs are modified with a mixed adlayer of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and TAT peptide, with the ODT passivating the GaAs surface from polar ions in physiological solutions and the TAT peptide providing selective binding sites for TAR RNA. The devices modified with the mixed adlayer exhibit a negative pinch-off voltage (VP) shift, which is attributed to the fixed positive charges from the arginine-rich regions in the TAT peptide. Immersing the modified devices into a TAR RNA solution results in a large positive VP shift (>1 V) and a steeper subthreshold slope (?80 mV?decade), whereas “dummy” RNA induced a small positive VP shift (?0.3 V) without a significant change in subthreshold slopes (?330 mV?decade). The observed modulation of device characteristics is analyzed with analytical modeling and two-dimensional numerical device simulations to investigate the electronic interactions between the GaAs JFETs and biological molecules. PMID:19484151

  11. LEC GaAs for integrated circuit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Chen, R. T.; Homes, D. E.; Asbeck, P. M.; Elliott, K. R.; Fairman, R. D.; Oliver, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in liquid encapsulated Czochralski techniques for the growth of semiinsulating GaAs for integrated circuit applications have resulted in significant improvements in the quality and quantity of GaAs material suitable for device processing. The emergence of high performance GaAs integrated circuit technologies has accelerated the demand for high quality, large diameter semiinsulating GaAs substrates. The new device technologies, including digital integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits and charge coupled devices have largely adopted direct ion implantation for the formation of doped layers. Ion implantation lends itself to good uniformity and reproducibility, high yield and low cost; however, this technique also places stringent demands on the quality of the semiinsulating GaAs substrates. Although significant progress was made in developing a viable planar ion implantation technology, the variability and poor quality of GaAs substrates have hindered progress in process development.

  12. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space resistant, high efficiency, light weight, low cost GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells for space application is investigated. The material preparation of ultrathin GaAs single crystal layers, and the fabrication of efficient GaAs solar cells on bulk GaAs substrates are discussed. Considerable progress was made in both areas, and conversion efficiency about 16% AMO was obtained using anodic oxide as a single layer antireflection coating. A computer design shows that even better cells can be obtained with double layer antireflection coating. Ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells were obtained from GaAs films prepared by the CLEFT process, with conversion efficiency as high as 17% at AMI from a 10 micrometers thick GaAs film. A organometallic CVD was designed and constructed.

  13. Nanofluidic Transistor Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jing; Yan, Yu; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti

    2012-02-01

    Non-equilibrium ion/fluid transport physics across on-chip membranes/nanopores is used to construct rectifying, hysteretic, oscillatory, excitatory and inhibitory nanofluidic elements. Analogs to linear resistors, capacitors, inductors and constant-phase elements were reported earlier (Chang and Yossifon, BMF 2009). Nonlinear rectifier is designed by introducing intra-membrane conductivity gradient and by asymmetric external depletion with a reverse rectification (Yossifon and Chang, PRL, PRE, Europhys Lett 2009-2011). Gating phenomenon is introduced by functionalizing polyelectrolytes whose conformation is field/pH sensitive (Wang, Chang and Zhu, Macromolecules 2010). Surface ion depletion can drive Rubinstein's microvortex instability (Chang, Yossifon and Demekhin, Annual Rev of Fluid Mech, 2012) or Onsager-Wien's water dissociation phenomenon, leading to two distinct overlimiting I-V features. Bipolar membranes exhibit an S-hysteresis due to water dissociation (Cheng and Chang, BMF 2011). Coupling the hysteretic diode with some linear elements result in autonomous ion current oscillations, which undergo classical transitions to chaos. Our integrated nanofluidic circuits are used for molecular sensing, protein separation/concentration, electrospray etc.

  14. Harnessing denatured protein for controllable bipolar doping of a monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Ji-Ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-01-21

    In this work, we demonstrated tunable p- and/or n-type doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene with the use of protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a dopant. BSA undergoes protonation or deprotonation reaction subject to solution pH, thereby acting as either an electron donor or an electron acceptor on the graphene surface layered with denatured BSA through ?-stacking interaction. This direct annealing of graphene with denatured BSA of amphoteric nature rendered facilitated fabrication of a p- and/or n-type graphene transistor by modulating pH-dependent net charges of the single dopant. Following AFM confirmation of the BSA/graphene interface assembly, the carrier transport properties of BSA-doped graphene transistors were assessed by I-V measurement and Raman spectra to show effective charge modulation of the graphene enabled by BSA doping at various pH conditions. The protein-mediated bipolar doping of graphene demonstrated in our work is simple, scalable, and straightforward; the proposed scheme is therefore expected to provide a useful alternative for fabricating graphene transistors of novel properties and promote their implementation in practice. PMID:25546483

  15. New generation of space batteries: GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Shi, Wenzao

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a new generation of space power sources -- GaAs solar cells -- and the status of their development inside China and abroad. In conjunction with this, on the basis of unique properties associated with GaAs solar cells, it points out the direction of development, clarifies the value of key space applications, and forecasts the application prospects for GaAs solar cells.

  16. Eight-Bit-Slice GaAs General Processor Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, John; Gauthier, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Novel GaAs 8-bit slice enables quick and efficient implementation of variety of fast GaAs digital systems ranging from central processing units of computers to special-purpose processors for communications and signal-processing applications. With GaAs 8-bit slice, designers quickly configure and test hearts of many digital systems that demand fast complex arithmetic, fast and sufficient register storage, efficient multiplexing and routing of data words, and ease of control.

  17. Thalamic volumes in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Flaig, V.; Schneider-Axmann, T.; Usher, J.; Reith, W.; Falkai, P.; Gruber, O.; Scherk, H.

    2010-01-01

    There are several hypotheses on functional neuronal networks that modulate mood states and which might form the neuroanatomical basis of bipolar disorder. The thalamus has been reported to be a key structure within the circuits that modulate mood states and might thus play an important role within the aetiology of the bipolar affective disorder. Nevertheless, structural brain imaging studies on the thalamus volume of bipolar patients have shown heterogeneous results. Using structural MRI scanning, we compared the thalamus volume of 41 euthymic bipolar patients to the thalamus volume of 41 well-matched healthy controls. Taking the concomitant medication as a co-variable within the patient group, the analysis of variance revealed a significantly smaller relative volume of the right thalamus in patients not treated with lithium when compared with healthy controls. In contrast, there are no significant differences concerning the thalamus volume between all euthymic bipolar patients and healthy controls. The study only shows findings of a transverse section. No longitudinal analysis was performed. More detailed information on patients’ pharmacological histories could not be obtained. In conclusion, this result may be interpreted as an indication of the impact of the thalamus in the pathogenesis of the bipolar I disorder and emphasises the need for further longitudinal studies in bipolar patients with special attention paid to the concomitant medication, in particular to the role of lithium. PMID:20127489

  18. How to teach a billion transistor

    E-print Network

    Kienhuis, Bart

    Heterogeneous Architecture Multi CPUs Distributed Memory Blocks Programmable Logic (IP cores) Commercially processors Write "VHDL" programs for the IP cores and interconnection network "C" programs and "VHDL billion transistor FPGAs, but cannot program efficiently FPGA Billion Transistors Applications (C / Matlab

  19. Piezoelectric field in strained GaAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wieczorek, Sebastian Maciej

    2005-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the piezoelectric field in strained bulk GaAs. The bound charge distribution is calculated and suitable electrode configurations are proposed for (1) uniaxial and (2) biaxial strain. The screening of the piezoelectric field is studied for different impurity concentrations and sample lengths. Electric current due to the piezoelectric field is calculated for the cases of (1) fixed strain and (2) strain varying in time at a constant rate.

  20. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  1. Recognising Bipolar Disorders in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Dietch, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, previously called 'Manic-depression', is a complex group of conditions characterised by recurrent changes in mood and energy. Crucially, the intensity and duration of these changes go beyond normal fluctuations and personality traits. Bipolar Disorder is a mental health disorder, but physical health manifestations (Smith 2013, Westman 2013, Fagiolini 2008, Young 2013) and complications are just as important. GPs have a key role in the recognition and management, in conjunction with secondary care colleagues. Diagnosis is often difficult and may take several years (Smith 2011, Angst 2005, Manning 2010), because patients usually seek help for anxiety, depression or fatigue, not hypomania/mania, which they may not recognise. Individuals with a first episode of mania are more likely to present directly to secondary care, sometimes via a third party alerting the emergency services. There is also debate around the classification, diagnosis and treatment of individuals with brief and milder mood changes ('bipolar spectrum disorder') (Faravelli 2009, Spence 2011). In the UK, the recent NICE Guidelines (2014) 1 only included Bipolar I and Bipolar II for these reasons. A particular challenge for GPs is that whilst most people who have Bipolar Disorder (and especially Bipolar II) are depressed, most people with depression within a Primary Care setting do not have Bipolar Disorder. Thus, a brief pragmatic screen is recommended in Primary care: ask about a family history of Bipolar Disorder and screen for a history of mania/hypomania in individuals with anxiety, depression or irritability, especially if there are recurrent episodes, suicidal thoughts or a previous suicide attempt. For suspected cases, formal diagnosis should not be made within Primary Care but individuals should be referred for Psychiatric assessment, ideally to a Mood Disorders specialist. PMID:26417759

  2. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  3. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  4. Photoluminescence study of Sr(+) ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hong-Lie; Makita, Yunosuke; Dittrich, Werner; Kimura, Shinji; Tanoue, Hisao; Yamada, Akimasa; Iida, Tsutomu; Obara, Akira

    1995-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) results of Sr(+) ion-implantation into both ultrapure GaAs grown by liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) were presented. It was determined that Sr produced (Sr(sup omicron), X), G1, G2, and H emissions in molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs, while in LEC grown GaAs, rather than the four emissions above, two emissions designated by SM1 and SM2 emerged. The observations from GaAs (LEC) confirmed that a small amount of residual donor impurity could quench the development of shallow acceptor related emissions like G1 and G2.

  5. GaAs solar cells for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, L.; Flores, C.; Paletta, P.; Martella, M.

    1987-07-01

    The current status of GaAs solar-cell technology for space power systems is surveyed in a general review, with an emphasis on Italian contributions. Topics addressed include the fundamental principles and operating characteristics of GaAs cells, manufacturing techniques (LPE growth of GaAs layers, attachment of ohmic contacts, and antireflective coating), qualification for space use, current spacecraft applications, space test programs for GaAs cells, industrial production facilities and capacity, and future development possibilities (multijunction cells, thin cells, and concentrator cells). Diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  6. GaAs photoconductors to characterize picosecond response in GaAs integrated devices and circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.B.; Paulter, N.G.; Gibbs, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Optoelectronic techniques that use femtosecond lasers and promise the precise measurement of transient response in high speed electronic devices and circuits have been under study for several years. We have investigated on-wafer electrical-impulse generation and sampling using femto-second-laser-excited GaAs photoconductors. This approach is applicable to any transmission line structure, it is directly integrable, non-invasive, jitter-free, and it is applicable to both microwave and digital circuits. We have developed the capability to: (a) generate electrical impulses in on-wafer GaAs transmission lines with 3-dB bandwidths in excess of 60 GHz, and (b) sample the electrical impulse response of an on-wafer test structure without jitter and with a 3-dB measurement bandwidth of 103 GHz at a noise level of -67 dBm. We have studied dispersion in GaAs on-wafer coplanar-waveguide transmission lines.

  7. SEU In An Advanced Bipolar Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Secrest, Elaine C.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report summarizes investigation of single-event upsets (SEU) in bipolar integrated-circuit set of flip-flops (memory cells). Device tested made by advanced digital bipolar silicon process of Honeywell, Inc. Circuit chip contained 4 cells. Construction enabled study of effect of size on SEU behavior. Each cell externally biased so effect of bias current on SEU behavior. Results of study provides important information for optimal design of devices fabricated using buried-layer bipolar process operating in heavy-ion SEU environments. Designers use information to provide required levels of suppression of SEU in specific applications via combinations of size and/or cell-current scaling.

  8. Evaluation of silicon-germanium (SiGe) bipolar technologies for use in an upgraded atlas detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullán, M.; Rice, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Cressler, J. D.; Damiani, D.; Díez, S.; Gadfort, T.; Grillo, A. A.; Hackenburg, R.; Hare, G.; Jones, A.; Kierstead, J.; Kononenko, W.; Mandi?, I.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Metcalfe, J.; Newcomer, F. M.; Parsons, J. A.; Phillips, S.; Rescia, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spieler, H.; Sutton, A. K.; Tazawa, Y.; Wilder, M.; Wulf, E.

    2009-06-01

    Silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technologies promise several advantages over CMOS for the front-end readout electronics for the ATLAS upgrade. We have evaluated the relative merits of the latest generations of IBM SiGe HBT BiCMOS technologies, the 8WL and 8HP platforms. These 130 nm SiGe technologies show promise to operate at lower power than do CMOS technologies and would provide a viable alternative for the silicon strip detector and liquid argon calorimeter upgrades, provided that the radiation tolerance studies at multiple gamma and neutron irradiation levels, included in this investigation, show them to be sufficiently radiation tolerant.

  9. Single Carbon Nanotube Transistor at GHz Frequency

    E-print Network

    Plaçais, Bernard

    Single Carbon Nanotube Transistor at GHz Frequency J. Chaste,, L. Lechner,£ P. Morfin,, G. Fe operation of top-gated single carbon nanotube transistors. From transmission measurements in the 0.1-1.6 GHz effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are very attractive as ultimate, quantum limited devices. In particular

  10. 2-Transistor Oscillator PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    2-Transistor Oscillator PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction--the circuit · One-week check: Build of your oscilloscope to investigate what's going on at the base and collector of each transistor (base and collector of the transistors). Writeup: · I will email you the 5Spice file for this circuit

  11. DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS V. Bertacco S. Minato P. Verplaetse L. Benini by ARPA, under grant No. DABT63-95-C-0049. #12;Decision Diagrams and Pass Transistor Logic Synthesis V transistors and domino logic. The synthesis of these cells is based on BDD and ZBDD representations

  12. Electroluminescence from a Single-Nanocrystal Transistor

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Electroluminescence from a Single-Nanocrystal Transistor Mark S. Gudiksen, Kristin N. Maher, Lian September 8, 2005 ABSTRACT We report the fabrication and characterization of light-emitting transistors- emitting transistors incorporating individual CdSe nano- crystals. Unlike the two-terminal devices employed

  13. The Resonant Body Transistor Dana Weinstein,*,

    E-print Network

    Afshari, Ehsan

    The Resonant Body Transistor Dana Weinstein,*, and Sunil A. Bhave Cornell University, 405 Phillips Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 ABSTRACT This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor

  14. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora (Milwaukee, WI); Bolstad, James J. (Shorewood, WI)

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  15. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  16. Shock absorbers in bipolar outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Moorhouse, A.

    1991-02-01

    A type of shock which accelerates hyhdrogen molecules to a high velocity without dissociating is investigated. Such soft C-shocks are characterized by low Alfven Mach numbers and low streaming speeds of the ions through the neutrals. Therefore, a shock in a region of high Alfven speed, v(A) can produce wide H2 line profiles. It is shown that the shape and width of the H2 line profiles in the OMC-1 outflow are reproduced by a bow shock of velocity 200-250 km/s moving through a dense medium with v(A) about 46 km/s. Line ratio data are also successfully modeled from which an H2O abundance of less than 0.0002 per hydrogen atom within the shock is inferred. It is asserted that regions with high Alfven speeds are associated with the most energetic bipolar outflows and are essential to the formation of high-mass stars.

  17. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  18. Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder 

    E-print Network

    Hall, J.; Whalley, H. C.; Marwick, K.; McKirdy, J.; Sussmann, J.; Romaniuk, L.; Johnstone, E. C.; Wan, H. I.; McIntosh, A. M.; Lawrie, S. M.

    Background. The hippocampus plays a central role in memory formation. There is considerable evidence of abnormalities in hippocampal structure and function in schizophrenia, which may differentiate it from bipolar disorder. ...

  19. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  20. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  1. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  2. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko; ACT-C, JST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012

    2014-01-15

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.

  3. Ion-implanted high-microwave-power indium phosphide transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, R.

    1989-09-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) have demonstrated substantially higher output power density at microwave frequencies compared to gallium arsenide metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). Presented here are the microwave characteristics from an investigation of encapsulated rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the fabrication of InP power MISFETs with ion-implanted source, drain, and active channel regions. The MISFETs had a gate length of 1.4 microns. They were made with individual gate finger widths of 100 or 125 microns, and six to ten gate fingers per device were used to make MISFETs with total gate widths of 0.75, 0.8, or 1 mm. The source and drain contact regions and the channel region of the MISFETs were fabricated using silicon implants in semi-insulating InP at energies from 60 to 360 keV with doses from 10 to the 12th power to 5.6 x 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. The implants were activated using RTA at 700 C for 30 s in N2 or H2 ambients using a silicon nitride encapsulant. The channel region was chemically recessed prior to depositing approximately 1000 A of SiO2 for the gate insulator. The high power and high efficiency of InP MISFETs were characterized at 9.7 GHz, and the output microwave power density for the RTA conditions used was as high as 2.4 W/mm. For a 1 W input at 9.7 GHz gains up to 3.7 dB were observed, with an associated power-added efficiency of 29 percent. The output power density achieved was 70 percent greater than has been achieved with GaAs MESFETs.

  4. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

  5. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  6. INTERBAND TUNNEL TRANSISTORS A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    -to-drain tunneling, and self-consistent channel electrostatics. Graphene nanoribbons have a width-tunable bandgap by simulation that the GNR tunnel transistors at the long channel limit can operate at 0.1 V with an ultra channel length due to direct source-to-drain tunneling. Smaller ribbon widths (down to a certain limit

  7. The four-gate transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, M. M.; Cristoveanu, S.; Allibert, F.; France, G.; Blalock, B.; Durfrene, B.

    2002-01-01

    The four-gate transistor or G4-FET combines MOSFET and JFET principles in a single SOI device. Experimental results reveal that each gate can modulate the drain current. Numerical simulations are presented to clarify the mechanisms of operation. The new device shows enhanced functionality, due to the combinatorial action of the four gates, and opens rather revolutionary applications.

  8. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation.

    PubMed

    Deconto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Lear, Caroline H; Pagani, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene epoch ( approximately 33.6 million years ago), followed by the onset of northern-hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene epoch, about 31 million years later. The pivotal early Oligocene event is characterized by a rapid shift of 1.5 parts per thousand in deep-sea benthic oxygen-isotope values (Oi-1) within a few hundred thousand years, reflecting a combination of terrestrial ice growth and deep-sea cooling. The apparent absence of contemporaneous cooling in deep-sea Mg/Ca records, however, has been argued to reflect the growth of more ice than can be accommodated on Antarctica; this, combined with new evidence of continental cooling and ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere during this period, raises the possibility that Oi-1 represents a precursory bipolar glaciation. Here we test this hypothesis using an isotope-capable global climate/ice-sheet model that accommodates both the long-term decline of Cenozoic atmospheric CO(2) levels and the effects of orbital forcing. We show that the CO(2) threshold below which glaciation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere ( approximately 280 p.p.m.v.) is much lower than that for Antarctica ( approximately 750 p.p.m.v.). Therefore, the growth of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere immediately following Antarctic glaciation would have required rapid CO(2) drawdown within the Oi-1 timeframe, to levels lower than those estimated by geochemical proxies and carbon-cycle models. Instead of bipolar glaciation, we find that Oi-1 is best explained by Antarctic glaciation alone, combined with deep-sea cooling of up to 4 degrees C and Antarctic ice that is less isotopically depleted (-30 to -35 per thousand) than previously suggested. Proxy CO(2) estimates remain above our model's northern-hemispheric glaciation threshold of approximately 280 p.p.m.v. until approximately 25 Myr ago, but have been near or below that level ever since. This implies that episodic northern-hemispheric ice sheets have been possible some 20 million years earlier than currently assumed (although still much later than Oi-1) and could explain some of the variability in Miocene sea-level records. PMID:18833277

  9. AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs pnp-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting transistor-lasers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Y; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, C; Yu, X; Yang, C; Zabel, T; Hammar, M; Akram, M N

    2015-06-15

    We report on the design, fabrication and analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting transistor-lasers (T-VCSELs) based on the homogeneous integration of an InGaAs/GaAs VCSEL and an AlGaAs/GaAs pnp-heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Epitaxial regrowth confinement, modulation doping, intracavity contacting and non-conducting mirrors are used to ensure a low-loss structure, and a variety of design variations are investigated for a proper internal biasing and current injection to ensure a wide operating range. Optimized devices show mW-range output power, mA-range base threshold current and high-temperature operation to at least 60°C with the transistor in its active mode of operation for base currents well beyond threshold. Current confinement schemes based on pnp-blocking layers or a buried tunnel junction are investigated as well as asymmetric current injection for reduced extrinsic resistances. PMID:26193547

  10. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ay?egül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ay?egül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications. PMID:24030475

  11. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  12. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. MOVPE growth of GaAs and InP based compounds in production reactors using TBAs and TBP

    SciTech Connect

    Beccard, R.; Schmitz, D.; Knauf, J.; Lengeling, G.; Schulte, F.; Juergensen, H.

    1996-12-31

    Today TBP and TBAs are the compounds which have the highest potential to replace the hydrides arsine and phosphine in the MOVPE process. The authors have demonstrated the entire material system Ga-In-As-P can be grown without any loss of quality using TBP and TBAs not only in one reactor, but in a complete family of reactors. These reactors range from small-scale single wafer R and D reactors to multiwafer Planetary Reactor systems. Both InP based and GaAs based materials could be grown with an excellent quality. Thus all growth processes for III-V devices--long and short wavelength lasers, LEDs, high speed transistors, etc.--can be switched to TBP and TBAs. This will drastically reduce safety hazards and lead to processes that have advantages both from the ecological and economical point of view.

  14. High-Speed Planar GaAs Nanowire Arrays with fmax > 75 GHz by Wafer-Scale Bottom-up Growth.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Chabak, Kelson; Zhang, Chen; Mohseni, Parsian K; Walker, Dennis; Li, Xiuling

    2015-05-13

    Wafer-scale defect-free planar III-V nanowire (NW) arrays with ?100% yield and precisely defined positions are realized via a patterned vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth method. Long and uniform planar GaAs NWs were assembled in perfectly parallel arrays to form double-channel T-gated NW array-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with DC and RF performance surpassing those for all field-effect transistors (FETs) with VLS NWs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), or graphene channels in-plane with the substrate. For a planar GaAs NW array-based HEMT with 150 nm gate length and 2 V drain bias, the on/off ratio (ION/IOFF), cutoff frequency (fT), and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are 10(4), 33, and 75 GHz, respectively. By characterizing more than 100 devices on a 1.5 × 1.5 cm(2) chip, we prove chip-level electrical uniformity of the planar NW array-based HEMTs and verify the feasibility of using this bottom-up planar NW technology for post-Si large-scale nanoelectronics. PMID:25494481

  15. Implantation of carbon in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    Carbon implanted into GaAs and thermally annealed typically exhibits very low (<3%) electrical activity. It has been demonstrated that the electrical activity of C can be significantly enhanced by co-implantation with Ga. Improved activation may result from either additional damage of the crystal lattice or from stoichiometric changes, forcing the C atoms onto As sites. To determine the relative importance of each of these effects, I have undertaken a systematic study of carbon activation in GaAs. A range of co-implants have been used: group III (B, Ga), group V (N, P, As) and noble gases (Ar, Kr). The damage introduced to the substrate will depend on the mass of the ion implanted. The group III and group V co-implants will affect the crystal stoichiometry. The results indicate that both lattice damage and crystal stoichiometry are important for high electrical activity of C. Increasing the damage will increase the activation due to the increased number of As vacancies but maximum activation can be obtained only by a co-implant which not only damages the lattice but also forces the C to occupy an As site.

  16. Toward stratified treatments for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Gregor; Wolf, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition of bipolar disorders based on clinical symptoms reflects a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity. Stratification of treatments for bipolar disorders based on biomarkers and improved clinical markers are greatly needed to increase the efficacy of currently available treatments and improve the chances of developing novel therapeutic approaches. This review provides a theoretical framework to identify biomarkers and summarizes the most promising markers for stratification regarding beneficial and adverse treatment effects. State and stage specifiers, neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers will be discussed with respect to their ability to predict the response to specific pharmacological and psychosocial psychotherapies for bipolar disorders. To date, the most reliable markers are derived from psychopathology and history-taking, while no biomarker has been found that reliably predicts individual treatment responses. This review underlines both the importance of clinical diagnostic skills and the need for biological research to identify markers that will allow the targeting of treatment specifically to sub-populations of bipolar patients who are more likely to benefit from a specific treatment and less likely to develop adverse reactions. PMID:25595029

  17. A 'sticky' interhemispheric switch in bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, J D; Miller, S M

    1998-01-01

    Despite years of research into bipolar disorder (manic depression), its underlying pathophysiology remains elusive. It is widely acknowledged that the disorder is strongly heritable, but the genetics are complex with less than full concordance in monozygotic twins and at least four susceptibility loci identified. We propose that bipolar disorder is the result of a genetic propensity for slow interhemispheric switching mechanisms that become 'stuck' in one or the other state. Because slow switches are also 'sticky' when compared with fast switches, the clinical manifestations of bipolar disorder may be explained by hemispheric activation being 'stuck' on the left (mania) or on the right (depression). Support for this 'sticky' interhemispheric switching hypothesis stems from our recent observation that the rate of perceptual alternation in binocular rivalry is slow in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 18, median = 0.27 Hz) compared with normal controls (n = 49, median = 0.60 Hz, p < 0.0005). We have presented evidence elsewhere that binocular rivalry is itself an interhemispheric switching phenomenon. The rivalry alternation rate (putative interhemispheric switch rate) is robust in a given individual, with a test-retest correlation of more than 0.8, making it suitable for genetic studies. The interhemispheric switch rate may provide a trait-dependent biological marker for bipolar disorder. PMID:9872002

  18. FDA Approves New Drug for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154708.html FDA Approves New Drug for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder Vraylar is an ... 2015 FRIDAY, Sept. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ...

  19. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-15

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time.

  20. Genetic determinants of white matter integrity in bipolar disorder 

    E-print Network

    Sprooten, Emma

    2012-06-30

    Bipolar disorder is a heritable psychiatric disorder, and several of the genes associated with bipolar disorder and related psychotic disorders are involved in the development and maintenance of white matter in the brain. ...

  1. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... be dangerous. People with bipolar disorder—also called manic-depressive illness—go through extreme changes in mood, energy and ...

  2. The development of integrated chemical microsensors in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; ASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER,EDWIN J.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,S.L.

    1999-11-01

    Monolithic, integrated acoustic wave chemical microsensors are being developed on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates. With this approach, arrays of microsensors and the high frequency electronic components needed to operate them reside on a single substrate, increasing the range of detectable analytes, reducing overall system size, minimizing systematic errors, and simplifying assembly and packaging. GaAs is employed because it is both piezoelectric, a property required to produce the acoustic wave devices, and a semiconductor with a mature microelectronics fabrication technology. Many aspects of integrated GaAs chemical sensors have been investigated, including: surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors; monolithic SAW delay line oscillators; GaAs application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for sensor operation; a hybrid sensor array utilizing these ASICS; and the fully monolithic, integrated SAW array. Details of the design, fabrication, and performance of these devices are discussed. In addition, the ability to produce heteroepitaxial layers of GaAs and aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) makes possible micromachined membrane sensors with improved sensitivity compared to conventional SAW sensors. Micromachining techniques for fabricating flexural plate wave (FPW) and thickness shear mode (TSM) microsensors on thin GaAs membranes are presented and GaAs FPW delay line and TSM resonator performance is described.

  3. Polythiophene Transistors as Gas Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    E-print Network

    Liao, Frank

    2009-01-01

    stress effect in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Applied Physicsstress reversal in polyfluorene thin-film transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics ,stress in organic thin- film transistors and logic gates,” Applied Physics

  4. Design Criterion and Operation Mechanism for 4.5 kV Injection Enhanced Gate Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Mitsuhiko; Nakagawa, Akio; Omura, Ichiro; Ohashi, Hiromichi

    1998-08-01

    This paper investigates the injection enhancement effect of a trench gate structure for a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) controlled power transistor called an injection enhanced gate transistor (IEGT). By virtue of the enhancement in effective electron injection efficiency, 4.5 kV IEGTs attain a thyristor-like carrier profile during the on-state, and hence achieve the same low on-state voltage drop as that of thyristors. The operation mode of the IEGT was studied using a two-dimensional numerical simulation, and verified by device fabrication. It was confirmed that the proposed novel trench gate geometry acts as an injection enhancer by restricting the hole diffusion current which flows from the n-type high-resistance base layer to the cathode electrode. It is shown for the first time that the effective electron injection efficiency of the n-ch insulated gate bipolar transistor increases to nearly 1. It is also shown that the new trench gate structure effectively decreases the forward voltage drop without degradation of turn-off capability.

  5. Electrodeionization Using Microseparated Bipolar Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald; Jackson, George; Andrews, Craig C.; Tennakoon, Charles L, K.; Singh, Waheguru; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Jabs, Harry; Chepin, James F.; Archer, Shivaun; Gonzalez-Martinez, Anukia; Cisar, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical technique for deionizing water, now under development, is intended to overcome a major limitation of prior electrically-based water-purification techniques. The limitation in question is caused by the desired decrease in the concentration of ions during purification: As the concentration of ions decreases, the electrical resistivity of the water increases, posing an electrical barrier to the removal of the remaining ions. In the present technique, this limitation is overcome by use of electrodes, a flowfield structure, and solid electrolytes configured to provide conductive paths for the removal of ions from the water to be deionized, even when the water has already been purified to a high degree. The technique involves the use of a bipolar membrane unit (BMU), which includes a cation-exchange membrane and an anion-exchange membrane separated by a nonconductive mesh that has been coated by an ionically conductive material (see figure). The mesh ensures the desired microseparation between the ion-exchange membranes: The interstices bounded by the inner surfaces of the membranes and the outer surfaces of the coated mesh constitute a flow-field structure that allows the water that one seeks to deionize (hereafter called "process water" for short) to flow through the BMU with a low pressure drop. The flow-field structure is such that the distance between any point in the flow field and an ionically conductive material is small; thus, the flow-field structure facilitates the diffusion of molecules and ions to and from the ion-exchange membranes. The BMU is placed between an anode and a cathode, but not in direct contact with these electrodes. Instead, the space between the anion-exchange membrane and the anode is denoted the anode compartment and is filled with an ionic solution. Similarly, the space between the cation-exchange membrane and the cathode is denoted the cathode compartment and is filled with a different ionic solution. The electrodes are made of titanium coated with platinum.

  6. High-Power, High-Frequency Si-Based (SiGe) Transistors Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA, DOD, and commercial products will require electronic circuits that have greater functionality and versatility but occupy less space and cost less money to build and integrate than current products. System on a Chip (SOAC), a single semiconductor substrate containing circuits that perform many functions or containing an entire system, is widely recognized as the best technology for achieving low-cost, small-sized systems. Thus, a circuit technology is required that can gather, process, store, and transmit data or communications. Since silicon-integrated circuits are already used for data processing and storage and the infrastructure that supports silicon circuit fabrication is very large, it is sensible to develop communication circuits on silicon so that all the system functions can be integrated onto a single wafer. Until recently, silicon integrated circuits did not function well at the frequencies required for wireless or microwave communications, but with the introduction of small amounts of germanium into the silicon to make silicon-germanium (SiGe) transistors, silicon-based communication circuits are possible. Although microwavefrequency SiGe circuits have been demonstrated, there has been difficulty in obtaining the high power from their transistors that is required for the amplifiers of a transmitter, and many researchers have thought that this could not be done. The NASA Glenn Research Center and collaborators at the University of Michigan have developed SiGe transistors and amplifiers with state-of-the-art output power at microwave frequencies from 8 to 20 GHz. These transistors are fabricated using standard silicon processing and may be integrated with CMOS integrated circuits on a single chip. A scanning electron microscope image of a typical SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is shown in the preceding photomicrograph. This transistor achieved a record output power of 550 mW and an associated power-added efficiency of 33 percent at 8.4 GHz, as shown. Record performance was also demonstrated at 12.6 and 18 GHz. Developers have combined these state-of-the-art transistors with transmission lines and micromachined passive circuit components, such as inductors and capacitors, to build multistage amplifiers. Currently, a 1-W, 8.4-GHz power amplifier is being built for NASA deep space communication architectures.

  7. Photocurrent Spectroscopy of Single Wurtzite GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. C.; Ahtapodov, L.; Boe, A. B.; Moses, A. F.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.; Choi, J. W.; Ji, H.; Kim, G. T.

    2011-12-23

    Photocurrent of single wurtzite GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is measured at room and low temperature (10 K). At room temperature a high photo-response with more than two orders of magnitude increase of current is observed. The wavelength dependence of the photocurrent shows a sharp change near the zinc blende GaAs band gap. The absence of the free exciton peak in the low temperature photocurrent spectrum, and problems related to determining the exact position of the energy bandgap of wurtzite GaAs from the observed data are discussed.

  8. Characterization of neutron radiation damage in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Luera, T.F.; Kelly, J.G. ); Lazo, M.S. )

    1989-12-01

    The NJOY and MARLOWE computer codes are used to characterize neutron damage to GaAs. The fidelity of the components that affect the calculated GaAs damage is examined. The initial defect production is found to be a linear function of the damage energy. Recombination of Frenkel pairs and the distribution of vacancies introduce a non-linearity in the residual defect population with respect to the damage energy. Consideration of the defect recombinations only provides a slight improvement in the agreement between measured and calculated damage in GaAs but does indicate the areas where more work is needed.

  9. Characterization of neutron radiation damage in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, P. J.; Luera, T. F.; Kelly, J. G.; Lazo, M. S.

    1989-12-01

    The NJOY and MARLOWE computer codes are used to characterize neutron damage to GaAs. The fidelity of the components that affect the calculated GaAs damage is examined. The initial defect production is found to be a linear function of the damage energy. Recombination of Frenkel pairs and the distribution of vacancies introduce a nonlinearity in the residual defect population with respect to the damage energy. Consideration of the defect recombinations only provides a slight improvement in the agreement between measured and calculated damage in GaAs but does indicate the areas where more work is needed.

  10. Characterization of neutron radiation damage in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Lazo, M.S.; Luera, T.F.; Kelly, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The NJOY and MARLOWE computer codes are used to characterize neutron damage to GaAs. The fidelity of the components that affect the calculated GaAs damage is examined. The initial defect production is found to be a linear function of the damage energy. Recombination of Frenkel pairs and the distribution of vacancies introduces a non-linearity in the residual defect population with respect to the damage energy. Consideration of the defect recombinations only provides a slight improvement in the agreement between measured and calculated damage in GaAs but does indicate the areas where more work is needed. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This ‘pleasure deafferentation hypothesis’ is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  12. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This 'pleasure deafferentation hypothesis' is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  13. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  14. Single-transistor-clocked flip-flop

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Peiyi; Darwish, Tarek; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2005-08-30

    The invention provides a low power, high performance flip-flop. The flip-flop uses only one clocked transistor. The single clocked transistor is shared by the first and second branches of the device. A pulse generator produces a clock pulse to trigger the flip-flop. In one preferred embodiment the device can be made as a static explicit pulsed flip-flop which employs only two clocked transistors.

  15. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  16. Rapid Communication Holocene bipolar climate seesaw: possible subtle

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Rapid Communication Holocene bipolar climate seesaw: possible subtle evidence from the deep North, Plymouth, UK Maslin, M. A. and Smart, C. W. 2010. Holocene bipolar climate seesaw: possible subtle evidence of a millennial-scale bipolar climate seesaw has been documented in detail for the last glacial period

  17. Principles of an atomtronic transistor

    E-print Network

    Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z

    2015-01-01

    A semiclassical formalism is used to investigate the transistor-like behavior of ultracold atoms in a triple-well potential. Atom current flows from the source well, held at fixed chemical potential and temperature, into an empty drain well. In steady-state, the gate well located between the source and drain is shown to acquire a well-defined chemical potential and temperature, which are controlled by the relative height of the barriers separating the three wells. It is shown that the gate chemical potential can exceed that of the source and have a lower temperature. In electronics terminology, the source-gate junction can be reverse-biased. As a result, the device exhibits regimes of negative resistance and transresistance, indicating the presence of gain. Given an external current input to the gate, transistor-like behavior is characterized both in terms of the current gain, which can be greater than unity, and the power output of the device.

  18. Principles of an atomtronic transistor

    E-print Network

    Seth C. Caliga; Cameron J. E. Straatsma; Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2015-12-14

    A semiclassical formalism is used to investigate the transistor-like behavior of ultracold atoms in a triple-well potential. Atom current flows from the source well, held at fixed chemical potential and temperature, into an empty drain well. In steady-state, the gate well located between the source and drain is shown to acquire a well-defined chemical potential and temperature, which are controlled by the relative height of the barriers separating the three wells. It is shown that the gate chemical potential can exceed that of the source and have a lower temperature. In electronics terminology, the source-gate junction can be reverse-biased. As a result, the device exhibits regimes of negative resistance and transresistance, indicating the presence of gain. Given an external current input to the gate, transistor-like behavior is characterized both in terms of the current gain, which can be greater than unity, and the power output of the device.

  19. Endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation: development of a new bipolar coagulator for stopping gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Hajiro, K; Matsui, H; Tsujimura, D; Yamamoto, T

    1982-04-01

    We have developed an endoscopically deliverable bipolar coagulator with a pair of active bipolar electrodes and tested its efficacy and safety in canine gastric bleeding models. Hemostasis was achieved with a few applications in all "ulcer maker", gastric serosal vessel, mesenteric vessel and endoscopic "hot biopsy" models. Histologically the mean muscular injury was 10.1% in ulcer maker models and 17.1% in hot biopsy models, significantly less than monopolar electrodes. No full thickness injury resulted. Initial clinical trials in 32 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding revealed 100% immediate hemostasis; it could stop spurting arterial bleeding. Our bipolar coagulator is a promising addition to the endoscopic hemostatic methods. PMID:6980804

  20. GaAs VLSI technology and circuit elements for DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, James M.

    1990-10-01

    Recent progress in digital GaAs circuit performance and complexity is presented to demonstrate the current capabilities of GaAs components. High density GaAs process technology and circuit design techniques are described and critical issues for achieving favorable complexity speed power and cost tradeoffs are reviewed. Some DSP building blocks are described to provide examples of what types of DSP systems could be implemented with present GaAs technology. DIGITAL GaAs CIRCUIT CAPABILITIES In the past few years the capabilities of digital GaAs circuits have dramatically increased to the VLSI level. Major gains in circuit complexity and power-delay products have been achieved by the use of silicon-like process technologies and simple circuit topologies. The very high speed and low power consumption of digital GaAs VLSI circuits have made GaAs a desirable alternative to high performance silicon in hardware intensive high speed system applications. An example of the performance and integration complexity available with GaAs VLSI circuits is the 64x64 crosspoint switch shown in figure 1. This switch which is the most complex GaAs circuit currently available is designed on a 30 gate GaAs gate array. It operates at 200 MHz and dissipates only 8 watts of power. The reasons for increasing the level of integration of GaAs circuits are similar to the reasons for the continued increase of silicon circuit complexity. The market factors driving GaAs VLSI are system design methodology system cost power and reliability. System designers are hesitant or unwilling to go backwards to previous design techniques and lower levels of integration. A more highly integrated system in a lower performance technology can often approach the performance of a system in a higher performance technology at a lower level of integration. Higher levels of integration also lower the system component count which reduces the system cost size and power consumption while improving the system reliability. For large gate count circuits the power per gate must be minimized to prevent reliability and cooling problems. The technical factors which favor increasing GaAs circuit complexity are primarily related to reducing the speed and power penalties incurred when crossing chip boundaries. Because the internal GaAs chip logic levels are not compatible with standard silicon I/O levels input receivers and output drivers are needed to convert levels. These I/O circuits add significant delay to logic paths consume large amounts of power and use an appreciable portion of the die area. The effects of these I/O penalties can be reduced by increasing the ratio of core logic to I/O on a chip. DSP operations which have a large number of logic stages between the input and the output are ideal candidates to take advantage of the performance of GaAs digital circuits. Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the I/O penalties encountered when converting from ECL levels to GaAs

  1. Nuclear microbeam studies of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizkelethy, G.; Phillips, S. D.; Najafizadeh, L.; Cressler, J. D.

    2010-06-01

    SiGe HBTs are very attractive devices to be used in space communication applications. This technology combines the high speed of the III-V semiconductors with the well-established and easy manufacturing processes of silicon, which allows the manufacturing of RF, analog, and digital devices on the same wafer. In addition, SiGe HBTs were found to be extremely radiation hard in the context of total ionizing dose and displacement damage. However, it was shown through experiments and simulations that these devices are vulnerable to single event effects (SEEs). SEEs are changes in the normal operation of the device (its logical state, currents, transients, etc.) due to the induced currents in the electrodes by the movement of carriers created by the incident ions. We used four electrode (base, emitter, collector, and substrate) IBIC measurements at the Sandia Heavy Ion Nuclear Microprobe Facility. SiGe HBTs are usually designed using deep trench isolation (DTI) to minimize parasitic capacitances from the subcollector to the substrate (faster speed), as well as allow devices to be fabricated much closer together. It is an added bonus that the DTI does not let carriers from outside hits to diffuse into the junction and induce current. Our experiments and TCAD simulations showed that while the above goal was accomplished by this design, it increased the amount of induced charge for ion hits in the active area. Single event transients (SETs) were investigated in both standard and radiation hardened by design (RHBD) bandgap voltage reference (BGR) circuits.

  2. A heterojunction bipolar transistor with stepwise allog-graded base : analysis, design, fabrication, and characterization

    E-print Network

    Konistis, Konstantinos, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) features but the device self-heating turned out to be crucial for the longevity of the base micro-airbridges. The short lifetime of the base micro-airbridges was prohibitive for the realization of high frequency ...

  3. Experimental demonstration of a magnetic bipolar junction transistor E. Johnston-Halperin*a

    E-print Network

    Flatte, Michael E.

    , University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242; c Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA ABSTRACT The field of semiconductor spintronics has pursued a critical step in the development of an active spin functional device architecture. Keywords: spintronics

  4. Minority carrier transport properties of GaInNAs heterojunction bipolar transistors with 2% nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Asbeck, Peter M.

    % nitrogen Rebecca J. Welty,a) Huoping Xin, Charles W. Tu, and Peter M. Asbeck University of California) of 0.98 eV; this is achieved with a nitrogen composition of 2%. These devices have a turn-on voltage HFE is 8. The current gain of nitrogen containing HBTs is degraded due to the complex change

  5. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Drummond, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  6. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  7. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  8. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  9. Field Dependent Dopant Deactivation in Bipolar Devices at Elevated irradiation Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    WITCZAK,STEVEN C.; LACOE,RONALD C.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; MAYER,DONALD C.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    Metal-oxide-silicon capacitors fabricated in a bi-polar process were examined for densities of oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated substrate acceptors following high-dose-rate irradiation at 100 C. Acceptor neutralization near the Si surface occurs most efficiently for small irradiation biases in depletion. The bias dependence is consistent with compensation and passivation mechanisms involving the drift of H{sup +} ions in the oxide and Si layers and the availability of holes in the Si depletion region. Capacitor data from unbiased irradiations were used to simulate the impact of acceptor neutralization on the current gain of an npn bipolar transistor. Neutralized acceptors near the base surface enhance current gain degradation associated with radiation-induced oxide trapped charge and interface traps by increasing base recombination. The additional recombination results from the convergence of carrier concentrations in the base and increased sensitivity of the base to oxide trapped charge. The enhanced gain degradation is moderated by increased electron injection from the emitter. These results suggest that acceptor neutralization may enhance radiation-induced degradation of linear circuits at elevated temperatures.

  10. Sleep Disturbances in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Argelinda; Hernandez, Mariely; Grant, Marie C.; Faedda, Gianni L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD not otherwise specified (BD-NOS). In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I) and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD-NOS and BD-I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD-I and BD-NOS youth using Kiddie-schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia, present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8?±?3.6?years old) including 24 BD-I and 46 BD-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD-NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD-I in our sample. PMID:22454624

  11. PNPN latchup in bipolar LSI devices. Final report, 1 January 1980-1 October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L.; Alexander, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    PNPN latchup was studied both analytically and experimentally in several bipolar LSI technologies including integrated injection logic (I to the second power L), integrated Schottky logic (ISL), Schottky Transistor logic (STL) and emitter coupled logic (ECL). The latchup analysis procedure was expanded and applied to LSI microcircuits representing each of the technologies. This procedure consists of a) the identification of parasitic PNPN paths, b) the electrical characterization of the paths, c) detailed circuit analysis, and d) determination of worst case bias conditions for radiation testing. The identification was performed from chip photomicrographs and composite mask drawings. The characterization was performed experimentally by measuring parasitic transistor gains and SCR parameters on decoupled paths and analytically by using a semiconductor device physics code (PN code) in conjunction with doping profiles. The detailed circuit analysis was performed either by hand or with the circuit analysis code SPICE. Radiation testing was performed at the White Sands Missile Range LINAC facility. The results of the study were, a) latchup cannot occur in non-isolated I to the second power L, b) latchup cannot occur in the internal logic of ISL or STL without causing a problem with electrical performance, c) no latchable paths were found by analysis in the 93471 ECL 4kK RAM, the I/0 buffers on a ISL/STL gate array or the I to the second power L peripherals of the 9408 I to the 3rd power L microprogram sequencer.

  12. Characteristics of GaAs with inverted thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs crystals exhibiting inverted thermal conversion (ITC) of resistivity were investigated in conjunction with standard semiinsulating (SI) GaAs regarding characteristics important in device processing. It was established that dislocation density and Si implant activation are unaffected by transformation to the ITC state. However, in ITC GaAs the controlled increase of the EL2 (native midgap donor) concentration during annealing makes it possible to attain resistivities one order of magnitude greater (e.g., about 10 to the 9th ohm cm of 300 K) than those attained in standard SI GaAs (e.g., 10 to the 7th-10 to the 8th ohm cm).

  13. Simulation of silicon diffusion in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. M.; Velichko, O. I.

    2011-03-01

    The simulation of coupled diffusion of silicon atoms and point defects in GaAs has been carried out for diffusion at the temperatures of 1000 and 850 °C. The amphoteric behavior of silicon atoms in GaAs has been taken into account in the investigation of high concentration diffusion from silicon layer deposited on GaAs substrate. The calculated dopant profiles agree well with the experimental ones and they confirm the adequacy of the model of silicon diffusion used for simulation. A comparison with the experimental data has enabled this work to obtain the parameters of silicon effective diffusivity and other values describing high concentration silicon diffusion in GaAs.

  14. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  15. Electrodeposition of Metal on GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Einabad, Omid; Watkins, Simon; Kavanagh, Karen

    2010-10-01

    Copper (Cu) electrical contacts to freestanding gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires have been fabricated via electrodeposition. The nanowires are zincblende (111) oriented grown epitaxially on n-type Si-doped GaAs (111)B substrates by gold-catalyzed Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The epitaxial electrodeposition process, based on previous work with bulk GaAs substrates, consists of a substrate oxide pre-etch in dilute ammonium-hydroxide carried out prior to galvanostatic electrodeposition in a pure Cu sulphate aqueous electrolyte at 20-60^oC. For GaAs nanowires, we find that Cu or Fe has a preference for growth on the gold catalyst avoiding the sidewalls. After removing gold, both metals still prefer to grow only on top of the nanowire, which has the largest potential field.

  16. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  17. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  18. Crystal Growth of Device Quality Gaas in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. This effort is aimed at the essential ground-based program which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in near zero gravity environment. It is believed that this program addresses in a unique way materials engineering aspects which bear directly on the future exploitation of the potential of GaAs and related materials in device and systems applications.

  19. Long-lifetime high-intensity GaAs photosource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, R.; Ciullo, G.; Guidi, V.; Lamanna, G.; Lenisa, P.; Maciga, B.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.

    1994-02-01

    We used a GaAs crystal operating in a negative electron affinity mode to produce an intense continuous electron beam by photoemission. The major drawback of photoemission from GaAs, i.e., rapid current decay, was overcome without continuously supplying cesium. After a little initial decay, the current remained constant at 1 mA over a few mm2, with no degradation. Seasoning of the vacuum chamber played a fundamental role in achieving this performance.

  20. Characterisation of semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Hole and electron mobilities as functions of temperature and ionised impurity concentration are calculated for GaAs. It is shown that these calculations, when used to analyse electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs, enable an assessment of the Fermi energy position and ionised impurity concentration to be made. In contrast to previous work, the analysis does not require any phenomenological assumptions.

  1. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European–American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. Results A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04). Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ? 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8–1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five feature model did not support this association. Conclusions Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, results are at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts are challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts. The methodological approach described here may prove useful in applying genetic data to clarify psychiatric nosology in future studies. PMID:24725193

  2. Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

  3. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  4. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

  5. Titanium carbide bipolar plate for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA); Griffith, Arthur E. (Lynn, MA); Cropley, Cecelia C. (Acton, MA); Kosek, John A. (Danvers, MA)

    2000-07-04

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate is made from titanium carbide for use in an eletrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  6. A Review of Bipolar Disorder in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, Martin H.; Lim, Russell F.; Kelly, Rosemary H.; Hales, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and management of bipolar disorder. Special attention is paid to factors that complicate treatment, including nonadherence, comorbid disorders, mixed mania, and depression. Methods: A Medline search was conducted from January of 1990 through December of 2005 using key terms of bipolar disorder, diagnosis, and treatment. Papers selected for further review included those published in English in peer-reviewed journals, with preference for articles based on randomized, controlled trials and consensus guidelines. Citations de-emphasized original mania trials as these are generally well known. Results: Bipolar disorder is a major public health problem, with diagnosis often occurring years after onset of the disorder. comorbid conditions are common and difficult to treat. Management includes a lifetime course of medication, usually more than one, and attention to psychosocial issues for patients and their families. Management of mania is well-established. Research is increasing regarding management of depressive, mixed and cycling episodes, as well as combination therapy. Conclusions: Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder to manage, even for psychiatrists, because of its many episodes and comorbid disorders and nonadherence to treatment. PMID:20975827

  7. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Weisbrod, Kirk R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  8. Antidepressants in bipolar depression: yes, no, maybe?

    PubMed

    Malhi, Gin S

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressants are widely used in the treatment of bipolar depression despite relatively meagre evidence for their efficacy and significant concerns that their prescription can precipitate an acute affective switch into mania/hypomania and that long-term administration can lead to mood instability. Therefore, the use of antidepressants to treat bipolar depression is an important but contentious issue that two recent studies, which provide important new evidence, attempt to inform. One study suggests that long-term continuation of antidepressants in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder leads to a threefold increase in mood episodes during the first year of follow-up-supporting the notion that antidepressants can cause more harm than good, and that they should be used sparingly. However, this is countered by findings from the other study, which suggests that continuation antidepressant monotherapy provides patients with bipolar II disorder reasonable prophylaxis, and that the risk of switching into mania/hypomania is actually quite low. In addition to contrary findings both studies are modest in sample sizes and have significant design limitations and hence the debate remains unresolved. This brief perspective presents both views in the context of evidence and provides some key insights into the complexity of this challenging but common clinical issue. PMID:26459471

  9. Liquid encapsulated Czochralski growth of low dislocation GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    The availability of high-quality, large-diameter GaAs substrates is key to the successful development and production of high-speed GaAs devices and high-efficiency GaAs solar cells. The liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) technique has provided a means for producing large-diameter GaAs. Progress in improving the LEC growth process which has resulted in 3-inch GaAs crystals with exceptionally low dislocation densities and reduced propensity for twinning is reported. Undoped, semi-insulating GaAs ingots were grown in a Melbourn high-pressure LEC system. The effects of seed perfection, seed necking, cone angle, melt stoichiometry, ambient pressure, thickness of the B2O3 encapsulating layer, and diameter control on the dislocation density were investigated. The material was characterized by preferential etching and X-ray topography. It is shown that 3-inch diameter substrates can be produced with dislocation densities as low as 6000 per sq cm through proper selection and control of growth parameters. Also, the incidence of twinning can be reduced significantly by growing from slightly As-rich melts.

  10. Design and fabrication of GaAs OMIST photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xuejun; Lin, ShiMing; Liao, Qiwei; Gao, Junhua; Liu, Shi'an; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Chunhui; Wang, Qiming

    1998-08-01

    We designed and fabricated GaAs OMIST (Optical-controlled Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Thyristor) device. Using oxidation of AlAs layer that is grown by MBE forms the Ultra- Thin semi-Insulating layer (UTI) of the GAAS OMIST. The accurate control and formation of high quality semi-insulating layer (AlxOy) are the key processes for fabricating GaAs OMIST. The device exhibits a current-controlled negative resistance region in its I-V characteristics. When illuminated, the major effect of optical excitation is the reduction of the switching voltage. If the GaAs OMIST device is biased at a voltage below its dark switching voltage Vs, sufficient incident light can switch OMIST from high impedance low current 'off' state to low impedance high current 'on' state. The absorbing material of OMIST is GaAS, so if the wavelength of incident light within 600 to approximately 850 nm can be detected effectively. It is suitable to be used as photodetector for digital optical data process. The other attractive features of GaAs OMIST device include suitable conducted current, switching voltage and power levels for OEIC, high switch speed and high sensitivity to light or current injection.

  11. Magnetotransport Properties of Epitaxial Ge/AlAs Heterostructures Integrated on GaAs and Silicon.

    PubMed

    Hudait, Mantu K; Clavel, Michael; Goley, Patrick S; Xie, Yuantao; Heremans, Jean J

    2015-10-14

    The magnetotransport properties of epitaxial Ge/AlAs heterostructures with different growth conditions and substrate architectures have been studied under ±9 T magnetic field and at 390 mK temperature. Systematic mobility measurements of germanium (Ge) epilayers grown on GaAs substrates at growth temperatures from 350 to 450 °C allow us to extract a precise growth window for device-quality Ge, corroborated by structural and morphological properties. Our results on Si substrate using a composite metamorphic AlAs/GaAs buffer at 400 °C Ge growth temperature, show that the Ge/AlAs system can be tailored to have a single carrier transport while keeping the charge solely in the Ge layer. Single carrier transport confined to the Ge layer is demonstrated by the weak-localization quantum correction to the conductivity observed at low magnetic fields and 390 mK temperature. The weak localization effect points to a near-absence of spin-orbit interaction for carriers in the electronically active layer and is used here for the first time to pinpoint Ge as this active layer. Thus, the epitaxial Ge grown on Si using AlAs/GaAs buffer architecture is a promising candidate for next-generation energy-efficient fin field-effect transistor applications. PMID:26413844

  12. Quantum noise minimization in transistor amplifiers

    E-print Network

    U. Gavish; B. Yurke; Y. Imry

    2006-04-10

    General quantum restrictions on the noise performance of linear transistor amplifiers are used to identify the region in parameter space where the quantum-limited performance is achievable and to construct a practical procedure for approaching it experimentally using only the knowledge of directly measurable quantities: the gain, (differential) conductance and the output noise. A specific example of resonant barrier transistors is discussed.

  13. Memantine: New prospective in bipolar disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Giulia; Demontis, Francesca; Serra, Francesca; De Chiara, Lavinia; Spoto, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer’s dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy. Thus, research and development of more effective mood stabilizer drugs is a leading challenge for modern psychopharmacology. We have demonstrated that 21 d administration of imipramine causes a behavioural syndrome similar to a cycle of bipolar disorder, i.e., a mania followed by a depression, in rats. Indeed, such treatment causes a behavioural supersensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor agonists associated with an increase sexual activity and aggressivity (mania). The dopamine receptor sensitization is followed, after imipramine discontinuation, by an opposite phenomenon (dopamine receptor desensitization) and an increased immobility time (depression) in the forced swimming test of depression. Memantine blocks the development of the supersensitivity and the ensuing desensitization associated with the depressive like behavior. On the basis of these observations we have suggested the use of memantine in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. To test this hypothesis we performed several naturalistic studies that showed an acute antimanic effect and a long-lasting and progressive mood-stabilizing action (at least 3 years), without clinically relevant side effects. To confirm the observations of our naturalistic trials we are now performing a randomized controlled clinical trial. Finally we described the studies reporting the efficacy of memantine in manic-like symptoms occurring in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar. Limitations: A randomized controlled clinical trial is needed to confirm our naturalistic observations. Conclusion: We believe that this review presents enough pharmacological and clinical information to consider the administration of memantine in the treatment of bipolar disorders that no respond to standard mood stabilizers. PMID:25540723

  14. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Methods Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. Results During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. PMID:25771686

  15. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R. (Allen Park, MI); Gritter, David J. (Racine, WI)

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  16. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  17. Reproducible bipolar resistive switching in entire nitride AlN/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor device and its mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiren; Song, Hang E-mail: lidb@ciomp.ac.cn; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Dabing E-mail: lidb@ciomp.ac.cn; Miao, Guoqing

    2014-11-10

    Reproducible bipolar resistive switching characteristics are demonstrated in entire nitride AlN/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. The mechanism involved confirms to trap-controlled space charge limited current theory and can be attributed to the nitrogen vacancies of AlN serving as electron traps that form/rupture electron transport channel by trapping/detrapping electrons. This study will lead to the development of in-situ growth of group-III nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition as a candidate for next-generation nonvolatile memory device. Moreover, it will be benefit to structure monolithic integrated one-transistor-one-resistor memory with nitride high electron mobility transistors.

  18. CMOS Transistor Mismatch Model valid from Weak to Strong Inversion

    E-print Network

    Barranco, Bernabe Linares

    CMOS Transistor Mismatch Model valid from Weak to Strong Inversion Teresa Serrano and PMOS transistors for 30 different geometries has been done with this continuos model. The model is able of transistor mismatch is crucial for precision analog design. Using very reduced transistor geometries produces

  19. Recent progress on ZnO-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and their application in transparent integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Heiko; Lajn, Alexander; von Wenckstern, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Schein, Friedrich; Zhang, Zhipeng; Grundmann, Marius

    2010-12-14

    Metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) are widely known from opaque high-speed GaAs or high-power SiC and GaN technology. For the emerging field of transparent electronics, only metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were considered so far. This article reviews the progress of high-performance MESFETs in oxide electronics and reflects the recent advances of this technique towards transparent MESFET circuitry. We discuss design prospects as well as limitations regarding device performance, reliability and stability. The presented ZnO-based MESFETs and inverters have superior properties compared to MISFETs, i.e., high channel mobilities and on/off-ratios, high gain, and low uncertainty level at comparatively low operating voltages. This makes them a promising approach for future low-cost transparent electronics. PMID:20878625

  20. DARPA, SDI, and GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, S.; Rooslid, S.

    1986-10-01

    When silicon replaced germanium in the early 1960's as the semiconductor of choice for solid state devices, it converted the entire industry in just a few years because of two important characteristics. First, silicon has a higher energy bandgap, which permits silicon-based devices to operate over a wider temperature range (a feature especially important to the military). Second, and more important, silicon has a native oxide that provided for improved stability and planar, rather than mesa, type devices. Planar technology soon spawned integrated circuits. The integrated circuit in turn brought on the electronics revolution, allowing the complexity of circuits to increase by a factor of two every year (Moore's Law) and bringing us from single transistors to megabit memory chips.

  1. Problem Set: Transistors and transistor circuits 1. In terms of Boolean logic, what is ground (Vss) equivalent to?

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Francisco

    Problem Set: Transistors and transistor circuits 1. In terms of Boolean logic, what is ground (Vss) equivalent to? 2. Is the control terminal in the transistor electrically connected to either of the two remaining terminals? 3. If the control terminal is connected to Vdd, is the transistor considered open

  2. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits Jianwei Wang1

    E-print Network

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits Jianwei Wang1 , Alberto Santamato1 of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 7 Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia...

  4. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Ultrafast magnetoexciton dynamics in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Mycek, M.A.; Siegner, U.; Chemla, D.S. |

    1994-05-01

    A bulk semiconductor provides an excellent system for optically studying the ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated magnetoexcitons. The applications of magnetic field to a 3-D system quantizes the energy levels of states with momentum perpendicular to B and, in contradistinction to experiments performed on 2-D quantum well systems, leaves a 1-D continuum of states with momentum parallel to B. The presence of the continuum states has a dramatic influence on both the linear and nonlinear optical properties. Thus, the experiments described blow track the evolution of the semiconductor from a 3-D to a 1-D system and reveal surprising optical properties not observed in the previously reported studies in quantum wells. Using ultrashort pulsed wave mixing spectroscopy, the authors investigate coherent emission from magnetoexcitons in GaAs. By spectrally resolving the emission, they relate the non periodic beat observed temporally to quantum interferences, which they attribute to Coulomb interactions between magnetoexcitons. Contrary to experiments in quantum wells, these interactions persist for fields strengths up to 10T.

  6. BIMOS transistor solutions for ESD protection in FD-SOI UTBB CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Philippe; Athanasiou, S.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) protection capability of BIpolar MOS (BIMOS) transistors integrated in ultrathin silicon film for 28 nm Fully Depleted SOI (FD-SOI) Ultra Thin Body and BOX (UTBB) high-k metal gate technology. Using as a reference our measurements in hybrid bulk-SOI structures, we extend the BIMOS design towards the ultrathin silicon film. Detailed study and pragmatic evaluations are done based on 3D TCAD simulation with standard physical models using Average Current Slope (ACS) method and quasi-static DC stress (Average Voltage Slope AVS method). These preliminary 3D TACD results are very encouraging in terms of ESD protection efficiency in advanced FD-SOI CMOS.

  7. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself. PMID:23299882

  8. Current Propagation in Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S. S.; Marshall, T. C.

    2005-12-01

    We model the observed electric fields of a particular narrow bipolar pulse (NBP) published in Eack [2004]. We assume an exponential growth of current carriers due to a runaway breakdown avalanche and show that this leads to a corresponding increase in current. With specific input values for discharge altitude, length, current, and propagation velocity, the model does a good job of reproducing the observed near and far electric field. The ability of the model to reproduce the observed electric fields is an indication that our assumptions concerning the runaway avalanche may be correct, and this indication is further strengthened by the inability of the simple transmission line model to reproduce simultaneously both the near and far electric fields. Eack, K. B. (2004), Electrical characteristics of narrow bipolar events, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20102, doi:10.1029/2004/GL021117.

  9. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C.; Thomas, Justyn M.; Kuznetsova, Olga; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C. Y.; Aley, Parvinder K.; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R.; Churchill, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, lithium’s therapeutic target remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself. PMID:23299882

  10. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  11. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression. PMID:26112914

  12. Nondestructive tribochemistry-assisted nanofabrication on GaAs surface

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Dong, Hanshan; Yu, Bingjun; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Linmao

    2015-01-01

    A tribochemistry-assisted method has been developed for nondestructive surface nanofabrication on GaAs. Without any applied electric field and post etching, hollow nanostructures can be directly fabricated on GaAs surfaces by sliding a SiO2 microsphere under an ultralow contact pressure in humid air. TEM observation on the cross-section of the fabricated area shows that there is no appreciable plastic deformation under a 4?nm groove, confirming that GaAs can be removed without destruction. Further analysis suggests that the fabrication relies on the tribochemistry with the participation of vapor in humid air. It is proposed that the formation and breakage of GaAs-O-Si bonding bridges are responsible for the removal of GaAs material during the sliding process. As a nondestructive and conductivity-independent method, it will open up new opportunities to fabricate defect-free and well-ordered nucleation positions for quantum dots on GaAs surfaces. PMID:25761910

  13. Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent mental illness characterized by extreme episodes of depressed and manic mood, interspersed with less severe but highly variable mood fluctuations. Here, we develop a novel mathematical approach for exploring the dynamics of bipolar disorder. We investigate how the dynamics of subjective experience of mood in bipolar disorder can be understood using a relaxation oscillator (RO) framework and test the model against mood time-series fluctuations from a set of individuals with bipolar disorder. We show that variable mood fluctuations in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be driven by the coupled effects of deterministic dynamics (captured by ROs) and noise. Using a statistical likelihood-based approach, we show that, in general, mood dynamics are described by two independent ROs with differing levels of endogenous variability among individuals. We suggest that this sort of nonlinear approach to bipolar disorder has neurobiological, cognitive and clinical implications for understanding this mental illness through a mechacognitive framework. PMID:26577592

  14. Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Michael B; Geddes, John R; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent mental illness characterized by extreme episodes of depressed and manic mood, interspersed with less severe but highly variable mood fluctuations. Here, we develop a novel mathematical approach for exploring the dynamics of bipolar disorder. We investigate how the dynamics of subjective experience of mood in bipolar disorder can be understood using a relaxation oscillator (RO) framework and test the model against mood time-series fluctuations from a set of individuals with bipolar disorder. We show that variable mood fluctuations in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be driven by the coupled effects of deterministic dynamics (captured by ROs) and noise. Using a statistical likelihood-based approach, we show that, in general, mood dynamics are described by two independent ROs with differing levels of endogenous variability among individuals. We suggest that this sort of nonlinear approach to bipolar disorder has neurobiological, cognitive and clinical implications for understanding this mental illness through a mechacognitive framework. PMID:26577592

  15. The excitation mechanism of H2 in bipolar planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Miranda, L. F.

    2015-10-01

    We present near-IR K-band intermediate-dispersion spatially-resolved spectroscopic observations of a limited sample of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). The spectra have been used to determine the excitation mechanism of the H2 molecule using standard line ratios diagnostics. The H2 molecule is predominantly shock-excited in bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings, whereas bipolar PNe with narrow equatorial waists present either UV excitation at their cores (e.g. Hb 12) or shock-excitation at their bipolar lobes (e.g. M1-92). The shock-excitation among bipolar PNe with ring is found to be correlated with emission in the H2 1-0 S(1) line brighter than Br ?. We have extended this investigation to other PNe with available near-IR spectroscopic observations. This confirms that bipolar PNe with equatorial rings are in average brighter in H2 than in Br ? and show dominant shock-excitation.

  16. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Busick, Deanna N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  17. [Bipolar head injury with global amnesia].

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Sollid, Snorre; MacFarlane, Martin; Dahlberg, Tore

    2003-12-23

    We report the first case of bipolar head injury, that is, subsequent head injuries sustained near both poles of the Earth. The injury caused a true global amnesia with loss of memory for the journey around the globe. This case history illustrates how modern emergency services have reduced the hazards of polar exploration, and how a second impact after a primary head injury may cause life-threatening complications. PMID:14691492

  18. Atomic quantum transistor based on swapping operation

    E-print Network

    Sergey A. Moiseev; Sergey N. Andrianov; Eugene S. Moiseev

    2011-08-31

    We propose an atomic quantum transistor based on exchange by virtual photons between two atomic systems through the control gate-atom. The quantum transistor is realized in two QED cavities coupled in nano-optical scheme. We have found novel effect in quantum dynamics of coupled three-node atomic system which provides control-SWAP(\\theta) processes in quantum transistor operation. New possibilities of quantum entanglement in an example of bright and dark qubit states have been demonstrated for quantum transport in the atomic chain. Potentialities of the proposed nano-optical design for quantum computing and fundamental issues of multi-atomic physics are also discussed.

  19. Pass-transistor very large scale integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K. (Inventor); Bhatia, Prakash R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Logic elements are provided that permit reductions in layout size and avoidance of hazards. Such logic elements may be included in libraries of logic cells. A logical function to be implemented by the logic element is decomposed about logical variables to identify factors corresponding to combinations of the logical variables and their complements. A pass transistor network is provided for implementing the pass network function in accordance with this decomposition. The pass transistor network includes ordered arrangements of pass transistors that correspond to the combinations of variables and complements resulting from the logical decomposition. The logic elements may act as selection circuits and be integrated with memory and buffer elements.

  20. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  1. Levetiracetam, Calcium Antagonism, and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, Steven L; Daurignac, Elsa; Leonard, Kenneth E; Serotte, Jordan C

    2015-08-01

    Hyperactive intracellular calcium ion (Ca) signaling in peripheral cells has been a reliable finding in bipolar disorder. Some established mood stabilizing medications, such as lithium and carbamazepine, have been found to normalize elevated intracellular Ca concentrations ([Ca]i) in platelets and lymphocytes from bipolar disorder patients, and some medications the primary effect of which is to attenuate increased [Ca]i have been reported to have mood stabilizing properties.Hyperactive intracellular Ca signaling has also been implicated in epilepsy, and some anticonvulsants have calcium antagonist properties. This study demonstrated that levetiracetam, an anticonvulsant that has been shown to block N and P/Q-type calcium channels in animal studies does not alter elevated [Ca]i in blood platelets of patients with bipolar disorder. Review of published clinical trials revealed no controlled evidence of efficacy as a mood stabilizer.This study underscores the possibility that pharmacologic actions of a medication in animals and normal subjects may not necessarily predict its pharmacologic or clinical effects in actual patients. Effects of treatments on pathophysiology that is demonstrated in clinical subtypes may be more likely to predict effectiveness in those subtypes than choosing medications based on structural similarities to established treatments. PMID:26050018

  2. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  3. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    GIANNINI, SANDRO; SEBASTIANI, ELISA; SHEHU, ALBA; BALDASSARRI, MATTEO; MARALDI, SUSANNA; VANNINI, FRANCESCA

    2013-01-01

    Purpose to describe an original technique and preliminary results of bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft implantation for the treatment of end-stage glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Methods three patients underwent bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft implantation to the shoulder. Clinical and radiographical evaluations were carried out periodically through to final follow-up. Results constant Score increased from 38.3 ± 2.9 pre-operatively to 78.7 ± 16.2 at 12 months, 72.3 ±15.3 at 24 months, and 59.3 ± 22.0 at 34 months. Arthritis and partial reabsorption of the implanted surfaces were evident radiographically. Conclusions the clinical results obtained in these patients seem to support the applicability of bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft implantation in the shoulder in subjects with severe post-traumatic arthritis and intact rotator cuff. The development of arthritis of the implanted surfaces, while not impacting the clinical result, is a cause of concern. Level of evidence level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606526

  4. Optical scattering and absorption by metal nanoclusters in GaAs D. D. Nolte

    E-print Network

    Nolte, David D.

    driven by the development of low-temperature-growth GaAs by molecular beam epi- taxy, by which highly during growth or processing of materials, such as GaAs:Er for fiber-optic applications, and GaAs:As in which metallic precipitates of As form in GaAs after low temperature growth of GaAs using molecular beam

  5. Antipsychotic Medicines for Treating Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Research for Adults and ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10, 2013 Antipsychotic Medicines for Treating Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Research for Adults and ... discuss nonmedicine treatments or hospital stays. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, ...

  6. Current research in child and adolescent bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Christine A.; Townsend, Lisa D.; Wilson, Michael; Findling, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Although recently more research has considered children with bipolar disorder than in the past, much controversy still surrounds the validity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, questions remain as to whether or not childhood expressions of bipolarity are continuous with adult manifestations of the illness. In order to advance current knowledge of bipolar disorders in children, researchers have begun to conduct phenomenological, longitudinal, treatment, and neuroimaging studies in youths who exhibit symptoms of bipolar illness, as well as offspring of parents with bipolar disorders. Regardless of the differences between research groups regarding how bipolar disorder in children is defined, it is agreed that pediatric bipolarity is a serious and pernicious illness. With early intervention during the period of time in which youths are exhibiting subsyndromal symptoms of pediatric bipolarity, it appears that the progression of the illness to the more malignant manifestation of the disorder may be avoided. This paper will review what is currently known and what still is left to learn about clinically salient topics that pertain to bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. PMID:18689291

  7. Contemporary Approaches to Frequent Mood Monitoring in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Aiysha; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Mood fluctuations are problematic in bipolar disorder. Current approaches to frequent monitoring of mood in bipolar disorder are paper diaries and electronic handheld devices. These approaches are limited in several ways, notably in the reliability of the data being collected which is often retrospectively reported. The experience sampling method offers a research paradigm which could be modified for use in clinical settings, to real time frequent mood monitoring. Mobile phone technology has also recently been developed to monitor weekly mood in a bipolar sample, demonstrating successful compliance rates. We propose the use of mobile phone technology as a novel method for frequently monitoring mood in bipolar disorder. PMID:26457175

  8. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present program has been aimed at solving the fundamental and technological problems associated with Crystal Growth of Device Quality in Space. The initial stage of the program was devoted strictly to ground-based research. The unsolved problems associated with the growth of bulk GaAs in the presence of gravitational forces were explored. Reliable chemical, structural and electronic characterization methods were developed which would permit the direct relation of the salient materials parameters (particularly those affected by zero gravity conditions) to the electronic characteristics of single crystal GaAs, in turn to device performance. These relationships are essential for the development of optimum approaches and techniques. It was concluded that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail.

  9. GaAs laser beacon for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, H. L.

    1981-01-01

    A low-power GaAs laser has been proposed as the beacon source for creating a high-data-rate laser communication link. GaAs sources have the necessary power output, stability and lifetime to provide relatively broad beamwidth beacon signals. Their signal strength permits adequate discrimination from background signals for beacon acquisition and lock-on during high-data-rate signal transmission. Link analysis is discussed in terms of a range equation identifying the power received on a low-earth-orbit satellite and indicating acceptable levels for the acquisition and tracking of the GaAs beacon source. Noise interference is discussed with reference to such sources as the galactic background, bright stars, and detector tube noise. Attention is likewise given to the signal source and the optical design of the beacon transmitter and beacon receiver.

  10. Characterization of production GaAs solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical performance of GaAs solar cells was characterized as a function of irradiation with protons and electrons with the underlying goal of producing solar cells suitable for use in space. Proton energies used varied between 50 keV and 10 MeV, and damage coefficients were derived for liquid phase epitaxy GaAs solar cells. Electron energies varied between 0.7 and 2.4 MeV. Cells from recent production runs were characterized as a function of electron and proton irradiation. These same cells were also characterized as a function of solar intensity and operating temperature, both before and after the electron irradiations. The long term stability of GaAs cells during photon exposure was examined. Some cells were found to degrade with photon exposure and some did not. Calibration standards were made for GaAs/Ge solar cells by flight on a high altitude balloon.

  11. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  12. Interface demarcation in GaAs by current pulsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Kafalas, J. A.; Duchene, G. A.; Bellows, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    GTE Laboratories is currently conducting a program to investigate the effect of convection in the melt on the properties of bulk grown gallium arsenide (GaAs). In addition to extensive ground based experimentation, a Get Away Special growth system has been developed to grow two GaAs crystals aboard the Space Shuttle, each with a one inch diameter. In order to perform a complete segregation analysis of the crystals grown in space, it is necessary to measure the interface shape and growth rate as well as the spatial distribution of the selenium dopant. The techniques for interface demarcation in selenium doped GaAs by current pulsing have been developed at GTE Laboratories and successful interface demarcation has been achieved for current pulses ranging from 20 to 90 amps, in both single crystal and polycrystalline regions.

  13. Monolithic GaAs dual-gate FET phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Subbarac, S. N.; Menna, R.

    1981-05-01

    Progress is reported. (1) The photomask of a 0 to 90 deg monolithic GaAs dual-gate FET phase shifter was designed and ordered from Photronics Labs, Inc. in Connecticut. The estimated delivery date is late June 1981. (2) A technique for fabricating 'via' holes using laser drilling was developed. This technique can drill a 1-mil-diameter via hole through a 4-mil-thick GaAs substrate without much undercut and without an infrared microscope for backside alignment. (3) A four-way, in-phase combiner on Al2O3 substrate has been developed with good performance. The same design is being modified for fabrication on GaAs semi-insulating substrates. This four-way, in-phase combiner is needed for the 0 to 360 deg phase shifter that will be developed in the next phase.

  14. Oxygen in GaAs - Direct and indirect effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Skowronski, M.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen has profound effects on the key electronic properties and point defects of GaAs crystals. Thus, when added in the growth system, it decreases the free electron concentration and enhances the concentration of deep donors in the resulting crystals. Both of these effects are highly beneficial for achieving semi-insulating material and have been utilized for that purpose. They have been attributed to the tendency of oxygen to getter silicon impurities during crystal growth. Only recently, it has been found that oxygen in GaAs introduces also a midgap level, ELO, with essentially the same activation energy as EL2 but with four times greater electron capture cross section. The present report reassesses the electrical and optical properties of the midgap levels in GaAs crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) and the Czochralski-LEC techniques. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the specific effects of ELO.

  15. A correlated nickelate synaptic transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian; Ha, Sieu D.; Zhou, You; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may open up new computing paradigms to explore cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Here we report the demonstration of a synaptic transistor with SmNiO3, a correlated electron system with insulator-metal transition temperature at 130°C in bulk form. Non-volatile resistance and synaptic multilevel analogue states are demonstrated by control over composition in ionic liquid-gated devices on silicon platforms. The extent of the resistance modulation can be dramatically controlled by the film microstructure. By simulating the time difference between postneuron and preneuron spikes as the input parameter of a gate bias voltage pulse, synaptic spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning behaviour is realized. The extreme sensitivity of electrical properties to defects in correlated oxides may make them a particularly suitable class of materials to realize artificial biological circuits that can be operated at and above room temperature and seamlessly integrated into conventional electronic circuits.

  16. Near-field thermal transistor

    E-print Network

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Using a block of three separated solid elements, a thermal source and drain together with a gate made of an insulator-metal transition material exchanging near-field thermal radiation, we introduce a nanoscale analog of a field-effect transistor which is able to control the flow of heat exchanged by evanescent thermal photons between two bodies. By changing the gate temperature around its critical value, the heat flux exchanged between the hot body (source) and the cold body (drain) can be reversibly switched, amplified, and modulated by a tiny action on the gate. Such a device could find important applications in the domain of nanoscale thermal management and it opens up new perspectives concerning the development of contactless thermal circuits intended for information processing using the photon current rather than the electric current.

  17. Development of gallium nitride power transistors

    E-print Network

    Piedra, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    GaN-based high-voltage transistors have outstanding properties for the development of ultra-high efficiency and compact power electronics. This thesis describes a new process technology for the fabrication of GaN power ...

  18. Resonant body transistors in standard CMOS technology

    E-print Network

    Marathe, Radhika A.

    This work presents Si-based electromechanical resonators fabricated at the transistor level of a standard SOI CMOS technology and realized without the need for any postprocessing or packaging. These so-called Resonant Body ...

  19. Spin effects in single-electron transistors

    E-print Network

    Granger, Ghislain

    2005-01-01

    Basic electron transport phenomena observed in single-electron transistors (SETs) are introduced, such as Coulomb-blockade diamonds, inelastic cotunneling thresholds, the spin-1/2 Kondo effect, and Fano interference. With ...

  20. Circuit implementation of a theoretical model of trap centres in GaAs and GaN devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmell, James G.; Parker, Anthony E.

    2007-12-01

    A novel and simple circuit implementation of trap centres in GaAs and GaN HEMTs, MESFETs and HFETs is presented. When included in transistor models it explains the potential-dependent time constants seen in the circuit manifestations of charge trapping, being gate lag and drain overshoot. The implementation is suitable for both time- and harmonic-domain simulations. The trap-centre model is based on Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH)1 statistics of the trapping process. It also accommodates carrier injection from other important device effects, such as impact ionization and light sensitivity. In the model, the ionization charge of the trap centre is represented by the charge in a capacitor. The potential across the capacitor is proportional to the potential across the region of the trap centre in the semiconductor. It is positive or negative depending on the polarity of the ionization charge - electrons or holes. When included in a transistor model, this potential is added to the gate potential that controls the drain-current description. The capacitor is charged or discharged by two opposing currents that are functions of the ionization potential and temperature: one models charge emission; and the other, which is also controlled by an external potential and injected current, models charge capture. The external potential is typically a linear function of a transistor's terminal potentials. The injection current can model charge generated by light or by holes from impact ionization. The four parameters for the model are simply the signed potential of the trap centre when fully ionized, the time constant for charge emission at a specific temperature, the injection-current sensitivity, and the activation energy of the emission process. The latter is used to predict the temperature dependence of the emission rate. The capture rate is determined within the model by an exponential function of the external potential that controls capture. Thus the model elegantly predicts asymmetry between trap charging and discharging rates. The model accounts for variation in emission and capture rates with temperature, which is shown to vary significantly over typical transistor operating ranges.

  1. Shaping Transistor Leads for Better Solder Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, H.; Dillon, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Special lead-forming tool puts step in leads of microwave power transistors without damaging braze joints that fasten leads to package. Stepped leads are soldered to circuit boards more reliably than straight leads, and stress on brazes is relieved. Lead-forming hand-tool has two parts: a forming die and an actuator. Spring-loaded saddle is adjusted so that when transistor package is placed on it, leads rest on forming rails.

  2. High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several oxidation techniques are discussed which have been found to increase the open circuit (V sub oc) of metal-GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, the oxide chemistry, attempts to measure surface state parameters, the evolving characteristics of the solar cell as background contamination (has been decreased, but not eliminated), results of focused Nd/YAG laser beam recrystallization of Ge films evaporated onto tungsten, and studies of AMOS solar cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers. Also discussed are projected materials availability and costs for GaAs thin-film solar cells.

  3. GaAs laser diode pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conant, L. C.; Reno, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.5-mm by 3-cm neodymium-ion doped YAG laser rod has been side pumped using a GaAs laser diode array tuned to the 8680-A absorption line, achieving a multimode average output power of 120 mW for a total input power of 20 W to the final-stage laser diode drivers. The pumped arrangement was designed to take advantage of the high brightness of a conventional GaAs array as a linear source by introducing the pump light through a slit into a close-wrapped gold coated pump cavity. This cavity forms an integrating chamber for the pump light.

  4. Investigation of high efficiency GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. W.; Huber, Dan; Linden, Kurt

    1989-01-01

    Investigations of basic mechanisms which limit the performance of high efficiency GaAs solar cells are discussed. P/N heteroface structures have been fabricated from MOCVD epiwafers. Typical AM1 efficiencies are in the 21 to 22 percent range, with a SERI measurement for one cell being 21.5 percent. The cells are nominally 1.5 x 1.5 cm in size. Studies have involved photoresponse, T-I-V analyses, and interpretation of data in terms of appropriate models to determine key cell parameters. Results of these studies are utilized to determine future approaches for increasing GaAs solar cell efficiencies.

  5. Photoluminescence of Si-doped GaAs epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yaremenko, N. G. Karachevtseva, M. V.; Strakhov, V. A.; Galiev, G. B.; Mokerov, V. G.

    2008-12-15

    The effect of arsenic pressure on the amphoteric behavior of Si during the growth of the Si-doped (100)-, (111)Ga-, and (111)As-oriented GaAs layers is studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The edge luminescence band is examined, and the concentration and the degree of compensation as functions of the arsenic pressure are determined. Nonstoichiometry defects in GaAs layers grown with a deficit and an excess of arsenic are studied. It is shown that the defects formed in the (111)Ga- and (111)As-oriented layers are different in nature.

  6. Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

  7. Defect interactions in GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The two-sublattice structural configuration of GaAs and deviations from stoichiometry render the generation and interaction of electrically active point defects (and point defect complexes) critically important for device applications and very complex. Of the defect-induced energy levels, those lying deep into the energy band are very effective lifetime ""killers". The level 0.82 eV below the condition band, commonly referred to as EL2, is a major deep level, particularly in melt-grown GaAs. This level is associated with an antisite defect complex (AsGa - VAS). Possible mechanisms of its formation and its annihilation were further developed.

  8. Magnetron Sputtered Gold Contacts on N-gaas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buonaquisti, A. D.; Matson, R. J.; Russell, P. E.; Holloway, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    Direct current planar magnetron sputtering was used to deposit gold Schottky barrier electrical contacts on n-type GaAs of varying doping densities. The electrical character of the contact was determined from current voltage and electron beam induced voltage data. Without reducing the surface concentration of carbon and oxide, the contacts were found to be rectifying. There is evidence that energetic neutral particles reflected from the magnetron target strike the GaAs and cause interfacial damage similar to that observed for ion sputtering. Particle irradiation of the surface during contact deposition is discussed.

  9. Submicron Grating Fabrication On Gaas By Holographic Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflinger, D.; Kirk, J.; Cordero, R.; Evans, G.

    1982-06-01

    The laboratory techniques used for the fabrication of sub-micron gratings in GaAs are presented. A thin (~ 1250 A) film of Shipley AZ1450B photoresist on GaAs is exposed holographically with the use of the 4579 A line of an argon ion laser to produce gratings with a period of approximately 0.35 um. Data are presented that demonstrate the effects of variation of the following parameters: developer type, developer time, laser intensity, exposure time, photoresist thickness, and ion beam etching parameters. Grating efficiency measurements as a function of parameter variations indicate an optimum set of parameters for grating fabrication.

  10. MBE Growth of GaAs Whiskers on Si Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Andrews, Aaron

    2010-01-04

    We present the growth of GaAs nanowhiskers by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) nanowires grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The whiskers grow in the wurtzite phase, along the [0001] direction, on the {l_brace}112{r_brace} facets of the Si nanowire, forming a star-like six-fold radial symmetry. The photoluminescence shows a 30 meV blue shift with respect to bulk GaAs, additionally a GaAs/AlAs core-shell heterostructure shows increased luminescence.

  11. Ga nanoparticle-enhanced photoluminescence of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Al-Heji, A. A.; Jeon, S.; Wu, J. H.; Lee, J.-E.; Saucer, T. W.; Zhao, L.; Sih, V.; Katzenstein, A. L.; Department of Physics, Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida 33711-4744 ; Sofferman, D. L.; Department of Physics, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York 11530-0701 ; Goldman, R. S.; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040

    2013-09-02

    We have examined the influence of surface Ga nanoparticles (NPs) on the enhancement of GaAs photoluminescence (PL) efficiency. We have utilized off-normal focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces to fabricate close-packed Ga NP arrays. The enhancement in PL efficiency is inversely proportional to the Ga NP diameter. The maximum PL enhancement occurs for the Ga NP diameter predicted to maximize the incident electromagnetic (EM) field enhancement. The PL enhancement is driven by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-induced enhancement of the incident EM field which overwhelms the SPR-induced suppression of the light emission.

  12. Crystal growth of GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Pawlowicz, L. M.; Dabkowski, F.; Li, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that stoichiometry variations in the GaAs melt during growth constitute the most critical parameter regarding defect formations and their interactions; this defect structure determines all relevant characteristics of GaAs. Convection in the melt leads to stoichiometric variations. Growth in axial magnetic fields reduces convection and permits the study of defect structure. In order to control stoichiometry in space and to accommodate expansion during solidification, a partially confined configuration was developed. A triangular prism is employed to contain the growth melt. This configuration permits the presence of the desired vapor phase in contact with the melt for controlling the melt stoichiometry.

  13. Electronic contribution to friction on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Applied Science and Technology Graduate Group, UC Berkeley; Dept. of Materials Sciences and Engineering, UC Berkeley; Salmeron, Miquel; Qi, Yabing; Park, J.Y.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-15

    The electronic contribution to friction at semiconductor surfaces was investigated by using a Pt-coated tip with 50nm radius in an atomic force microscope sliding against an n-type GaAs(100) substrate. The GaAs surface was covered by an approximately 1 nm thick oxide layer. Charge accumulation or depletion was induced by the application of forward or reverse bias voltages. We observed a substantial increase in friction force in accumulation (forward bias) with respect to depletion (reverse bias). We propose a model based on the force exerted by the trapped charges that quantitatively explains the experimental observations of excess friction.

  14. Epitaxial EuO thin films on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, A. G.; Ciraldo, J.; Wong, J. J. I.; Li Yan; Han Wei; Lin Tao; Shi, J.; Kawakami, R. K.; Mack, S.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2010-09-13

    We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of EuO on GaAs by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Thin films are grown in an adsorption-controlled regime with the aid of an MgO diffusion barrier. Despite the large lattice mismatch, it is shown that EuO grows well on MgO(001) with excellent magnetic properties. Epitaxy on GaAs is cube-on-cube and longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements demonstrate a large Kerr rotation of 0.57 deg., a significant remanent magnetization, and a Curie temperature of 69 K.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of heterojunction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chien-Fong

    2011-12-01

    Submircon emitter finger high-speed double heterojunction InAlAs/InGaAsSb/InGaAs bipolar transistors (DHBTs) and a variety of nitride high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) including AlGaN/GaN, InAlN/GaN, and AlN/GaN were fabricated and characterized. DHBT structures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) on Fe-doped semiinsulating InP substrates and nitride HEMTs were grown with a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system on sapphire or SiC substrates. AlN/GaN HEMTs were grown with a RF-VMBE on sapphire substrates. Ultra low base contact resistance of 3.7 x 10-7 ohm-cm2 after 1 min 250¢XC thermal treatment on noval InGaAsSb base of DHBTs was achieved and a long-term thermal stability of base metallization was studied. Regarding small scale DHBT fabrication, tri-layer system was introduced to improve the resolution for submicron emitter patterning and help to pile up a thicker emitter metal stack; guard-ring technique was applied around the emitter periphery in order to preserve the current gain at small emitter dimensions. Ultra low turn-on voltage and high current gain can be realized with InGaAsSb-base DHBTs as compared to the conventional InGaAs-base DHBTs. A peak current gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 268 GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (fmax) of 485 GHz were achieved. GaN-based HEMTs herein were fabricated with gate lengths from 400 nm to 1im, and were deposited Ti/Al/Ni/Au as their Ohmic contact metallization. Effects of the Ohmic contact annealing for lattice-matched InAlN/GaN HEMTs with and without a thin GaN cap layer were exhibited and their optimal annealing temperature were obtained. A maximum drain current of 1.3 A/mm and an extrinsic transconductance of 366 mS/mm were demonstrated for InAlN/GaN HEMTs with the shortest gate length. A unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 69 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 80 GHz for InAlN/GaN HEMTs were extracted from measured scattering parameters. Passivation is one of the most important parts in device processing for preventing degradation from various environmental conditions and promising a better device performance. Simply, ozone treatment of AlN on AlN/GaN heterostructures produced effective aluminum oxide surface passivation and chemical resistance to the AZ positive photoresist developer used for subsequent device fabrication. Metal oxide semiconductor diode-like gate current-voltage characteristics and minimal drain current degradation during gate pulse measurements were observed. With an additional oxygen plasma treatment on the gate area prior to the gate metal deposition, enhancement-mode AlN/GaN HEMTs were realized. In addition, for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs in high electrical field applications, a high-dielectric-strength SiNx passivation over an optimum thickness was needed to suppress surface flashover during a high voltage or high power operation. An excellent isolation blocking voltage of 900 V with a leakage current at 1 muA/mm was obtained across a nitrogen-implanted isolation-gap of 10 mum between two Ohmic pads. The radiation hardness of HBTs and HEMTs is one of the critical factors that need to be established for military, space, and nuclear industry applications. The effects of proton radiation on the dc performance of InAlAs/InGaAsSb/InGaAs HBTs and AlN/GaN HEMTs were investigated. Both of these devices showed a remarkable resistance to high energy protoninduced degradation and appeared very promising for terrestrial or space-borne applications. The proton-irradiated devices with a dose of 2 x 1011 cm-2 (estimated to be equivalent to more than 40 years of exposure in low-earth orbit) showed only small changes in dc transfer characteristics, threshold voltage shift, and gate-lag with a high frequency pulse on the gate of the HEMTs and showed small changes in junction ideality factor, generation recombination leakage current, and output conductance for the HBTs. The effect the gate metallization on the nitride HEMT reliability was also examined. By replacing the conventional Ni/Au gate metallization wi

  16. Structure of high-index GaAs surfaces - the discovery of the stable GaAs(2511) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, K.; Geelhaar, L.; Márquez, J.

    We present a brief overview of surface structures of high-index GaAs surfaces, putting emphasis on recent progress in our own laboratory. By adapting a commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to our molecular beam epitaxy and ultra high vacuum analysis chamber system, we have been able to atomically resolve the GaAs( {1} {1} {3})B(8 ×1), (114)A?2(2×1), (137), (3715), and (2511) surface structures. In cooperation with P. Kratzer and M. Scheffler from the Theory Department of the Fritz-Haber Institute we determined the structure of some of these surfaces by comparing total-energy calculations and STM image simulations with the atomically resolved STM images. We present the results for the {112}, {113}, and {114} surfaces. Then we describe what led us to proceed into the inner parts of the stereographic triangle and to discover the hitherto unknown stable GaAs(2511) surface.

  17. Microscopic determination of stress distribution in GaAs grown at low temperature on GaAs (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tanaka, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Teriauchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    A microscopic strain distribution across commensurate interfaces between GaAs layers grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates was observed by means of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and large angle convergent beam methods (LACBED). Strain relaxation at a specific distance from the interface was observed in these layers without formation of misfit dislocations. It was proposed that specific point defects distributed close to the interface can explain the asymmetric broadening of high-order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines in the CBED patterns.

  18. Generation and propagation of defects into molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs from an underlying GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, M.; Ito, T.; Imamura, Y.

    1985-11-01

    Only a few studies have been reported with respect to molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown GaAs layers and resulting crystal defects. Ito et al. (1984) and Shinohara et al. (1984) have investigated oval defects, which are usually observed in MBE-grown GaAs. The present paper is mainly concerned with intrinsic crystal defects which might disturb the properties of optical and electronic devices fabricated on the basis of a utilization of MBE layers. Attention is given to specimen preparation, a defect detection method, dislocations, growth striations, and aspects of surface defect correlation with substrate dislocations.

  19. Present status of GaAs. [including space processing and solid state applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Jastrzebski, L.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive literature survey on GaAs was carried out for the period December 31, 1970, to December 31, 1977. The increasing interest in GaAs device structures increased steadily during that period. The leading research and development centers and the specific areas of interest were identified. A workshop on GaAs was held in November 1977 to assess the present status of melt-grown GaAs and the existing needs for reliable chemical, structural, and electronic characterization methods. It was concluded that the present available bulk GaAs crystals are of poor quality and that GaAs technology is lagging demonstrated or potentially feasible GaAs devices and systems.

  20. EDITORIAL: Reigniting innovation in the transistor Reigniting innovation in the transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    Today the transistor is integral to the electronic circuitry that wires our lives. When Bardeen and Brattain first observed an amplified signal by connecting electrodes to a germanium crystal they saw that their 'semiconductor triode' could prove a useful alternative to the more cumbersome vacuum tubes used at the time [1]. But it was perhaps William Schottky who recognized the extent of the transistor's potential. A basic transistor has three or more terminals and current across one pair of terminals can switch or amplify current through another pair. Bardeen, Brattain and Schottky were jointly awarded a Nobel Prize in 1956 'for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect' [2]. Since then many new forms of the transistor have been developed and understanding of the underlying properties is constantly advancing. In this issue Chen and Shih and colleagues at Taiwan National University and Drexel University report a pyroelectrics transistor. They show how a novel optothermal gating mechanism can modulate the current, allowing a range of developments in nanoscale optoelectronics and wireless devices [3]. The explosion of interest in nanoscale devices in the 1990s inspired electronics researchers to look for new systems that can act as transistors, such as carbon nanotube [4] and silicon nanowire [5] transistors. Generally these transistors function by raising and lowering an energy barrier of kBT -1, but researchers in the US and Canada have demonstrated that the quantum interference between two electronic pathways through aromatic molecules can also modulate the current flow [6]. The device has advantages for further miniaturization where energy dissipation in conventional systems may eventually cause complications. Interest in transistor technology has also led to advances in fabrication techniques for achieving high production quantities, such as printing [7]. Researchers in Florida in the US demonstrated field effect transistor behaviour in devices fabricated from chemically reduced graphene oxide. The work provided an important step forward for graphene electronics, which has been hampered by difficulties in scaling up the mechanical exfoliation techniques required to produce the high-quality graphene often needed for functioning devices [8]. In Sweden, researchers have developed a transistor design that they fabricate using standard III-V parallel processing, which also has great promise for scaling up production. Their transistor is based on a vertical array of InAs nanowires, which provide high electron mobility and the possibility of high-speed and low-power operation [9]. Different fabrication techniques and design parameters can influence the properties of transistors. Researchers in Belgium used a new method based on high-vacuum scanning spreading resistance microscopy to study the effect of diameter on carrier profile in nanowire transistors [10]. They then used experimental data and simulations to gain a better understanding of how this influenced the transistor performance. In Japan, Y Ohno and colleagues at Nagoya University have reported how atomic layer deposition of an insulating layer of HfO2 on carbon nanotube field effect transistors can change the carrier from p-type to n-type [11]. Carrier type switching—'ambipolar behaviour'—and hysteresis of carbon nanotube network transistors can make achieving reliable device performance challenging. However studies have also suggested that the hysteretic properties may be exploited in non-volatile memory applications. A collaboration of researchers in Italy and the US demonstrated transistor and memory cell behaviour in a system based on a carbon nanotube network [13]. Their device had relatively fast programming, good endurance and the charge retention was successfully enhanced by limiting exposure to air. Progress in understanding transistor behaviour has inspired other innovations in device applications. Nanowires are notoriously sensitive to gases such as CO, opening opportunities for applications in sensing using one-

  1. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Of Bipolar Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Ronnie D.; Ubele, John L., II

    1994-01-01

    In system, bipolar digital data transmitted by use of wavelength-division multiplexing on single optical fiber. Two different wavelengths used to transmit pulses signifying "positive" or "negative" bipolar digital data. Simultaneous absence of pulses at both wavelengths signifies digital "zero."

  2. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  3. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  4. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  5. POSITIVE AND BIPOLAR LIGHTNING DISCHARGES: A REVIEW V. A. Rakov

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    POSITIVE AND BIPOLAR LIGHTNING DISCHARGES: A REVIEW V. A. Rakov rakov@ece.ufl.edu Department of lightning discharges that transport either positive charge or both negative and positive charges to ground are reviewed. Different types of positive and bipolar discharges are discussed. Keywords: Positive Lightning

  6. Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ? 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

  7. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  8. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  9. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  11. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  12. Multiple tail domain interactions stabilize nonmuscle myosin II bipolar filaments

    E-print Network

    Prehoda, Ken

    Multiple tail domain interactions stabilize nonmuscle myosin II bipolar filaments Derek Ricketson derives from its assembly into bipolar filaments. The coiled-coil tail domain of the myosin II heavy chain mediates filament assembly, although the mechanism is poorly understood. Tail domains contain

  13. Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Management of Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Maina, Giuseppe; Forgione, Rocco N; Goracci, Arianna; Cuomo, Alessandro; Young, Allan H

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 40 % of patients with bipolar disorder experience mixed episodes, defined as a manic state with depressive features, or manic symptoms in a patient with bipolar depression. Compared with bipolar patients without mixed features, patients with bipolar mixed states generally have more severe symptomatology, more lifetime episodes of illness, worse clinical outcomes and higher rates of comorbidities, and thus present a significant clinical challenge. Most clinical trials have investigated second-generation neuroleptic monotherapy, monotherapy with anticonvulsants or lithium, combination therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuroleptic drugs are often used alone or in combination with anticonvulsants or lithium for preventive treatment, and ECT is an effective treatment for mixed manic episodes in situations where medication fails or cannot be used. Common antidepressants have been shown to worsen mania symptoms during mixed episodes without necessarily improving depressive symptoms; thus, they are not recommended during mixed episodes. A greater understanding of pathophysiological processes in bipolar disorder is now required to provide a more accurate diagnosis and new personalised treatment approaches. Targeted, specific treatments developed through a greater understanding of bipolar disorder pathophysiology, capable of affecting the underlying disease processes, could well prove to be more effective, faster acting, and better tolerated than existing therapies, therefore providing better outcomes for individuals affected by bipolar disorder. Until such time as targeted agents are available, second-generation neuroleptics are emerging as the treatment of choice in the management of mixed states in bipolar disorder. PMID:26369921

  14. Multikilowatt Bipolar Nickel/Hydrogen Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    High energy densities appear feasible. Nickel/hydrogen battery utilizing bipolar construction in common pressure vessel, addressing needs for multikilowatt storage for low-Earth-orbit applications, designed and 10-cell prototype model tested. Modular-concept-design 35-kW battery projected energy densities of 20 to 24 Wh/b (160 to 190 kj/kg) and 700 to 900 Wh/ft3 (90 to 110 MJ/m3) and incorporated significant improvements over state-of-the-art storage systems.

  15. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  16. Processing and characterization of epitaxial GaAs radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Peltola, T.; Arsenovich, T.; Gädda, A.; Härkönen, J.; Junkes, A.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kostamo, P.; Lipsanen, H.; Luukka, P.; Mattila, M.; Nenonen, S.; Riekkinen, T.; Tuominen, E.; Winkler, A.

    2015-10-01

    GaAs devices have relatively high atomic numbers (Z=31, 33) and thus extend the X-ray absorption edge beyond that of Si (Z=14) devices. In this study, radiation detectors were processed on GaAs substrates with 110 - 130 ?m thick epitaxial absorption volume. Thick undoped and heavily doped p+ epitaxial layers were grown using a custom-made horizontal Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (CVPE) reactor, the growth rate of which was about 10 ?m / h. The GaAs p+/i/n+ detectors were characterized by Capacitance Voltage (CV), Current Voltage (IV), Transient Current Technique (TCT) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. The full depletion voltage (Vfd) of the detectors with 110 ?m epi-layer thickness is in the range of 8-15 V and the leakage current density is about 10 nA/cm2. The signal transit time determined by TCT is about 5 ns when the bias voltage is well above the value that produces the peak saturation drift velocity of electrons in GaAs at a given thickness. Numerical simulations with an appropriate defect model agree with the experimental results.

  17. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits

    E-print Network

    Jianwei Wang; Alberto Santamato; Pisu Jiang; Damien Bonneau; Erman Engin; Joshua W. Silverstone; Matthias Lermer; Johannes Beetz; Martin Kamp; Sven Hofling; Michael G. Tanner; Chandra M. Natarajan; Robert H. Hadfield; Sander N. Dorenbos; Val Zwiller; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2014-03-24

    Integrated quantum photonics is a promising approach for future practical and large-scale quantum information processing technologies, with the prospect of on-chip generation, manipulation and measurement of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology platform, and has already successfully demonstrated key components including waveguide integrated single-photon sources and integrated single-photon detectors. However, quantum circuits capable of manipulating quantum states of light have so far not been investigated in this material system. Here, we report GaAs photonic circuits for the manipulation of single-photon and two-photon states. Two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.9 +/- 1.3% was observed in GaAs directional couplers. Classical and quantum interference fringes with visibilities of 98.6 +/- 1.3% and 84.4 +/- 1.5% respectively were demonstrated in Mach-Zehnder interferometers exploiting the electro-optic Pockels effect. This work paves the way for a fully integrated quantum technology platform based on the GaAs material system.

  18. High purity, low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth techniques for producing undoped, high resistivity, low dislocation material suitable for device applications is described. Technique development resulted in reduction of dislocation densities in 3 inch GaAs crystals. Control over the melt stoichiometry was determined to be of critical importance for the reduction of twinning and polycrystallinity during growth.

  19. Novel photovoltaic delta-doped GaAs superlattice structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, A. M.; Schubert, E. F.; Bonner, C. E.; Wilson, B. A.; Cunningham, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    An asymmetric delta-doped GaAs structure is described which exhibits novel photovoltaic effects and low-intensity nonlinear optics. Of particular interest in this kind of structure is the ability to design the electrooptical and nonlinear optical properties and the material response time over a wide range by appropriate design of the doping profile.

  20. High-quality InP on GaAs

    E-print Network

    Quitoriano, Nathaniel Joseph

    2006-01-01

    In addition to traditional telecommunication applications, devices based on InP have received increased attention for high-performance electronics. InP growth on GaAs is motivated by the fact that InP wafers are smaller, ...

  1. Study of InGaAs-based modulation doped field effect transistor structures using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Sieg, R. M.; Yao, H. D.; Snyder, P. G.; Woollam, J. A.; Pamulapati, J.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Sekula-Moise, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to estimate the thicknesses of all layers within the optical penetration depth of InGaAs-based modulation doped field effect transistor structures. Strained and unstrained InGaAs channels were made by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on InP substrates and by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on GaAs substrates. In most cases, ellipsometrically determined thicknesses were within 10% of the growth-calibration results. The MBE-made InGaAs strained layers showed large strain effects, indicating a probable shift in the critical points of their dielectric function toward the InP lattice-matched concentration.

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of a Single Hole Transistor in p-type GaAs/AlGaAs Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Lisa A; Reno, John L.; Hargett, Terry W.

    2015-09-01

    Most spin qubit research to date has focused on manipulating single electron spins in quantum dots. However, hole spins are predicted to have some advantages over electron spins, such as reduced coupling to host semiconductor nuclear spins and the ability to control hole spins electrically using the large spin-orbit interaction. Building on recent advances in fabricating high-mobility 2D hole systems in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures at Sandia, we fabricate and characterize single hole transistors in GaAs. We demonstrate p-type double quantum dot devices with few-hole occupation, which could be used to study the physics of individual hole spins and control over coupling between hole spins, looking towards eventual applications in quantum computing. Intentionally left blank

  3. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  4. Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David P.

    1999-01-01

    The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing irregularities involved the use of a breakout box and were the likely cause of the failures. There was no evidence to suggest a generic failure mechanism was responsible for the failure of these transistors.

  5. Properties of TiO2 thin films and a study of the TiO2-GaAs interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. Y.; Littlejohn, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films prepared by chemical vapor deposition were investigated in this study for the purpose of the application in the GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor. The degree of crystallization increases with the deposition temperature. The current-voltage study, utilizing an Al-TiO2-Al MIM structure, reveals that the d-c conduction through the TiO2 film is dominated by the bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The dependence of the resistivity of the TiO2 films on the deposition environment is also shown. The results of the capacitance-voltage study indicate that an inversion layer in an n-type substrate can be achieved in the MIS capacitor if the TiO2 films are deposited at a temperature higher than 275 C. A process of low temperature deposition followed by the pattern definition and a higher temperature annealing is suggested for device fabrications. A model, based on the assumption that the surface state densities are continuously distributed in energy within the forbidden band gap, is proposed to interpret the lack of an inversion layer in the Al-TiO2-GaAs MIS structure with the TiO2 films deposited at 200 C.

  6. A dimensional approach to the psychosis spectrum between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: The Schizo-Bipolar Scale

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Morris, David W.; Sweeney, John A; Pearlson, Godfrey; Thaker, Gunvant; Seidman, Larry J; Eack, Shaun M.; Tamminga, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence for phenomenological, biological and genetic overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, bringing into question the traditional dichotomy between them. Neurobiological models linked to dimensional clinical data may provide a better foundation to represent diagnostic variation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Method To capture the interaction between psychosis and affective symptoms dimensionally, we devised a brief descriptive scale based on the type and relative proportions of psychotic and affective symptoms over the illness course. The scale was administered to a series of 762 patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective and psychotic bipolar disorder assessed as part of the Bipolar- Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study. Results The resulting Schizo-Bipolar Scale scores across these disorders showed neither a clear dichotomy nor a simple continuous distribution. While the majority of cases had ratings close to prototypic schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, a large group (45% of cases) fell on the continuum between these two prototypes. . Conclusions Our data suggest a hybrid conceptualization model with a representation of cases with prototypic schizophrenia or bipolar disorder at the extremes, but a large group of patients on the continuum between them that traditionally would be considered schizoaffective. A dimensional approach, using the Schizo-Bipolar Scale, characterized patients across a spectrum of psychopathology. This scale may provide a valuable means to examine the relationships between schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. PMID:21996268

  7. The linear statistical d.c. model of GaAs MESFET using factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzanski, Lech

    1995-02-01

    The linear statistical model of the GaAs MESFET's current generator is obtained by means of factor analysis. Three different MESFET deterministic models are taken into account in the analysis: the Statz model (ST), the Materka-type model (MT) and a new proprietary model of MESFET with implanted channel (PLD). It is shown that statistical models obtained using factor analysis provide excellent generation of the multidimensional random variable representing the drain current of MESFET. The method of implementation of the statistical model into the SPICE program is presented. It is proved that for a strongly limited number of Monte Carlo analysis runs in that program, the statistical models considered in each case (ST, MT and PLD) enable good reconstruction of the empirical factor structure. The empirical correlation matrix of model parameters is not reconstructed exactly by statistical modelling, but values of correlation matrix elements obtained from simulated data are within the confidence intervals for the small sample. This paper proves that a formal approach to statistical modelling using factor analysis is the right path to follow, in spite of the fact, that CAD systems (PSpice[MicroSim Corp.], Microwave Harmonica[Compact Software]) are not designed properly for generation of the multidimensional random variable. It is obvious that further progress in implementation of statistical methods in CAD software is required. Furthermore, a new approach to the MESFET's d.c. model is presented. The separate functions, describing the linear as well as the saturated region of MESFET output characteristics, are combined in the single equation. This way of modelling is particularly suitable for transistors with an implanted channel.

  8. Technology and market evaluation for semiconductor nanowire transistors

    E-print Network

    Omampuliyur, Rajamouly Swaminathan

    2008-01-01

    Information processing systems have been getting more powerful over the course of the past three decades due to the scaling of transistor dimensions. Scaling of transistor dimension causes a plethora of technological ...

  9. Resonant Body Transistors in IBM's 32nm SOI CMOS technology

    E-print Network

    Marathe, Radhika A.

    This work presents an unreleased CMOS-integrated MEMS resonators fabricated at the transistor level of IBM's 32SOI technology and realized without the need for any post-processing or packaging. These Resonant Body Transistors ...

  10. Graphene nanopore field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-07-14

    Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of ?70?pA, subthreshold swing of ?60?mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 10{sup 5} as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

  11. Structural and optical characterization of Mg-doped GaAs nanowires grown on GaAs and Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Falcão, B. P. Leitão, J. P.; Correia, M. R.; Soares, M. R.; Morales, F. M.; Mánuel, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Gustafsson, A.; Moreira, M. V. B.; Oliveira, A. G. de; González, J. C.

    2013-11-14

    We report an investigation on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of large size wurtzite GaAs nanowires, low doped with Mg, grown on GaAs(111)B and Si(111) substrates. A higher density of vertical nanowires was observed when grown upon GaAs(111)B. Very thin zinc-blende segments are observed along the axis of the nanowires with a slightly higher linear density being found on the nanowires grown on Si(111). Low temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence measurements reveal an emission in the range 1.40–1.52?eV related with the spatial localization of the charge carriers at the interfaces of the two crystalline phases. Mg related emission is evidenced by cathodoluminescence performed on the GaAs epilayer. However, no direct evidence for a Mg related emission is found for the nanowires. The excitation power dependency on both peak energy and intensity of the photoluminescence gives a clear evidence for the type II nature of the radiative transitions. From the temperature dependence on the photoluminescence intensity, non-radiative de-excitation channels with different activation energies were found. The fact that the estimated energies for the escape of the electron are higher in the nanowires grown on Si(111) suggests the presence of wider zinc-blende segments.

  12. An overview of bipolar qualitative decision rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Didier; Fargier, Hélène

    Making a good decision is often a matter of listing and comparing positive and negative arguments, as studies in cognitive psychology have shown. In such cases, the evaluation scale should be considered bipolar, that is, negative and positive values are explicitly distinguished. Generally, positive and negative features are evaluated separately, as done in Cumulative Prospect Theory. However, contrary to the latter framework that presupposes genuine numerical assessments, decisions are often made on the basis of an ordinal ranking of the pros and the cons, and focusing on the most salient features, i.e., the decision process is qualitative. In this paper, we report on a project aiming at characterizing several decision rules, based on possibilistic order of magnitude reasoning, and tailored for the joint handling of positive and negative affects, and at testing their empirical validity. The simplest rules can be viewed as extensions of the maximin and maximax criteria to the bipolar case and, like them, suffer from a lack of discrimination power. More decisive rules that refine them are also proposed. They account for both the principle of Pareto-efficiency and the notion of order of magnitude reasoning. The most decisive one uses a lexicographic ranking of the pros and cons. It comes down to a special case of Cumulative Prospect Theory, and subsumes the “Take the best” heuristic.

  13. Sealed bipolar multi-cell battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A low maintenance battery comprises a sealed casing (102) having a cavity (204) receiving a stack (108) of monopolar and bipolar plates (110, 112) interspersed with mats (122) of fiberglass felt immobilizing electrolyte and forming a gas path for diffusion of oxygen to the negative electrode (112). The casing contains a single, resealable vent (202). During charging, oxygen generated at the positive plate (110) diffuses through the mat (122) and decomposes at the negative plate (112). The negative plate (112) has a larger capacity than the positive plate (110) to prevent evolution of hydrogen. Voltage potential is increased or decreased by placing one or more bipolar plates (120) in series relation between alternating positive and negative monopolar plates that are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106). The monoplates (110, 112) are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106) by way of bus plates (114, 116, 130, 132). The resealable vent permits operation by way of the oxygen cycle which prevents loss of electrolyte. The vent prevents invasion of oxygen from the ambient to discharge negative plates.

  14. LBV (Candidate) Nebulae: Bipolarity and Outflows

    E-print Network

    Kerstin Weis

    2002-07-25

    The most massive evolved stars (above 50 M_sun) undergo a phase of extreme mass loss in which their evolution is reversed from a redward to a blueward motion in the HRD. In this phase the stars are known as Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and they are located in the HRD close to the Humphreys-Davidson limit. It is far from understood what causes the strong mass loss or what triggers the so-called giant eruptions, active events in which in a short time a large amount of mass is ejected. Here I will present results from a larger project devoted to better understand LBVs through studying the LBV nebulae. These nebulae are formed as a consequence of the strong mass loss. The analysis concentrates on the morphology and kinematics of these nebulae. Of special concern was the frequently observed bipolar nature of the LBV nebulae. Bipolarity seems to be a general feature and strongly constrains models of the LBV phase and especially of the formation of the nebulae. In addition we found outflows from LBV nebulae, the first evidence for ongoing instabilities in the nebulae.

  15. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friar, J. L.; Tomusiak, E. L.; Gibson, B. F.; Payne, G. L.

    1981-08-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schrödinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3He Coulomb energy. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Three-body problem, classification of states.

  16. A linkage study of bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Remick, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    We are currently surveying the genome with polymorphic DNA markers in search of loci linked to bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) in three populations: 20 families (175 subjects) from the general North American population from San Diego (UCSD) and Vancouver (UBC); 3 Icelandic families (55 subjects); and an Old Order Amish pedigree 110 (118 subjects). Over 50 markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 11, 17, 18, 20 and 21 have been examined. All markers have been tested in the Amish and Icelandic families, and a portion of them in the UCSD/UBC families, which we have only recently begun genotyping. The following candidate genes have been examined: {beta}-TSH, dopamine transporter (HDAT), {beta}2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), glucocorticoid type II receptor (GRL), D2 dopamine receptor, serotonin transporter (HSERT), and G{alpha}s G protein subunit (GNAS1). Linkage analysis was conducted using an autosomal dominant model with age-dependent reduced penetrance. Subjects with bipolar, schizoaffective, or recurrent major depressive disorders were considered affected. No significant evidence for linkage was obtained. Mildly positive lods ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 were obtained for three loci: D11S29, HDAT, and GRL.

  17. Kinematical analysis of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrincic, Martina; Villaver, Eva; Guerrero, Martín A.; Manchado, Arturo

    Bipolar planetary nebulae (BPNe) offer a unique opportunity to test models that aim to reproduce the PNe morphologies. In particular, kinematic studies of BPNe allow a reconstruction of the 3D structure of the nebula, otherwise hidden in imaging studies. With this aim in mind we have obtained long-slit echelle spectra of a sample of PNe which cover the full range of observed bipolar morphologies, from elliptical to highly collimated. The analysis of our kinematical data reveals equatorial expansion velocities in the low to medium range (3 to 16 km s-1), while the polar expansion velocities range from 18 to 100 km s-1. We find that the kinematics of the PN K 3-46 can only be explained by a decrease in the expansion velocity with time. The kinematical ages, calculated by using distances estimated from Galactic rotation curves, when available, or by using statistical values, show that the BPNe in our sample - even those which show non-extreme collimation - appear to be young. We have compared our results with the latest theoretical models of BPN formation, and find good agreement between the observed expansion velocities and the numerical models that use magnetic fields coupled with stellar rotation as the collimation mechanism.

  18. Stretchable transistors with buckled carbon nanotube films as conducting channels

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Michael S; Xu, Feng

    2015-03-24

    Thin-film transistors comprising buckled films comprising carbon nanotubes as the conductive channel are provided. Also provided are methods of fabricating the transistors. The transistors, which are highly stretchable and bendable, exhibit stable performance even when operated under high tensile strains.

  19. Distributed Sleep Transistor Network for Power Reduction Changbo Long

    E-print Network

    He, Lei

    advantages in area and performance compared to module-based and cluster-based sleep transistor designs [3, 4Distributed Sleep Transistor Network for Power Reduction Changbo Long ECE Department University of Wisconsin, Madison clong@cae.wisc.edu Lei He EE Department UCLA lhe@ee.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Sleep transistors

  20. Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCSTR2012009

    E-print Network

    Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCS­TR­2012­009 Jonathan Appavoo supported in part by National Science Foundation award #1012798. #12; Transistor Scaled HPC Application automatically scales with the transistor count even in the face of component failures. Today high performance