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Sample records for gaas bipolar transistor

  1. GaAs Device Reliability: High Electron Mobility Transistors and Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, F.; Douglas, E. A.; Pearton, Stephen J.

    The two main GaAs-based electronic device technologies are high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Both technologies are commercialized for use in low-noise amplifiers, radar, and fiber optic data transmission systems. In this chapter, we will summarize the degradation mechanisms that limit the lifetime of these devices. A variety of contact and surface degradation mechanisms have been reported but differ in the two device technologies - for HEMTs, the layers are thin and relatively lightly doped compared to HBT structures, and there is a metal Schottky gate that is directly on the semiconductor. By contrast, the HBT relies on pn junctions for current modulation and has only ohmic contacts. This leads to different degradation mechanisms for the two types of devices.

  2. Fabrication and high temperature characteristics of ion-implanted GaAs bipolar transistors and ring-oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerbeck, F. H.; Yuan, H. T.; Mclevige, W. V.

    1981-01-01

    Ion implantation techniques that permit the reproducible fabrication of bipolar GaAs integrated circuits are studied. A 15 stage ring oscillator and discrete transistor were characterized between 25 and 400 C. The current gain of the transistor was found to increase slightly with temperature. The diode leakage currents increase with an activation energy of approximately 1 eV and dominate the transistor leakage current 1 sub CEO above 200 C. Present devices fail catastrophically at about 400 C because of Au-metallization.

  3. Evaluation of GaAs Schottky gate bipolar transistor (SGBT) by electrothermal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossin, M.; Johnson, C. M.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    A GaAs alternative to the Si IGBT, employing an implanted lateral channel in place of the usual MOSFET inversion channel, is proposed. A simplified analytical model shows that the relatively high ratio of electron to hole mobility in GaAs allows much lower anode emitter injection efficiencies to be used without compromising conductivity modulation of the base region. This, in turn, means that a higher proportion of the total device current is carried by electrons. Design strategies for the GaAs SGBT are investigated and applied in the design of an optimised unit cell. The optimised structure is compared with an equivalent Si IGBT structure by means of electrothermal and transient simulation. Electrothermal simulation shows the GaAs device to have useable performance at junction temperatures in excess of 300C, a feature which is consistent with the wide band-gap of GaAs. Transient simulations show reduced minority carrier tailing effects at both turn-on and turn-off, with initial turn-off tail currents being reduced by a factor of 5 compared to the Si IGBT. The resulting reduction in turn-off loss allows switching frequencies to be increased by a factor of 4 for the same total losses. The excellent switching performance derives from the relatively low proportion of hole current needed to ensure effective conductivity modulation of the structure.

  4. A GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor with 106 V breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Klem, J.F.; Ashby, C.I.; Martin, D.C.

    2000-01-11

    A high voltage GaAs HBT with an open-base collector breakdown voltage of 106 V and an open-emitter breakdown voltage of 134 V has been demonstrated. A high quality 9.0 {micro}m thick collector doped to 2.0{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} grown by MBE on a doped GaAs substrate is the key to achieving this breakdown. These results were achieved for HBTs with 4{times}40 {micro}m{sup 2} emitters. DC current gain of 38 at 6,000 A/cm{sup 2} was measured.

  5. Npn double heterostructure bipolar transistor with ingaasn base region

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Ping-Chih; Baca, Albert G.; Li, Nein-Yi; Hou, Hong Q.; Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2004-07-20

    An NPN double heterostructure bipolar transistor (DHBT) is disclosed with a base region comprising a layer of p-type-doped indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) sandwiched between n-type-doped collector and emitter regions. The use of InGaAsN for the base region lowers the transistor turn-on voltage, V.sub.on, thereby reducing power dissipation within the device. The NPN transistor, which has applications for forming low-power electronic circuitry, is formed on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate and can be fabricated at commercial GaAs foundries. Methods for fabricating the NPN transistor are also disclosed.

  6. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO . fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities.

  7. Vertical bipolar charge plasma transistor with buried metal layer.

    PubMed

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO f(T) product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  8. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  9. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  10. Self-oscillating inverter with bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, I.; Cunţan, C. D.; Floruţa, M.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a self-oscillating inverter manufactured with bipolar transistors that supplies a high-amplitude alternating voltage to a fluorescent tube with a burned filament. The inverter is supplied from a low voltage accumulator that can be charged from a photovoltaic panel through a voltage regulator.

  11. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2??m, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  12. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Erik O.; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2??m, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  13. Total Dose Effects in Conventional Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swift, G. W.; Rax, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines various factors in bipolar device construction and design, and discusses their impact on radiation hardness. The intent of the paper is to improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms for practical devices without special test structures, and to provide (1) guidance in ways to select transistor designs that are more resistant to radiation damage, and (2) methods to estimate the maximum amount of damage that might be expected from a basic transistor design. The latter factor is extremely important in assessing the risk that future lots of devices will be substantially below design limits, which are usually based on test data for older devices.

  14. Perpendicular transport in superlattice bipolar transistors (SBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, A.; Palmier, J. F.; Minot, C.; Harmand, J. C.; Dubon-Chevallier, C.

    Diffusion-limited electron transport in superlattices is studied by gain measurements on heterojunction bipolar transistors with a {GaAs}/{GaAlAs} superlattice base. In the case of thin barriers, Bloch conduction is observed, while hopping between localized levels prevails for large barriers. A transition occurs between these two regimes, localization being achieved when the energy broadening induced by the electron-phonon coupling added to the disorder due to imperfect growth is of the order of the miniband width. This interpretation is supported by temperature dependence measurements of the perpendicular mobilities in relation with theoretical calculations of these mobilities.

  15. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  16. Review of Heterojunctin Bipolar Transistor Structure, Applications, and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.; Kayali, S.

    1993-01-01

    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) are increasingly employed in high frequency, high linerity, and high efficiency applications. As the utilization of these devices becomes more widespread, their operation will be viewed with more scrutiny.

  17. Single-event burnout of epitaxial bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuboyama, S.; Sugimoto, K.; Shugyo, S.; Matsuda, S.; Hirao, T.

    1998-12-01

    Single-Event Burnout (SEB) of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) has been observed nondestructively. It was revealed that all the NPN BJTs, including small signal transistors, with thinner epitaxial layers were inherently susceptible to the SEB phenomenon. It was demonstrated that several design parameters of BJTs were responsible for SEB susceptibility. Additionally, destructive and nondestructive modes of SEB were identified.

  18. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    DOEpatents

    Short, James Evans; West, Shawn Michael; Fabean, Robert J.

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  19. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2013-11-04

    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77–450 K.

  20. Heterojunction bipolar transistor technology for data acquisition and communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, M.; Beccue, S.; Nubling, R.; Zampardi, P.; Sheng, N.; Pierson, R.

    1992-01-01

    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) technology has emerged as one of the most promising technologies for ultrahigh-speed integrated circuits. HBT circuits for digital and analog applications, data conversion, and power amplification have been realized, with speed performance well above 20 GHz. At Rockwell, a baseline AlGaAs/GaAs HBT technology has been established in a manufacturing facility. This paper describes the HBT technology, transistor characteristics, and HBT circuits for data acquisition and communication.

  1. Proton and gamma ray induced gain degradation in bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Sarma, A.; Joshi, G. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the results of the effect of 24 MeV proton and (CO)-C-60 gamma-irradiation on the collector characteristic., and forward current gain of commercial bipolar transistor (npn 2N2219A). The transistor has been exposed to these radiations in the biased condition and the collector characteristics and forward current gain have been measured as a function of proton fluence and gamma-dose. The observation is that both the proton and gamma-irradiation induce significant gain degradation in the transistor. The results are discussed in terms of displacement damage produced by energetic protons and gamma-radiation in the bulk of the semiconductor.

  2. Bipolar Transistors Can Detect Charge in Electrostatic Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, L.

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors is described that can be used in various electrostatic experiments. Its behaviour enables us to elucidate links between 'static electricity' and electric currents. In addition it allows us to relate the sign of static charges to the sign of the terminals of an ordinary battery. (Contains 7 figures…

  3. Experiments with Charge Indicator Based on Bipolar Transistors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Leos; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors described recently enables us to perform a number of experiments suitable for high-school physics. Several such experiments are presented and discussed in this paper as well as some features of the indicator important for its use in schools, namely its sensitivity and robustness, i.e. the…

  4. Experiments with Charge Indicator Based on Bipolar Transistors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Leos; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors described recently enables us to perform a number of experiments suitable for high-school physics. Several such experiments are presented and discussed in this paper as well as some features of the indicator important for its use in schools, namely its sensitivity and robustness, i.e. the

  5. Bipolar Transistors Can Detect Charge in Electrostatic Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, L.

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors is described that can be used in various electrostatic experiments. Its behaviour enables us to elucidate links between 'static electricity' and electric currents. In addition it allows us to relate the sign of static charges to the sign of the terminals of an ordinary battery. (Contains 7 figures

  6. Characterization and modeling of the power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Hefner, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is a new switching device designed to overcome the high on-state loss of the power MOSFET. The IGBT behaves as a bipolar transistor which is supplied base current by a MOSFET. The bipolar transistor of the IBGT has a wide base with the base contact at the collector edge of the base and is operated with its base in high-level injection. Because of this, the traditional bipolar transistor models are not adequate for the IBGT and the new model developed in this dissertation must be used. The new model is developed using ambipolar transport and does not assume the quasi-static condition for the transient analysis. The new IBGT model is used to describe measurements for extracting the essential physical device parameters of the model. With these extracted parameters, the new IGBT model consistently describes the measured electrical characteristics of IGBTs with different base lifetimes. The important electrical characteristics of the IGBT are the on-state I-V characteristics, the steady-state saturation current, and the switching transient current and voltage waveforms. The transient waveforms are examined in detail for constant anode voltage switching, clamped inductive load switching, and series resistor, inductor load switching.

  7. Demonstration and properties of a planar heterojunction bipolar transistor with lateral current flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Robert L.; Mosby, William J.; Chung, Harlan F.

    1989-10-01

    The authors present fabrication techniques and device performance for a novel transistor structure, the lateral heterojunction bipolar transistor. The lateral heterojunctions are formed by impurity-induced disordering of a GaAs base layer sandwiched between two AlGaAs layers. These transistor structures exhibit current gains of 14 for base widths of 0.74 micron. Transistor action in this device occurs parallel to the surface of the device structure. The active base region of the structure is completely submerged, resulting in a reduction of surface recombination as a mechanism for gain reduction in the device. Impurity-induced disordering is used to widen the bandgap of the alloy in the emitter and collector, resulting in an improvement of the emitter injection efficiency. Since the device is based entirely on a surface diffusion process, the device is completely planar and has no steps involving etching of the III-V alloy material. These advantages lead this device to be considered as a candidate for optoelectronic integration applications. The transistor device functions as a buried heterostructure laser, with a threshold current as low as 6 mA for a 1.4-micron stripe.

  8. Doping To Reduce Base Resistances Of Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Modified doping profile proposed to reduce base resistance of bipolar transistors. A p/p+ base-doping profile reduces base resistance without reducing current gain. Proposed low/high base-doping profile realized by such low-temperature deposition techniques as molecular-beam epitaxy, ultra-high-vacuum chemical-vapor deposition, and limited-reaction epitaxy. Produces desired doping profiles without excessive diffusion of dopant.

  9. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  10. Thermal management to avoid the collapse of current gain in power heterojunction bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.

    1995-12-31

    One undesirable thermal phenomenon occurring in power heterojunction bipolar transistor is the collapse of current gain. This paper presents the electrical, electrical-thermal, thermal, and material approaches to avoid the collapse, and thus to improve the transistor output power.

  11. Optically controlled GaAs dual-gate MESFET and permeable base transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, R. N.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    Optically induced voltage and dc characteristics of the GaAs Dual-gate MESFET and the Permeable Base Transistor (PBT) with optical illumination at wavelength below 0.87 microns were obtained and compared with GaAs MESFET. It was observed that PBT can handle higher current density when illuminated.

  12. Single-event burnout of power bipolar junction transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.L. ); Johnson, G.H.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-12-01

    Experimental evidence of single-event burnout of power bipolar junctions transistors (BJTs) is reported for the first time. Several commercial power BJTs were characterized in a simulated cosmic ray environment using mono-energetic ions at the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Most of the device types exposed to this simulated environment exhibited burnout behavior. In this paper the experimental technique, data, and results are presented, while a qualitative model is used to help explain those results and trends observed in this experiment.

  13. Correlated noise in bipolar transistors: Model implementation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszka, Zoltan; Chakravorty, Anjan

    2015-12-01

    A new orthogonalization scheme is suggested for implementing correlated noise of bipolar transistors. The scheme provides a necessary condition on the non-quasi-static (NQS) models that can be used to obtain an implementation-suitable correlated noise model. One of the solutions presented here corresponds to a single node realization not reported so far. The gm -factor is introduced in the noise analysis explaining the deviations of a former noise model from device simulations. The model is extended to include the collector space-charge-region induced noise by retaining the simplicity of the realization and preserving the model parameter count.

  14. The equivalence of displacement damage in silicon bipolar junction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Geng, Hongbin; Rui, Erming; Guo, Lixin; Yang, Jianqun; Xiao, Liyi

    2012-06-01

    The current gain degradation in silicon bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is examined under the irradiation with heavy ions. To characterize the radiation damage of the BJTs, the ionizing dose Di and displacement dose Dd verse the chip depth in the BJTs have been calculated for heavy ions. Based on the irradiation testing and calculation results, an approach to evaluate the equivalence of displacement damage in silicon BJTs is given, which could optimize the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) methodology and normalize the displacement damage caused by heavy ions.

  15. AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.C.; Baca, A.G.; Li, N.Y.; Sharps, P.R.; Hou, H.Q.; Laroche, J.R.; Ren, F.

    2000-01-04

    The authors demonstrated a functional PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using AlGaAs, InGaAsN, and GaAs. The band alignment between InGaAsN and GaAs has a large {triangle}E{sub c} and negligible {triangle}E{sub v}, this unique characteristic is very suitable for PnP DHBT applications. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}/GaAs PnP DHBT is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (E{sub g}=1.20eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, which is 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. And because GaAs is used for the collector, its BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with BV{sub CEO} of AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs.

  16. Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT): a solid state switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-05-01

    A Copper Vapor Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT),--1200 volts, 400 Amps, each--in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapor Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 Volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17,000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonance circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30,000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapor Laser.

  17. GaAs transistors formed by Be or Mg ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsperger, R. G.; Marsh, O. J.

    1974-01-01

    N-p-n transistor structures have been formed in GaAs by implanting n-type substrates with Be ions to form base regions and then implanting them with 20-keV Si ions to form emitters. P-type layers have been produced in GaAs by implantation of either Mg or Be ions, with substrate at room temperature, followed by annealing at higher temperatures.

  18. Hardening measures for bipolar transistors against microwave-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Chang-Chun; Ma, Zhen-Yang; Ren, Xing-Rong; Yang, Yin-Tang; Zhao, Ying-Bo; Yu, Xin-Hai

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper we study the influences of the bias voltage and the external components on the damage progress of a bipolar transistor induced by high-power microwaves. The mechanism is presented by analyzing the variation in the internal distribution of the temperature in the device. The findings show that the device becomes less vulnerable to damage with an increase in bias voltage. Both the series diode at the base and the relatively low series resistance at the emitter, Re, can obviously prolong the burnout time of the device. However, Re will aid damage to the device when the value is sufficiently high due to the fact that the highest hot spot shifts from the base-emitter junction to the base region. Moreover, the series resistance at the base Rb will weaken the capability of the device to withstand microwave damage.

  19. Microwave power heterojunction bipolar transistors fabricated with thermal shunt bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Bozada, C.A.; Barlage, D.W.; Barrette, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Heterojunction bipolar transistor devices and circuits were fabricated using thermal shunt and bathtub thermal management techniques. Broadband cascode MMICs exhibited 10 - 14 dB gain at an output power of 2.5 - 3.0 Watts across 7 - 11 GHz. A 200 {mu}m{sup 2} common-emitter unit cell achieved 7 - 8 dB linear power gain and 40% power-added efficiency at a noise power ratio (NPR) of 18 dBc at 12 GHz. Under single tone measurements at 12 GHz, the unit cell achieved 52% power-added efficiency, with 9.5 dB linear gain, 8 dB power gain and 240 mW output power at 5 V bias.

  20. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyun; Lou, Xiabing; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.; Ye, Peide D.

    2015-02-01

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La2O3 as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1 ?m gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64 mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135 mV/dec, and an ION/IOFF ratio of greater than 107.

  1. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyun; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Ye, Peide D.; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G.; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.

    2015-02-16

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1 μm gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64 mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135 mV/dec, and an I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of greater than 10{sup 7}.

  2. Neutron effects on the electrical and switching characteristics of NPN bipolar power transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactors to generate electrical power for future space missions will require the electrical components used in the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem to operate in the associated radiation environments. An initial assessment of neutron irradiation on the electrical and switching characteristics of commercial high power NPN bipolar transistors was investigated. The results clearly show the detrimental effects caused by neutron irradiation on the electrical and switching characteristics of the NPN bipolar power transistor.

  3. Evaluation of temperature-enhanced gain degradation of verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Witczak, S.C.; Lacoe, R.C.; Galloway, K.F.

    1997-03-01

    The effect of dose rate on radiation-induced gain degradation is compared for verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors. High dose rate irradiations at elevated temperatures are more effective at simulating low dose rate degradation in the lateral pnp transistors.

  4. Electrical coupling of single cardiac rat myocytes to field-effect and bipolar transistors.

    PubMed

    Kind, Thomas; Issing, Matthias; Arnold, Rdiger; Mller, Bernt

    2002-12-01

    A novel bipolar transistor for extracellular recording the electrical activity of biological cells is presented, and the electrical behavior compared with the field-effect transistor (FET). Electrical coupling is examined between single cells separated from the heart of adults rats (cardiac myocytes) and both types of transistors. To initiate a local extracellular voltage, the cells are periodically stimulated by a patch pipette in voltage clamp and current clamp mode. The local extracellular voltage is measured by the planar integrated electronic sensors: the bipolar and the FET. The small signal transistor currents correspond to the local extracellular voltage. The two types of sensor transistors used here were developed and manufactured in the laboratory of our institute. The manufacturing process and the interfaces between myocytes and transistors are described. The recordings are interpreted by way of simulation based on the point-contact model and the single cardiac myocyte model. PMID:12549742

  5. Extended velocity overshoot in InGaAs collectors for high-speed heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziar, Christine M.; Somervell, Mark H.; Kyono, Carl S.

    1990-08-01

    As 111-V device fabrication technology continues to improve and performance limiting parasitics are eliminated, the intrinsic speed of any given device structure and options for increasing that speed are of greater interest to device researchers and technologists. One approach to improving heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) high-frequency performance is to reduce the transit time across the collector space charge region by carefully tailoring the electric field in the collector in such a fashion as to extend or enhance velocity overshoot in the space charge region. This technique was first described' and demonstrated23 for AlGa,_As/GaAs HBTs. Recently, structures composed of materials lattice matched to InP substrates45 have emerged as champions in the race for high-speed and optical applications honors. Because these devices have utilized conventional collector structures, further gains can be achieved by application of collectors designed for enhanced or extended velocity overshoot. This is easily seen by noting that the extended velocity overshoot condition is more easily achieved in 1n053Ga047As than in GaAs, in large part due to the larger F - L conduction band separation (IEFL 0.55 eV for 1n053Ga047As; EEUL = 0.33 eV for GaAs). In this paper, we present Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating the efficacy of the extended velocity overshoot approach for reducing transit times across the collector for a number of 1n053Ga047As collector structures.

  6. Characteristics of Novel InGaAsN Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    LI,N.Y.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; BACA,ALBERT G.; LAROCHE,J.R.; REN,F.; ARMOUR,E.; SHARPS,P.R.; HOU,H.Q.

    2000-08-01

    The authors demonstrate, for the first time, both functional Pnp AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs (Pnp InGaAsN) and Npn InGaP/InGaAsN/GaAs (Npn InGaAsN) double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) using a 1.2 eV In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} as the base layer for low-power electronic applications. The Pnp InGaAsN DHBT has a peak current gain ({beta}) of 25 and a low turn-on voltage (V{sub ON}) of 0.79 V. This low V{sub ON} is {approximately} 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGAAs/GaAs HBT. For the Npn InGaAsN DHBT, it has a low V{sub ON} of 0.81 V, which is 0.13 V lower than in an InGaP/GaAs HBT. A peak {beta} of 7 with nearly ideal I-V characteristics has been demonstrated. Since GaAs is used as the collector of both Npn and Pnp InGaAsN DHBTs, the emitter-collector breakdown voltage (BV{sub CEO}) are 10 and 12 V, respectively, consistent with the BV{sub CEO} of Npn InGaP/GaAs and Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs of comparable collector thickness and doping level. All these results demonstrate the potential of InGaAsN DHBTs as an alternative for application in low-power electronics.

  7. InGaAsN/AlGaAs Pnp Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    BACA,ALBERT G.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; HOU,H.Q.; LAROCHE,J.R.; LI,N.Y.; REN,F.; SHARPS,P.R.

    1999-11-03

    The authors have demonstrated a functional Pnp heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) using InGaAsN. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} HBT takes advantage of the narrower bandgap energy (E{sub g} = 1.25eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}, which is lattice matched to GaAs. Compared with the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs material system, the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} material system has a larger conduction band offset, while the valence band offset remains comparable. This characteristic band alignment is very suitable for Pnp HBT applications. The device's peak current gain is 23 and it has a turn on voltage of 0.77V, which is 0.25V lower than in a comparable Pnp Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs HBT.

  8. Self-aligned InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors for microwave power application

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, F.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Lothian, J.R.; Wisk, P.W.; Fullowan, T.R.; Youngkai Chen ); Yang, L.W.; Fu, S.T.; Brozovich, R.S. )

    1993-07-01

    As an alternative to AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) for microwave applications, InGaP/ GaAs HBT's with carbon-doped base layers grown by metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) are demonstrated with excellent dc, RF, and microwave performance. As previously reported, with a 700-[angstrom]-thick base layer (135-[Omega]/[open square] sheet resistance), a dc current gain of 25, and cutoff frequency and maximum frequency of oscillation above 70 GHz were measured for a 2 [times] 5-[mu]m[sup 2] emitter area device. A device with 12 cells, each consisting of a 2 [times] 15-[mu] m[sup 2] emitter area device for a total emitter area of 360 [mu] m[sup 2], was power tested at 4 GHz under continuous-wave (CW) bias condition. The device delivered 0.6-W output power with 13-dB linear gain and a power-added efficiency of 50%.

  9. InGaP/InGaAsN/GaAs NpN double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.C.; Baca, A.G.; Li, N.Y.; Xie, X.M.; Sharps, P.R.; Hou, H.Q.

    2000-01-10

    The authors have demonstrated a functional NpN double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using InGaAsN for base layer. The InGaP/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}/GaAs DHBT has a low V{sub ON} of 0.81 V, which is 0.13 V lower than in a InGaP/GaAs HBT. The lower V{sub ON} is attributed to the smaller bandgap (E{sub g}=1.20eV) of MOCVD grown In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} base layer. GaAs is used for the collector; thus the BV{sub CEO} is 10 V, consistent with the BV{sub CEO} of InGaP/GaAs Hbts of comparable collector thickness and doping level. To alleviate the current blocking phenomenon caused by the larger {triangle}E{sub C} between InGaAsN and GaAs, a graded InGaAs layer with {delta}-doping is inserted at the base-collector junction. The improved device has a peak current gain of 7 with ideal IV characteristics.

  10. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  11. Device characteristics of the PnP AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,PING-CHIH; LI,N.Y.; LAROCHE,J.R.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HOU,H.Q.; REN,F.

    2000-02-09

    The authors have demonstrated a functional PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using AlGaAs, InGaAsN, and GaAs. The band alignment between InGaAsN and GaAs has a large {triangle}E{sub C} and a negligible {triangle}E{sub V}, and this unique characteristic is very suitable for PnP DHBT applications. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}/GaAs PnP DHBT is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (Eg = 1.20 eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, which is 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. And because GaAs is used for the collector, its BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with BV{sub CEO} of AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs of comparable collector thickness and doping level.

  12. Complementary GaAs junction-gated heterostructure field effect transistor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The first circuit results for a new GaAs complementary logic technology are presented. The technology allows for Independently optimizable p- and n- channel transistors with junction gates. Excellent loaded gate delays of 179 ps at 1.2 V and 319 ps at 0.8 V have been demonstrated at low power supply voltages. A power-delay product of 8.9 fJ was obtained at 0.8 V.

  13. Current gain rolloff in graded-base SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Crabbe, E.F.; Cressler, J.D.; Patton, G.L.; Stork, J.M.C.; Comfort, J.H.; Sun, J.Y.C. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report the experimental observation of a novel effect in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) with graded bases which results in a significant emitter-base bias dependence of the current gain. The nonideal collector current is caused by the interaction of the bias dependence of the emitter-base space-charge region width and the exponential dependence of the collector current on the germanium concentration at the edge of the space-charge region. The resulting current gain rolloff must be taken into account for accurate modeling of bipolar transistors with bandgap grading in the base.

  14. Extraction Enhanced Lateral Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor: A Super High Speed Lateral Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Superior to Lateral Dobule Difused Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Youichi; Takahashi, Shigeki; Shiraki, Satoshi; Tokura, Norihito; Nakagawa, Akio

    2012-04-01

    We have successfully developed novel extraction enhanced lateral insulated gate bipolar transistors (E2LIGBTs) in conventional silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers, which exhibit super-high speed switching of 34 ns turn-off time and a low on-state voltage of 3.7 V at 84 A/cm2 simultaneously with a high breakdown voltage of 738 V. This is the first report showing its superior switching speed and on-resistance compared to conventional lateral double diffused metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOS). The superior performance is achieved by a new anode structure designed with the proposed E2 concept, which simultaneously achieves enhanced electron extraction and suppression of hole injection at the anode region without life time control. The E2 concept is realized using the anode structure, consisting of a narrow p+-injector and a wide Schottky contact on a lightly doped p-layer over an n-buffer. The switching speed can be controlled by the area ratio of the Schottky area over the injector area.

  15. 300 Degree C GaN/AlGaN Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.G.; Cho, H.; Chow, P.P.; Han, J.; Hichman, R.A.; Jung, K.B.; Kopf, R.F.; La Roche, J.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Van Hove, J.M.; Wilson, R.G.

    1998-10-14

    A GaN/AIGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor has been fabricated using C12/Ar dry etching for mesa formation. As the hole concentration increases due to more efficient ionization of the Mg acceptors at elevated temperatures (> 250oC), the device shows improved gain. Future efforts which are briefly summarized. should focus on methods for reducing base resistance.

  16. Using Animation to Improve the Students' Academic Achievement on Bipolar Junction Transistor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoabi, W.; Sabag, N.; Gero, A.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching abstract subjects to students studying towards a degree in electronics practical engineering (a degree between a technician and an engineer) requires didactic tools that enable understanding of issues without using advanced mathematics and physics. One basic issue is the BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) that requires preliminary…

  17. A breakdown model for the bipolar transistor to be used with circuit simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarz, A.A.; Raney, C.W.; Campbell, D.C.

    1993-08-01

    A breakdown model for the output characteristics of the bipolar transistor (bjt) has been developed. The behavioral modeling capability of PSPICE, a popular SPICE program (with Emphasis on Integrated circuits) was used to implement the macromodel. The model predicts bjt output characteristics under breakdown conditions. Experimental data was obtained to verify the macromodel. Good agreement exits between the measured and the simulated results.

  18. Radiation defects studies on silicon bipolar junction transistor irradiated by Br ions and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar junction transistors are sensitive to both ionization and displacement damage due to charged particles from space radiation. Passivating oxides and the SiO2/Si interface are more sensitive to ionization damage whereas displacement damage may strongly influence the bulk properties of a device. Fast electrons with energies below a few MeV introduces exclusively target ionization while heavy ions at moderate energies (lower than 2 MeV/amu) results in displacement damage due to individual Frenkel-pairs generation. Although both kinds of radiation are basically independent an effective correlation was seen in the electronic characteristics of transistors. We report on the effects on current gain and current-voltage characteristics of bipolar junction transistors due to successive irradiation with 20 MeV Br ions and 110 keV electrons.

  19. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) modelization for circuit simulation and utilization in pulse modulated inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Ernst-Karl

    A model is developed for the IGBT, which can be used on components for the simulation of power electronics circuits. The use of IGBT in a typical utilization case is examined, e.g., a quick switching pulse inverter for the control of asynchronous machines. The starting point of IGBT model production is an equivalent circuit from a bipolar transistor and from a controlling field effect transistor. The stationary behavior of the bipolar transistor is described by analytically produced nonlinear equations. Available model equations are collected in a dynamic IGBT model. New and modified processes are developed, with which all relevant IGBT parameters can be obtained by electrical measurements in simple test circuits. The validity of the developed IGBT model is demonstrated, using typical load conditions, by comparison with simulation and measurement results.

  20. Transferred substrate heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A.; Samoska, L.; Siegel, P.; Rodwell, M.; Urteaga, M.; Paidi, V.

    2003-01-01

    We present ongoing work towards the development of submillimeter wave transistors with goals of realizing advanced high frequency amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and traditional high-speed digital circuits.

  1. Monolithic barrier-all-around high electron mobility transistor with planar GaAs nanowire channel.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiuling

    2013-06-12

    High-quality growth of planar GaAs nanowires (NWs) with widths as small as 35 nm is realized by comprehensively mapping the parameter space of group III flow, V/III ratio, and temperature as the size of the NWs scales down. Using a growth mode modulation scheme for the NW and thin film barrier layers, monolithically integrated AlGaAs barrier-all-around planar GaAs NW high electron mobility transistors (NW-HEMTs) are achieved. The peak extrinsic transconductance, drive current, and effective electron velocity are 550 ?S/?m, 435 ?A/?m, and ~2.9 10(7) cm/s, respectively, at 2 V supply voltage with a gate length of 120 nm. The excellent DC performance demonstrated here shows the potential of this bottom-up planar NW technology for low-power high-speed very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) circuits. PMID:23635023

  2. Topics on GaAs integrated circuit: GaAs grown on Si substrates, field-effect transistors, and electro-optic probing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of integrating GaAs devices with Si devices by means of heteroepitaxy growth on Si is considered. The GaAs films are grown on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The material defects and thermal-induced stress in GaAs films are two fundamental problems of particular interests. The defects are mainly due to the inclined interface dislocations and stacking faults. It was found that these defects can be reduced if GaAs is grown on a clean and double-stepped Si surface. Various kinds of field-effect transistors (FET's) are demonstrated and analyzed. The buried-gate junction FET made by a submicron self-aligned process achieves a transconductance of 180 mS/mm. Besides, no back-gating effect is observed in this kind of device. Another novel device named as top-back-gate FET is also reported. In order to characterize the GaAs material and device in a non-invasive way, the author developed the electro-optic probing technique. Because the refractive indices of GaAs are modified by electric fields, he could obtain the information about internal fields in GaAs devices or material from the phase retardation of a probing beam. The experimental results in potential profile probing of various device structures are reported.

  3. Laterally etched undercut (LEU) technique to reduce base-collector capcitances in heterojunction bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Hill, D.; Chau, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    The authors report a novel fabrication process aimed at reducing the parasitic junction capacitance of AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors. The process, named as the Laterally Etched Undercut (LEU) process, physically removes the extrinsic base-collector junction area and results in a cantilever structure. The d.c., small-signal, and large-signal performances of the LEU devices are compared to those obtained from the conventional devices.

  4. Simulation of synergistic effects on lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by neutron and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenhui; Bai, Xiaoyan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Shanchao; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming; Ding, Lili

    2015-10-01

    With semiconductor device simulation software TCAD, numerical simulations of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on 6 kinds of lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are carried out by means of changing the minority carrier lifetimes, adding charged traps to the oxide layer and increasing the surface recombination velocity in Si/SiO2 interface. The results indicate that ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors are not a simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects, and total ionizing dose effects can enhance neutron displacement damages, leading to greater gain degradation. The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are analyzed based on the results. The positive charge in the oxide layer and Si/SiO2 interface traps induced by gamma irradiation can enhance the recombination processes of carriers in the bulk defects induced by neutron irradiation, and this is the main cause of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors.

  5. Unified planar process for fabricating heterojunction bipolar transistors and buried-heterostructure lasers utilizing impurity-induced disordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, R. L.; Mosby, W. J.; Chung, H. F.

    1988-12-01

    We describe results on a novel geometry of heterojunction bipolar transistor that has been realized by impurity-induced disordering. This structure is fabricated by a method that is compatible with techniques for the fabrication of low threshold current buried-heterostructure lasers. We have demonstrated this compatibility by fabricating a hybrid laser/transistor structure that operates as a laser with a threshold current of 6 mA at room temperature, and as a transistor with a current gain of 5.

  6. Effect of High-Voltage Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Collector Design on f(T) and f(MAX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Hietala, V.M.

    1999-03-02

    High-speed InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) for high-voltage circuit applications have been investigated. In order to obtain ideal IV characteristics, a lightly doped (N{sub DC} = 7.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}) thick (W{sub C} = 3.5 {micro}m) layer of GaAs was used as the collector layer. The devices fabricated have shown breakdown voltage exceeding 65 V. Device operated at up to a 60V bias, which is the highest operating voltage reported up to date for single heterojunction HBTs. Peak {line_integral}{sub T} and {line_integral}{sub MAX} values of 18 GHz and 29 GHz, respectively, have been achieved on a device with emitter area of 4x 12.5 {micro}m{sup 2}. Both {line_integral}{sub T} and {line_integral}{sub Max} degrades with higher bias, which is related to the elongation of the collector depletion width.

  7. Bipolar transport in organic field-effect transistors: organic semiconductor blends versus contact modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Kraus, Michael; Bronner, Markus; Wagner, Julia; Brtting, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The achievement of bipolar transport is an important feature of organic semiconductors, both for a fundamental understanding of transport properties and for applications such as complementary electronic devices. We have investigated two routes towards organic field-effect transistors exhibiting bipolar transport characteristics. As a first step, ambipolar field-effect transistors are realized by mixtures of p-conducting copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and n-conducting buckminsterfullerene (C60). As a second step, bipolar transport in copper-phthalocyanine is achieved by a modification of the gate dielectric in combination with a controlled variation of the electrode materials used for carrier injection. The analysis involves the determination of charge-carrier mobilities and contact resistances by a single curve analysis and by the transfer length method. Comparison of both types of samples indicates that percolation is a crucial feature in mixtures of both materials to achieve ambipolar carrier flow, whereas in neat films of one single material suitable contact modification allows for bipolar charge-carrier transport. In the latter case, the obtained electron and hole mobilities differ by less than one order of magnitude.

  8. Experimental Analysis of Proton-Induced Displacement and Ionization Damage Using Gate-Controlled Lateral PNP Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, D. R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Barnaby, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of proton-irradiated bipolar transistors are affected by ionization damage to the insulating oxide and displacement damage to the semiconductor bulk. While both types of damage degrade the transistor, it is important to understand the mechanisms individually and to be able to analyze them separately. In this paper, a method for analyzing the effects of ionization and displacement damage using gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors is described. This technique allows the effects of oxide charge, surface recombination velocity, and bulk traps to be measured independently.

  9. On the AlGaInP-bulk and AlGaInP/GaAs-superlattice confinement effects for heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2015-02-09

    The confinement effect and electrical characteristics of heterostructure-emitter bipolar transistors with an AlGaInP bulk-confinement layer and an AlGaInP/GaAs superlattice-confinement layer are first demonstrated and compared by experimentally results. In the two devices, the relatively large valence band discontinuity at AlGaInP/GaAs heterojunction provides excellent confinement effect for holes to enhance current gain. As to the AlGaInP/GaAs superlattice-confinement device, part of thermionic-emission electrons will be trapped in the GaAs quantum wells of the superlattice. This will result in lower collector current and current gain as compared with the bulk-confinement device. Nevertheless, the superlattice-confinement device exhibits a larger current-gain cutoff frequency, which can be attributed that the tunneling behavior is included in the carrier transportation and transporting time across the emitter region could be substantially reduced.

  10. Residual phase noise modeling of amplifiers using silicon bipolar transistors.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos; Everard, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the modeling of residual 1/f phase noise for Si bipolar amplifiers operating in the linear region. We propose that for Si bipolar amplifiers, the 1/f phase noise is largely caused by the base emitter recombination flicker noise. The up-conversion mechanism is described through linear approximation of the phase variation of the amplifier phase response by the variation of the device parameters (C(b)c, C(be), g(m), r(e)) caused by the recombination 1/f noise. The amplifier phase response describes the device over the whole frequency range of operation for which the influence of the poles and zeros is investigated. It is found that for a common emitter amplifier it is sufficient to only incorporate the effect of the device poles to describe the phase noise behavior over most of its operational frequency range. Simulations predict the measurements of others, including the flattening of the PM noise at frequencies beyond f(3dB), not predicted by previous models. PMID:20211771

  11. SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistorsThe noise perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Hermann; Erben, Uwe; Drr, Wolfgang

    1997-10-01

    Si/SiGe heterojunction transistors with high germanium concentration in the base layer are capable of microwave noise figures below 1 dB at X-band frequencies, because of their low base resistance. We review critical device parameters which influence the minimum noise figure, location of the noise-optimum source reflection coefficient, and associated gain at noise match, including both low-parasitic double-mesa and highly manufacturable box-shaped HBT devices in our considerations. A higher associated gain can be obtained when the base-collector feedback capacitance is reduced. Using larger transistors, both the magnitude of the noise-optimum source reflection coefficient and the equivalent noise resistance will be reduced, making input matching easier and less lossy. Low-frequency noise results show 1/ f corner frequencies below 1 kHz in microwave devices. Two circuit examples, a d.c.-18 GHz amplifier and a low-noise active antenna at 5.8 GHz, demonstrate that device capabilities can be translated into superior circuit performance.

  12. Optical reduction of low frequency noise in cryogenic GaAs junction field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nagata, H.; Matsuo, H.; Sasaki, M.

    2008-07-01

    We demonstrated optical low frequency noise reduction in a n-type SONY GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) (gate width: 5?m; length: 1?m) operating at 4.2K. At 1Hz, a 6dB decrease and a 10dB increase in noise were observed when the JFET (band gap: 1.51eV) was illuminated by light with wavelengths of 1650 and 1550nm, respectively, for a drain voltage of 0.5V and drain current of 0.25?A. When the drain current was 0.5?A, 1650nm illumination increased the noise; moreover, hysteretic behavior in response to the illumination was also observed. These results show that deep level trapped charges apparently affect low frequency noise, which can be controlled by illumination using photons whose energies are below the band gap energy at cryogenic temperatures.

  13. Numerical analysis of distortion characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piramasubramanian, S.; Ganesh Madhan, M.; Nagella, Jyothsna; Dhanapriya, G.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical analysis of harmonic and third order intermodulation distortion of transistor laser is presented in this paper. The three level rate equations are numerically solved to determine the modulation and distortion characteristics. DC and AC analysis on the device are carried out to determine its power-current and frequency response characteristics. Further, the effects of quantum well recombination time and electron capture time in the quantum well, on the modulation depth and distortion characteristics are examined. It is observed that the threshold current density of the device decreases with increasing electron lifetime, which coincides with earlier findings. Also, the magnitude of harmonic distortion and intermodulation products are found to reduce with increasing current density and with a reduction of spontaneous emission recombination lifetime. However, an increase of electron capture time improves the distortion performance. A maximum modulation depth of 18.42 dB is obtained for 50 ps spontaneous emission life time and 1 ps electron capture time, for 2.4 GHz frequency at a current density of 2Jth. A minimum second harmonic distortion magnitude of -66.8 dBc is predicted for 50 ps spontaneous emission life time and 1 ps electron capture time for 2.4 GHz frequency, at a current density of 7Jth. Similarly, a minimum third order intermodulation distortion of -83.93 dBc is obtained for 150 ps spontaneous emission life time and 5 ps electron capture time under similar biasing conditions.

  14. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  15. Large-scale transient sensitivity analysis of a radiation damaged bipolar junction transistor.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, Robert John; Gay, David M.; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Phipps, Eric Todd

    2007-11-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is useful in transient sensitivity analysis of a computational simulation of a bipolar junction transistor subject to radiation damage. We used forward-mode AD, implemented in a new Trilinos package called Sacado, to compute analytic derivatives for implicit time integration and forward sensitivity analysis. Sacado addresses element-based simulation codes written in C++ and works well with forward sensitivity analysis as implemented in the Trilinos time-integration package Rythmos. The forward sensitivity calculation is significantly more efficient and robust than finite differencing.

  16. Evaluation of Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity in Discrete Bipolar Junction Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Ladbury Raymond; LaBel, Kenneth; Topper, Alyson; Ladbury, Raymond; Triggs, Brian; Kazmakites, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the low dose rate sensitivity in several families of discrete bipolar transistors across device parameter, quality assurance level, and irradiation bias configuration. The 2N2222 showed the most significant low dose rate sensitivity, with low dose rate enhancement factor of 3.91 after 100 krad(Si). The 2N2907 also showed critical degradation levels. The devices irradiated at 10 mrad(Si)/s exceeded specifications after 40 and 50 krad(Si) for the 2N2222 and 2N2907 devices, respectively.

  17. Modeling plasma-induced bandgap narrowing effects for accurate simulation of advanced silicon bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaz Shaheed, M.; Maziar, C. M.

    1994-09-01

    Existing models for plasma-induced bandgap narrowing are briefly reviewed. A simple and more general model for plasma-induced bandgap narrowing in Si devices is proposed. Different issues related to modeling of plasma-induced bandgap narrowing are discussed. Results of numerical simulation of an advanced Si bipolar transistor structure are presented. Results of the simulations are compared with experimental data. It is shown that inclusion of plasma-induced bandgap narrowing model provides a more accurate estimate of the current gain characteristics. It is also shown that this effect becomes more important for simulation at low temperatures. The reasons behind the stronger effect at low temperatures are explained.

  18. Monte Carlo evaluation of electron transport in heterojunction bipolar transistor base structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziar, C. M.; Klausmeier-Brown, M. E.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Datta, S.

    1986-07-01

    Electron transport through base structures of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heterojunction bipolar transistors is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of both ballistic launching ramps and graded bases for reducing base transit time. Both techniques are limited, however, in their ability to maintain short transit times across the wide bases that are desirable for reduction of base resistance. Simulation results demonstrate that neither technique is capable of maintaining a 1-ps transit time across a 0.25-micron base. The physical mechanisms responsible for limiting the performance of each structure are identified and a promising hybrid structure is described.

  19. The peripheral bipolar junction transistor and its relation to predictability in device modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Burk, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    In advanced bipolar junction transistors, the peripheral transistor at the sidewall of the emitter junction may conduct a significant portion of the total collector current. Because the dopant profiles and carrier transport in this peripheral region are poorly defined, the device- and circuit-level performance of the peripheral transistor are not predictive. We investigate an approach for modeling the peripheral collector current (and base current) to be used in an arbitrary circuit model. This approach is shown to be consistent with two-dimensional numerical device simulation. The ratio of peripheral-to-intrinsic collector current at one bias point is extrapolated from that at an earlier bias point and the variation in emitter debiasing across the intrinsic base resistor. The problem of predictability arises when comparing the above approach with experimental data. Although the approach is consistent with numerical device simulation, the results from the numerical simulations are themselves in disagreement with the measured data. The device simulator and circuit model have to be "tuned" by fitting experimental data for a minimum of two devices and two bias conditions (one low and one high) for a given technology. This allows the correct Gummel number and current gain of the peripheral transistor to be determined and, hence, the definition of other model parameters.

  20. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  1. Cryogenic Preamplification of a Single-Electron-Transistor using a Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Curry, Matthew J.; Sandia National Lab.; England, Troy Daniel; Bishop, Nathaniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen M; Sandia National Lab.; et al

    2015-05-21

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. Furthermore, the transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to withoutmore » the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. We found that the circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.« less

  2. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carr, S. M.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10-100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 ?W for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  3. Cryogenic Preamplification of a Single-Electron-Transistor using a Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Matthew J.; England, Troy Daniel; Bishop, Nathaniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen M; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-05-21

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. Furthermore, the transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. We found that the circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  4. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Carr, S. M.

    2015-05-18

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  5. Complementary GaAs junction-gated heterostructure field effect transistor fabrication for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    A new GaAs junction-gated complementary logic technology that integrates a modulation doped p-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (pHFET) and a fully ion implanted n-channel JFET has recently been fabricated. High-speed, low-power operation has been demonstrated with loaded ring oscillators that show gate delays of 179 ps/stage for a power-delay product of 28 fJ at 1.2 V operation and 320 ps/stage and 8.9 fJ at 0.8 V operation. The principal advantages of this technology include the ability to independently set the threshold voltage of n- and p-channel devices and to independently design the pHFET for high performance. A self-aligned refractory gate process based on tungsten and tungsten silicide gate metal has been used to fabricate the FETs. Novel aspects of the fabrication include the simultaneous formation of non-alloyed, refractory ohmic contacts for the junction gates and the formation of shallow p-n junctions by ion implantation.

  6. Negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect/bipolar hybrid transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2014-11-24

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into Si transistors in a manner amenable to industrial fabrication has proven challenging. Hybrid field-effect/bipolar Si transistors fabricated on an industrial 45?nm process line are shown to demonstrate explicit quantum transport signatures. These transistors incorporate a lateral ion implantation-defined quantum well (QW) whose potential depth is controlled by a gate voltage (V{sub G}). Quantum transport in the form of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) is observed to temperatures >200?K. The NDTC is tied to a non-monotonic dependence of bipolar current gain on V{sub G} that reduces drain-source current through the QW. These devices establish the feasibility of exploiting quantum transport to transform the performance horizons of Si devices fabricated in an industrially scalable manner.

  7. Microwave characterization and modeling of GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization and modeling of a microwave GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) are discussed. The de-embedded scattering parameters are used to derive a small signal lumped element equivalent circuit model using EEsof's Touchstone software package. Each element in the equivalent circuit model is shown to have its origin within the device. The model shows good agreement between the measured and modeled scattering parameters over a wide range of bias currents. Further, the MAG (maximum available power gain) and the h sub 21 (current gain) calculated from the measured data and those predicted by the model are also in good agreement. Consequently, the model should also be capable of predicting the f sub max and the f sub T of other HBTs.

  8. Design of Optimum the Insulator Gate Bipolar Transistor using Response Surface Method with Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-Ling; Lai, Ming-Hung; Huang, Sy-Ruen; Yeh, Chao-Yu

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, a statistical methodology that can be used for the optimization of the Insulator Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) devices is proposed. This is achieved by integrating the response surface method (RSM) with cluster analysis, weighted composite method and genetic algorithm (GA). The device characteristic of IGBT was simulated based upon the fabrication simulator, ATHENA, and the device simulator, ATLAS. This methodology, yielded another way to investigate the IGBT device and to make a decision in the tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance. In this methodology, we also show how to use cluster analysis to determine the dominant factors that are not visible in the screening of all experiments.

  9. Implementation of total dose effects in the bipolar junction transistor Gummel-Poon model

    SciTech Connect

    Montagner, X.; Fouillat, P.; Briand, R.; Touboul, A.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.; Calvet, M.C.; Calvel, P.

    1997-12-01

    The effects of total dose on the SPICE model of bipolar junction transistors are investigated. The limitations of the standard Gummel-Poon model for simulating the radiation-induced excess base current are analyzed, and a new model based on an empirical approach is proposed. Four new SPICE rad-parameters are presented, and investigated for different dose rates. The relevant parameters are extracted using a new algorithmic procedure, combining a genetic approach and the standard optimization technique which minimizes the RMS error between measured and simulated excess base current. It is shown that the excess base current is accurately described by the same formula whatever the device type is. An empirical fitting of the rad-parameters as a function of total dose is proposed to use in hardening electronic circuits for space-like environments.

  10. SiGe:C Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors: From Materials Research to Chip Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, H.; Heinemann, B.; Knoll, D.; Ehwald, K.-E.

    Incorporation of substitutional carbon ( ~10^20 cm^-3) into the SiGe region of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) strongly reduces boron diffusion during device processing. We describe the physical mechanism behind the suppression of B diffusion in C-rich Si and SiGe, and explain how the increased thermal stability of doping profiles in SiGe:C HBTs can be used to improve device performance. Manufacturability of SiGe:C HBTs with transit frequencies of 100 GHz and maximum oscillation frequencies of 130 GHz is demonstrated in a BiCMOS technology capable of fabricating integrated circuits for radio frequencies with high yield.

  11. Microwave damage susceptibility trend of a bipolar transistor as a function of frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen-Yang; Chai, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xing-Rong; Yang, Yin-Tang; Chen, Bin; Song, Kun; Zhao, Ying-Bo

    2012-09-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the damage susceptibility trend of a typical bipolar transistor induced by a high-power microwave (HPM) as a function of frequency. The dependences of the burnout time and the damage power on the signal frequency are obtained. Studies of the internal damage process and the mechanism of the device are carried out from the variation analysis of the distribution of the electric field, current density, and temperature. The investigation shows that the burnout time linearly depends on the signal frequency. The current density and the electric field at the damage position decrease with increasing frequency. Meanwhile, the temperature elevation occurs in the area between the p-n junction and the n-n+ interface due to the increase of the electric field. Adopting the data analysis software, the relationship between the damage power and frequency is obtained. Moreover, the thickness of the substrate has a significant effect on the burnout time.

  12. Analysis of the dynamic avalanche of punch through insulated gate bipolar transistor (PT-IGBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, P.; Planson, D.; Morel, H.; Bergogne, D.

    2009-09-01

    In the paper proposed here, we are studying the dynamic avalanche from experimental results first, dynamic avalanche is identified on a punch through insulated gate bipolar transistor (PT-IGBT) module 1200 V-300 A from Mitsubishi. Secondly, the phenomenon is analysed thanks to simple solid state devices equations. Numerical simulations are used to confirm experimental results. Simulation results allows us locating the active area of the dynamic avalanche during turn-off under over-current conditions. A PT-IGBT cell is described with MEDICI, a finite element simulator. A mixed-mode simulation is performed thanks to MEDICI and SPICE. The circuit simulated here is a buck topology with an inductive load. Finally, a thermal analysis is performed to estimate temperature increase due to dynamic avalanche.

  13. Analysis of long-term ionizing radiation effects in bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    The ionizing radiation effects of electrons on bipolar transistors have been analyzed using the data base from the Voyager project. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, leading to a quantitative characterization of the product and to data on confidence limits which will be useful for circuit design purposes. These newly-developed methods may form the basis for a radiation hardness assurance system. In addition, an attempt was made to identify the causes of the large variations in the sensitivity observed on different product lines. This included a limited construction analysis and a determination of significant design and processes variables, as well as suggested remedies for improving the tolerance of the devices to radiation.

  14. A high-conductivity insulated gate bipolar transistor with Schottky hole barrier contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengxuan, Jiang; John, Shen Z.; Jun, Wang; Xin, Yin; Zhikang, Shuai; Jiang, Lu

    2016-02-01

    This letter proposes a high-conductivity insulated gate bipolar transistor (HC-IGBT) with Schottky contact formed on the p-base, which forms a hole barrier at the p-base side to enhance the conductivity modulation effect. TCAD simulation shows that the HC-IGBT provides a current density increase by 53% and turn-off losses decrease by 27% when compared to a conventional field-stop IGBT (FS-IGBT). Hence, the proposed IGBT exhibits superior electrical performance for high-efficiency power electronic systems. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2014AA052601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277060).

  15. Growth and Fabrication of GaN/AlGaN Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.G.; Cao, X.A.; Cho, H.; Dang, G.T.; Donovan, S.M.; Han, J.; Jung, K.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Wilson, R.G.; Zhang, A.P.; Zhang, L

    1999-03-16

    A GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor structure with Mg doping in the base and Si Doping in the emitter and collector regions was grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition in c-axis Al(2)O(3). Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements showed no increase in the O concentration (2-3x10(18) cm(-3)) in the AlGaN emitter and fairly low levels of C (~4-5x10(17) cm (-3)) throughout the structure. Due to the non-ohmic behavior of the base contact at room temperature, the current gain of large area (~90 um diameter) devices was <3. Increasing the device operating temperature led to higher ionization fractions of the mg acceptors in the base, and current gains of ~10 were obtained at 300 degree C.

  16. GaN pnp bipolar junction transistors operated to 250 C

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, A.P.; Dang, G.; Ren, F.; Han, J.; Monier, C.; Baca, A.G.; Cao, X.A.; Cho, H.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.

    2000-01-03

    The authors report on the dc performance of the first GaN pnp bipolar junction transistor. The structure was grown by MOCVD on c-plane sapphire substrates and mesas formed by low damage Inductively Coupled Plasma etching with a Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The dc characteristics were measured up to V{sub BC} of 65 V in common base mode and at temperatures up to 250 C. Under all conditions, I{sub C} {approximately} I{sub E}, indicating higher emitter injection efficiency. The offset voltage was {le} 2 V and devices were operated up to power densities of 40kW{center{underscore}dot}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  17. InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquillat, D.; Nodjiadjim, V.; Konczykowska, A.; Dyakonova, N.; Consejo, C.; Ruffenach, S.; Teppe, F.; Riet, M.; Muraviev, A.; Gutin, A.; Shur, M.; Godin, J.; Knap, W.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents terahertz detectors based on high performance 0.7-?m InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology and reports on the analysis of their voltage responsivity over a wide frequency range of the incoming terahertz radiation. The detectors operated without any spatial antennas to couple terahertz radiation to the device and have been characterized in the 0.25 - 3.1 THz range with the responsivities (normalized to 1 W radiant power) of 5 V/W and 200 ?V/W measured at 0.35 THz and 3.11 THz, respectively. The InP DHBTs also performed as the imaging single-pixels at room temperature in the raster scanned transmission mode. A set of the sub-terahertz images of plant leaves suggest potential utility of InP DHBT detectors for terahertz imaging dedicated to non-invasive testing of plants.

  18. High-performance InGaP/GaAs pnp {delta}-doped heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.-H. Chiu, S.-Y.; Lour, W.-S.; Guo, D.-F.

    2009-07-15

    In this article, a novel InGaP/GaAs pnp {delta}-doped heterojunction bipolar transistor is first demonstrated. Though the valence band discontinuity at InGaP/GaAs heterojunction is relatively large, the addition of a {delta}-doped sheet between two spacer layers at the emitter-base (E-B) junction effectively eliminates the potential spike and increases the confined barrier for electrons, simultaneously. Experimentally, a high current gain of 25 and a relatively low E-B offset voltage of 60 mV are achieved. The offset voltage is much smaller than the conventional InGaP/GaAs pnp HBT. The proposed device could be used for linear amplifiers and low-power complementary integrated circuit applications.

  19. Microwave performance of a self-aligned GaInP/Ga heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Fan, Shoukong; Henderson, T. ); Davito, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Microwave performance of a self-aligned GaInP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is presented. At an operating current density of 2.08 [times] 10[sup 4] A/cm[sup 2], the measured cutoff frequency is 50 GHz, and the maximum oscillation frequency extrapolated from measured unilateral gain and the maximum available gain are 116 and 81 GHz, respectively, all using 20-dB/decade slopes. To the author's knowledge, these represent the highest reported values of HBT's based on the GaInP/GaAs material system. These results are compared with other reported high-frequency performance of GaInP HBT's. In addition, these results are compared with AlGaAs/GaAs HBT's having a similar device structure.

  20. The influence of a doping profile on the characteristics of an ion-implanted GaAs field-effect transistor with a Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A. K. Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2011-12-15

    A GaAs field-effect ion-implanted transistor with a Schottky barrier is simulated. The doping profile obtained when doping through an insulator mask is determined and the dependences of the static transistor characteristics on the parameters of the doping profile are calculated and analyzed. The physical processes controlling the transistor characteristics in the case of a variation in the parameters of its doping profile and the coefficient of compensation of the substrate are studied. Based on calculations, the optimal doping-profile parameters ensuring the best characteristics for transistors are predicted.

  1. Design and simulation of oxide and doping engineered lateral bipolar junction transistors for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Akhoon, M. Saqib; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose new structures of lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) on silicon on insulator (SOI) with improved performance. The proposed devices are lateral bipolar transistors with multi doping zone collector drift region and a thick buried oxide under the collector region. Calibrated simulation studies have revealed that the proposed devices have higher breakdown voltage than the conventional device, that too at higher drift doping concentration. This has resulted in improved tradeoff between the on-resistance and the breakdown voltage of the proposed devices. It has been observed that the proposed device with two collector drift doping zones and a buried oxide thick step results in ∼190% increase in the breakdown voltage than the conventional device. The further increase in the number of collector drift doping zones from two to three has increased the breakdown voltage by 260% than the conventional one. On comparing the proposed devices with the buried oxide double step devices, it has been found that an increase of ∼15-19% in the breakdown voltage is observed in the proposed devices even at higher drift doping concentrations. The use of higher drift doping concentration reduces the on-resistance of the proposed device and thus improves the tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance of the proposed device in comparison to buried oxide double step devices. Further, the use of step doping in the collector drift region has resulted in the reduction of kink effect in the proposed device. Using the mixed mode simulations, the proposed devices have been tested at the circuit level, by designing and simulating inverting amplifiers employing the proposed devices. Both DC and AC analyses of the inverting amplifiers have shown that the proposed devices work well at the circuit level. It has been observed that there is a slight increase in ON delay in the proposed device; however, the OFF delay is more or less same as that of the conventional device.

  2. Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor on Si substrate using aspect ratio trapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. Q.; Xu, M.; Ye, P. D.; Cheng, Z.; Li, J.; Park, J.-S.; Hydrick, J.; Bai, J.; Carroll, M.; Fiorenza, J. G.; Lochtefeld, A.

    2008-12-01

    High quality GaAs epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are demonstrated on a SiO2-patterned silicon substrate using aspect ratio trapping technique, whereby threading dislocations from lattice mismatch are largely reduced via trapping in SiO2 trenches during growth. A depletion-mode metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is demonstrated on a n-doped GaAs channel with atomic-layer deposited Al2O3 as the gate oxide. The 10 ?m gate length transistor has a maximum drain current of 88 mA/mm and a transconductance of 19 mS/mm. The surface mobility estimated from the accumulation drain current has a peak value of 500 cm2/Vs, which is comparable with those from previously reported depletion-mode GaAs MOSFETs epitaxially grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates.

  3. Base profile design for high-performance operation of bipolar transistors at liquid-nitrogen temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, J.M.C.; Harame, D.L.; Meyerson, B.S.; Nguyen, T.N. . Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

    1989-08-01

    The base profile requirements of Si bipolar junction transistors (BJT's) high-performance operation at liquid-nitrogen temperature are examined. Measurements of thin epitaxial-base polysilicon-emitter n-p-n transistors with increasing base doping show the effects of bandgap narrowing, mobility changes, and carrier freezeout. At room temperature the collector current at low injection is proportional to the integrated base charge, independent of the impurity distribution. At temperatures below 150 {Kappa}, however, minority injection is dominated by the peak base doping because of the greater effectiveness of bandgap narrowing. When the peak doping in the base approaches 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/, the bandgap difference between emitter and base is sufficiently small that the current gain no longer monotonically decreases with lower temperature but instead shows a maximum as low as 180 {Kappa}. The device design window appears limited at the low-current end by increased base-emitter leakage due to tunneling and by resistance control at the high-current end. Using the measured dc characteristics, circuit delay calculations are made to estimate the performance of an ECL ring oscillator at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. It is shown that if the base doping can be raised to 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/ while keeping the base thickness constant, the minimum delay at liquid nitrogen can approach the delay of optimized devices at room temperature.

  4. Radiative recombination in GaN/InGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tsung-Ting; Lee, Yi-Che; Kim, Hee-Jin; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jeomoh; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Shen, Shyh-Chiang

    2015-12-01

    We report an electroluminescence (EL) study on npn GaN/InGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Three radiative recombination paths are resolved in the HBTs, corresponding to the band-to-band transition (3.3 eV), conduction-band-to-acceptor-level transition (3.15 eV), and yellow luminescence (YL) with the emission peak at 2.2 eV. We further study possible light emission paths by operating the HBTs under different biasing conditions. The band-to-band and the conduction-band-to-acceptor-level transitions mostly arise from the intrinsic base region, while a defect-related YL band could likely originate from the quasi-neutral base region of a GaN/InGaN HBT. The IB-dependent EL intensities for these three recombination paths are discussed. The results also show the radiative emission under the forward-active transistor mode operation is more effective than that using a diode-based emitter due to the enhanced excess electron concentration in the base region as increasing the collector current increases.

  5. Soft-switching performance analysis of the clustered insulated gate bipolar transistor (CIGBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Jonathan Christopher

    The use of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) have enabled better switching performance than the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field effect Transistor (MOSFET) in medium to high power applications due to their lower on-state power loss and higher current densities. This current research focuses on the Clustered Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (CIGBT) whilst being operated under soft-switching regimes. The CIGBT is a MOS gated thyristor device that exhibits a unique self-clamping feature that protects cathode cells from high anode voltages under all operating conditions. The self-clamping feature also enables current saturation at high gate biases and provides low switching losses. Its low on-state voltage and high voltage blocking capabilities make the CIGBT suitable as a contender to the IGBT in medium to high power switching applications. For the first time, the CIGBT has been operated under soft-switching regimes and transient over-voltages at turn-on have been witnessed which have been found to be associated with a number of factors.. The internal dynamics of the CIGBT have been analysed using 2D numerical simulations and it has been shown that a major influence on the peak voltage is the P well spacing within the CIGBT structure. For example, Small adjacent P well spacings within the device results in an inability for the CIGBT to switch iv on correctly. Further to this, implant concentrations of the n well region during device fabrication can also affect the turn-on transients. Despite this, the CIGBT has been experimental analysed under soft-switching conditions and found to outperform the IGBT by 12% and 27% for on-state voltage drop and total energy losses respectively. Turn off current bumps have been seen whilst switching the device in zero voltage and zero current switching mode of operation and the internal dynamics have been analysed to show the influence upon the current at turn off. Preliminary results on the Trench CIGBT (TCIGBT) under soft switching conditions has also been analysed for the first time and was found to have a reduced peak over-voltage and better switching performance than the planer CIGBT..

  6. Selective area chemical beam epitaxial regrowth of Si-doped GaAs by using silicon tetraiodide for field effect transistor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Shigekazu; Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu; Kunii, Tetsuro; Miyakuni, Shinichi; Hayafuji, Norio; Sato, Kazuhiko; Otsubo, Mutsuyuki

    1997-05-01

    Selective area regrowth of silicon-doped GaAs has been successfully achieved by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) on dry etched trench structures. Abrupt doping-interface and excellent doping controllability have also been achieved by using a novel silicon dopant source of silicon tetraiodide (SiI 4). Metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) and heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) fabricated in this way with Ni/AuGe/Au alloyed contact contact metals on the Si-doped GaAs regrown layer reveal contact resistances as low as 3 × 10 - 7 Ω cm2 and perfect selectivity there being no polycrystalline growth on the dielectric mask film.

  7. Long-Term Reliability of High Speed SiGe/Si Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E. (Technical Monitor); Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated lifetime tests were performed on double-mesa structure Si/Si0.7Ge0.3/Si npn heterojunction bipolar transistors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, in the temperature range of 175C-275C. Both single- and multiple finger transistors were tested. The single-finger transistors (with 5x20 micron sq m emitter area) have DC current gains approximately 40-50 and f(sub T) and f(sub MAX) of up to 22 GHz and 25 GHz, respectively. The multiple finger transistors (1.4 micron finger width, 9 emitter fingers with total emitter area of 403 micron sq m) have similar DC current gain but f(sub T) of 50 GHz. It is found that a gradual degradation in these devices is caused by the recombination enhanced impurity diffusion (REID) of boron atoms from the p-type base region and the associated formation of parasitic energy barriers to electron transport from the emitter to collector layers. This REID has been quantitatively modeled and explained, to the first order of approximation, and the agreement with the measured data is good. The mean time to failure (MTTF) of the devices at room temperature is estimated from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots of device lifetime versus reciprocal temperature. The results of the reliability tests offer valuable feedback for SiGe heterostructure design in order to improve the long-term reliability of the devices and circuits made with them. Hot electron induced degradation of the base-emitter junction was also observed during the accelerated lifetime testing. In order to improve the HBT reliability endangered by the hot electrons, deuterium sintered techniques have been proposed. The preliminary results from this study show that a deuterium-sintered HBT is, indeed, more resistant to hot-electron induced base-emitter junction degradation. SiGe/Si based amplifier circuits were also subjected to lifetime testing and we extrapolate MTTF is approximately 1.1_10(exp 6) hours at 125iC junction temperature from the circuit lifetime data.

  8. Very high current gain InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistors grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyono, C. S.; Pinzone, C. J.; Maziar, C. M.; Dupuis, R. D.; Gerrard, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum dc current gain of 24,000 and small-signal current gain of 49,000 were obtained for InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) grown by MOCVD. The excellent HBT gain performance is attributed to the exceptional material quality, the good control over p-type dopant diffusion at the base-emitter heterojunction, and the existence of a doping-induced drift field in the base.

  9. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (–7.7 dB), THD (–74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22 % and 140 %, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:24199954

  10. Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance of a Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistor Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Junction temperature of a prototype SiC-based bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was estimated by using the base-emitter voltage (V(sub BE)) characteristic for thermometry. The V(sub BE) was measured as a function of the base current (I(sub B)) at selected temperatures (T), all at a fixed collector current (I(sub C)) and under very low duty cycle pulse conditions. Under such conditions, the average temperature of the chip was taken to be the same as that of the temperature-controlled case. At increased duty cycle such as to substantially heat the chip, but same I(sub C) pulse height, the chip temperature was identified by matching the V(sub BE) to the thermometry curves. From the measured average power, the chip-to-case thermal resistance could be estimated, giving a reasonable value. A tentative explanation for an observed bunching with increasing temperature of the calibration curves may relate to an increasing dopant atom ionization. A first-cut analysis, however, does not support this.

  11. Degradation of InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors under electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, A.; Subramanian, S.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Dentai, A.G.; Goodnick, S.M.

    1999-05-01

    The dc characteristics of InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT`s) are studied under high-energy ({approximately}1 MeV) electron irradiation up to a fluence of 14.8 {times} 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The devices show an increase in common-emitter current gain (h{sub fe}) at low levels of dose (<10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}) and a gradual decrease in h{sub fe} and an increase in output conductance for higher doses. The decrease in h{sub fe} is as much as {approximately}80% at low base currents ({approximately}10 {micro}A) after a cumulative dose of 14.8 {times} 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The observed degradation effects in collector current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are studied quantitatively using a simple SPICE-like device model. The overall decrease in h{sub fe} is attributed to increased recombination in the emitter-base junction region caused by radiation-induced defects. The defects introduced in the collector-base junction region are believed to be responsible for the observed increase in the output conductance.

  12. Model of radiation-induced gain degradation of NPN bipolar junction transistor at different dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qifeng, Zhao; Yiqi, Zhuang; Junlin, Bao; Wei, Hu

    2015-06-01

    Ionizing-radiation-induced current gain degradation in NPN bipolar junction transistors is due to an increase in base current as a result of recombination at the surface of the device. A model is presented which identifies the physical mechanism responsible for current gain degradation. The increase in surface recombination velocity due to interface states results in an increase in base current. Besides, changing the surface potential along the base surface induced by the oxide-trapped charges can also lead to an increased base current. By combining the production mechanisms of oxide-trapped charges and interface states, this model can explain the fact that the current gain degradation is more severe at a low dose rate than at a high dose rate. The radiations were performed in a Co60 source up to a total dose of 70 krad(Si). The low dose rate was 0.1 rad(Si)/s and the high dose rate was 10 rad(Si)/s. The model accords well with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61076101, 61204092).

  13. Understanding the failure mechanisms of microwave bipolar transistors caused by electrostatic discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liu; Yongguang, Chen; Zhiliang, Tan; Jie, Yang; Xijun, Zhang; Zhenxing, Wang

    2011-10-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomena involve both electrical and thermal effects, and a direct electrostatic discharge to an electronic device is one of the most severe threats to component reliability. Therefore, the electrical and thermal stability of multifinger microwave bipolar transistors (BJTs) under ESD conditions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. 100 samples have been tested for multiple pulses until a failure occurred. Meanwhile, the distributions of electric field, current density and lattice temperature have also been analyzed by use of the two-dimensional device simulation tool Medici. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and failure analysis. In the case of a thermal couple, the avalanche current distribution in the fingers is in general spatially unstable and results in the formation of current crowding effects and crystal defects. The experimental results indicate that a collector-base junction is more sensitive to ESD than an emitter-base junction based on the special device structure. When the ESD level increased to 1.3 kV, the collector-base junction has been burnt out first. The analysis has also demonstrated that ESD failures occur generally by upsetting the breakdown voltage of the dielectric or overheating of the aluminum-silicon eutectic. In addition, fatigue phenomena are observed during ESD testing, with devices that still function after repeated low-intensity ESDs but whose performances have been severely degraded.

  14. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  15. Heat removal from bipolar transistor by loop heat pipe with nickel and copper porous structures.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patrik; Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 ?m and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 ?m were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  16. The physics of high-speed transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozhela, Iuras K.

    This book considers the physics of high-speed transistors operating at frequencies above 10 Ghz and whose switching time is shorter than 100 ps. The physical principles permitting the augmentation of transistor speed are elaborated with reference to traditional types of transistors (bipolar and FET), the advanced heterostructure and ballistic transistors, and new concepts such as quantum transistors. The high-speed transistors are made from III-V semiconductors with high electron mobility and high drift velocity such as GaAs, InGaAs, AlGaAs, and InP. Data on the highest speed values achieved so far are presented, and the potential for further speed enhancement is assessed.

  17. Silicon Nitride Final Passivation for GaAs Metal Semi-Conductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) Packaged in Plastic Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Tosaka, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Shigeru

    2003-11-01

    A highly reliable SiNx final passivation film for GaAs metal semi-conductor field effect transistor (MESFETs) packaged in plastic mold has been developed. The addition of He to N2 for the carrier gas in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) has been found effective to reduce both stress and pinholes and to significantly improve the resistance to moisture of the SiNx film. Rutherford back scattering (RBS), hydrogen forward scattering (HFS) and FT-IR analyses demonstrated that the SiNx with less pinhole has fewer hydrogen atoms in the film. Regarding the FETs housed in the SOT-89 mold package, no failure was observed up to 1000 h in the 85C-85% relative humidity (RH) reverse bias test.

  18. A single epitaxial structure for the integration of lasers with heterostructure bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Anish Kumar

    This dissertation introduces a new method of monolithically integrating lasers and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs). This method relies on placing the gain medium for lasers in the collector layer of an (Al,Ga)As HBT epitaxial structure. The trade-offs between laser and HBT performance which are associated with such an integration method are discussed in detail. Two designs based on this method were evaluated experimentally. In the first design, an Npn, emitter-up HBT epitaxial structure was modified to incorporated three Insb{0.2}Gasb{0.8}As QWs in the collector layer which serve as the optical gain media for lasers. 13 x 13 ?msp2 HBTs fabricated from this epi-material exhibited common emitter current gains >50 while 620\\ ?msp2 HBTs exhibited an fsb{t}=21 GHz and fsb{max}=6.8 GHz. The DC and high frequency characteristics of HBTs are consistent with their size, layer thicknesses, layer dopings, etc. Metal-clad lasers were also fabricated from this epi-material. For these lasers, a silver film deposited directly on the base served as both the upper optical cladding layer and p-electrode. Lasers exhibit pulsed threshold current densities as low as 440 A/cmsp2. The measured waveguide propagation loss of these metal-clad lasers is in excellent agreement with theory. The second design was based on a Pnp, collector-up HBT epitaxial structure. For HBTs, the extrinsic portion of the EB junction was not deactivated and resulted in HBTs with less than unity current gain. 6.5 mum stripe width, ridge waveguide lasers fabricated from this same material exhibited threshold current densities of 1300 A/cmsp2. This is approximately what is expected from the epitaxial layer design and device structure. Furthermore, the measured waveguide propagation loss of 14 cmsp{-1} is close to the anticipated value of 11.2 cmsp{-1}.

  19. Switching Characteristics of a 4H-SiC Based Bipolar Junction Transistor to 200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Static curves and resistive load switching characteristics of a 600 V, 4 A rated, SiC-based NPN bipolar power transistor (BJT) were observed at selected temperatures from room to 200 C. All testing was done in a pulse mode at low duty cycle (approx.0.1 percent). Turn-on was driven by an adjustable base current pulse and turn-off was accelerated by a negative base voltage pulse of 7 V. These base drive signals were implemented by 850 V, gated power pulsers, having rise-times of roughly 10 ns, or less. Base charge sweep-out with a 7 V negative pulse did not produce the large reverse base current pulse seen in a comparably rated Si-based BJT. This may be due to a very low charge storage time. The decay of the collector current was more linear than its exponential-like rise. Switching observations were done at base drive currents (I(sub B)) up to 400 mA and collector currents (I(sub C)) up to 4 A, using a 100 Omega non-inductive load. At I(sub B) = 400 mA and I(sub C) = 4 A, turn-on times typically varied from 80 to 94 ns, over temperatures from 23 to 200 C. As expected, lowering the base drive greatly extended the turn-on time. Similarly, decreasing the load current to I(sub C) = 1 A with I(sub B) = 400 mA produced turn-on times as short as 34 ns. Over the 23 to 200 C range, with I(sub B) = 400 mA and I(sub C) = 4 A, turn-off times were in the range of 72 to 84 ns with the 7 V sweep-out.

  20. Copper-Based OHMIC Contracts for the Si/SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Kalyan; Hall, Harvey

    1999-01-01

    Silicon based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with SiGe base are potentially important devices for high-speed and high-frequency microelectronics. These devices are particularly attractive as they can be fabricated using standard Si processing technology. However, in order to realize the full potential of devices fabricated in this material system, it is essential to be able to form low resistance ohmic contacts using low thermal budget process steps and have full compatibility with VLSI/ULSI processing. Therefore, a study was conducted in order to better understand the contact formation and to develop optimized low resistance contacts to layers with doping densities corresponding to the p-type SiGe base and n-type Si emitter regions of the HBTS. These as-grown doped layers were implanted with BF(sub 2) up to 1 X 10(exp 16)/CM(exp 2) and As up to 5 x 10(exp 15)/CM2, both at 30 keV for the p-type SiGe base and n-type Si emitter layers, respectively, in order to produce a low sheet resistance surface layer. Standard transfer length method (TLM) contact pads on both p and n type layers were deposited using an e-beam evaporated trilayer structure of Ti/CufTi/Al (25)A/1500A/250A/1000A). The TLM pads were delineated by a photoresist lift-off procedure. These contacts in the as-deposited state were ohmic, with specific contact resistances for the highest implant doses of the order of 10(exp -7) ohm-CM2 and lower.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of - and Silicon Germanium-Base Bipolar Transistors Operating at a Wide Range of Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheed, M. Reaz

    1995-01-01

    Higher speed at lower cost and at low power consumption is a driving force for today's semiconductor technology. Despite a substantial effort toward achieving this goal via alternative technologies such as III-V compounds, silicon technology still dominates mainstream electronics. Progress in silicon technology will continue for some time with continual scaling of device geometry. However, there are foreseeable limits on achievable device performance, reliability and scaling for room temperature technologies. Thus, reduced temperature operation is commonly viewed as a means for continuing the progress towards higher performance. Although silicon CMOS will be the first candidate for low temperature applications, bipolar devices will be used in a hybrid fashion, as line drivers or in limited critical path elements. Silicon -germanium-base bipolar transistors look especially attractive for low-temperature bipolar applications. At low temperatures, various new physical phenomena become important in determining device behavior. Carrier freeze-out effects which are negligible at room temperature, become of crucial importance for analyzing the low temperature device characteristics. The conventional Pearson-Bardeen model of activation energy, used for calculation of carrier freeze-out, is based on an incomplete picture of the physics that takes place and hence, leads to inaccurate results at low temperatures. Plasma -induced bandgap narrowing becomes more pronounced in device characteristics at low temperatures. Even with modern numerical simulators, this effect is not well modeled or simulated. In this dissertation, improved models for such physical phenomena are presented. For accurate simulation of carrier freeze-out, the Pearson-Bardeen model has been extended to include the temperature dependence of the activation energy. The extraction of the model is based on the rigorous, first-principle theoretical calculations available in the literature. The new model is shown to provide consistently accurate values for base sheet resistance for both Si- and SiGe-base transistors over a wide range of temperatures. A model for plasma-induced bandgap narrowing suitable for implementation in a numerical simulator has been developed. The appropriate method of incorporating this model in a drift -diffusion solver is described. The importance of including this model for low temperature simulation is demonstrated. With these models in place, the enhanced simulator has been used for evaluating and designing the Si- and SiGe-base bipolar transistors. Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors offer significant performance and cost advantages over conventional technologies in the production of integrated circuits for communications, computer and transportation applications. Their high frequency performance at low cost, will find widespread use in the currently exploding wireless communication market. However, the high performance SiGe-base transistors are prone to have a low common-emitter breakdown voltage. In this dissertation, a modification in the collector design is proposed for improving the breakdown voltage without sacrificing the high frequency performance. A comprehensive simulation study of p-n-p SiGe-base transistors has been performed. Different figures of merit such as drive current, current gain, cut -off frequency and Early voltage were compared between a graded germanium profile and an abrupt germanium profile. The differences in the performance level between the two profiles diminishes as the base width is scaled down.

  2. Spin-charge separation in bipolar spin transport in (111) GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, M. Q.; Wu, M. W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a microscopic theory for transport of the spin polarized charge density wave with both electrons and holes in the (111) GaAs quantum wells. We analytically show that, contradicting to the commonly accepted belief, the spin and charge motions are bound together only in the fully polarized system but can be separated in the case of low spin polarization or short spin lifetime even when the spatial profiles of spin density wave and charge density wave overlap with each other. We further show that, the Coulomb drag between electrons and holes can markedly enhance the hole spin diffusion if the hole spin motion can be separated from the charge motion. In the high-spin polarized system, the Coulomb drag can boost the hole spin diffusion coefficient by more than one order of magnitude.

  3. Compact Modeling of Floating-Base Effect in Injection-Enhanced Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor Based on Potential Modification by Accumulated Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takao; Miyake, Masataka; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a compact model of the injection-enhanced insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) applicable for circuit optimization. The main development is modeling the hole accumulation in the floating-base region. It is demonstrated that the observed negative gate capacitance is well reproduced with the developed model.

  4. The Aluminum-Free P-n-P InGaAsN Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,PING-CHIH; LI,N.Y.; BACA,ALBERT G.; MONIER,C.; LAROCHE,J.R.; HOU,H.Q.; REN,F.; PEARTON,S.J.

    2000-08-01

    The authors have demonstrated an aluminum-free P-n-P GaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). The device has a low turn-on voltage (V{sub ON}) that is 0.27 V lower than in a comparable P-n-p AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. The device shows near-ideal D. C. characteristics with a current gain ({beta}) greater than 45. The high-speed performance of the device are comparable to a similar P-n-p AlGaAs/GaAs HBT, with f{sub T} and f{sub MAX} values of 12 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. This device is very suitable for low-power complementary HBT circuit applications, while the aluminum-free emitter structure eliminates issues typically associated with AlGaAs.

  5. Electrical stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors under bipolar ac stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwon; Jeon, Kichan; Park, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Sungchul; Kong, Dongsik; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Sunil; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Jae Chul; Song, Ihun; Kim, Chang Jung; Park, Youngsoo; Jung, U.-In

    2009-09-01

    Bipolar ac stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors is comparatively investigated with that under a positive dc gate bias stress. While the positive dc gate bias stress-induced threshold voltage shift (?VT) is caused by the charge trapping into the interface/gate dielectric as reported in previous works, the dominant mechanism of the ac stress-induced ?VT is observed to be due to the increase in the acceptorlike deep states of the density of states (DOS) in the a-IGZO active layer. Furthermore, it is found that the variation of deep states in the DOS makes a parallel shift in the IDS-VGS curve with an insignificant change in the subthreshold slope, as well as the deformation of the CG-VG curves.

  6. Lateral carrier diffusion and current gain in terahertz InGaAs/InP double-heterojunction bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Han-Wei; Rode, Johann C.; Choudhary, Prateek; Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    2014-01-21

    The DC current gain in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP double-heterojunction bipolar transistors is computed based on a drift-diffusion model, and is compared with experimental data. Even in the absence of other scaling effects, lateral diffusion of electrons to the base Ohmic contacts causes a rapid reduction in DC current gain as the emitter junction width and emitter-base contact spacing are reduced. The simulation and experimental data are compared in order to examine the effect of carrier lateral diffusion on current gain. The impact on current gain due to device scaling and approaches to increase current gain are discussed.

  7. Degradation of dc characteristics of InGaAs/InP single heterojunction bipolar transistors under electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, A.; Subramanian, S.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Dentai, A.G.; Goodnick, S.M.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of high-energy ({approximately}1 MeV) electron irradiation on the dc characteristics of InGaAs/InP single heterojunction bipolar transistors (SHBT`s) are investigated. The device characteristics do not show any significant change for electron doses <10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}. For higher doses, devices show a decrease in collector current, a degradation of common-emitter current gain, an increase in collector saturation voltage and an increase in the collector output conductance. A simple SPICE-like device model is developed to describe the dc characteristics of SHBT`s. The model parameters extracted from the measured dc characteristics of the devices before and after irradiation are used to get an insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the degradation of the devices.

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: EMP injection damage effects of a bipolar transistor and its relationship between the injecting voltage and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Bing, Zhang; Xiao, Hong

    2010-04-01

    The response of a bipolar transistor (BJT) under a square-wave electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with different injecting voltages is investigated. Adopting the curve fitting method, the relationship between the burnout time, the damage energy and the injecting voltage is obtained. Research shows that the damage energy is not a constant value, but changes with the injecting voltage level. By use of the device simulator Medici, the internal behavior of the burned device is analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the variation of the damage energy with injecting voltage is caused by the distribution change of hot spot position under different injection levels. Therefore, the traditional way to evaluate the trade-off between the burnout time and the injecting voltage is not comprehensive due to the variation of the damage energy.

  9. Influence of the external component on the damage of the bipolar transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Zhenyang, Ma; Jing, Wang

    2010-07-01

    A study on the influence of the external resistor and the external voltage source during the injection of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) into the bipolar transistor (BJT) is carried out. Research shows that the increase of the external resistor Rb at base makes the burnout time of the device decrease slightly, the increase of the external voltage source Vbe at base can aid the damage of the device when the magnitude of the injecting voltage is relatively low and has little influence when the magnitude is sufficiently high causing the device appearing the PIN structure damage, and the increase of the external resistor Re can remarkably reduce the voltage drops added to the device and improve the durability of the device. In the final analysis, the effect of the external circuit component on the BJT damage is the influence on the condition which makes the device appear current-mode second breakdown.

  10. New isolated gate bipolar transistor two-quadrant chopper power supply for a fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D. M.; Marques, G. D.; Sebastio, P. J.; Ribeiro, A. C.

    2003-10-01

    This work, presents, for the first time, an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) two-quadrant chopper power supply for a fast field cycling (FFC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. This power supply was designed to achieve a maximum current of 200 A with good efficiency, low semiconductor losses, low cost, and easy maintenance. Both energy storage circuits and dumping circuits are used to obtain switching times less than 2 ms between field levels in agreement with the FFC technique specifications. The current ripple at high currents is better than 110-4 and presents a specific shape which can be used for additional compensation using auxiliary circuits. The implemented power supply was tested and been continuously operating with a home-built FFC solenoidal magnet, associated cooling system, and rf units for fields between 0 and 0.2 T.

  11. Simulation of Npn and Pnp AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors performances: Limiting factors and optimum design

    SciTech Connect

    MONIER,C.; REN,F.; HAN,JUNG; CHANG,PING-CHIH; SHUL,RANDY J.; LEE,K.P.; ZHANG,A.P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; PEARTON,S.J.

    2000-04-25

    The performance capabilities of Npn and Pnp AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors have been investigated by using a drift-diffusion transport model. Numerical results have been employed to study the effect of the p-type Mg doping and its incomplete ionization on device performance. The high base resistance induced by the deep acceptor level is found to be the cause of limited current gain values for Npn devices. Several computation approaches have been considered to improve their performance. Reasonable improvement of the DC current gain {beta} is observed by realistically reducing the base thickness in accordance with processing limitations. Base transport enhancement is also predicted by the introduction of a quasi-electric field in the base. The impact of the base resistivity on high-frequency characteristics is investigated for Npn AlGaN/GaN devices. Optimized predictions with maximum oscillation frequency value as high as f{sub MAX} = 20 GHz and a unilateral power gain--U = 25 dB make this bipolar GaN-based technology compatible with communication applications. Simulation results reveal that the restricted amount of free carriers from the p-doped emitter limits Pnp's DC performances operating in common emitter configuration. A preliminary analysis of r.f. characteristics for the Pnp counterpart indicates limited performance mainly caused by the degraded hole mobility.

  12. Comparison of phonon scattering in nanowire field effect transistors with Si, GaAs and InGaAs cores using the NEGF formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Martinez, A.

    2015-10-01

    Using the Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism, the impact of electron- phonon scattering on the performance of different core nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs) has been investigated. Three core materials have been considered: Si, GaAs and InGaAs. The effective mass approximation has been used, with masses extracted from tight- binding simulations. The ID-VG characteristics at low and high drain bias are shown. It was found that at low drain bias, scattering caused a 86%, 72% and 50% percentage reduction in the current at high gate bias in the Si, GaAs and InGaAs core, 2.2 × 2.2 nm2 cross-section NWFETs respectively. The phonon-limited mobility and percentage tunnelling have also been calculated.

  13. Growth characteristics of hydride-free chemical beam epitaxy and application to GaInP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Dua, C.; Mohammadi, S.; Park, J. W.; Pavlidis, D.

    1998-05-01

    We report on the complete characterization of a hydride- and hydrogen-free chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) process for the realization of GaAs/GaInP heterojunction bipolar transistors. Alternative group V sources tertiarybutylarsine, tertiarybutylphosphine, and trisdimethylaminoarsenic are used instead of traditionally employed AsH3 and PH3. A very high degree of reproducibility of growth parameters (fluxes, substrate temperature, doping levels) is demonstrated. Total defect densities lower than 10 def/cm2 are routinely obtained. Large-area GaInP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) show a high current gain of 225 for base sheet resistance of 400 ohm/sq. The devices also exhibit excellent high-frequency characteristics. A cut-off frequency of 48 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 60 GHz have been obtained. These results demonstrate the high potential capability of CBE for high-throughput GaInP/GaAs HBT production.

  14. Comments on determination of bandgap narrowing from activation plots. [for bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.-S.; Neugroschel, A.; Lindholm, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    A determination is made of the temperature-dependence of emitter saturation current in bipolar devices which allows the derivation of a value for bandgap narrowing that is in better agreement with other determinations than previous results based on ohmic contact measurements of temperature dependence. The new values were obtained by varying the surface recombination velocity at the emitter surface. This improves accuracy by varying the minority carrier surface recombination velocity at the emitter contacts of otherwise indistinguishable emitters.

  15. Impact of Parasitic Bipolar Effect on Single-Event Upset in p-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor with Embedded SiGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takashi; Uemura, Taiki; Mori, Hiroko; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Kaina; Satoh, Shigeo; Matsuyama, Hideya

    2013-04-01

    Accelerated neutron tests for soft error rate (SER) are carried out using unbalanced feedback-loop circuits fabricated by Si and embedded SiGe (eSiGe) processes. The contribution of the p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOS) to total SER is shown to substantially decrease in the eSiGe process. The characteristics of parasitic bipolar transistors in PMOSs with and without eSiGe are investigated using technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. We find that the narrow band gap of SiGe causes an increase in the rate of electron flow from the well region (Si) to the source region (SiGe), leading to a decrease in the current gain of the parasitic bipolar transistor in PMOS with eSiGe. Our results indicate that eSiGe can be attributed to the suppression of the parasitic bipolar effect, resulting in a reduced contribution of PMOS to SER.

  16. A 65-kV insulated gate bipolar transistor switch applied in damped AC voltages partial discharge detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Ma, G. M.; Luo, D. P.; Li, C. R.; Li, Q. M.; Wang, W.

    2014-02-01

    Damped AC voltages detection system (DAC) is a productive way to detect the faults in power cables. To solve the problems of large volume, complicated structure and electromagnetic interference in existing switches, this paper developed a compact solid state switch based on electromagnetic trigger, which is suitable for DAC test system. Synchronous electromagnetic trigger of 32 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in series was realized by the topological structure of single line based on pulse width modulation control technology. In this way, external extension was easily achieved. Electromagnetic trigger and resistor-capacitor-diode snubber circuit were optimized to reduce the switch turn-on time and circular layout. Epoxy encapsulating was chosen to enhance the level of partial discharge initial voltage (PDIV). The combination of synchronous trigger and power supply is proposed to reduce the switch volume. Moreover, we have overcome the drawback of the electromagnetic interference and improved the detection sensitivity of DAC by using capacitor storage energy to maintain IGBT gate driving voltage. The experimental results demonstrated that the solid-state switch, with compact size, whose turn-on time was less than 400 ns and PDIV was more than 65 kV, was able to meet the actual demands of 35 kV DAC test system.

  17. Analysis of collector-emitter offset voltage of InGaP/GaAs composite collector double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, K. L.; Yoon, S. F.

    2002-04-01

    The Ebers-Moll-like terminal current expressions of a composite collector double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT), which takes the recombination effect into account, have been formulated and an expression for collector-emitter offset voltage [VCE(offset)] has been derived. Factors affecting the VCE(offset) of a composite collector DHBT are investigated and good agreement between the calculated and reported experimental results is shown. Analytical results showed that the transmission coefficient of the base-collector (B-C) junction does not have a considerable effect on the VCE(offset), provided that the B-C junction is of good quality. Thus, despite its asymmetric structure, the VCE(offset) of an optimally designed composite collector DHBT could be as low as that of a conventional DHBT. Hence a composite collector DHBT with low saturation voltage and negligible VCE(offset) is possible if the two conditions: (i) good quality B-C junction, (ii) base transport factor, ??1, are fulfilled.

  18. 3-D simulation of angled strike heavy-ion induced charge collection in silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinxin, Zhang; Hongxia, Guo; Lin, Wen; Qi, Guo; Jiangwei, Cui; Xin, Wang; Wei, Deng; Qiwen, Zhen; Xue, Fan; Yao, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents 3-D simulation of angled strike heavy-ion induced charge collection in domestic silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs). 3D damaged model of SiGe HBTs single-event effects (SEE) is built by TCAD simulation tools to research ions angled strike dependence. We select several different strike angles at variously typical ions strike positions. The charge collection mechanism for each terminal is identified based on analysis of the device structure and simulation results. Charge collection induced by angled strike ions presents a complex situation. Whether the location of device ions enters, as long as ions track through the sensitive volume, it will cause vast charge collection. The amount of charge collection of SiGe HBT is not only related to length of ions track in sensitive volume, but also influenced by STI and distance between ions track and electrodes. The simulation model is useful to research the practical applications of SiGe HBTs in space, and provides a theoretical basis for the further radiation hardening.

  19. Non-ideal effect in 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor with double Gaussian-doped base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Song, Qing-Wen; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Men

    2015-06-01

    The non-ideal effect of 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) with a double Gaussian-doped base is characterized and simulated in this paper. By adding a specific interface model between SiC and SiO2, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment data. An obvious early effect is found from the output characteristic. As the temperature rises, the early voltage increases, while the current gain gradually decreases, which is totally different from the scenario of silicon BJT. With the same effective Gummel number in the base region, the double Gaussian-doped base structure can realize higher current gain than the single base BJT due to the built-in electric field, whereas the early effect will be more salient. Besides, the emitter current crowding effect is also analyzed. Due to the low sheet resistance in the first highly-doped base epilayer, the 4H-BJT with a double base has more uniform emitter current density across the base-emitter junction, leading to better thermal stability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60876061 and 61234006), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8012), and the Doctoral Fund of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20130203120017 and 20110203110010).

  20. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of AlGaAs and InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, N.; Welser, R. E.; Lutz, C. R.; DeLuca, P. M.; Han, B.; Hong, K.

    2001-05-01

    Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) are now beginning to be widely incorporated as power amplifiers, laser drivers, multiplexers, clock data recovery circuits, as well as transimpedance and broadband amplifiers in high performance millimeter wave circuits (MMICs). The increasing acceptance of this device is principally due to advancements in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), device processing, and circuit design technologies. Many of the DC electrical characteristics of large area devices can be directly correlated to the DC performance of small area RF devices. A precise understanding of the growth parameters and their relationship to device characteristics is critical for ensuring the high degree of reproducibility required for low cost high-yield volume manufacturing. Significant improvements in the understanding of the MOCVD growth process have been realized through the implementation of statistical process control on the key HBT device parameters. This tool has been successfully used to maintain the high quality of the device characteristics in high-volume production of 4? GaAs-based HBTs. There is a growing demand to migrate towards 6? diameter wafer size due to the potential cost reductions and increased volume production that can be realized. Preliminary results, indicating good heterostructure layer characteristics, demonstrate the feasibility of 6? InGaP-based HBT devices.

  1. DC modeling and characterization of AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors for high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dikmen, C.T.; Dogan, N.S.; Osman, M.A. . School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1994-02-01

    There is currently a demand for active electronic devices operating reliably over wide range of temperatures. Potential applications for the high-temperature devices and integrated circuits are in the areas of jet engine and control instrumentation for nuclear power plants. Here, the large signal dc characteristics of AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) at high temperatures (27--300 C) are reported. A high-temperature SPICE model is developed which includes the recombination-generation current components and avalanche multiplication which become extremely important at high temperatures. The effect of avalanche breakdown is also included to model the current due to thermal generation of electron/hole pairs causing breakdown at high temperatures. A parameter extraction program is developed used to extract the model parameters of HBT's at different temperatures. Fitting functions for the model parameters as a function of temperature are developed. These parameters are then used in the SPICE Ebers-Moll model for the dc characterization of the HBT at any temperature between (27--300 C).

  2. A 65-kV insulated gate bipolar transistor switch applied in damped AC voltages partial discharge detection system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Ma, G M; Luo, D P; Li, C R; Li, Q M; Wang, W

    2014-02-01

    Damped AC voltages detection system (DAC) is a productive way to detect the faults in power cables. To solve the problems of large volume, complicated structure and electromagnetic interference in existing switches, this paper developed a compact solid state switch based on electromagnetic trigger, which is suitable for DAC test system. Synchronous electromagnetic trigger of 32 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in series was realized by the topological structure of single line based on pulse width modulation control technology. In this way, external extension was easily achieved. Electromagnetic trigger and resistor-capacitor-diode snubber circuit were optimized to reduce the switch turn-on time and circular layout. Epoxy encapsulating was chosen to enhance the level of partial discharge initial voltage (PDIV). The combination of synchronous trigger and power supply is proposed to reduce the switch volume. Moreover, we have overcome the drawback of the electromagnetic interference and improved the detection sensitivity of DAC by using capacitor storage energy to maintain IGBT gate driving voltage. The experimental results demonstrated that the solid-state switch, with compact size, whose turn-on time was less than 400 ns and PDIV was more than 65 kV, was able to meet the actual demands of 35 kV DAC test system. PMID:24593382

  3. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion.

    PubMed

    Martí, A; Luque, A

    2015-01-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base-emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions. PMID:25902374

  4. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion

    PubMed Central

    Martí, A.; Luque, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base–emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions. PMID:25902374

  5. New Collector of Planar Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Broad Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Shi, Lina; Yu, Wen; Li, Chengfang; Sun, Xiaowei

    A new concept of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transisitor (IGBT) with a Si/Ge layer collector is proposed to meet different requirements for turn-on voltage and turn-off time. The operation principles of IGBT are discussed and the energy band diagram of Si/Ge heterojunction is employed to explain the inner dynamic mechanism of the proposed IGBT. Two-dimensional (2D) device-circuit mixed-mode simulations indicate that the tail-current, which is a major cause of the power loss and limits the operation speed of the device, is suppressed effectively by using the Si/Ge layer collector. On the other hand, turn-on voltage is increased by the use of the Si/Ge collector. Furthermore, the turn-on voltage is increasing with the increase of the areal rate of the Ge region in the whole collector, while the turn-off time is reversed. This valuable information leads to the freely tunable planar IGBT by adapting the different areal rates of the Ge region to cast to different actual situations. Detailed physical explanations are also given.

  6. Collector-up aluminum gallium arsenide/gallium arsenide heterojunction bipolar transistors using oxidized aluminum arsenide for current confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massengale, Alan Ross

    1998-12-01

    The discovery in 1990 that the wet thermal oxidation of AlAs can create a stable native oxide has added a new constituent, AlAs-oxide, to the AlGaAs/GaAs materials system. Native oxides of high Al mole-fraction AlGaAs are being used to confine electrical and/or optical fields in many types of electronic and optoelectronic structures with very promising results. Among these devices are collector-up heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Collector-up HBTs offer a means to reduce base-collector capacitance relative to their emitter-up counterparts, and thus to improve device performance. A novel method for fabricating collector-up AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs where an AlAs layer is inserted into the emitter layer and is oxidized in water vapor at 450spC has been developed. The resulting AlAs-oxide serves as a current confining layer that constricts collector current flow to the intrinsic portion of the device. Compared to previous methods of fabricating these devices, the process of converting AlAs into an insulator requires only one growth, and does not suffer from implant damage in the base. Because the lateral oxidation of AlAs is a process that proceeds at rates of microns per minute, one of the major challenges facing its implementation is the ability to accurately control the oxidation rate over the wafer, and from one wafer to the next. In the course of work on the oxidation of AlAs, a method to lithographically form lateral oxidation stop layers has been achieved. This technique utilizes impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) in heavily Si-doped buried planes, combined with selective surface patterning and thermal annealing, to create a lateral variation in the Al mole-fraction of the layer to be oxidized.

  7. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  8. Carbon doping in AlGaAs for AlGaAs/GaAs graded-base heterojunction bipolar transistor by flow-rate modulation epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Makimoto, Toshiki

    1991-06-01

    This letter investigates carbon doping in AlGaAs using flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME). The tendency of hole concentration increasing with Al composition is explained by the thermal decomposition of trimethylaluminum molecules on the substrate surface. The highest hole concentration obtained is 3×1020 cm-3 in Al0.4Ga0.6As layers. An AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor with an FME-grown compositionally graded carbon-doped base layer was fabricated for the first time. It exhibits a current gain of 25 with 2×1019 cm-3 base doping.

  9. Vertical electron transistor (VET) in GaAs with a heterojunction (AlGaAs-GaAs) cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Maki, P. A.; Wendt, J. R.; Schaff, W.; Kohn, E.; Eastman, L. F.

    1984-02-01

    The successful fabrication of submicrometer channel length (0.75 micron) and gate length (0.15 micron) vertical electron transistors with AlGaAs cathodes is reported. Lack of electron velocity enhancement has been proposed to be due to high operating channel temperatures, and low temperature measurements were hindered by carrier freeze-out.

  10. Investigation on phonon scattering in a GaAs nanowire field effect transistor using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Price, A. Martinez, A.

    2015-04-28

    Using quantum transport simulations, the impact of electron-phonon scattering on the transfer characteristic of a gate-all-around nanowire (GaAs) field effect transistor (NWFET) has been thoroughly investigated. The Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism in the effective mass approximation using a decoupled mode decomposition has been deployed. NWFETs of different dimensions have been considered, and scattering mechanisms including acoustic, optical and polar optical phonons have been included. The effective masses were extracted from tight binding simulations. High and low drain bias have been considered. We found substantial source to drain tunnelling current and significant impact of phonon scattering on the performance of the NWFET. At low drain bias, for a 2.2 × 2.2 nm{sup 2} cross-section transistor, scattering caused a 72%, 77%, and 81% decrease in the on-current for a 6 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm channel length, respectively. This reduction in the current due to scattering is influenced by the increase in the tunnelling current. We include the percentage tunnelling for each valley at low and high drain bias. It was also found that the strong quantisation caused the relative position of the valleys to vary with the cross-section. This had a large effect on the overall tunnelling current. The phonon-limited mobility was also calculated, finding a mobility of 950 cm{sup 2}/V s at an inversion charge density of 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for a 4.2 × 4.2 nm{sup 2} cross-section device.

  11. NpN-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor on free-standing GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, Zachary; Jin Kim, Hee; Lee, Yi-Che; Zhang, Yun; Choi, Suk; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Doug Yoder, P.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2011-11-01

    Data and analysis are presented for NpN-GaN/InGaN/GaN double-heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) grown and fabricated on a free-standing GaN (FS-GaN) substrate in comparison to that on a sapphire substrate to investigate the effect of dislocations in III-nitride HBT epitaxial structures. The performance characteristics of HBTs on FS-GaN exhibit a maximum collector current density of ˜12.3 kA/cm2, dc current gain of ˜90, and maximum differential gain of ˜120 without surface passivation, representing a substantial improvement over similar devices grown on sapphire. This is attributed to the reduction in threading dislocation density afforded by using a homoepitaxial growth on a high-crystalline-quality substrate. The minority carrier diffusion length increases significantly owing to not only a mitigated carrier trap effect via fewer dislocations, but also possibly reduced microscopic localized states.

  12. Investigation of 4H-SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor turn-off performance for achieving low power loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Dondee; Pesic, Iliya; Morikawa, Yoji; Furui, Yoshiharu; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a 4H-SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) at pulse switching is investigated by incorporating reported measurements of the interface defect density to device simulation. Different trap features such as energy states and trap time constants are investigated to determine the influence of traps on circuit performance. The capture cross-section parameter used in the simulation depicts the probability of traps to trap/detrap carriers which relates to the carrier trap time constant. It is demonstrated that trapped carriers from the on-state condition cause enhanced generation current during the off-state condition, which give rise to undesired leakage current in addition to the threshold voltage shift previously reported. The device power dissipation is increased by a factor of 100 due to the defects.

  13. A Cu-Metallized InGaP/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor with Reliable Pd/Ge/Cu Ohmic Contact for Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jui-Chien Huang,; Yueh-Chin Lin,; Yu-Ling Tseng,; Ke-Shian Chen,; Po-Chin Lu,; Mong-E Lin,; Edward-Yi Chang,

    2010-02-01

    A Cu-metallized InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) using a Pd/Ge/Cu n-type ohmic contact, a Pt/Ti/Pt/Cu p-type ohmic contact, and a Ti/Pt/Cu interconnect has been fabricated for power applications. The 4 20 ?m2 HBT had an output power of 11.25 dBm with a power-added efficiency of 35.1%. After applying current-accelerated stress for 24 h, the current gain remained larger than 125. The device was also annealed at 200 C for 24 h, and showed a slight decrease in output power from 10.06 to 9.83 dBm. The results demonstrated that reliable Cu metallization can be used for fabricating InGaP/GaAs HBTs for power applications.

  14. A Cu-Metallized InGaP/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor with Reliable Pd/Ge/Cu Ohmic Contact for Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jui-Chien; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Tseng, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ke-Shian; Lu, Po-Chin; Lin, Mong-E.; Chang, Edward-Yi

    2010-02-01

    A Cu-metallized InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) using a Pd/Ge/Cu n-type ohmic contact, a Pt/Ti/Pt/Cu p-type ohmic contact, and a Ti/Pt/Cu interconnect has been fabricated for power applications. The 420 m2 HBT had an output power of 11.25 dBm with a power-added efficiency of 35.1%. After applying current-accelerated stress for 24 h, the current gain remained larger than 125. The device was also annealed at 200 C for 24 h, and showed a slight decrease in output power from 10.06 to 9.83 dBm. The results demonstrated that reliable Cu metallization can be used for fabricating InGaP/GaAs HBTs for power applications.

  15. Numerical investigation of temperature field Induced by dual wavelength lasers in sub-microsecond laser annealing technology for insulated gate bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, GuoDong; Ma, Mingying; Wang, Fan; Sun, Gang; Lan, Yanping; Xu, Wen

    2015-07-01

    To enhance the performance of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), sub-microsecond laser annealing (LA) is propitious to achieve maximal dopant activation with minimal diffusion. In this work, two different lasers are used as annealing resource: a continuous 808 nm laser with larger spot is applied to preheat the wafer and another sub-microsecond pulsed 527 nm laser is responsible to activate the dopant. To optimize the system's performance, a physical model is presented to predict the thermal effect of two laser fields interacting on wafer. Using the Finite-Element method (FEM), we numerically investigate the temperature field induced by lasers in detail. The process window corresponding to the lasers is also acquired which can satisfy the requirements of the IGBT's annealing.

  16. Switching characteristics of a 4H-SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor with interface defects up to the nonquasi-static regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Iliya; Navarro, Dondee; Fujinaga, Masato; Furui, Yoshiharu; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko

    2015-04-01

    The switching characteristics of a trench-type 4H-SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) device with interface defects are analyzed up to the nonquasi-static (NQS) switching regime using reported interface density measurements and device simulation. Collector current degradation characterized by threshold voltage shift to higher gate voltages and reduction of current magnitude due to carrier trapping are observed under quasi-static (QS) simulation condition. At slow switching of the gate voltage, carrier trapping causes a hump in the transient current at the start of conduction. At very fast switching, the current hump is limited by the NQS effect which results to a reduced switching efficiency and increased on-resistance.

  17. AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.C.; Baca, A.G.; Li, N.Y.; Sharps, P.R.; Hou, H.Q.; Laroche, J.R.; Ren, F.

    2000-01-11

    The authors have demonstrated a functional MOCVD-grown AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAsPnP DHBT that is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain ({beta}) of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (E{sub g}=1.20eV)of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. The BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with its GaAs collector thickness and doping level.

  18. Thermally stable ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs. V. Metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors with NiInW ohmic contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masanori; Price, W. H.; Greiner, J. H.; Feder, J. D.; Parks, C. C.

    1989-05-01

    Thermal stability of self-aligned refractory metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with the universally used AuNiGe ohmic contact metallurgy or the recently developed NiInW ohmic contact metallurgy has been studied. In these devices WSi0.1 films with length down to 1 ?m were used as the gate material, and AlCu was used as the overlayer material on the ohmic contacts, where a very thin Ti layer was deposited prior to the AlCu deposition. The performance of the as-fabricated devices with the NiInW ohmic contacts was as good as those with the AuNiGe ohmic contacts. During subsequent annealing at 400 C, deterioration of the device performance (defined by the decrease in the FET square-law coefficient) was observed after annealing at 400 C for 2 h in the devices with the AuNiGe ohmic contacts. However, excellent stability was observed in the devices with the NiInW ohmic contacts; no deterioration was observed at 400 C for 180 h, 450 C for 18 h, and 500 C for 2 h. The device deterioration with NiInW contacts, which was observed after annealing for longer times, is believed to be due to an increase in the contact resistances caused by In movement away from the metal/GaAs interfaces. Based on this assumption, an activation energy for In diffusion in GaAs was determined from onset times of the device deterioration to be 2.0 eV, which is close to the reported value of 1.9 eV.

  19. Bipolar trends

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, T.H.; Tang, D.D.

    1986-12-01

    The development of bipolar technology in recent years is reviewed, and trends for future development are projected. The developments clearly point to three salient features of today's advanced bipolar transistors, namely i) self-aligned structure, ii) deep-trench isolation, and iii) polysilicon emitter contact. Both i) and ii) allow advanced bipolar devices to have much higher circuit density and lower power-delay product than without these features. The polysilicon emitter contact allows bipolar devices to be scaled down vertically without suffering from problems of insufficient current gain or low emitter-collector punchthrough voltage. It is clear that while progress will continue in scaling the familiar high-speed ECL logic and memory, the integration level of these very high-speed chips is severely limited by the accompanied power dissipation. One seemingly promising and yet relatively unexplored direction is to increase the integration level by taking advantage of circuits with much lower power-delay product than ECL, such as NTL, TTL, CML, and MTL to improve the functional throughput. The technology challenges as well as the potential of submicrometer bipolar technology are also discussed.

  20. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  1. The super junction bipolar transistor: a new silicon power device concept for ultra low loss switching applications at medium to high voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Friedhelm D.

    2004-05-01

    A new silicon power device concept based on the super junction (SJ) principle for power electronics in a broad spectrum of consumer, industrial and other energy conversion applications is presented in this paper. This new concept can help to sustain the trend towards ultra low loss switching--the past, present and future dominant driving force in the development of silicon high power switches. The super junction bipolar transistor (SJBT) shares many similarities with the super junction MOSFET. It has a similar MOS control structure integrated on the cathode side on top of a base region, which is organized into a columnar structure of alternating p- and n-doped pillars. The anode consists of a p-doped emitter--the SJBT is thus a bipolar super junction power device with carrier modulation taking place in only some portion of the base. The super junction structure makes up for fundamentally different device characteristics compared to an IGBT: carrier modulation in the SJBT is made possible by elimination of the reverse bias between p- and n-doped pillars when large quantities of majority carriers are injected from the p-emitter into the p-type pillar. With the electrostatic potential being grounded at the cathode, de-biasing of the pillars as well as carrier modulation will vanish towards the cathode. The unique characteristic of the SJBT on-state is an electron-hole plasma originating at the anode, which will segregate and give place to unipolar current flow in both pillars (de-mixing of the plasma) in the base region close to the cathode. Compared to an IGBT, the SJBT offers the same or lower conduction losses at a very small fraction (25%) of the cost in terms of switching losses.

  2. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention (2 items) Treatments (4 items) Publications About Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder A brochure on bipolar disorder that ... En Espaol Continue Reading Share More Information About Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder Page Information about Bipolar Disorder from ...

  3. Epitaxial growth and characterization of thick multi-layer 4H-SiC for very high-voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Koji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Katsunori; Ji, Shi-yang; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Ishida, Yuuki; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2015-08-01

    Techniques to fabricate thick multi-layer 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers were studied for very high-voltage p- and n-channel insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Multi-layer epitaxial growth, including a thick p- drift layer (180 ?m), was performed on a 4H-SiC n+ substrate to form a p-IGBT structure. For an n-IGBT structure, an inverted growth process was employed, in which a thick n- drift layer (180 ?m) and a thick p++ injector layer (>55 ?m) were epitaxially grown. The epitaxial growth conditions were modified to attain a low defect density, a low doping concentration, and a long carrier lifetime in the drift layers. Reduction of the forward voltage drop was attempted by using carrier lifetime enhancement processes, specifically, carbon ion implantation/annealing and thermal oxidation/annealing or hydrogen annealing. Simple PiN diodes were fabricated to demonstrate the effective conductivity modulation in the thick drift layers. The forward voltage drops of the PiN diodes with the p- and n-IGBT structures promise to obtain the extremely low-loss and very high-voltage IGBTs. The change in wafer shape during the processing of the very thick multi-layer 4H-SiC is also discussed.

  4. Flow-rate modulation epitaxy of GaAs and AlGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Makimoto, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Yoshiharu; Horikoshi, Yoshiji

    1989-07-01

    Flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) is a new epitaxial growth method which can produce a very flat heterointerface and a sharp doping profile. This paper describes FME growth conditions and electrical and optical properties of FME-grown GaAs, AlGaAs layers, and GaAs/AlGaAs single-quantum-well heterostructures. FME can reduce growth temperatures without deteriorating the crystalline quality and can produce flatter heterointerfaces than the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method. The catalytic decomposition of silane on the Ga atomic surface efficiently dopes silicon into GaAs and AlGaAs with sharp profiles. For p-type doping, trimethyl metalorganic sources produce carbon atomic layer doping with no memory effect and a low diffusion coefficient of carbon. Experiments using FME to grow modulation doped heterostructures and heterostructure bipolar transistors prove FME to be a promising method of producing III-V semiconductor devices with thin-layered structures.

  5. Gallium arsenide-gallium nitride wafer fusion and the n-aluminum gallium arsenide/p-gallium arsenide/n-gallium nitride double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Sarah M.

    This dissertation describes the n-AlGaAs/p-GaAs/n-GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT), the first transistor formed via wafer fusion. The fusion process was developed as a way to combine lattice-mismatched materials for high-performance electronic devices, not obtainable via conventional all-epitaxial formation methods. Despite the many challenges of wafer fusion, successful transistors were demonstrated and improved, via the optimization of material structure and fusion process conditions. Thus, this project demonstrated the integration of disparate device materials, chosen for their optimal electronic properties, unrestricted by the conventional (and very limiting) requirement of lattice-matching. By combining an AlGaAs-GaAs emitter-base with a GaN collector, the HBT benefited from the high breakdown voltage of GaN, and from the high emitter injection efficiency and low base transit time of AlGaAs-GaAs. Because the GaAs-GaN lattice mismatch precluded an all-epitaxial formation of the HBT, the GaAs-GaN heterostructure was formed via fusion. This project began with the development of a fusion process that formed mechanically robust and electrically active GaAs-GaN heterojunctions. During the correlation of device electrical performance with a systematic variation of fusion conditions over a wide range (500--750C, 0.5--2hours), a mid-range fusion temperature was found to induce optimal HBT electrical performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to assess possible reasons for the variations observed in device electrical performance. Fusion process conditions were correlated with electrical (I-V), structural (TEM), and chemical (SIMS) analyses of the resulting heterojunctions, in order to investigate the trade-off between increased interfacial disorder (TEM) with low fusion temperature and increased diffusion (SIMS) with high fusion temperature. The best do device results (IC 2.9 kA/cm2 and beta 3.5, at VCE = 20V and IB = 10mA) were obtained with an HBT formed via fusion at 600C for 1 hour, with an optimized base-collector design. This was quite an improvement, as compared to an HBT with a simpler base-collector structure, also fused at 600C for 1 hour (IC 0.83 kA/cm2 and beta 0.89, at VCE = 20V and IB = 10mA). Fused AlGaAs-GaAs-GaAs HBTs were compared to fused AlGaAs-GaAs-GaN HBTs, demonstrating that the use of a wider bandgap collector (Eg,GaN > Eg,GaAs) did indeed improve HBT performance at high applied voltages, as desired for high-power applications.

  6. Broad Beam and Ion Microprobe Studies of Single-Event Upsets in High Speed 0.18micron Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Pickel, Jim; Carts, Martin A.; Irwin, TIm; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Fritz, Karl; Riggs, Pam

    2003-01-01

    SiGe based technology is widely recognized for its tremendous potential to impact the high speed microelectronic industry, and therefore the space industry, by monolithic incorporation of low power complementary logic with extremely high speed SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) logic. A variety of studies have examined the ionizing dose, displacement damage and single event characteristics, and are reported. Accessibility to SiGe through an increasing number of manufacturers adds to the importance of understanding its intrinsic radiation characteristics, and in particular the single event effect (SEE) characteristics of the high bandwidth HBT based circuits. IBM is now manufacturing in its 3rd generation of their commercial SiGe processes, and access is currently available to the first two generations (known as and 6HP) through the MOSIS shared mask services with anticipated future release of the latest (7HP) process. The 5 HP process is described and is characterized by a emitter spacing of 0.5 micron and a cutoff frequency ff of 50 GHz, whereas the fully scaled 7HP HBT employs a 0.18 micron emitter and has an fT of 120 GHz. Previous investigations have the examined SEE response of 5 HP HBT circuits through both circuit testing and modeling. Charge collection modeling studies in the 5 H P process have also been conducted, but to date no measurements have been reported of charge collection in any SiGe HBT structures. Nor have circuit models for charge collection been developed in any version other than the 5 HP HBT structure. Our investigation reports the first indications of both charge collection and circuit response in IBM s 7HP-based SiGe process. We compare broad beam heavy ion SEU test results in a fully function Pseudo-Random Number (PRN) sequence generator up to frequencies of 12 Gbps versus effective LET, and also report proton test results in the same circuit. In addition, we examine the charge collection characteristics of individual 7HP HBT structures and map out the spatial sensitivities using the Sandia Focused Heavy Ion Microprobe Facility s Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique. Combining the two data sets offers insights into the charge collection mechanisms responsible for circuit level response and provides the first insights into the SEE characteristics of this latest version of IBM s commercial SiGe process.

  7. Microwave performance of an optically controlled AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistor and GaAs MESFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Bhasin, Kul. B.

    1987-01-01

    Direct current and also the microwave characteristics of optically illuminated AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT are experimentally measured for the first time and compared with that of GaAs MESFET. The results showed that the average increase in the gain is 2.89 dB under 1.7 nW/sq cm optical intensity at 0.83 microns. Further, the effect of illumination on S-parameters is more pronounced when the devices are biased close to pinch off. Novel applications of optically illuminated HEMT as a variable gain amplifier, high speed high frequency photo detector, and mixer are demonstrated.

  8. Characterization of InP/InGaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors with Carbon-Doped Base Layers Grown by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition and Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Naotaka; Fujihara, Akira; Ikenaga, Yoshifumi; Ishizaki, Haruya; Tanaka, Shinichi

    2005-09-01

    We characterized InP/InGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with carbon-doped InGaAs base layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Since HBTs grown using these techniques require different processing steps, resulting in different types of process-related damage, we analyzed the bulk and periphery components of DC characteristics to clarify the effects of the crystal growth and process techniques on device characteristics separately. The MBE-grown HBTs were found to have an advantage over the MOCVD-grown HBTs, because they do not require harmful high-temperature annealing during processing steps. On the other hand, it was also shown that the MOCVD-grown HBTs have a significantly lower base recombination rate than the MBE-grown HBTs, making MOCVD a suitable method of growing InP HBTs that do not require annealing, such as that with a GaAsSb base.

  9. Properties of Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated on Carbon-Doped Semi-Insulating GaAs Crystal Grown by Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoki, Yoohei; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Kuma, Shoji; Takahashi, Susumu; Onishi, Masaya; Kashiwa, Mikio

    1993-09-01

    Metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) whose active layers were made by ion-implantation were fabricated on a new type of semi-insulating liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC)-grown crystal doped with carbon. The short-channel effect was suppressed and transconductance (gm), drain conductance and breakdown voltage were improved by carbon doping. These improvements were deduced as being due to a reduction in leakage under the channel. No change in the frequency dependence of the gm was recognized. Thus, the doped carbon did not generate any observable traps by which the properties of MESFET were degraded.

  10. A review of InP/InAlAs/InGaAs based transistors for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayan, J.; Nirmal, D.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the rapid progress being made in the development of InP based devices for high speed applications. Over the past few decades, major aero space industries have been developing InP based hetero structure devices like hetero junction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) because of their low DC power due to excellent low voltage operation and milli-meter wave frequency performance even though its widespread use has been limited by high cost. InP based HBTs, MOSFETs and HEMTs have also been developed by commercial companies for applications in high speed fiber optic communications because InP based device technologies takes advantage of the intrinsic material properties such as high thermal conductivity, high electron mobility and low energy band gap for low voltage operation compared to silicon, silicon-germenium, and GaAs based semiconductor devices.

  11. Ka-band IQ vector modulator employing GaAs HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuxiong, Cao; Danyu, Wu; Gaopeng, Chen; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2011-06-01

    The importance of high-performance, low-cost and millimeter-wave transmitters for digital communications and radar applications is increasing. The design and performance of a Ka-band balanced in-phase and quadrature-phase (I-Q) type vector modulator, using GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) as switching elements, are presented. The balanced technique is used to remove the parasitics of the HBTs to result in near perfect constellations. Measurements of the monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip with a size of 1.89 2.26 mm2 demonstrate an amplitude error below 1.5 dB and the phase error within 3 between 26 and 40 GHz except for a singular point at 35.6 GHz. The results show that the technique is suitable for millimeter-wave digital communications.

  12. Low phase noise GaAs HBT VCO in Ka-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yan; Yuming, Zhang; Hongliang, L; Yimen, Zhang; Yue, Wu; Yifeng, Liu

    2015-02-01

    Design and fabrication of a Ka-band voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using commercially available 1-?m GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor technology is presented. A fully differential common-emitter configuration with a symmetric capacitance with a symmetric inductance tank structure is employed to reduce the phase noise of the VCO, and a novel ?-feedback network is applied to compensate for the 180 phase shift. The on-wafer test shows that the VCO exhibits a phase noise of -96.47 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset and presents a tuning range from 28.312 to 28.695 GHz. The overall dc current consumption of the VCO is 18 mA with a supply voltage of -6 V The chip area of the VCO is 0.7 0.7 mm2.

  13. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  14. Impact ionization in GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors with a lightly doped drain structure and an Al0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs heterobuffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Junzi; Katano, Humiaki

    1995-04-01

    Kink effects (abrupt increases in drain current) were observed with an abrupt increase of gate current (IG), substrate current (Isub), substrate potential (Vsub), and photoemission intensity (Iphoto) in GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with a lightly doped drain (LDD) structure and an Al0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs heterobuffer layer. The kink drain voltage (VKD) increases as substrate temperature increases. Since impact ionization has a negative coefficient for increase of temperature, the increase of VKD indicates that impact ionization occurs at VKD. VKD also increases as VG becomes more negative and as the ratio of the dose of the silicon ions is reduced in the LDD region. Thus it is confirmed that impact ionization occurs at the drain side along the channel current path because those changes of VG and dose ratio reduce the electric field at the drain-side channel. In addition, impact ionization coefficients were calculated from IG and Isub based on the method proposed by Hui et al. Both the coefficients were exponentially proportional to the negative inverse of the electric field, although the magnitude of Isub was approximately 250× greater than that of IG. On the other hand, it was found that Iphoto was linearly proportional to Vsub. It suggests that Iphoto depends on the number of holes which overflow the n-GaAs channel/i-GaAs buffer interface potential barrier into the channel layer. These behaviors of IG, Isub, Iphoto, and Vsub are attributed to this FET structure which has a thin channel layer with a high donor density and a heterobuffer layer.

  15. Characteristics enhancement of a GaAs based heterostructure field-effect transistor with an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) surface treated gate structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chia; Chen, Huey-Ing; Liu, I.-Ping; Chou, Po-Cheng; Liou, Jian-Kai; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2015-06-01

    A Pt/AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET), prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) approach on gate Schottky contact region, is fabricated and studied. The EPD-based Pt-gates with three different molar ratios (ω0) are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image. Good Pt-gate coverage with effective reduction of thermal-induced defects at Pt/AlGaAs interface is achieved through a low temperature EPD approach. Experimentally, for a gate dimension of 1 μm × 100 μm, a lower gate current of 1.9 × 10-2 mA/mm, a higher turn-on voltage of 0.85 V, a higher maximum drain saturation current of 319.3 mA/mm, and a higher maximum extrinsic transconductance of 146.8 mS/mm are obtained for an EPD-based HFET at 300 K. Moreover, comparable microwave characteristics of an EPD-based HFET are demonstrated at different temperature ambiences. Therefore, based on the improved DC performance and inherent benefits of low cost, simple apparatus, flexible deposition on varied substrates, and adjustable alloy grain size, the proposed EPD approach shows the promise to fabricate high-performance electronic devices.

  16. Rapid thermal anneal in InP, GaAs and GaAs/GaAlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouts, B.; Duhamel, N.; Godefroy, S.; Krauz, P.

    Ion implantation in semiconductors provides a doping technique with several advantages over more conventional doping methods and is now extensively used for device applications, e.g. field effect transistors (MESFET GaAs, MIS (InP), GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT). Because of the lattice disorder produced by the implantation, the dopant must be made electrically active by a postimplant anneal. As the device performances are very dependent on its electrical characteristics, the anneal is a very important stage of the process. Rapid anneal is known to provide less exodiffusion and less induffusion of impurities compared to conventional furnace anneal, so this technique has been used in this work to activate an n-type dopant (Si) in InP and a p-type dopant (Mg) in GaAs and GaAs/GaAIAs. These two ions have been chosen to realize implanted MIS InP and the base contacts for GaAs/GaAlAs HBTs. The experimental conditions to obtain the maximum electrical activity in these two cases will be detailed. For example, although we have not been able to obtain a flat profile in Mg + implanted GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure by conventional thermal anneal, rapid thermal anneal gives a flat hole profile over a depth of 0.5 ?m with a concentration of 1 x 10 19 cm -3.

  17. Metamorphosis of the transistor into a laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, M.; Holonyak, N., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the invention and operation of the transistor, the alloy diode laser, the quantum-well diode laser and the high-speed heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT), we have invented and realized now a transistor laser (TL). The transistor laser is a three-terminal technology providing coupling and the coherent light emission in the transistor. The quantum-well (QW) heterojunction bipolar transistor laser, inherently a fast switching device, operates by transporting a small minority base charge density 1016 \\text{cm}-3 over a nanoscale base thickness (<900 \\text{A}) in picoseconds. The TL, owing to its fast recombination speed, its unique three-terminal configuration, and complementary nature of its optical and electrical collector output signals, enables resonance-free base current and collector voltage modulation. It is a compact source of electro-optical applications such as nonlinear signal mixing, frequency multiplication, negative feedback, and optoelectronics logic gates.

  18. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ADHD and bipolar disorder. previous continue Mania and Deep Lows In the high-energy phase of bipolar ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth is for ...

  19. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in ...

  20. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in ...

  1. A 32-bit RISC implemented in enhancement-mode JFET GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Rasset, T.L.; Niederland, R.A.; Lane, J.H.; Geideman, W.A.

    1986-10-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor process technologies for very high speed digital integrated circuits. This attention is motivated primarily by the ability of GaAs transistors to switch much faster with lower power consumption than transistors in silicon technologies. Soon to be available with higher switching speed and more transistors than the fastest silicon technology (emitter-coupled logic), GaAs digital ICs will be a boon to developers of super-computers and specialized high-speed microprocessors, such as digital signal processors. GaAs transistors are also much more resistant to temperature extremes and to ionizing radiation than silicon, important features for applications requiring operation in harsh environments. This does not mean that GaAs will replace silicon; rather, where the higher cost of GaAs is warranted by application requirements that only GaAs can satisfy, it will augment silicon. The high cost of GaAs chips is due mainly to the scarcity of gallium and the inferior quality and difficulty in manufacturing the gallium arsenide compound. Unlike silicon, which is very uniform and pure, GaAs has many defects and its characteristics may vary considerably from ingot to ingot, affecting yield. Also, the wafers have a tendency to break during processing.

  2. Simulating Single-Event Upsets in Bipolar RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation technique saves testing. Uses interactive version of SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis). Device and subcircuit models available in software used to construct macromodel for an integrated bipolar transistor. Time-dependent current generators placed inside transistor macromodel to simulate charge collection from ion track. Significant finding of experiments is standard design practice of reducing power in unaddressed bipolar RAM cell increases sensitivity of cell to single-event upsets.

  3. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  4. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  5. Role of InAs and GaAs terminated heterointerfaces at source/channel on the mixed As-Sb staggered gap tunnel field effect transistor structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Jain, N.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Mohata, D. K.; Datta, S.; Lubyshev, D.; Fastenau, J. M.; Liu, W. K.; Monsegue, N.; Hudait, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The structural, morphological, defect properties, and OFF state leakage current mechanism of mixed As-Sb type-II staggered gap GaAs-like and InAs-like interface heterostructure tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) grown on InP substrates using linearly graded InxAl1-xAs buffer by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated and compared. Symmetric relaxation of >90% and >75% in the two orthogonal <110> directions with minimal lattice tilt was observed for the terminal GaAs0.35Sb0.65 and In0.7Ga0.3As active layers of GaAs-like and InAs-like interface TFET structures, respectively, indicating that nearly equal numbers of ? and ? dislocations were formed during the relaxation process. Atomic force microscopy reveals extremely ordered crosshatch morphology and low root mean square roughness of 3.17 nm for the InAs-like interface TFET structure compared to the GaAs-like interface TFET structure of 4.46 nm at the same degree of lattice mismatch with respect to the InP substrates. The GaAs-like interface exhibited higher dislocation density, as observed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, resulting in the elongation of reciprocal lattice point of In0.7Ga0.3As channel and drain layers in the reciprocal space maps, while the InAs-like interface creates a defect-free interface for the pseudomorphic growth of the In0.7Ga0.3As channel and drain layers with minimal elongation along the ?? direction. The impact of the structural differences between the two interface types on metamorphic TFET devices was demonstrated by comparing p+-i-n+ leakage current of identical TFET devices that were fabricated using GaAs-like and InAs-like interface TFET structures. Higher OFF state leakage current dominated by band-to-band tunneling process due to higher degree of defects and dislocations was observed in GaAs-like interface compared to InAs-like interface where type-II staggered band alignment was well maintained. Significantly lower OFF state leakage current dominated by the field enhanced Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination process at different temperatures was observed in InAs-like TFET structure. The fixed positive charge at the source/channel heterointerface influences the band lineup substantially with charge density greater than 1 1012/cm2 and the band alignment is converted from staggered gap to broken gap at 6 1012/cm2. Clearly, InAs-like interface TFET structure exhibited 4 lower OFF state leakage current, which is attributed primarily to the impact of the layer roughness, defect properties on the carrier recombination rate, suggesting great promise for metamorphic TFET devices for high-performance, and ultra-low power applications.

  6. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change in weight Trouble recalling things, concentrating or making decisions Headaches, backaches or digestive problems ... Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in families. If you have ...

  7. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  8. Refined Transistor Model For Simulation Of SEU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Benumof, Reuben

    1988-01-01

    Equivalent base resistance added. Theoretical study develops equations for parameters of Gummel-Poon model of bipolar junction transistor: includes saturation current, amplification factors, charging times, knee currents, capacitances, and resistances. Portion of study concerned with base region goes beyond Gummel-Poon analysis to provide more complete understanding of transistor behavior. Extended theory useful in simulation of single-event upset (SEU) caused in logic circuits by cosmic rays or other ionizing radiation.

  9. The 20 GHz power GaAs FET development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandell, M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of power Field Effect Transistors (FET) operating in the 20 GHz frequency band is described. The major efforts include GaAs FET device development (both 1 W and 2 W devices), and the development of an amplifier module using these devices.

  10. Developing Low-Noise GaAs JFETs For Cryogenic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses aspects of effort to develop low-noise, low-gate-leakage gallium arsenide-based junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) for operation at temperature of about 4 K as readout amplifiers and multiplexing devices for infrared-imaging devices. Transistors needed to replace silicon transistors, relatively noisy at 4 K. Report briefly discusses basic physical principles of JFETs and describes continuing process of optimization of designs of GaAs JFETs for cryogenic operation.

  11. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  12. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  13. GaAs Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor with Oxi-Nitrided Gate Film Formed by New Process Utilizing Al Layer as Resist Film for Selective Etching, Oxi-Nitridation and Lift-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Yuhki; Seto, Hiroki; Takebe, Masahide; Tametou, Mitoko; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Iiyama, Koichi; Takamiya, Saburo

    2006-04-01

    We have reported that the oxi-nitridation of GaAs forms an insulator-semiconductor interface without deteriorating the crystallographic order of GaAs, and is applicable to the fabrication of compound semiconductor devices with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gates. A problem with oxi-nitridation is that nitrogen plasma ashes and thins the photoresist and hence restricts the possible nitrogen processing times even if a long nitridation is desirable for a better interface quality. To counteract this restriction, we developed a new processing technique utilizing an 0.3-?m-thick Al layer as a mask for selective etching, oxi-nitridation and lift-off. A high transconductance (185 mS/mm) and sharp pinch-off were obtained by a long (8 h) nitridation.

  14. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-02-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT).

  15. An introduction GaAs microprocessor architecture for VLSI

    SciTech Connect

    Milutinovic, V.; Fura, D.; Helbig, W.

    1986-03-01

    Gallium arsenide, or GaAs, technology has recently shown rapid increases in maturity. In particular, the advances made in digital chip complexity have been enormous. This progress is especially evident in two types of chips: static rams and gate arrays. In 1983, static rams containing 1K bits were announced. One year later both a 4K-bit and a 16K-bit version were presented. Gate arrays have advanced from a 1000-gate design presented in 1984 to a 2000-gate design announced in 1985. With this enormous progress underway, it is now appropriate to consider the use of this new technology in the implementation of high-performance processors. GaAs technology generates high levels of enthusiasm primarily because of two advantages it enjoys over silicon: higher speed and greater resistance to adverse environmental conditions. GaAs gates switch faster than silicon transistor-transistor logic, or TTL, gates by nearly an order of magnitude. These switching speeds are even faster than those attained by the fastest silicon emitter-coupled logic, or ECL, but at power levels an order of magnitude lower. For this reason, GaAs is seen to have applications in computer design within several computationally intensive areas. In fact, it has been reported that the Cray-3 will contain GaAs parts. GaAs also enjoys greater resistance to radiation and temperature variations than does silicon. GaAs successfully operates in radiation levels of 10 to 100 million rads. Its operating temperature range extends from -200 to 200/sup 0/C. Consequently, GaAs has created great excitement in the military and aerospace markets.

  16. Ion implanted GaAs microwave FET's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Blockley, E. G.; Dawsey, J. R.; Foreman, B. J.; Woodward, J.; Ball, G.; Beard, S. J.; Gaskell, J. M.; Allenson, M. B.

    1988-06-01

    The combination of ion implantation and photolithographic patterning techniques was applied to the fabrication of GaAs microwave FETs to provide a large number of devices having consistently predictable dc and high frequency characteristics. To validate the accuracy and repeatability of the high frequency device parameters, an X-band microwave circuit was designed and realized. The performance of this circuit, a buffered amplifier, is very close to the design specification. The availability of a large number of reproducible, well-characterized transistors enabled work to commence on the development of a large signal model for FETs. Work in this area is also described.

  17. Forward-bias tunneling - A limitation to bipolar device scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Alamo, Jesus A.; Swanson, Richard M.

    1986-01-01

    Forward-bias tunneling is observed in heavily doped p-n junctions of bipolar transistors. A simple phenomenological model suitable to incorporation in device codes is developed. The model identifies as key parameters the space-charge-region (SCR) thickness at zero bias and the reduced doping level at its edges which can both be obtained from CV characteristics. This tunneling mechanism may limit the maximum gain achievable from scaled bipolar devices.

  18. Performance analysis of undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) MOSFET at subthreshold regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, B.; Pradhan, K. P.; Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.; Sahu, P. K.; Mohapatra, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this work the sensitivity of process parameters like channel length (L), channel thickness (tSi), and gate work function (?M) on various performance metrics of an undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) are systematically analyzed. Undoped GAA MOSFET is a radical invention as it introduces a new direction for transistor scaling. In conventional MOSFET, generally the channel doping concentration is very high to provide high on-state current, but in contrary it causes random dopant fluctuation and threshold voltage variation. So, the undoped nature of GAA MOSFET solves the above complications. Hence, we have analyzed the electrical characteristics as well as the analog/RF performances of undoped GAA MOSFET through Sentaurus device simulator.

  19. New dynamic FET logic and serial memory circuits for VLSI GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldin, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    The complexity of GaAs field effect transistor (FET) very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits is limited by the maximum power dissipation while the uniformity of the device parameters determines the functional yield. In this work, digital GaAs FET circuits are presented that eliminate the DC power dissipation and reduce the area to 50% of that of the conventional static circuits. Its larger tolerance to device parameter variations results in higher functional yield.

  20. Multistreamer regime of GaAs thyristor switching

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, S.N.; Kilpelae, A.J.; Kostamovaara, J.T.; Myllylae, R.A.; Starobinets, S.U.; Zhilyaev, J.V. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    GaAs bipolar thyristors have been used to obtain current pulses of over 100 A with rise times less than 600 ps and load resistance of approximately 0.4 [Omega]. The maximum voltage has been shown to exceeded 500 V in some cases. To interpret the experimental results a multichannel switch regime is proposed. Analysis of the experimental data suggests the possibility of a further increase in the maximum amplitude of the current pulse.

  1. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  2. GaAs Optoelectronic Integrated-Circuit Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Steven H.; Kim, Jae H.; Psaltis, Demetri

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs optoelectronic integrated circuits developed for use as artificial neurons. Neural-network computer contains planar arrays of optoelectronic neurons, and variable synaptic connections between neurons effected by diffraction of light from volume hologram in photorefractive material. Basic principles of neural-network computers explained more fully in "Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits For Neural Networks" (NPO-17652). In present circuits, devices replaced by metal/semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFET's), which consume less power.

  3. Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier with GaAs JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Nagata, Hirohisa; Hibi, Yasunori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masahide

    2009-12-01

    A SONY n-type GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) can operate at deep cryogenic temperatures without exhibiting kink phenomena or hysteresis in its I-V characteristics. Further the GaAs JFET has small gate leakage currents(<4.610-19A) and a minute input capacitance (0.037 pF). Moreover, even though the gate terminal of a JFET is surrounded by high-impedance materials, the noise level does not increase and a low noise level of 500 nV/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz with low power dissipation (<1 ?W) was achieved. We are currently developing operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) and digital modules for cryogenically cooled high-sensitivity photodetection systems. The GaAs Op-Amp with an open loop gain of 2000 at a power dissipation of 6.5 ?W has been developed.

  4. Total Dose Effects on Bipolar Integrated Circuits at Low Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Total dose damage in bipolar integrated circuits is investigated at low temperature, along with the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters of internal transistors. Bandgap narrowing causes the gain of npn transistors to decrease far more at low temperature compared to pnp transistors, due to the large difference in emitter doping concentration. When irradiations are done at temperatures of -140 deg C, no damage occurs until devices are warmed to temperatures above -50 deg C. After warm-up, subsequent cooling shows that damage is then present at low temperature. This can be explained by the very strong temperature dependence of dispersive transport in the continuous-time-random-walk model for hole transport. For linear integrated circuits, low temperature operation is affected by the strong temperature dependence of npn transistors along with the higher sensitivity of lateral and substrate pnp transistors to radiation damage.

  5. Comparison of the degradation effects of heavy ion, electron, and cobalt-60 irradiation in an advanced bipolar process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Goben, Charles A.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of the degradation effects of high-energy particles (heavy Br ions and electrons) and Co-60 gamma-rays on the current gain of minimum-geometry bipolar transistors made from an advanced process. The data clearly illustrate the total-ionizing-dose vs particle-fluence behavior of this bipolar transistor produced by an advanced process. In particular, bulk damage from Co-60 gamma rays in bipolar transistors (base transport factor degradation) and surface damage in bipolar transistors from ionizing radiation (emitter-efficiency degradation) have been observed. The true equivalence between various types of radiation for this process technology has been determined on the basis of damage from the log K1 intercepts.

  6. Novel WSi/Au T-shaped gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistor fabrication process for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, H.; Hosogi, K.; Kato, T.

    1995-05-01

    A fully ion-implanted self-aligned T-shaped gate Ga As metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) with high frequency and extremely low-noise performance has been successfully fabricated for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers. A subhalf-micrometer gate structure composed of WSi/Ti/Mo/Au is employed to reduce gate resistance effectively. This multilayer gate structure is formed by newly developed dummy SiON self-alignment technology and a photoresist planarization process. At an operating frequency of 12 GHz, a minimum noise figure of 0.87 dB with an associated gain of 10.62 dB has been obtained. Based on the novel FET process, a low-noise single-stage MMIC amplifier with an excellent low-noise figure of 1.2 dB with an associated gain of 8 dB in the 14 GHz band has been realized. This is the lowest noise figure ever reported at this frequency for low-noise MMICs based on ion-implanted self-aligned gate MESFET technology. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  8. Progress on GaAs cryogenic readout circuits for SISCAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuo, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    2006-06-01

    We are developing cryogenic readout circuits for the array of superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs) at submillimeter wavelength SISCAM (Superconductive Imaging Submillimeter-wave CAMera). A current conceptual design of SISCAM will employ a direct hybrid array system just like CMOS image sensors widely used at optical and infrared wavelength. Because of relatively large impedance of the STJ fabricated by RIKEN (~10 MΩ in a dark condition), it requires readout preamplifier with low current noise. Therefore, it is not suitable for the STJ to use a readout system by Superconductive Quantum Interferences Devices as for Transition Edge Sensor. Instead, we selected capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) using a SONY n-type GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET). However, the CTIA has not been used as the readout of the STJ. Therefore, we measured the photocurrent of the STJ by the CTIA with Silicon JFETs and by transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which is a conventional readout for the STJ, in the same bias condition, and confirmed both results are in good agreement. Additionally, we report development of readout integrated circuits with GaAs JFETs. In order to design the CTIA circuit with the GaAs JFETs, we fabricated the independent GaAs JFETs and matched pairs of them. We measured electrical characteristics of these GaAs JFETs at the cryogenic temperatures less than 4.2 K. We demonstrated performance of an operational amplifier fabricated with the GaAs JFETs measuring a differential amplifier with the dual GaAs JFET, and additionally estimate amplifier gain, offset voltage, and power consumption of the CTIA by the circuit simulation using the PSPICE. In consequence, the expected performance fulfills the requirements for the readout amplifier of the STJs except for the noise performance.

  9. Bipolar Disorder in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... item) Bipolar Disorder (3 items) Depression (9 items) Eating Disorders (1 item) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (1 item) Obsessive- ... item) Bipolar Disorder (3 items) Depression (9 items) Eating Disorders (1 item) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (1 item) Obsessive- ...

  10. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things that make bipolar disorder different from ordinary mood swings are: Intensity: Mood swings that come with ...

  11. A Heteroepitaxial Perovskite Metal-Base Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.; ,

    2011-08-11

    'More than Moore' captures a concept for overcoming limitations in silicon electronics by incorporating new functionalities in the constituent materials. Perovskite oxides are candidates because of their vast array of physical properties in a common structure. They also enable new electronic devices based on strongly-correlated electrons. The field effect transistor and its derivatives have been the principal oxide devices investigated thus far, but another option is available in a different geometry: if the current is perpendicular to the interface, the strong internal electric fields generated at back-to-back heterojunctions can be used for oxide electronics, analogous to bipolar transistors. Here we demonstrate a perovskite heteroepitaxial metal-base transistor operating at room temperature, enabled by interface dipole engineering. Analysis of many devices quantifies the evolution from hot-electron to permeable-base behaviour. This device provides a platform for incorporating the exotic ground states of perovskite oxides, as well as novel electronic phases at their interfaces.

  12. Vertical Ge/Si Core/Shell Nanowire Junctionless Transistor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Cai, Fuxi; Otuonye, Ugo; Lu, Wei D

    2016-01-13

    Vertical junctionless transistors with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure based on Ge/Si core/shell nanowires epitaxially grown and integrated on a ?111? Si substrate were fabricated and analyzed. Because of efficient gate coupling in the nanowire-GAA transistor structure and the high density one-dimensional hole gas formed in the Ge nanowire core, excellent P-type transistor behaviors with Ion of 750 ?A/?m were obtained at a moderate gate length of 544 nm with minimal short-channel effects. The experimental data can be quantitatively modeled by a GAA junctionless transistor model with few fitting parameters, suggesting the nanowire transistors can be fabricated reliably without introducing additional factors that can degrade device performance. Devices with different gate lengths were readily obtained by tuning the thickness of an etching mask film. Analysis of the histogram of different devices yielded a single dominate peak in device parameter distribution, indicating excellent uniformity and high confidence of single nanowire operation. Using two vertical nanowire junctionless transistors, a PMOS-logic inverter with near rail-to-rail output voltage was demonstrated, and device matching in the logic can be conveniently obtained by controlling the number of nanowires employed in different devices rather than modifying device geometry. These studies show that junctionless transistors based on vertical Ge/Si core/shell nanowires can be fabricated in a controlled fashion with excellent performance and may be used in future hybrid, high-performance circuits where bottom-up grown nanowire devices with different functionalities can be directly integrated with an existing Si platform. PMID:26674542

  13. Parasitic bipolar effect in ultra-thin FD SOI MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. Y.; Ionica, I.; Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2015-10-01

    The parasitic bipolar effect is investigated in fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD SOI) n-type MOSFETs with ultra-thin films (5-10 nm). Our measurements show that at low drain bias the drain leakage current is governed by the gate current. Beyond VD > 1.0 V, leakage current amplification is observed in short-channel 10-nm thick devices. With film thickness shrinking, the current amplification is suppressed. We explain this amplification by the turn-on of the lateral parasitic bipolar transistor. TCAD simulations confirm that the parasitic bipolar is activated due to holes generated by band-to-band tunneling at the drain side and accumulated in the floating body. An effective method for the extraction of bipolar gain is proposed based on the comparison of leakage current in short- and long-channel devices. The experimental method is validated through simulations.

  14. Superconducting transistor

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  15. Analysis and Design of a Gated Envelope Feedback Technique for Automatic Hardware Reconfiguration of RFIC Power Amplifiers, with Full On-Chip Implementation in Gallium Arsenide Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Nicolas Gerard David

    In this doctoral dissertation, the author presents the theoretical foundation, the analysis and design of analog and RF circuits, the chip level implementation, and the experimental validation pertaining to a new radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) power amplifier (PA) architecture that is intended for wireless portable transceivers. A method called Gated Envelope Feedback is proposed to allow the automatic hardware reconfiguration of a stand-alone RFIC PA in multiple states for power efficiency improvement purposes. The method uses self-operating and fully integrated circuitry comprising RF power detection, switching and sequential logic, and RF envelope feedback in conjunction with a hardware gating function for triggering and activating current reduction mechanisms as a function of the transmitted RF power level. Because of the critical role that RFIC PA components occupy in modern wireless transceivers, and given the major impact that these components have on the overall RF performances and energy consumption in wireless transceivers, very significant benefits stem from the underlying innovations. The method has been validated through the successful design of a 1.88GHz COMA RFIC PA with automatic hardware reconfiguration capability, using an industry renowned state-of-the-art GaAs HBT semiconductor process developed and owned by Skyworks Solutions, Inc., USA. The circuit techniques that have enabled the successful and full on-chip embodiment of the technique are analyzed in details. The IC implementation is discussed, and experimental results showing significant current reduction upon automatic hardware reconfiguration, gain regulation performances, and compliance with the stringent linearity requirements for COMA transmission demonstrate that the gated envelope feedback method is a viable and promising approach to automatic hardware reconfiguration of RFIC PA's for current reduction purposes. Moreover, in regard to on-chip integration of advanced PA control functions, it is demonstrated that the method is better positioning GaAs HBT technologies, which are known to offer very competitive RF performances but inherently have limited integration capabilities. Finally, an analytical approach for the evaluation of inter-modulation distortion (IMD) in envelope feedback architectures is introduced, and the proposed design equations and methodology for IMD analysis may prove very helpful for theoretical analyses, for simulation tasks, and for experimental work.

  16. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. PMID:26876319

  17. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, Charles E.; Mar, Alan; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  18. A 600-MHz median-type digital filter on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vainjo, Olli; Sundaram, Mani; Long, Stephen I.; Neuvo, Yrjo

    1992-01-01

    A single-chip GaAs implementation of an FIR-median hybrid filter is presented. The very high-speed digital filter combines linear averaging structures to a median selector. The filter operates on 5-b samples with ECL-compatible I/O interfaces. The 1500-transistor LSI device with 3.6-sq mm chip size was processed with a 1.0-micron GaAs depletion-mode (D-mode) MESFET process. The filter demonstrates 600-MHz sample rate when operated in test mode utilizing special built-in feedback.

  19. An all-implanted, self-aligned, GaAs JFET with a nonalloyed W/p[sup +]-GaAs ohmic gate contact

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Sherwin, M.E.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Draper, B.L.; Klem, J.F.; Hietala, V.M. )

    1994-07-01

    The authors describe a self-aligned, refractory metal gate contact, enhancement mode, GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) where all impurity doping was done by ion implantation. Processing conditions are presented for realizing a high gate turn on voltage ([approximately]1.0 V at 1 mA/mm of gate current) relative to GaAs MESFET's. The high gate turn-on voltage is the result of optimizing the p+-gate implant and anneal to achieve a nonalloyed ohmic contact between the implanted p[sup +]-GaAs and the sputter deposited tungsten gate contact. Initial nominally 1.0 [mu]m [times] 50 [mu]m n-JFET's have a transconductance of 85 mS/mm and f[sub t] of 11.4 GHz.

  20. GaAs IC technology for wireless communications applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.

    1995-12-31

    Present day wireless communication products require low power consumption receivers and high efficiency transmitters. Long battery life, light weight, small size and low cost are few of the key parameters that determine the success of a portable communication product. The size and weight of wireless products can be drastically reduced by decreasing the number of battery cells. RF power amplifiers are the highest energy consumption component of portable communication equipment. The introduction of GaAs MESFET, HFET, and HBT into wireless communications equipment increased the performance level of RF power functions. A significant improvement in DC to RF conversion efficiency over the previous bipolar RF power amplifiers was achieved. In order to meet the customer demand for longer talk time, low power receiver ICs and high efficiency power amplifiers are being designed into wireless communications products. Semiconductor devices with better noise figure-gain performance and higher efficiency are needed to maintain the same RF performance at lower voltages. Linearity of the device is also very important for the transmitter and receiver applications. GaAs device and IC technology has many salient features that make it an ideal candidate for wireless communication applications. GaAs IC receivers lead to a reduction in the number of parts and interconnects and, hence, the size and weight. In this paper we will discuss the principles of GaAs device and IC design, with emphasis on the active and passive devices, circuit design and applications. GaAs Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMICs) design principles and examples will also be discussed.

  1. The HP 85192B EEFet3 GaAs FET Nonlinear Model Used in the High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier (HEMPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most nonlinear circuit analysis programs that exist today were designed primarily for transient analysis. By incorporating more accurate models in simulation programs, accurate predictions of GaAs field effect transistors (FET) behavior can be accomplished. However, should the designer need to simulate GaAs FETs that operate at high DC-to-RF conversion efficiencies, a more sophisticated model is needed. A relevant and appropriate method is called harmonic-balance, as described by Quere et al.

  2. A silicon nanocrystal tunnel field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Drouin, Dominique; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2014-05-12

    In this work, we demonstrate a silicon nanocrystal Field Effect Transistor (ncFET). Its operation is similar to that of a Tunnelling Field Effect Transistor (TFET) with two barriers in series. The tunnelling barriers are fabricated in very thin silicon dioxide and the channel in intrinsic polycrystalline silicon. The absence of doping eliminates the problem of achieving sharp doping profiles at the junctions, which has proven a challenge for large-scale integration and, in principle, allows scaling down the atomic level. The demonstrated ncFET features a 10{sup 4} on/off current ratio at room temperature, a low 30 pA/μm leakage current at a 0.5 V bias, an on-state current on a par with typical all-Si TFETs and bipolar operation with high symmetry. Quantum dot transport spectroscopy is used to assess the band structure and energy levels of the silicon island.

  3. Characterization and modeling of ion-implanted GaAs FET's

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Gallium arsenide has several advantages compared to silicon such as high low-field mobility, large (approx. 1.4 eV), and direct energy-band gap. Fabrication of devices and IC's (integrated circuits) relies heavily on semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrate. However, there are some undesirable properties associated with binary compound semiconductors. Because the physical properties (such as melting point) of Ga are quite different from those of As, GaAs has intrinsic defects and surface defects. This leads to GaAs material characteristics with large surface-state densities and deep-level traps in the bulk. This thesis investigates the non-ideal behavior of GaAs FET's (field effect transistors) fabricated by ion-implantion into the GaAs substrate. In order to understand the behavior of ion-implanted GaAs FET's, a thorough understanding of the crystal properties is required. A model based on the process parameters such as doses, projected range, etc., is developed. This model is used for the simulation of the FET's device parameters such as threshold voltage and transconductance as functions of the gate length, temperature, and orientation on the water. This model can also simulate the effect of annealing time on the FET characteristics. It can be used as a tool to optimize the process parameters before the actual fabrication.

  4. Integration of front-end electronics with GaAs pixel detectors: Experimental and feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuccio, G.; Longoni, A.; De Geronimo, G.; Canali, C.; Lanzieri, C.; Nava, F.

    1999-08-01

    This work aims to study the feasibility of the integration, on the same chip, of GaAs pixel detectors and frontend electronics employing GaAs metal semiconductor FET`s (MESFET`s) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMT`s). The interest of fully integrated GaAs systems lies in X and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and Imaging for scientific, industrial, and medical applications. The system design criteria and the prediction of the performance have been derived on the basis of recent experimental results on semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors. Measurements of the relevant parameters of GaAs FET`s suitable for the stringent requirements of a specroscopy-grade frontend amplifier are analyzed. It is shown that an optimized GaAs integrated system can reach an electronic noise level below 100 electrons rms (<1 keV FWHM) even at room temperature. Some open problems regarding the detector-electronics integration are highlighted and discussed.

  5. STABILIZED TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Noe, J.B.

    1963-05-01

    A temperature stabilized transistor amplifier having a pair of transistors coupled in cascade relation that are capable of providing amplification through a temperature range of - 100 un. Concent 85% F to 400 un. Concent 85% F described. The stabilization of the amplifier is attained by coupling a feedback signal taken from the emitter of second transistor at a junction between two serially arranged biasing resistances in the circuit of the emitter of the second transistor to the base of the first transistor. Thus, a change in the emitter current of the second transistor is automatically corrected by the feedback adjustment of the base-emitter potential of the first transistor and by a corresponding change in the base-emitter potential of the second transistor. (AEC)

  6. Toward a very low-power integrated charge preamplifier by using III-V field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Geronimo, G. de; Longoni, A.

    1998-06-01

    The future high-energy physics experiments, based on the new high-luminosity accelerators, will require a new generation of front-end monolithic electronics characterized, in particular, by high speed and low-power dissipation. In this perspective, the performances of Si and GaAs field effect transistors (FETs) are compared here in conditions of low-power dissipation. The advantages of solutions based on GaAs FETs, in applications requiring fast shaping times, are presented and experimental results are reported. The criteria for the optimum choice of the input transistor dimension and of its bias point are discussed.

  7. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  8. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality. PMID:26172635

  9. Bipolar fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F. (Suffield, CT)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses an improved fuel cell utilizing an ion transporting membrane having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode bonded to opposite sides of the membrane, a wet-proofed carbon sheet in contact with the cathode surface opposite that bonded to the membrane and a bipolar separator positioned in electrical contact with the carbon sheet and the anode of the adjacent fuel cell. Said bipolar separator and carbon sheet forming an oxidant flowpath, wherein the improvement comprises an electrically conductive screen between and in contact with the wet-proofed carbon sheet and the bipolar separator improving the product water removal system of the fuel cell.

  10. Hardness assurance and testing issues for bipolar/BiCMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlin, R. N.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Pease, R. L.

    The dose-rate dependence of the total-dose response of bipolar transistors is mapped for several dose rates. Comparisons are made between the total-dose response in x-ray and Co-60 irradiations. Implications for hardness assurance are discussed.

  11. The bootstrapped gate FET (BGFET) - A new control transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Bayruns, R.; Li, K.; Stoffman, O.D.

    1995-12-31

    Si PIN diodes are used almost exclusively when low cost, low distortion variable attenuators are needed. PIN diodes can obtain an input third order intercept IIP3 of +20 to +40 dBm, but at the expense of complicated biasing and high current consumption. GaAs MESFETs used as attenuators require only a control voltage and are easily integrated into monolithic circuits. A major disadvantage of the GaAs MESFET is its high level of distortion. In a series attenuator configuration, a typical GaAs MESFET IIP3 is 0 dBm at 10 dB attenuation. Therefore, GaAs MESFETs are used only under very low level input signals. This precludes their use from most high volume applications such as cable television, DBS receivers and cellular telephones. The authors will present a new transistor, a bootstrapped gate FET (BGFET) which provides about an approximate 20 dB improvement in distortion over a standard GaAs MESFET.

  12. Bipolar disorder (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate and maintain, ...

  13. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, Michael A.; Zavala, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, especially the most severe type (type I), has a strong genetic component. Family studies suggest that a small number of genes of modest effect are involved in this disorder. Family-based studies have identified a number of chromosomal regions linked to bipolar disorder, and progress is currently being made in identifying positional candidate genes within those regions, number of candidate genes have also shown evidence of association with bipolar disorder, and genome-wide association studies are now under way, using dense genetic maps. Replication studies in larger or combined datasets are needed to definitively assign a role for specific genes in this disorder. This review covers our current knowledge of the genetics of bipolar disorder, and provides a commentary on current approaches used to identify the genes involved in this complex behavioral disorder. PMID:18689285

  14. A new approach for physical-based modelling of bipolar power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibante, R.; Arajo, A.; Carvalho, A.

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for accurate modelling and simulation of power bipolar semiconductor devices. Model's core is a numerical module that solves ambipolar diffusion equation (ADE) trough a variational formulation followed by an approximate solution with a finite element approach. The approach enables easy implementation of physics-based power semiconductor models into standard SPICE circuit simulators. Implementation is done trough a set of current controlled RC nets describing charge carrier distribution in low-doped zone. Other zones of devices are modelled with classical methods in an analytical module. With this hybrid approach it is possible to describe dynamic and static device behaviour with good accuracy while maintaining low execution times. The methodology is presented and applied for power p-i-n diodes, power bipolar junction transistors and insulated gate bipolar transistors. Models are validated comparing experimental and simulated results.

  15. Temperature dependence of electronic behaviors in quantum dimension junctionless thin-film transistor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The high temperature dependence of junctionless (JL) gate-all-around (GAA) poly-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) with 2-nm-thick nanosheet channel is compared with that of JL planar TFTs. The variation of SS with temperature for JL GAA TFTs is close to the theoretical value (0.2mV/dec/K), owing to the oxidation process to form a 2-nm-thick channel. The bandgap of 1.35eV in JL GAA TFTs by fitting experimental data exhibits the quantum confinement effect, indicating greater suppression of Ioff than that in JL planar TFTs. The measured ?Vth?T of ?1.34mV/C in JL GAA nanosheet TFTs has smaller temperature dependence than that of ?5.01mV/C in JL planar TFTs. PMID:25147491

  16. Characterizing charge trapping in microwave transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmell, James G.; Parker, Anthony E.

    2005-12-01

    This paper looks at the problems associated with pulsed testing of GaN and GaAs HEMTs and its use in examining the charging and discharging times of the various traps that affect conduction. A particular problem is that the RF behaviour of these transistors varies with the state of charge of the traps. This is a concern for a large class of applications where the usage pattern is comparable to the time constants of the traps. Such classes include the intermittently-switched front ends of 802.11 and mobile telephone circuits. The conventional approach with pulsed testing is to sit at a bias point for a sufficiently long time and then to pulse to characteristic voltages very quickly before returning to the bias. If the pulsing to the applied characteristic voltages is much faster than the time constants of the traps of the transistor, then the characteristic measured will reflect the state of charge of the traps for the bias point. Our approach here is to perform a series of characteristic measurements as the bias and trap charge-state change. Each characteristic is measured too quickly to affect the trapped charge significantly. The set of characteristics then reflects the changing nature of the transistor's bias and state of charge of its traps.

  17. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  18. Pressure transducer of the on the basis of reactive properties of transistor structure with negative resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchuk, Alexander V.; Osadchuk, Iaroslav A.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kussambayeva, Nazym

    2015-12-01

    The opportunity of direct transformation of pressure in frequency is shown on the basis of the hybrid integrated circuit consisting of the two-collector pressure sensitive transistor and the field two-gate transistor with an active inductive element on the basis of the bipolar transistor with a phase-shifting RC chain. Analytical dependencies of transformation function and the equation of sensitivity are received. Theoretical and experimental research have shown, that sensitivity of the transducer makes 1,55-1,10kHz/kPa.

  19. A Ku-band oscillator subsystem using a broadband GaAs MMIC push-pull amplifier/doubler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert; Ali, Fazal

    1991-11-01

    The design and performance results of a Ku-band voltage controlled oscillator subsystem using a broadband GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) push-pull amplifier as a frequency doubler are described. The subsystem utilizes both GaAs MMIC and Si bipolar technologies to achieve the desired performance objectives. The oscillator subsystem is tunable over the 14-18-GHz frequency range with a minimum output power of 18 dBm and a phase noise of -88 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset from the carrier over a 0 to +65 C temperature range.

  20. Calculating drain delay in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffie, R.

    2015-12-01

    An expression for the signal delay (drain delay) associated with electrons traveling through the gate-drain depletion region has been obtained for nonuniform electron velocity. Due to the presence of the gate metal, the signal delay through the gate-drain depletion region was shown to be larger than the signal delay in the base-collector depletion region of a bipolar transistor when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. Drain delay is also shown to be larger in transistors with field plates (independent of field plate connection) compared to transistors without field plates when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. For the case of constant velocity, two expressions for the proportionality constant relating drain delay and electron transit time across the depletion were obtained.

  1. Ku-band MIC bipolar VCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, R. G.; Matson, J. L.

    1981-04-01

    Voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) for electronic counter measures (ECM) applications require a highly linear V/f response. From a systems standpoint, interfacing the VCO is an equally important consideration. In order to satisfy the requirements at high Ku-band, an effective design philosophy is to use a self-oscillating multiplier (osciplier) which initially generates the oscillation frequency at half the output frequency and uses the tuning diodes and output matching to enhance the first harmonic for the output. The feasibility of a bipolar VCO at 18 GHz using transistors and diodes is illustrated. When interfaced with an amplifier/buffer/limiter, the oscillator output power is increased and flattened to approximately 8.0 + or - 0.5 dBm across the band.

  2. Radiation effect on silicon transistors in mixed neutrons-gamma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, J.; Shweikani, R.; Ghazi, N.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on two different types of transistors, Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a Syrian research reactor (RR) (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR)) and a gamma source (Co-60 cell). For RR irradiation, MCNP code was used to calculate the absorbed dose received by the transistors. The experimental results showed an overall decrease in the gain factors of the transistors after irradiation, and the JFETs were more resistant to the effects of radiation than BJTs. The effect of RR irradiation was also greater than that of gamma source for the same dose, which could be because neutrons could cause more damage than gamma irradiation.

  3. A dc model for power switching transistors suitable for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P. M.; George, R. T., Jr.; Owen, H. A.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    A model for bipolar junction power switching transistors whose parameters can be readily obtained by the circuit design engineer, and which can be conveniently incorporated into standard computer-based circuit analysis programs is presented. This formulation results from measurements which may be made with standard laboratory equipment. Measurement procedures, as well as a comparison between actual and computed results, are presented.

  4. A dc model for power switching transistors suitable for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P. M.; George, R. T., Jr.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed dc model for bipolar junction power switching transistors is based on measurements which may be made with standard laboratory equipment. Those nonlinearities which are of importance to power electronics design are emphasized. Measurements procedures are discussed in detail. A model formulation adapted for use with a computer program is presented, and a comparison between actual and computer-generated results is made.

  5. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  6. Soft switch-avalanche IGBT convertor. [Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K.; Stuart, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    A full bridge dc-dc converter using a zero voltage and zero current switching technique is described. This circuit utilizes the characteristics of the IGBT to achieve power and frequency combinations that are much higher than those previously reported for this device. Experimental results are included for a 1.5 kW, 100 kHz converter with 94 percent efficiency.

  7. Crossed Andreev reflection in a graphene bipolar transistor.

    PubMed

    Cayssol, J

    2008-04-11

    We investigate the crossed Andreev reflections between two graphene leads connected by a narrow superconductor. When the leads are, respectively, of the n and p type, we find that electron elastic cotunneling and local Andreev reflection are both eliminated even in the absence of any valley-isospin or spin polarizations. We further predict oscillations of both diagonal and cross conductances as a function of the distance between the graphene-superconductor interfaces. PMID:18518065

  8. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  9. Fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A data base of mechanical and fracture properties for GaAs was generated. The data for single crystal GaAs will be used to design reusable GaAs solar modules. Database information includes; (1) physical property characterizations; (2) fracture behavior evaluations; and (3) strength of cells determined as a function of cell processing and material parameters.

  10. Polyphosphonium?based bipolar membranes for rectification of ionic currents

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Erik O.; Berggren, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar membranes (BMs) have interesting applications within the field of bioelectronics, as they may be used to create non-linear ionic components (e.g., ion diodes and transistors), thereby extending the functionality of, otherwise linear, electrophoretic drug delivery devices. However, BM based diodes suffer from a number of limitations, such as narrow voltage operation range and/or high hysteresis. In this work, we circumvent these problems by using a novel polyphosphonium-based BM, which is shown to exhibit improved diode characteristics. We believe that this new type of BM diode will be useful for creating complex addressable ionic circuits for delivery of charged biomolecules. PMID:24400035

  11. Recent advances in GaAs JFETs for deep cryogenic focal plane readouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Fitzsimmons, Michael

    1998-09-01

    The progress of the JPL in developing gallium arsenide junction field-effect transistors (GaAs JFETs) for application in RI readout electronics operating below 10 Kelvin is discussed. Results on GaAs JFETs fabricated using a highly isotropic HF-based etchant have been presented previously by our group. The isotropic etch reduced the typical input leakage current at 4K to less than 1 fA. These JFETs had a low frequency noise of just under 1 (mu) V/Hz(superscript 1/2) at 1 Hz at 4K, while dissipating less than 1 (mu) W of power. Building on this work, we have fabricated small-scale integrated circuits based on this GaAs JFET technology. In this paper we report on the fabrication of small-scale integrated circuit multiplexers and amplifiers. An 8 by 1 source-follower-per-detector multiplexer and a three-transistor differential pair have been fabricated and are fully functional at 4K. The input-referred noise and leakage current is consistent with that for the discrete devices. A systematic study of the device size dependence of the noise has been started, but as yet is inconclusive.

  12. Modeling Low-Dose-Rate Effects in Irradiated Bipolar-Base Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cirba, C.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Graves, R.J.; Michez, A.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Witczak, S.C.

    1998-10-26

    A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors. Multiple-trapping simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for low-dose-rate enhancement. At low dose rates, more holes are trapped near the silicon-oxide interface than at high dose rates, resulting in larger midgap voltage shifts at lower dose rates. The additional trapped charge near the interface may cause an exponential increase in excess base current, and a resultant decrease in current gain for some NPN bipolar technologies.

  13. GaAs MOEMS Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SPAHN, OLGA B.; GROSSETETE, GRANT D.; CICH, MICHAEL J.; TIGGES, CHRIS P.; RENO, JOHN L.; PEAKE, GREGORY M.; KLEM, JOHN F.; LEAN, JEN; FULLER, CHARLES T.; BURKHART, JEFF; BAUER, THOMAS; SULLIVAN, CHARLES T.

    2003-03-01

    Many MEMS-based components require optical monitoring techniques using optoelectronic devices for converting mechanical position information into useful electronic signals. While the constituent piece-parts of such hybrid opto-MEMS components can be separately optimized, the resulting component performance, size, ruggedness and cost are substantially compromised due to assembly and packaging limitations. GaAs MOEMS offers the possibility of monolithically integrating high-performance optoelectronics with simple mechanical structures built in very low-stress epitaxial layers with a resulting component performance determined only by GaAs microfabrication technology limitations. GaAs MOEMS implicitly integrates the capability for radiation-hardened optical communications into the MEMS sensor or actuator component, a vital step towards rugged integrated autonomous microsystems that sense, act, and communicate. This project establishes a new foundational technology that monolithically combines GaAs optoelectronics with simple mechanics. Critical process issues addressed include selectivity, electrochemical characteristics, and anisotropy of the release chemistry, and post-release drying and coating processes. Several types of devices incorporating this novel technology are demonstrated.

  14. Long-Wavelength-Infrared Hot-Electron Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Liu, John K.; Park, Jin S.; Lin, True-Lon

    1995-01-01

    Dark current reduced by energy-discriminating quantum filter. Very long-wavelength-infrared hot-electron transistor developed. Device detects photons at wavelengths around 16 micrometers. Comprises photodector integrated with energy-discriminating quantum filter in multiple-quantum-well structure. Made of variously doped and undoped layers of GaAs (quantum wells) and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As (barriers between wells). In transistor, bound-to-continuum GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As multiple-quantum-well infrared photodectors (QWIP) serves as photosensitive emitter. Wide quantum well serves as base, and there is thick barrier between base and collector. Combination of barrier and base quantum well acts as energy-discriminating filter: electrons with higher energies pass through filter to collector, those with lower energies blocked and diverted from output-current path through base contact.

  15. Comparison of GaAs JFETs to MESFETs for high-temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Hietala, V.M.; Housel, M.S.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    GaAs-based Metal Semiconductor Field Effect transistors (MESFETs) and High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) have been the focus of research for high-temperature operation due to the 1.42 eV band gap of GaAs that reduces thermal carrier generation as compared to 1.1 eV silicon-based electronics. Although schemes have been proposed to minimize substrate currents at elevated temperatures, high-temperature operation of these devices is ultimately limited by the gate leakage current of the Schottky gate contact. Since a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) has a higher gate barrier to current flow than a Schottky barrier MESFET as a result of the p/n junction gate, JFETs should have superior performance at elevated temperatures. This paper compares the high-temperature performance of a self-aligned GaAs MESFET and JFET. Both devices suffer from substrate leakage at high temperature; however, the JFET has superior gate characteristics and maintains a larger fraction of its room temperature transconductance at 300 C.

  16. Bipolar pulse shaping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fairstein, E.

    1996-12-31

    Compared with unipolar pulse shaping, bipolar shaping is insensitive to misadjusted or missing pole-zero cancellation, doesn`t require a baseline line restorer, and furnishes an amplitude-invariant time marker for coincidence measurements. These characteristics should be useful in amplifier arrays for integrated circuits (ASICs), despite the greater noise and resolving time. With ASIC technology in mind, unipolar and bipolar shaping methods are compared here. An item that emerged from the study is that two CR differentiators and two RC integrators are optimum from a cost-benefit viewpoint. The network can be adjusted to produce the transfer function (sin t - t) exp(-t), which has half the transmission loss and 8% shorter resolving time than the same configuration with all time constants alike.

  17. Pleated metal bipolar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Zawodzinski, Christine (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A thin low-cost bipolar plate for an electrochemical cell is formed from a polymer support plate with first flow channels on a first side of the support plate and second flow channels on a second side of the support plate, where the first flow channels and second flow channels have intersecting locations and have a depth effective to form openings through the support plate at the intersecting locations. A first foil of electrically conductive material is pressed into the first flow channels. A second foil of electrically conductive material pressed into the second flow channels so that electrical contact is made between the first and second foils at the openings through the support plate. A particular application of the bipolar plate is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  18. Vertical organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  19. Spin Hall Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Jrg; Park, Byong-Guk; Irvine, Andrew C.; Zrbo, Liviu P.; Rozkotov, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Novk, Vt; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Toms

    2010-12-01

    The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our study shows the utility of the spin Hall effect in a microelectronic device geometry, realizes the spin transistor with electrical detection directly along the gated semiconductor channel, and provides an experimental tool for exploring spin Hall and spin precession phenomena in an electrically tunable semiconductor layer.

  20. The immunology of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Izabela Guimares; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Soares, Jair C; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition associated with elevated frequency of clinical co-morbidities and cognitive impairment. The neurobiology of bipolar disorder is not completely understood. Recent evidence has implicated immune dysfunction in its physiopathology. Here, we review several data supporting the presence of immunological dysfunction in bipolar disorder: (i) increased frequency of autoimmune diseases; (ii) distinct immune cells profile; (iii) altered/ release of cytokines by stimulated mononuclear cells; (iv) elevated levels of circulating immune markers; and (vi) inflammatory changes in the central nervous system. We also discussed the interplay between immunological dysfunction and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder. PMID:24557044

  1. Total Dose Effects on Single Event Transients in Digital CMOS and Linear Bipolar Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Sibley, M.; Eaton, P.; Mavis, D.; Dusseau, L.; Roche, N. J-H.; Bernard, M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of ionizing radiation on single event transients (SETs) in circuits. The exposure of integrated circuits to ionizing radiation changes electrical parameters. The total ionizing dose effect is observed in both complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar circuits. In bipolar circuits, transistors exhibit grain degradation, while in CMOS circuits, transistors exhibit threshold voltage shifts. Changes in electrical parameters can cause changes in single event upset(SEU)/SET rates. Depending on the effect, the rates may increase or decrease. Therefore, measures taken for SEU/SET mitigation might work at the beginning of a mission but not at the end following TID exposure. The effect of TID on SET rates should be considered if SETs cannot be tolerated.

  2. Growth and properties of crystalline barium oxide on the GaAs(100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yasir, M.; Dahl, J.; Lng, J.; Tuominen, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Laukkanen, P. Kokko, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 ; Korpijrvi, V.-M.; Polojrvi, V.; Guina, M.

    2013-11-04

    Growing a crystalline oxide film on III-V semiconductor renders possible approaches to improve operation of electronics and optoelectronics heterostructures such as oxide/semiconductor junctions for transistors and window layers for solar cells. We demonstrate the growth of crystalline barium oxide (BaO) on GaAs(100) at low temperatures, even down to room temperature. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that the amount of interface defects is reduced for BaO/GaAs, compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs, suggesting that BaO is a useful buffer layer to passivate the surface of the III-V device material. PL and photoemission data show that the produced junction tolerates the post heating around 600?C.

  3. Nanoscale devices fabricated by direct machining of GaAs with an atomic force microscope

    PubMed

    Versen; Klehn; Kunze; Reuter; Wieck

    2000-02-01

    We demonstrate a lithography wherein the tapping mode of an atomic force microscope the Si tip is used as a chiseling tool for direct machining of a GaAs surface. Single-groove drawing movements in a vector-scan mode result in approximately 3-4 nm deep and 30 nm wide furrows, which can be combined to arbitrary noncontiguous polygon patterns. Beneath such a groove a barrier arises in the electron channel of a GaAs/A1GaAs modulation-doped field effect transistor (MODFET). Using appropriate sub-100 nm line patterns we prepared quantum point contacts and single electron devices. At T = 4.2 K the transconductance characteristics of these nanoscale MODFETs exhibit structures, which represent signatures of either the quantized conductance or Coulomb-blockade effects. PMID:10741666

  4. Monolithic cryogenic preamplifiers based on large gate-area GaAs MESFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Camin, D.V.; Fedyakin, N.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.

    1995-08-01

    Monolithic preamplifiers using large gate-area Gallium-Arsenide Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (GaAs MESFETs) at the input have been designed and fabricated using an ion-implanted GaAs process. Large gate-area is necessary to obtain low series noise. A differential voltage-sensitive preamplifier has at the input two MESFETs with a gate width W = 6,000 {micro}m, it is fully DC coupled, has a large common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and dissipates low power at 4 K. Dual current-sensitive preamplifiers using at the input MESFETs with W = 24,000 {micro}m, designed for the readout of noble liquid calorimeters, have been integrated in a single chip. Recent tests with a LAr calorimeter prototype demonstrated strong noise reduction compared to previous state-of-the-art hybrid readout circuits. Radiation damage tests have been performed at cold on the current-sensitive preamplifier chips.

  5. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  6. A comparison of radiation damage in transistors from cobalt-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The total ionizing dose response of ten bipolar transistor types has been measured using Co-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons from exposure levels of 750, 1500, and 3000 Gy(Si). Gain measurements were made for a range of collector-emitter voltages and collector currents.

  7. Monolithic integration of a GaAlAs buried-heterostructure laser and a bipolar phototransistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Chaim, N.; Harder, CH.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.; Katz, J.; Ury, I.

    1982-01-01

    A GaAlAs buried-heterostructure laser has been monolithically integrated with a bipolar phototransistor. The heterojunction transistor was formed by the regrowth of the burying layers of the laser. Typical threshold current values for the lasers were 30 mA. Common-emitter current gains for the phototransistor of 100-400 and light responsitivity of 75 A/W (for wavelengths of 0.82 micron) at collector current levels of 15 mA were obtained.

  8. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  9. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2004-02-24

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  10. Preventing Simultaneous Conduction In Switching Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, William T.

    1990-01-01

    High voltage spikes and electromagnetic interference suppressed. Power-supply circuit including two switching transistors easily modified to prevent simultaneous conduction by both transistors during switching intervals. Diode connected between collector of each transistor and driving circuit for opposite transistor suppresses driving signal to transistor being turned on until transistor being turned off ceases to carry current.

  11. Pulsed Molecular Beams For Growth Of InAs On GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    Pauses for annealing reduce number of defects. Deposition process that includes pulsed molecular beams produces high-quality epitaxial layers of indium arsenide on gallium arsenide substrates. Layers made as much as 30 atoms thick without introducing excessive numbers of dislocations, despite 7.4-percent mismatch between InAs and GaAs crystal lattices. Layers offer superior electrical properties in such devices as optically addressed light modulators, infrared sensors, semiconductor lasers, and high-electron-mobility transistors. Technique applicable to other epitaxial systems in which lattices highly mismatched.

  12. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    PubMed

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials. PMID:26016815

  13. Bipolar Disorder and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; McIntyre, Roger S

    2016-03-01

    The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) remains poorly understood. Current psychopharmacologic treatments are often poorly tolerated and carry high rates of treatment resistance. Mounting evidence has suggested that innate immune system dysfunction may play a role in the pathophysiology of BD. Elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels have been identified. The innate immune system is a novel therapeutic target in BD. Lithium has been shown to have antiinflammatory properties. Further research is needed to establish the role of antiinflammatory agents in the treatment of BD; however, evidence from several clinical trials indicates that antiinflammatory agents may be incorporated into clinical practice soon. PMID:26876323

  14. Development of a HgCdTe photomixer and impedance matched GaAs FET amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanley, J. F.; Paulauskas, W. A.; Taylor, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    A research program for the development of a 10.6 micron HgCdTe photodiode/GaAs field effect transistor amplifier package for use at cryogenic temperatures (77k). The photodiode/amplifier module achieved a noise equivalent power per unit bandwidth of 5.7 times 10 to the 20th power W/Hz at 2.0 GHz. The heterodyne sensitivity of the HgCdTe photodiode was improved by designing and building a low noise GaAs field effect transistor amplifier operating at 77K. The Johnson noise of the amplifier was reduced at 77K, and thus resulted in an increased photodiode heterodyne sensitivity.

  15. Fin width and height dependence of bipolar amplification in bulk FinFETs submitted to heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Ting; Chen, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jian-Jun; Huang, Peng-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    FinFET technologies are becoming the mainstream process as technology scales down. Based on a 28-nm bulk p-FinFET device, we have investigated the fin width and height dependence of bipolar amplification for heavy-ion-irradiated FinFETs by 3D TCAD numerical simulation. Simulation results show that due to a well bipolar conduction mechanism rather than a channel (fin) conduction path, the transistors with narrower fins exhibit a diminished bipolar amplification effect, while the fin height presents a trivial effect on the bipolar amplification and charge collection. The results also indicate that the single event transient (SET) pulse width can be mitigated about 35% at least by optimizing the ratio of fin width and height, which can provide guidance for radiation-hardened applications in bulk FinFET technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant No. 61376109).

  16. Tobacco use in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E; Ellegaard, Pernille K; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M

    2015-04-30

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behavior, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  17. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  18. Effect of 100MeV oxygen ion irradiation on silicon NPN power transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnaveni, S.; Ramani

    2012-06-05

    The radiation response of npn Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has been examined for 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion. Key electrical properties like Gummel characteristics, dc current gain and capacitance-voltage of 100MeV O{sup 7+} ion irradiated transistor were studied before and after irradiation. The device was decapped and the electrical characterizations were performed at room temperature. Base current is observed to be more sensitive than collector current and gain appears to be degraded with ion fluence, also considerable degradation in C-V characteristics is observed and doping concentration is found to be increased along with the increase in ion fluence.

  19. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  20. Bipolar disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  1. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  2. Improvement of terahertz field effect transistor detectors by substrate thinning and radiation losses reduction.

    PubMed

    Coquillat, Dominique; Marczewski, Jacek; Kopyt, Pawel; Dyakonova, Nina; Giffard, Benoit; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-01-11

    Phenomena of the radiation coupling to the field effect transistors based terahertz (THz) detectors are studied. We show that in the case of planar metal antennas a significant portion of incoming radiation, instead of being coupled to the transistors, is coupled to an antenna substrate leading to responsivity losses and/or cross-talk effects in the field effect based THz detector arrays. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the responsivity versus substrate thickness are performed. They clearly show how to minimize the losses by the detector/ array substrate thinning. In conclusion simple quantitative rules of losses minimization by choosing a proper substrate thickness of field effect transistor THz detectors are presented for common materials (Si, GaAs, InP, GaN) used in semiconductor technologies. PMID:26832258

  3. Terahertz responsivity of field effect transistors versus their static channel conductivity and loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakowicz, M.; Lifshits, M. B.; Klimenko, O. A.; Schuster, F.; Coquillat, D.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W.

    2011-09-01

    We study the broadband photovoltaic response of field effect transistors on terahertz radiation. A simple physical analytical model of the response is developed. It is based on plasma density perturbation in the transistor channel by the incoming terahertz radiation. The model shows how the non-resonant detection signal is related to static (dc) transistor characteristics. We analyze loading effects related to capacitive, inductive, and resistive coupling of the detector to the read-out circuit as a function of modulation frequencies and loading resistors. As we show, the proposed physical model completed by loading effects fully describes the experimental results on the non-resonant sub-terahertz detection by all studied III-V (GaAs, GaN) and silicon based transistors. Field effect transistors were recently proposed as the best terahertz detecting pixels for fabrication of low cost focal plane arrays for terahertz imaging. This article gives prospects for electrical simulation of these transistors and their optimal integration in the focal plane arrays.

  4. GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, S.; Loo, R.

    1977-01-01

    The motivation for developing GaAs solar cells is based on their superior efficiency when compared to silicon cells, their lower degradation with increasing temperature, and the expectation for better resistance to space radiation damage. The AMO efficiency of GaAs solar cells was calculated. A key consideration in the HRL technology is the production of GaAs cells of large area (greater than 4 sg cm) at a reasonable cost without sacrificing efficiency. An essential requirement for the successful fabrication of such cells is the ability to grow epitaxially a uniform layer of high quality GaAs (buffer layer) on state-of-the-art GaAs substrates, and to grow on this buffer layer the required than layer of (AlGa)As. A modified infinite melt liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth technique is detailed.

  5. VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Scheele, P.F.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to transistor oscillators and in particular to those transistor oscillators whose frequencies vary according to controlling voltages. A principal feature of the disclosed transistor oscillator circuit resides in the temperature compensation of the frequency modulating stage by the use of a resistorthermistor network. The resistor-thermistor network components are selected to have the network resistance, which is in series with the modulator transistor emitter circuit, vary with temperature to compensate for variation in the parameters of the transistor due to temperature change.

  6. Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kibby; Herr, Nathaniel R; Zerubavel, Noga; Hoertel, Nicolas; Neacsiu, Andrada D

    2016-03-01

    The gold standard for treating bipolar depression is based on the combination of mood stabilizers and psychotherapy. Therefore, the authors present evidence-based models and promising approaches for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, family focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy are discussed. Behavioral activation, the cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and the unified protocol as promising future directions are presented. This review informs medical providers of the most appropriate referral guidelines for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. The authors conclude with a decision tree delineating optimal referrals to each psychotherapy approach. PMID:26876317

  7. [Tonsillar microsurgery by bipolar dissection].

    PubMed

    Snchez del Hoyo, A; Lacosta Nicols, J L; M Salm, J; Martnez Torre, I; Fernndez Martn, M J

    1995-01-01

    The 66 amygdalectomies done by the AA. under general anesthesia and tracheal intubation are considered in two groups. The first one was composed by 32 patients operated following a dissection and coagulation procedure with the aid of a bipolar forceps and under microscopical magnification. The second group, 34 cases, underwent the classical procedure with ligature of the bleeding vessels. The usage of the bipolar forceps procure lesser loss of blood as compared with the dissection-ligature procedure. On the contrary, the bipolar clip method showed and increased postoperative pain and also the lagging of the swallow function. Both techniques presented with very similar complications (bleeding, edema, loca infection). PMID:7573857

  8. Single electron transistor in pure silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binhui

    As promising candidates for spin qubits, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous research efforts. Currently most advanced progress is from GaAs QDs. Compared to GaAs, lateral QDs in 28silicon are expected to have a spin coherence time orders of magnitude longer, because 28Si has zero nuclear spin, and there is no hyperfine interaction between electron spins and nuclear spins. We have developed enhancement mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) single electron transistors (SETs) using pure silicon wafers with a bi-layer gated configuration. In an MOS-SET, the top gate is used to induce a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), just as in an MOS field effect transistor. The side gates deplete the 2DEG into a QD and two point contact channels; one connects the QD to the source reservoir, and the other connects the QD to the drain reservoir. We have systematically investigated the MOS-SETs at 4.2 K, and separately in a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 10 mK. The data show that there is an intrinsic QD in each point contact channel due to the local potential fluctuations in these SETs. However, after scaling down the SETs, we have found that the intrinsic QDs can be removed and the electrostatically defined dots dominate the device behavior, but these devices currently only work in the many-electron regime. In order to realize single electron confinement, it is necessary to continue scaling down the device and improving the interface quality. To explore the spin dynamics in silicon, we have investigated a single intrinsic QD by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surface. The magnetic field dependence of the ground-state and excited-state energy levels of the QD mostly can be explained by the Zeeman effect, with no obvious orbital effect up to 9 T. The two-electron singlet-triplet (ST) transition is first time directly observed in a silicon QD by excitation spectroscopy. In this ST transition, electron-electron Coulomb interaction plays a significant role. The observed amplitude spectrum suggests the spin blockade effect. When the two-electron system forms a singlet state in the dot at low fields, and the injection current from the lead becomes spin-down polarized, the tunneling conductance is reduced by a factor of 8. At higher magnetic fields, due to the ST transition, the spin blockade effect is lifted and the conductance is fully recovered.

  9. Room temperature imaging at 1.63 and 2.54 THz with field effect transistor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadar, S.; Videlier, H.; Coquillat, D.; Teppe, F.; Sakowicz, M.; Dyakonova, N.; Knap, W.; Seliuta, D.; Kaalynas, I.; Valuis, G.

    2010-09-01

    GaAs nanometric field effect-transistors are used for room temperature single-pixel imaging using radiation frequencies above 1 THz. Images obtained in transmission mode at 1.63 THz are recorded using transistors operating in a photovoltaic mode with spatial resolution of 300 ?m and voltage sensitivity of about 8 mV/W. A reduction in response with increasing frequency was observed and mitigated by the application of a source-drain current, leading to the demonstration of imaging at up to 2.54 THz.

  10. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a "risk" allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in psychiatric disorders should be established. PMID:24683306

  11. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scheidemantel, Thomas; Korobkova, Irina; Rej, Soham; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Asenapine (Saphris®) is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be similarly modest. Asenapine does not appear to cause any clinically significant QTc prolongation. The most commonly reported extra-pyramidal symptom associated with asenapine was akathisia. Overall, asenapine appears to be a relatively well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic, effective in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of BD. PMID:26674884

  12. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in psychiatric disorders should be established. PMID:24683306

  13. Standard Transistor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. W.; Carroll, B. D.; Pitts, E. R.; Wright, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Standard Transistor Array (STAR) design system is semicustom approach to generating random-logic integrated MOS digital circuits. Primary program in STAR system is CAPSTAR, STAR Cell Arrangement Program. CAPSTAR is augmented by automatic routining program, Display program and library of logic cells.

  14. Photosensitive graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Niu, Liyong; Zheng, Zijian; Yan, Feng

    2014-08-20

    High performance photodetectors play important roles in the development of innovative technologies in many fields, including medicine, display and imaging, military, optical communication, environment monitoring, security check, scientific research and industrial processing control. Graphene, the most fascinating two-dimensional material, has demonstrated promising applications in various types of photodetectors from terahertz to ultraviolet, due to its ultrahigh carrier mobility and light absorption in broad wavelength range. Graphene field effect transistors are recognized as a type of excellent transducers for photodetection thanks to the inherent amplification function of the transistors, the feasibility of miniaturization and the unique properties of graphene. In this review, we will introduce the applications of graphene transistors as photodetectors in different wavelength ranges including terahertz, infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, focusing on the device design, physics and photosensitive performance. Since the device properties are closely related to the quality of graphene, the devices based on graphene prepared with different methods will be addressed separately with a view to demonstrating more clearly their advantages and shortcomings in practical applications. It is expected that highly sensitive photodetectors based on graphene transistors will find important applications in many emerging areas especially flexible, wearable, printable or transparent electronics and high frequency communications. PMID:24715703

  15. Dual-Side Wafer Processing and Resonant Tunneling Transistor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.S.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Reno, J.L.; Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.

    1999-07-20

    We describe dual-side wafer processing and its application to resonant tunneling transistors in a planar configuration. The fabrication technique utilizes a novel flip-chip, wafer thinning process called epoxy-bond and stop-etch (EBASE) process, where the substrate material is removed by selective wet etching and stopped at an etch-stop layer. This EBASE method results in a semiconductor epitaxial layer that is typically less than a micron thick and has a mirror-finish, allowing backside gates to be placed in close proximity to frontside gates. Utilizing this technique, a resonant tunneling transistor--the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT)--can be fabricated in a fully planar configuration, where the tunneling between two selectively-contacted 2DEGs in GaAs or InGaAs quantum wells is modulated by surface Schottky gate. Low temperature electrical characterization yields source-drain I-V curves with a gate-tunable negative differential resistance.

  16. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  17. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Ins; Moreira, Marcos Aurlio; Arajo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurlio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients. PMID:18345425

  18. Threat Sensitivity in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2015-01-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as a test of general intelligence. Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivityincluding the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. PMID:25688436

  19. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  20. Nanoscale Selective Plasma Etching of Ultrathin HfO2 Layers on GaAs for Advanced Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, Jose; Benedicto, Marcos; Alvaro, Raquel; Galiana, Beatriz; Tejedor, Paloma

    2010-10-01

    We present a reliable dry-etch process for patterning deep-submicron structures in ultrathin (16 nm) HfO2 layers deposited on GaAs substrates. Plasma chemistries based on BCl3/O2 and SF6/Ar have been investigated using an inductively-coupled plasma reactive ion etch (ICP-RIE) reactor. The process reliability has been examined in terms of etch rate selectivity, etch time control, anisotropy, and surface roughness of the underlying GaAs substrate for potential application to gate nanopatterning in next-generation field-effect transistor fabrication. We show that a SF6/Ar plasma process provides excellent prospects as a nanopatterning method for subsequent re-growth of GaAs in novel device architectures.

  1. Modulating the morphology and electrical properties of GaAs nanowires via catalyst stabilization by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zaixing; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Dong, Guofa; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, TakFu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-03-11

    Nowadays, III-V compound semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have attracted extensive research interest because of their high carrier mobility favorable for next-generation electronics. However, it is still a great challenge for the large-scale synthesis of III-V NWs with well-controlled and uniform morphology as well as reliable electrical properties, especially on the low-cost noncrystalline substrates for practical utilization. In this study, high-density GaAs NWs with lengths >10 ?m and uniform diameter distribution (relative standard deviation ? ? 20%) have been successfully prepared by annealing the Au catalyst films (4-12 nm) in air right before GaAs NW growth, which is in distinct contrast to the ones of 2-3 ?m length and widely distributed of ? ? 20-60% of the conventional NWs grown by the H2-annealed film. This air-annealing process is found to stabilize the Au nanoparticle seeds and to minimize Ostwald ripening during NW growth. Importantly, the obtained GaAs NWs exhibit uniform p-type conductivity when fabricated into NW-arrayed thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). Moreover, they can be integrated with an n-type InP NW FET into effective complementary metal oxide semiconductor inverters, capable of working at low voltages of 0.5-1.5 V. All of these results explicitly demonstrate the promise of these NW morphology and electrical property controls through the catalyst engineering for next-generation electronics. PMID:25700210

  2. Investigation of effective base transit time and current gain modulation of light-emitting transistors under different ambient temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao-Hsiang; Tu, Wen-Chung; Wang, Hsiao-Lun; Wu, Chao-Hsin

    2014-11-03

    In this report, the modulation of current gain of InGaP/GaAs light-emitting transistors under different ambient temperatures are measured and analyzed using thermionic emission model of quantum well embedded in the transistor base region. Minority carriers captured by quantum wells gain more energy at high temperatures and escape from quantum wells resulting in an increase of current gain and lower optical output, resulting in different I-V characteristics from conventional heterojunction bipolar transistors. The effect of the smaller thermionic lifetime thus reduces the effective base transit time of transistors at high temperatures. The unique current gain enhancement of 27.61% is achieved when operation temperature increase from 28 to 85 °C.

  3. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction. PMID:26885948

  4. Gyrator employing field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochmair, E. S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A gyrator circuit of the conventional configuration of two amplifiers in a circular loop, one producing zero phase shift and the other producing 180 deg phase reversal is examined. All active elements are MOS field effect transistors. Each amplifier comprises a differential amplifier configuration with current limiting transistor, followed by an output transistor in cascode configuration, and two load transistors of opposite conductivity type from the other transistors. A voltage divider control circuit comprises a series string of transistors with a central voltage input to provide control, with locations on the amplifiers receiving reference voltages by connection to appropriate points on the divider. The circuit produces excellent response and is well suited for fabrication by integrated circuits.

  5. Improved chopper circuit uses parallel transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Parallel transistor chopper circuit operates with one transistor in the forward mode and the other in the inverse mode. By using this method, it acts as a single, symmetrical, bidirectional transistor, and reduces and stabilizes the offset voltage.

  6. The Genetics of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Smoller, Jordan W

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression. Twin studies have established that bipolar disorder is among the most heritable of medical disorders and efforts to identify specific susceptibility genes have intensified over the past two decades. The search for genes influencing bipolar disorder has been complicated by a paucity of animal models, limited understanding of pathogenesis, and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the syndrome. Linkage studies have implicated several chromosomal regions as harboring relevant genes, but results have been inconsistent. It is now widely accepted that the genetic liability to bipolar disorder reflects the action of many genes of individually small effect, a scenario for which linkage studies are poorly suited. Thus, association studies, which are more powerful for the detection of modest effect loci, have become the focus of gene-finding research. A large number of candidate genes, including biological candidates derived from hypotheses about the pathogenesis of the disorder and positional candidates derived from linkage and cytogenetic studies, have been evaluated. Several of these genes have been associated with the disorder in independent studies (including BDNF, DAOA, DISC1, GRIK4, SLC6A4, and TPH2), but none has been established. The clinical heterogeneity of bipolar disorder and its phenotypic and genetic overlap with other disorders (especially schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and major depressive disorder) has raised questions about the optimal phenotype definition for genetic studies. Nevertheless, genomewide association analysis, which has successfully identified susceptibility genes for a variety of complex disorders, has begun to implicate specific genes for bipolar disorder (DGKH, CACNA1C, ANK3). The polygenicity of the disorder means that very large samples will be needed to detect the modest effect loci that likely contribute to bipolar disorder. Detailed genetic dissection of the disorder may provide novel targets (both pharmacologic and psychosocial) for intervention. PMID:19358880

  7. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity - reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition - limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional "unified field theory" of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia - the brain's primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great questions facing the field and one that is likely to have profound treatment implications, given that fact that such a discovery would greatly increase our ability to individualize - and by extension, enhance - treatment. PMID:25202283

  8. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  9. Metatronic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing the notion of metamaterials, in recent years the concept of a circuit and lumped circuit elements have been extended to the optical domains, providing the paradigm of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, as a powerful tool for design and study of more complex systems at the nanoscale. In this paper we present a design for a new metatronic element, namely, a metatronic transistor that functions as an amplifier. As shown by our analytical and numerical paper here, this metatronic transistor provides gain as well as isolation between the input and output ports of such two-port device. The cascadability and fan-out aspects of this element are also explored.

  10. Pulse transformer for GaAs laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    High-radiance gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser operating at room temperature is utilized in optical navigation system. For efficient transformer-to-laser impedance match, laser should be connected directly to pulse transformer secondary winding.

  11. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOEpatents

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  12. Ohmic contact to GaAs semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Multimetallic layers produce stable, low-resistance contacts for p-type GaAs and p-type GaAlAs devices. Contacts present no leakage problems, and their series resistance is too small to measure at 1 Sun intensity. Ohmic contacts are stable and should meet 20-year-life requirement at 150 C for GaAs combined photothermal/photovoltaic concentrators.

  13. [High-frequency transistor tract for UHF therapy device].

    PubMed

    Tamarchak, D Ia

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of construction of a common circuit and individual units of high-frequency transistor tracts for physiotherapeutic UHF apparatuses whose design is a possible way of conversion of radioelectron equipment. The design of UHF tracts gives rise to some radio engineering problems due to the low output resistance of bipolar transistors and to the operational characteristics of physiotherapeutic equipment and, as a result, the load of the tract is a two-conductor long line loaded with complex resistance whose active part changes slightly and the reactive one varies very greatly. The structure of a high-frequency, which transfers power from the generator with external excitement to the active part of complex load by changing its reactive part in the wide range, was analyzed. It is shown that for reliable operation of the UHF apparatus, its tract should have a multichannel structure with subsequent summation of the power and automatic compensation of the reactive component of alternating load. This provides a measuring mode for the power connected to the patient. The tract structure in question may serve the basis for the designing transistor physiotherapy apparatuses of average and high power (Poutput = 50-400 W). PMID:9791855

  14. Educating the Child with Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  15. Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Join Home Learn Library Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder January 21, 2010 Overview Health insurance Child custody ... the Juvenile Justice System Families of children with bipolar disorder often face legal issues related to their child's ...

  16. Architecture/compiler synergism in GaAs computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Milutinovic, V.; Fura, D.; Helbig, W.; Linn, J.

    1987-05-01

    In this article the authors describe an approach to computer system design that we feel is very attractive for GaAs technology. The strategy involves the use of a single-chip GaAs processor, an increased role for the compiler, and an aggressive migration of functions from hardware to the compiler. In fact, the authors believe that the advantages of GaAs technology cannot be fully exploited without further developments in compiler technology. This article follows previous papers on GaAs processor design and GaAs system design, and completes our overview of GaAs technology-based computer system design.

  17. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  18. Is bipolar always bipolar? Understanding the controversy on bipolar disorder in children

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Yvonne; Hohmann, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dramatically increasing prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the United States have provoked controversy regarding the boundaries of manic symptoms in child and adolescent psychiatry. The serious impact of this ongoing debate on the treatment of affected children is reflected in the concomitant increase in prescription rates for antipsychotic medication. A key question in the debate is whether this increase in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is based on a better detection of early-onset bipolar disorder—which can present differently in children and adolescents—or whether it is caused by an incorrect assignment of symptoms which overlap with other widely known disorders. So far, most findings suggest that the suspected symptoms, in particular chronic, non-episodic irritability (a mood symptom presenting with easy annoyance, temper tantrums and anger) do not constitute a developmental presentation of childhood bipolar disorder. Additional research based on prospective, longitudinal studies is needed to further clarify the developmental trajectories of bipolar disorder and the diagnostic status of chronic, non-episodic irritability. PMID:25580265

  19. Ion-implanted GaAs JFETs with f{sub t} {gt} 45 GHz for low-power electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Shul, R.J.; Sherwin, M.E. |

    1996-12-31

    GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) are reported with gate lengths down to 0.3 micrometers. The structure is fully self-aligned and employs all ion implantation doping. p[sup +]-gate regions are formed with either Zn or Cd implants along with a P coimplantation to reduce diffusion. The source and rain implants are engineered with Si or SiF implants to minimize short channel effects. JFETs with 0.3 micrometer gate length are demonstrated with a sub-threshold slope of 110 mV/decade along with an intrinsic unity current gain cutoff frequency as high as 52 GHz.

  20. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  1. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Yu-sheng; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup. PMID:23325981

  2. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  3. REGENERATIVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Kabell, L.J.

    1958-11-25

    Electrical circults for use in computers and the like are described. particularly a regenerative bistable transistor amplifler which is iurned on by a clock signal when an information signal permits and is turned off by the clock signal. The amplifier porforms the above function with reduced power requirements for the clock signal and circuit operation. The power requirements are reduced in one way by employing transformer coupling which increases the collector circuit efficiency by eliminating the loss of power in the collector load resistor.

  4. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  5. Monolithic integration of GaAs optoelectronic devices using thermal oxide isolation (TOI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Charles B.; Daryanani, Sonu L.; Shen, Jun; Zhang, YongHang

    1997-04-01

    A novel integration method is described that relies on the thermal oxidation of AlAs to form a buried current blocking layer. This integration technology, called thermal oxidation isolation (TOI), is an extension of recent work involving oxidized VCSELs. However, in addition to incorporating a conventional thermal oxide current aperture to define VCSEL active regions, a buried oxide layer is also used to provide inter-device isolation. As a demonstration of this concept, a GaAs MESFET and resonant cavity LED are integrated and characterized. The buried oxide layer is situated under the FET channel such that the transistor is effectively stacked on top of the LED. The oxide layer is also used to form a current aperture in the LED and directs current flow vertically through this device. Solid-source MBE is used to grow the device layers on a p-type GaAs substrate. The epitaxial structure consists of a p-type bottom mirror consisting of 24.5 pairs of alternating AlAs and GaAs quarter-wave layers, an undoped one-wave active region containing 3 multiplied by 80 angstrom InGaAs quantum wells and a single n-type AlAs/GaAs top mirror period. The fabrication sequence, described in some detail, is straightforward. A wet etch is used to define one mesa for the LED and a second for the MESFET. The top AlAs layer, exposed at the mesa periphery by this etch, is oxidized at 410 degrees. Celsius in a steam ambient to form the current- guiding regions. A conventional MESFET fabrication sequence is then used to complete the transistor and form the LED cathode (which is connected to the FET drain). A back contact is then deposited to form the LED anode. In all, five mask levels are used to fabricate the integrated FET/LED (or VCSEL) structure. Functionality of these prototype devices is demonstrated by dc and modulation measurements. The MESFET gate length and width are 3 micrometer and 100 micrometer, respectively. The transistor operated in the depletion mode with a typical Idss of 8 mA and a maximum transconductance of 35 mS/mm. The LED wavelength is about 990 nm and has output power in the (mu) W range when driven by the MESFET.

  6. Characterizing the Switching Thresholds of Magnetophoretic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Joh, Daniel Y; Van Heest, Melissa A; Yi, John S; Baker, Cody; Taherifard, Zohreh; Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Murdoch, David M; Yellen, Benjamin B

    2015-10-28

    The switching thresholds of magnetophoretic transistors for sorting cells in microfluidic environments are characterized. The transistor operating conditions require short 20-30 mA pulses of electrical current. By demonstrating both attractive and repulsive transistor modes, a single transistor architecture is used to implement the full write cycle for importing and exporting single cells in specified array sites. PMID:26349853

  7. Suicidality in Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Yates, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high suicide risk. The literature suggests that suicidality is predicted by higher symptom severity and less use of pharmacological agents, but few studies have examined the joint contributions of these variables. The present study examines the conjoint contribution of symptom severity and pharmacological

  8. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  9. All GaAs signal processing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Geideman, W.A.; Rasset, T.L.; Misko, T.A.; Wine, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    The architecture, design, simulation, and evaluation of an all-GaAs vector signal processor for on-board space-system applications are described. The vector processor, whose architecture is based on a modular, building-block approach, consists of three main units: the control/scalar processor, the vector memory, and the execution unit. Each unit functions independently from the other, enabling the data addressing, data processing, and control to operate in parallel rather than serial manner. The GaAs processor's performance was compared with the performance of several commercial processors including the CMOS MIPS processor. When the latter was substituted for the GaAs processor in the same vector processor architecture, the performance/power ratio was nearly equal to that of the GaAs processor, but GaAs has demonstrated a higher performance upper bound. It was found that, in addition to high performance, the GaAs vector processor has fault-tolerant features and is flexible and radiation hard.

  10. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great questions facing the field and one that is likely to have profound treatment implications, given that fact that such a discovery would greatly increase our ability to individualize – and by extension, enhance – treatment. PMID:25202283

  11. An analytic model for gate-all-around silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; He, Jin; Chan, Mansun; Du, Cai-Xia; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Wen; Deng, Wan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2014-09-01

    An analytical model of gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors (NW-TFETs) is developted based on the surface potential solutions in the channel direction and considering the band to band tunneling (BTBT) efficiency. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved to obtain the surface potential distributions in the partition regions along the channel direction for the NW-TFET, and a tunneling current model using Kane's expression is developed. The validity of the developed model is shown by the good agreement between the model predictions and the TCAD simulation results.

  12. Ultra-Thin-Film GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. L.; Shin, B. K.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Stirn, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Process based on organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition (OM/CVD) of trimethyl gallium with arsine forms economical ultrathin GaAs epitaxial films. Process has higher potential for low manufacturing cost and large-scale production compared with more-conventional halide CVD and liquid-phase epitaxy processes. By reducing thickness of GaAs and substituting low-cost substrate for single-crystal GaAs wafer, process would make GaAs solar cells commercially more attractive.

  13. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  14. Microwave field effect transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Ho-Chung (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Electrodes of a high power, microwave field effect transistor are substantially matched to external input and output networks. The field effect transistor includes a metal ground plane layer, a dielectric layer on the ground plane layer, a gallium arsenide active region on the dielectric layer, and substantially coplanar spaced source, gate, and drain electrodes having active segments covering the active region. The active segment of the gate electrode is located between edges of the active segments of the source and drain electrodes. The gate and drain electrodes include inactive pads remote from the active segments. The pads are connected directly to the input and output networks. The source electrode is connected to the ground plane layer. The space between the electrodes and the geometry of the electrodes extablish parasitic shunt capacitances and series inductances that provide substantial matches between the input network and the gate electrode and between the output network and the drain electrode. Many of the devices are connected in parallel and share a common active region, so that each pair of adjacent devices shares the same source electrodes and each pair of adjacent devices shares the same drain electrodes. The gate electrodes for the parallel devices are formed by a continuous stripe that extends between adjacent devices and is connected at different points to the common gate pad.

  15. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliga, Seth; Straatsma, Cameron; Anderson, Dana

    2013-05-01

    We perform experiments with an Rb87 Bose-condensed gas in a magnetic trap separated into three regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers, forming a transistor-like structure having large ``source'' and ``drain'' regions separated by a narrow ``gate'' region. A condensate is produced in the source by forced RF evaporative cooling. While atom number and chemical potential of the source atoms are determined by traditional time of flight methods, we observe the flux and energy of the drain atoms emerging from the gate-drain barrier with a high resolution (NA = 0.6) in-trap absorption imaging system. Asymmetric cooling of the trap causes a thermo-mechanically induced superfluid current to flow from the source to the gate over the source-gate barrier. Feedback through superfluid coupling between the source and the gate maintains near equality of the source and gate chemical potentials while superfluid flow continues to cause atoms to emerge from the gate into the drain. A resonant ``terminator'' beam illuminating the drain region effectively couples emerging gate atoms to the vacuum. By turning off the terminator beam shortly before snapping an absorption image we determine both the atom flux and the atom energy. With an appropriate choice of cooling schedule, barrier heights, and separations, the gate emits a monoenergetic beam of atoms. We establish that this system is a superfluid analog of an antenna-coupled transistor-oscillator circuit in which the dual of the electromagnetic wave is a matterwave.

  16. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optimization of space processing of GaAs is described. The detailed compositional, structural, and electronic characterization of GaAs on a macro- and microscale and the relationships between growth parameters and the properties of GaAs are among the factors discussed. The key parameters limiting device performance are assessed.

  17. Current steering detection scheme of three terminal antenna-coupled terahertz field effect transistor detectors.

    PubMed

    Fldesy, Pter

    2013-08-01

    An antenna-coupled field effect transistor (FET) as a plasma wave terahertz detector is used with the current steering to record separately the gate-source and gate-drain photoresponses and their phase sensitive combination. This method is based on the observation that the plasmon-terminal coupling is cut off in saturation, resulting in only one-sided sensitivity. A polarimetric example is presented with intensity and polarization angle reconstruction using a single three-terminal antenna-coupled Si-metal-oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET). The technique is applicable to various detection schemes and technologies (high electron mobility transistors and GaAs-, GaN-, and Si-MOSFETs), and other application possibilities are discussed. PMID:23903147

  18. Field effect transistors for terahertz detection - silicon versus III-V material issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, W.; Videlier, H.; Nadar, S.; Coquillat, D.; Dyakonova, N.; Teppe, F.; Bialek, M.; Grynberg, M.; Karpierz, K.; Lusakowski, J.; Nogajewski, K.; Seliuta, D.; Kaalynas, I.; Valuis, G.

    2010-09-01

    Resonant frequencies of the two-dimensional plasma in FETs reach the THz range for nanometer transistor channels. Non-linear properties of the electron plasma are responsible for detection of THz radiation with FETs. Resonant excitation of plasma waves with sub-THz and THz radiation was demonstrated for short gate transistors at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, plasma oscillations are usually over-damped, but the FETs can still operate as efficient broadband THz detectors. The paper presents the main theoretical and experimental results on detection with FETs stressing their possible THz imaging applications. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of application of III-V GaAs and GaN HEMTs and silicon MOSFETs.

  19. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines. PMID:25763152

  20. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines. PMID:25763152

  1. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  2. Photoluminescence of Mn+ doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiying; Qu, Shengchun; Liao, Shuzhi; Zhang, Fasheng; Liu, Junpeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2010-10-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most useful techniques to obtain information about optoelectronic properties and defect structures of materials. In this work, the room-temperature and low temperature photoluminescence of Mn-doped GaAs were investigated, respectively. Mn-doped GaAs structure materials were prepared by Mn+ ion implantation at room temperature into GaAs. The implanted samples were subsequently annealed at various temperatures under N2 atmosphere to recrystallize the samples and remove implant damage. A strong peak was found for the sample annealed at 950 C for 5 s. Transitions near 0.989 eV (1254 nm), 1.155 eV (1074 nm) and 1.329 eV (933 nm) were identified and formation of these emissions was analyzed for all prepared samples. This structure material could have myriad applications, including information storage, magnet-optical properties and energy level engineering.

  3. Impacts of crystal orientation of GaAs on the interfacial structures and electrical properties of Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x} films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tingting; Kimura, Hideo; Zhao, Hongyang; Yao, Qiwen; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Cheng, Xinghong; Yu, Yuehui

    2014-04-07

    One of the major challenges in realizing the GaAs channel in the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor is the degrading in electron transport properties at the interface between GaAs and the gate oxide. In this study, Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x} gate oxide films were deposited at a low temperature (200 °C) on GaAs(111)A and GaAs(100) substrates by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Microstructure analysis indicates that residuals of gallium oxide, arsenic oxide, and As element remained at the interface of Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x}/GaAs(100). On contrast, a smoother interface is observed between Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x} thin film and GaAs(111)A substrate. Furthermore, a reduction of interfacial layer is observed in Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x}/GaAs(111)A. Electrical characterization of the metal-insulator-semiconductor Pt/Hf{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub x}/n-GaAs(111)A capacitor indicated a reduction of D{sub it} and leakage current compared with the capacitor fabricated on GaAs(100)

  4. Submicron grating fabrication on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflinger, D.; Kirk, J.; Cordero, R.; Evans, G.

    1981-01-01

    The laboratory techniques used for the fabrication of submicron gratings in GaAs are presented. A thin (about 1250 A) film of Shipley AZ1450B photoresist on GaAs is exposed holographically with the use of the 4579 A line of argon ion laser to produce gratings with a period of approximately 0.35 micron. Data are presented that demonstrate the effects of variation of the following parameters: developer type, developer time, laser intensity, exposure time, photoresist thickness, and ion beam etching parameters. Relative grating efficiency measurements as a function of parameter variations indicate an optimum set of parameters for grating fabrication.

  5. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  6. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOEpatents

    Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  7. Cryogenic transistor measurement and modeling for engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Abb, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    This article deals with the methodology of an electronic system design at liquid-helium temperatures. This technique includes the active device selection, characterization and simulation. Based on certain engineering criteria one commercial reference of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors is selected. Then, the technique of device characterization and measurement is considered. Typical output characteristics are given for this reference. All the tested devices of this reference are classified into three groups according to the presence of different low-temperature phenomena. An accurate and easy-to-use neural network model based on their experimental DC characteristics is proposed. This model is implemented in Agilent ADS Software, and the simulation results are compared with measurements in the course of the cryogenic amplifier design.

  8. Neurocognition in Bipolar Disorder and Juvenile Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Catherine M.; Walter, Garry; Malhi, Gin S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In the ongoing quest for improved diagnostic markers of bipolar illness, the focus of research has gradually shifted to examining the onset of mood difficulties early in life and investigating the potential corollaries of such early onset such as cognitive impairment, disruption of social and emotional functioning, and constriction of quality of life. This article considers the disruptions to cognitive functioning that accompany bipolar disorder and compares adult and child profiles to ascertain the likelihood of identifying a neurocognitive biomarker of the illness. Methods: A succinct review of the literature pertaining to cognition in both adult and childhood populations is synthesised following Medline and PsychINFO searches using key-terms including cognition, bipolar disorder, neurocognitive child, adolescent and a range of neuropsychological domain names. In addition, literature known to the authors was scrutinised and relevant references further pursued. Results: Findings from the literature are contextualised and key findings are summarised and provide a basis for future recommendations. Conclusion: A number of deficits have been consistently identified in both adolescent and adult populations that perhaps reflect disease traits. Future research needs to focus on these and employ multimodal tests in pristine patient groups, with a view to identifying reliable biomarkers. PMID:19718423

  9. Influence of the local environment on Mn acceptors in GaAs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Gohlke, David; Benjamin, Anne; Gupta, Jay A

    2015-04-22

    As transistors continue to shrink toward nanoscale dimensions, their characteristics are increasingly dependent on the statistical variations of impurities in the semiconductor material. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) can be used to not only study prototype devices with atomically precise placement of impurity atoms, but can also probe how the properties of these impurities depend on the local environment. Tunneling spectroscopy of Mn acceptors in GaAs indicates that surface-layer Mn act as a deep acceptor, with a hole binding energy that can be tuned by positioning charged defects nearby. Band bending induced by the tip or by these defects can also tune the ionization state of the acceptor complex, evident as a ring-like contrast in STM images. The interplay of these effects is explored over a wide range of defect distances, and understood using iterative simulations of tip-induced band bending. PMID:25782688

  10. Lithography-Free Fabrication of Core-Shell GaAs Nanowire Tunnel Diodes.

    PubMed

    Darbandi, A; Kavanagh, K L; Watkins, S P

    2015-08-12

    GaAs core-shell p-n junction tunnel diodes were demonstrated by combining vapor-liquid-solid growth with gallium oxide deposition by atomic layer deposition for electrical isolation. The characterization of an ensemble of core-shell structures was enabled by the use of a tungsten probe in a scanning electron microscope without the need for lithographic processing. Radial tunneling transport was observed, exhibiting negative differential resistance behavior with peak-to-valley current ratios of up to 3.1. Peak current densities of up to 2.1 kA/cm(2) point the way to applications in core-shell photovoltaics and tunnel field effect transistors. PMID:26189994

  11. A Cryogenic GaAs PHEMT/ Ferroelectric Ku-Band Tunable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Miranda, Felix A.; VanKeuls, Fred W.

    1998-01-01

    A Ku-band tunable oscillator operated at and below 77 K is described. The oscillator is based on two separate technologies: a 0.25 mm GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) circuit optimized for cryogenic operation, and a gold microstrip ring resonator patterned on a thin ferroelectric (SrTiO3) film which was laser ablated onto a LaAlO3 substrate. A tuning range of up to 3% of the center frequency was achieved by applying dc bias between the ring resonator and ground plane. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first tunable oscillator based on a thin film ferroelectric structure demonstrated in the microwave frequency range. The design methodology of the oscillator and the performance characteristics of the tunable resonator are described.

  12. Design and modeling of a GaAs monolithic 2- to 6-GHz feedback amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Reynolds, J. H.; Heikkila, T.; Fu, M. C.

    The design, fabrication, and performance of a monolithic 2- to 6-GHz feedback amplifier module are described, with particular emphasis on the modeling approaches used during the design and fabrication phases. The amplifier design is based on GaAs field-effect transistor (FET) equivalent circuit parameters derived from known ion implantation profile, peak doping density, and device geometries. Measured parametric data obtained from test patterns are used to monitor and control the fabrication process. Both measured and modeled DC and RF parameters of the FETs, as well as amplifier performance results, are presented for two process wafers. Agreement between the measured and modeled gain of the feedback amplifier was within 1 dB over a broad 1- to 11-GHz frequency band.

  13. Cryogenic ultra-low power dissipation operational amplifiers with GaAs JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibi, Yasunori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    To realize a multipixel camera for astronomical observation, we developed cryogenic multi-channel readout systems using gallium arsenide junction field-effect transistor (GaAs JFET) integrated circuits (ICs). Based on our experience with these cryogenic ICs, we designed, manufactured, and demonstrated operational amplifiers requiring four power supplies and two voltage sources. The amplifiers operate at 4.2 K with an open-loop gain of 2000. The gain-bandwidth product can expect 400 kHz at a power dissipation of 6 μW. In performance evaluations, the input-referred voltage noise was 4 μVrms/Hz0.5 at 1 Hz and 30 nVrms/Hz0.5 at 10 kHz, respectively. The noise power spectrum density was of type 1/f and extended to 10 kHz.

  14. High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors

    PubMed Central

    Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sbastien; Owens, Risn M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1?kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. PMID:23851620

  15. Optically-Activated GaAs Switches for Ground Penetrating Radar and Firing Set Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, J.; Brown, D.J.; Carin, L.; Denison, G.J.; Helgeson, W.D.; Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; O'Malley, M.W.; Rinehart, L.F.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1999-07-14

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different applications. TWO such applications are ground penetrating radar (GPR) and firing set switches. The ability of high gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSs) to deliver fast risetime pulses makes them suitable for their use in radars that rely on fast impulses. This type of direct time domain radar is uniquely suited for the detection of buried items because it can operate at low frequency, high average power, and close to the ground, greatly increasing power on target. We have demonstrated that a PCSs based system can be used to produce a bipolar waveform with a total duration of about 6 ns and with minimal ringing. Such a pulse is radiated and returns from a 55 gallon drum will be presented. For firing sets, the switch requirements include small size, high current, dc charging, radiation hardness and modest longevity. We have switched 1 kA at 1 kV and 2.8 kA at 3 kV dc charge.

  16. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  17. Bipolar disorder in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, K. I.; Herrmann, N.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential. PMID:10349067

  18. Characterization of LT GaAs carrier lifetime in multilayer GaAs epitaxial wafers by the transient reflectivity technique

    SciTech Connect

    McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Campbell, A.B.; Knudson, A.R.; Buchner, S.; Ikossi-Anastasiou, K.; Moss, S.C.; Engelhardt, D.; Childs, T.

    1997-12-01

    A methodology for determining the carrier lifetime of LT GaAs buffer layers in GaAs multilayer wafers utilizing the femtosecond transient reflectivity technique is introduced. Experimental results and computer simulations performed as a function of the LT GaAs growth temperature are presented for the multilayer GaAs structures that are used for device fabrication. The markedly non-exponential nature of the measured transients is a consequence of the multilayer structure of the wafers. The carrier lifetime measurements are correlated with available SEU data measured for structures fabricated with LT GaAs buffers with different growth temperatures.

  19. John Bardeen and transistor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Howard R.

    2001-01-01

    John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact semiconductor amplifier (transistor action) in polycrystalline germanium (also observed in polycrystalline silicon) on Dec. 15, 1947, for which they received a patent on Oct. 3, 1950. Bill Shockley was not a co-patent holder on Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier patent since Julius Lilienfeld had already received a patent in 1930 for what would have been Shockley's contribution; namely, the field-effect methodology. Shockley received patents for both his minority-carrier injection concept and junction transistor theory, however, and deservedly shared the Nobel prize with Bardeen and Brattain for his seminal contributions of injection, p-n junction theory and junction transistor theory. We will review the events leading up to the invention of Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier during the magic month of November 17-December 16, 1947 and the invention of Shockley's junction semiconductor amplifier during his magic month of December 24, 1947-January 23, 1948. It was during the course of Bardeen and Brattain's research in November, 1947 that Bardeen also patented the essence of the MOS transistor, wherein the induced minority carriers were confined to the inversion layer enroute to the collector. C. T. Sah has described this device as a sourceless MOS transistor. Indeed, John Bardeen, co-inventor of the point-contact semiconductor amplifier and inventor of the MOS transistor, may rightly be called the father of modern electronics.

  20. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  1. Image transfer in photorefractive GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Gheen, Gregory; Rau, Mann-Fu; Wang, Faa-Ching

    1987-01-01

    Image transfer from one beam to the other using counterpropagation beam coupling in GaAs was demonstrated. Good image quality was achieved. The results also reveal that local birefringence due to the residual stress/strain field in the crystal can degrade the image quality.

  2. Ballistic superconductivity in high mobility two dimensional electron gas in GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Rokhinson, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    Introduction of a Josephson field effect transistor (JoFET) concept sparked active research on proximity effects in semiconductors. Induced superconductivity and electrostatic control of critical current has been demonstrated in two-dimensional gases in InAs, graphene and topological insulators, and in one-dimensional systems including quantum spin Hall edges. Recently, interest in superconductor-semiconductor interfaces was renewed by the search for non-Abelian states when fractional quantum Hall edge states interface with superconductivity. However, the highest mobility 2D gases in GaAs, where variety of strongly correlated states including fractional quantum Hall effect can be observed, are notoriously absent from the list of materials where superconductivity have been induced. We report formation of transparent superconducting contacts to the high mobility 2DEG in GaAs and demonstrate induced superconductivity across several microns. Ballistic supercurrent has been observed across 0.6 ?m of 2DEG, a regime essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (> 16 Tesla) in NbN contacts enables investigation of a regime of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a 2DEG at high magnetic fields.

  3. Ionizing radiation response of GaAs JFETs and DCFL circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Zuleeg, R.; Notthoff, J.K.; Troeger, G.L.

    1982-12-01

    Transient responses and logic upset threshold dose rates of planar, all-ion implanted GaAs E-JFETs and DCFL (= direct-coupled field-effect transistor logic) integrated circuits to ionizing radiation pulses of 20 ns duration from a LINAC are reported. It is experimentally verified that the logic upset dose rate of enhancement mode GaAs JFET integrated circuits is inversely proportional to the square of their channel length. For L = 1 ..mu..m a theoretical value of UPSILON /SUB UPSET/ = 1.175 x 10/sup 11/ rad (GaAs)/s is predicted and medium scale integrated circuits have confirmed this value with experimental results in the range of 5 x 10/sup 10/ to 1 x 10/sup 11/ rad (GaAs)/s. A theoretical relation for logic upset dose rate and a correlation of experimental results with theory is presented. Long term conductance transients are not inherent to E-JFET inverters with resistive and depletion mode JFET load, but are present in source-follower circuits. A model for this circuit behavior will be presented.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Play Role in Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Play Role in Bipolar Disorder: Study Researchers hope to learn whether they can ... between levels of omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder. Researchers compared 27 people with bipolar disorder and ...

  5. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents

  6. Evolvable circuit with transistor-level reconfigurability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian (Inventor); Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos Harold (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An evolvable circuit includes a plurality of reconfigurable switches, a plurality of transistors within a region of the circuit, the plurality of transistors having terminals, the plurality of transistors being coupled between a power source terminal and a power sink terminal so as to be capable of admitting power between the power source terminal and the power sink terminal, the plurality of transistors being coupled so that every transistor terminal to transistor terminal coupling within the region of the circuit comprises a reconfigurable switch.

  7. Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Evolving Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar depression is the most common and difficult-to-treat phase of bipolar disorder. Antidepressants for unipolar depression are among the most widely used drugs, but recent data and meta-analyses indicate a lack of efficacy. Many of the drugs discussed here are graded provisionally for the strength of the findings in the literature, safety and tolerability, and likely utility of use in patients with bipolar disorder. Successful long-term treatment of bipolar depression is critical to preventing illness-related morbidity, disability, cognitive decline, suicide, and premature loss of years of life expectancy largely from the excess medical mortality associated with cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26876316

  8. Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  9. Simulation of novel complementary bipolar inverters for low-voltage high-speed ULSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubennikov, Alexander N.; Zykov, Andrey V.

    2000-01-01

    Complementary bipolar (CBi) inverters on scaled down self-aligned transistors with highly-doped bases for advanced high-speed low-voltage low-power deep-submicron ULSI are considered and studied using a simulator PSPICE. A novel symmetrical transistor structure (STS) with undoped (lightly-doped) active base and nanometer regime, that can function as complementary n-p-n and p-n-p devices for CBi inverters at ultra-reduced supply voltages VEE, VEE=0.1-0.5 V, is investigated and simulated. It is shown that numerical mixed 2D-device-circuit simulator (DCSIM) for personal computer gives accurate knowledge of the static and dynamic properties of upward and downward self-aligned STS and CBi inverters eliminating the intermediate nonaccurate procedure of model electrical parameter extraction. This paper presents 2D numerical device-circuit simulations of the bipolar nanostructures and push-pull inverters on complementary STS with undoped active bases in ultra-low-voltage regime providing a high degree of integration, extremely high intrinsic speed and sufficiently high driving capacity. The switching problems for high-speed low-power low-action operations and optimization of sub-0.5 V Cbi inverters are studied.

  10. An ion-gated bipolar amplifier for ion sensing with enhanced signal and improved noise performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Gao, Xindong; Chen, Si; Norström, Hans; Smith, Ulf; Solomon, Paul; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a proof-of-concept ion-sensitive device operating in electrolytes. The device, i.e., an ion-gated bipolar amplifier (IGBA), consists of a modified ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) intimately integrated with a vertical bipolar junction transistor for immediate current amplification without introducing additional noise. With the current non-optimized design, the IGBA is already characterized by a 70-fold internal amplification of the ISFET output signal. This signal amplification is retained when the IGBA is used for monitoring pH variations. The tight integration significantly suppresses the interference of the IGBA signal by external noise, which leads to an improvement in signal-to-noise performance compared to its ISFET reference. The IGBA concept is especially suitable for biochips with millions of electric sensors that are connected to peripheral readout circuitry via extensive metallization which may in turn invite external interferences leading to contamination of the signal before it reaches the first external amplification stage.

  11. A light emitting transistor based on a hybrid metal oxide-organic semiconductor lateral heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Zi-En; Foong, Thelese R. B.; Singh, Samarendra P.; Leok Chan, Khai; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2012-02-01

    A light-emitting field-effect transistor was fabricated, with its architecture based on a distinct heterojunction located midway between the source and drain contacts. Tetracene enabled hole transport on one side of the heterojunction (hole mobility 0.071 cm2/Vs), while amorphous solution-processed zinc tin oxide supported electron transport on the other side (electron mobility 0.81 cm2/Vs). The drain current vs. gate voltage curves of this device have a bell-shaped profile that is characteristic of lateral heterojunction bipolar field-effect transistors. The green light emissionfrom tetraceneclosely follows the trend in drain current and is naked-eye visible in a darkened room.

  12. Acoustic Wave Chemical Microsensors in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Albert G. Baca; Edwin J. Heller; Gregory C. Frye-Mason; John L. Reno; Richard Kottenstette; Stephen A. Casalnuovo; Susan L. Hietala; Vincent M. Hietala

    1998-09-20

    High sensitivity acoustic wave chemical microsensors are being developed on GaAs substrates. These devices take advantage of the piezoelectric properties of GaAs as well as its mature microelectronics fabrication technology and nascent micromachining technology. The design, fabrication, and response of GaAs SAW chemical microsensors are reported. Functional integrated GaAs SAW oscillators, suitable for chemical sensing, have been produced. The integrated oscillator requires 20 mA at 3 VK, operates at frequencies up to 500 MHz, and occupies approximately 2 mmz. Discrete GaAs sensor components, including IC amplifiers, SAW delay lines, and IC phase comparators have been fabricated and tested. A temperature compensation scheme has been developed that overcomes the large temperature dependence of GaAs acoustic wave devices. Packaging issues related to bonding miniature flow channels directly to the GaAs substrates have been resolved. Micromachining techniques for fabricating FPW and TSM microsensors on thin GaAs membranes are presented and GaAs FPW delay line performance is described. These devices have potentially higher sensitivity than existing GaAs and quartz SAW sensors.

  13. Spectral simulation of GaAs and InAs quantum-dot terahertz detectors designed for higher-temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Wu, D. H.; Bussmann, K.; Jonker, B. T.

    2006-09-01

    The spectral properties and other performance characteristics of single-photon quantum-dot terahertz detectors incorporating single-electron transistors are analyzed for the cases of GaAs and InAs electron channels. By defining the electrostatically confined double-quantum-dot structures in shallow two-dimensional electron gas structures, these devices have the potential to operate at temperatures above the dilution refrigerator range. We calculate the interlevel plasmon absorption by using the random-phase approximation in conjunction with realistic band structures and three-dimensional confinement geometries. While the level separations increase with decreasing dot diameter, carrier depletion eventually limits the minimum size that is viable. The maximum detection frequency is about 1THz for GaAs channels, but increases to 1.5-2THz for InAs channels having a lower effective mass.

  14. Electrical detection of the biological interaction of a charged peptide via gallium arsenide junction-field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.; Wampler, Heeyeon P.; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2008-01-01

    GaAs junction-field-effect transistors (JFETs) are utilized to achieve label-free detection of biological interaction between a probe transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and the target trans-activation-responsive (TAR) RNA. The TAT peptide is a short sequence derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 TAT protein. The GaAs JFETs are modified with a mixed adlayer of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and TAT peptide, with the ODT passivating the GaAs surface from polar ions in physiological solutions and the TAT peptide providing selective binding sites for TAR RNA. The devices modified with the mixed adlayer exhibit a negative pinch-off voltage (VP) shift, which is attributed to the fixed positive charges from the arginine-rich regions in the TAT peptide. Immersing the modified devices into a TAR RNA solution results in a large positive VP shift (>1 V) and a steeper subthreshold slope (∼80 mV∕decade), whereas “dummy” RNA induced a small positive VP shift (∼0.3 V) without a significant change in subthreshold slopes (∼330 mV∕decade). The observed modulation of device characteristics is analyzed with analytical modeling and two-dimensional numerical device simulations to investigate the electronic interactions between the GaAs JFETs and biological molecules. PMID:19484151

  15. Treatment of mixed bipolar states.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kontis, Dimitrios; Gonda, Xenia; Siamouli, Melina; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2012-08-01

    Mixed bipolar states are associated with more severe symptoms and outcome. Our aim is to review the literature examining their treatment. We conducted a literature search of randomized clinical studies and post-hoc analyses on mixed bipolar states' treatment. Remarkably, there is only one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, recruiting a mixed episode cohort, and one post-hoc analysis of this trial, while most data come from post-hoc analyses of trials including both manic and mixed patients. Improvement of manic symptoms in mixed episodes is similar to that seen in pure manic episodes and independent of baseline depressive features. The magnitude of response to manic symptoms' treatment probably exceeds that of depressive symptoms, which appear to resolve later. Valproate and carbamazepine are effective in acute mixed episodes, but the efficacy of lithium appears questionable. Atypical antipsychotic monotherapy improves both manic and depressive symptoms. Mood-stabilizer-atypical antipsychotic combination increases this effect. Atypical antipsychotic-antidepressant combination against acute mixed depression does not increase the risk for mania, although its superior efficacy vs. atypical antipsychotic monotherapy cannot be supported by current data. As regards prophylaxis, atypical antipsychotic monotherapy is associated with a lower incidence of and a longer time to relapse of any kind. The augmentation of lithium or divalproex with atypical antipsychotics increases prophylactic efficacy. Lithium or divalproex monotherapy have not been associated with significant prophylactic benefits following mixed mania. New, randomized prospective trials involving homogeneous cohorts of mixed bipolar patients are needed in order to delineate the appropriate pharmacological treatment of mixed states. PMID:22217434

  16. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies

  17. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and

  18. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe

  19. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also called manic-depressive illness or manic depression. Children with bipolar disorder go through unusual mood changes. ... about medical problems in your family, such as depression or alcoholism. The doctor may ... symptoms. How is bipolar disorder treated? Right now, ...

  20. Subthreshold bipolarity: diagnostic issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nusslock, Robin; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that current diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorders may fail to include milder, but clinically significant, bipolar syndromes and that a substantial percentage of these conditions are diagnosed, by default, as unipolar major depression. Accordingly, a number of researchers have argued for the upcoming 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to better account for subsyndromal hypomanic presentations. Methods The present paper is a critical review of research on subthreshold bipolarity, and an assessment of some of the challenges that researchers and clinicians might face if the DSM-5 were designed to systematically document subsyndromal hypomanic presentations. Results Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who display subsyndromal hypomanic features, not concurrent with a major depressive episode, have a more severe course compared to individuals with MDD and no hypomanic features, and more closely resemble individuals with bipolar disorder on a number of clinical validators. Conclusion There are clinical and scientific reasons for systematically documenting subsyndromal hypomanic presentations in the assessment and diagnosis of mood disorders. However, these benefits are balanced with important challenges, including (i) the difficulty in reliably identifying subsyndromal hypomanic presentations, (ii) operationalizing subthreshold bipolarity, (iii) differentiating subthreshold bipolarity from borderline personality disorder, (iv) the risk of over-diagnosing bipolar spectrum disorders, and (v) uncertainties about optimal interventions for subthreshold bipolarity. PMID:22085472

  1. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected system power = 100 kilowatts; discharge time = 30 seconds; discharge current density = 1.75 amps/sq in.; system weight = 86 lbs (9.7 WH/lb); and system volume = 1071 cu. in. (.78 WH/cu. in.). EPI is currently working on a development program to produce a bipolar silver-zinc battery design for NASA. The potential application would be to power electromechanical actuators for space launch vehicles.

  2. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected system power = 100 kilowatts; discharge time = 30 seconds; discharge current density = 1.75 amps/sq in.; system weight = 86 lbs (9.7 WH/lb); and system volume = 1071 cu. in. (.78 WH/cu. in.). EPI is currently working on a development program to produce a bipolar silver-zinc battery design for NASA. The potential application would be to power electromechanical actuators for space launch vehicles.

  3. LEC GaAs for integrated circuit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Chen, R. T.; Homes, D. E.; Asbeck, P. M.; Elliott, K. R.; Fairman, R. D.; Oliver, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in liquid encapsulated Czochralski techniques for the growth of semiinsulating GaAs for integrated circuit applications have resulted in significant improvements in the quality and quantity of GaAs material suitable for device processing. The emergence of high performance GaAs integrated circuit technologies has accelerated the demand for high quality, large diameter semiinsulating GaAs substrates. The new device technologies, including digital integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits and charge coupled devices have largely adopted direct ion implantation for the formation of doped layers. Ion implantation lends itself to good uniformity and reproducibility, high yield and low cost; however, this technique also places stringent demands on the quality of the semiinsulating GaAs substrates. Although significant progress was made in developing a viable planar ion implantation technology, the variability and poor quality of GaAs substrates have hindered progress in process development.

  4. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space resistant, high efficiency, light weight, low cost GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells for space application is investigated. The material preparation of ultrathin GaAs single crystal layers, and the fabrication of efficient GaAs solar cells on bulk GaAs substrates are discussed. Considerable progress was made in both areas, and conversion efficiency about 16% AMO was obtained using anodic oxide as a single layer antireflection coating. A computer design shows that even better cells can be obtained with double layer antireflection coating. Ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells were obtained from GaAs films prepared by the CLEFT process, with conversion efficiency as high as 17% at AMI from a 10 micrometers thick GaAs film. A organometallic CVD was designed and constructed.

  5. Assessment Tools for Adult Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher J.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Eisner, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of the literature on the assessment of bipolar disorder in adults. Research on reliable and valid measures for bipolar disorder has unfortunately lagged behind assessment research for other disorders, such as major depression. We review diagnostic tools, self-report measures to facilitate screening for bipolar diagnoses, and symptom severity measures. We briefly review other assessment domains, including measures designed to facilitate self-monitoring of symptoms. We highlight particular gaps in the field, including an absence of research on the reliable diagnosis of bipolar II and milder forms of disorder, a lack of empirical data on the best ways to integrate data from multiple domains, and a shortage of measures targeting a broader set of illness-related constructs relevant to bipolar disorder. PMID:20360999

  6. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Le Bas, James; Newton, Richard; Sore, Rachel; Castle, David

    2015-02-01

    Because affective pathogenesis is a hard problem for psychiatry, it behoves researchers to develop and test novel models of causality. We examine the notion that the adaptive drive to social investment - prestige - provides clues to the bipolar spectrum. A seven node bipolar spectrum is proposed, based on a putative gradient of "bipolarity". It is conceived that this gradient may correlate with the drive to social investment (prestige). In order to test this hypothesis with proof of concept data, a case control study categorised 228 subjects into a seven node bipolar spectrum. Whilst controlling for mood elevation and depression, differences in strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) between spectrum groups were examined. The bipolar I (S1) node had a greater strategic prestige (leadership) motivation score than the controls (S7) by 21.17 points, 95% CI [8.16, 34.18], p<.001, d=1.05, while the bipolar II (S2) node was higher than the control group by 16.73 points, 95% CI [0.92, 32.54], p=.030, d=0.84. Whilst the pseudounipolar (S3) node (those with depression and bipolar family histories; n=17) had only a marginally statistical difference in MSPM compared to controls (p=.051), the mean difference (16.98) and d value (0.86) indicated an elevated MSPM level. Prestige (leadership) motivation score positively correlated with dimensional lifetime bipolarity (Mood Disorder Questionnaire) score (rp=0.47), supporting the spectrum prestige motivation gradient notion. Evidence is presented for a genetic disposition to elevated strategic prestige (leadership) motivation. Sensitivity to Social Inclusion (MSIS), Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW.av) and tension significantly predicted strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) score in a multiple regression. - suggesting that a vulnerability of the social self may be a feature of bipolar disorders. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity offers a new conceptualisation of affective disorders and has received preliminary support. PMID:25554538

  7. Eight-Bit-Slice GaAs General Processor Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, John; Gauthier, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Novel GaAs 8-bit slice enables quick and efficient implementation of variety of fast GaAs digital systems ranging from central processing units of computers to special-purpose processors for communications and signal-processing applications. With GaAs 8-bit slice, designers quickly configure and test hearts of many digital systems that demand fast complex arithmetic, fast and sufficient register storage, efficient multiplexing and routing of data words, and ease of control.

  8. New generation of space batteries: GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Shi, Wenzao

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a new generation of space power sources -- GaAs solar cells -- and the status of their development inside China and abroad. In conjunction with this, on the basis of unique properties associated with GaAs solar cells, it points out the direction of development, clarifies the value of key space applications, and forecasts the application prospects for GaAs solar cells.

  9. Piezoelectric field in strained GaAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wieczorek, Sebastian Maciej

    2005-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the piezoelectric field in strained bulk GaAs. The bound charge distribution is calculated and suitable electrode configurations are proposed for (1) uniaxial and (2) biaxial strain. The screening of the piezoelectric field is studied for different impurity concentrations and sample lengths. Electric current due to the piezoelectric field is calculated for the cases of (1) fixed strain and (2) strain varying in time at a constant rate.

  10. GaAs photoconductors to characterize picosecond response in GaAs integrated devices and circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.B.; Paulter, N.G.; Gibbs, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Optoelectronic techniques that use femtosecond lasers and promise the precise measurement of transient response in high speed electronic devices and circuits have been under study for several years. We have investigated on-wafer electrical-impulse generation and sampling using femto-second-laser-excited GaAs photoconductors. This approach is applicable to any transmission line structure, it is directly integrable, non-invasive, jitter-free, and it is applicable to both microwave and digital circuits. We have developed the capability to: (a) generate electrical impulses in on-wafer GaAs transmission lines with 3-dB bandwidths in excess of 60 GHz, and (b) sample the electrical impulse response of an on-wafer test structure without jitter and with a 3-dB measurement bandwidth of 103 GHz at a noise level of -67 dBm. We have studied dispersion in GaAs on-wafer coplanar-waveguide transmission lines.

  11. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  12. Photoluminescence study of Sr(+) ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hong-Lie; Makita, Yunosuke; Dittrich, Werner; Kimura, Shinji; Tanoue, Hisao; Yamada, Akimasa; Iida, Tsutomu; Obara, Akira

    1995-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) results of Sr(+) ion-implantation into both ultrapure GaAs grown by liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) were presented. It was determined that Sr produced (Sr(sup omicron), X), G1, G2, and H emissions in molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs, while in LEC grown GaAs, rather than the four emissions above, two emissions designated by SM1 and SM2 emerged. The observations from GaAs (LEC) confirmed that a small amount of residual donor impurity could quench the development of shallow acceptor related emissions like G1 and G2.

  13. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  14. Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Torrey, E F

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that viruses or other infectious agents may cause schizophrenia or bipolar disorder dates to the 19th century but has recently been revived. It could explain many clinical, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these diseases, including the winter-spring birth seasonality, regional differences, urban birth, household crowding, having an older sibling, and prenatal exposure to influenza as risk factors. It could also explain observed immunological changes such as abnormalities of lymphocytes, proteins, autoantibodies, and cytokines. However, direct studies of viral infections in individuals with these psychiatric diseases have been predominantly negative. Most studies have examined antibodies in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and relatively few studies have been done on viral antigens, genomes, cytopathic effect on cell culture, and animal transmission experiments. Viral research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thus comparable to viral research on multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: an attractive hypothesis with scattered interesting findings but no clear proof. The application of molecular biological techniques may allow the identification of novel infectious agents and the associations of these novel agents with serious mental diseases. PMID:7704891

  15. Bipolar disorder: Mania and depression.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2004-10-01

    Extract: Bipolar disorder is one of the most distinct syndromes in psychiatry and has been described in numerous cultures over the course of history, in a manner that suggests considerable similarity of the syndrome in time and place. The unique phase of the illness is mania. However, depression can be the most prominent phase and the ratio of depressions to manias over the life course of the illness is highly variable. Depression in a bipolar disorder is a syndrome that can be understood by any human being, as all of us have experienced sadness and there are at least some commonalities between normal sadness and the state of depression. Mania is often difficult to explain to someone who has not seen a manic patient. In many ways, mania is the opposite of depression and is characterized by the following: an elevated mood or euphoria, an overactivity with a lack of the need for sleep, and an increased optimism that usually becomes so severe that the patient's judgment is impaired and they may make decisions based on their optimism such as the purchase of 500 television sets if they believe that the merchandise will go up in price. PMID:20704954

  16. [Neuroimmunology of bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimmunological studies focused mostly on depression, regardless of its diagnostic category. In this paper, the studies on the immunological system in patients with bipolar affective illness, including manic episode, have been presented. Research possibilities of neuroimmunology of affective disorders using molecular-genetic methods have also been shown. The studies on the neuroimmunology of depression have always been connected with studies on changes in the immunological system related to stress situations. Disturbances of the immunological system regulation have features of either decrease or pathological increase of the immunological system, with increased activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1 and 6, interferon). Some pathogenic role for the disturbances of immunological system in depression is also played by viral infections (herpes, Borna viruses). The changes of the immunological system in mania are mostly similar to those observed during depression. An increase of activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, connected with the lymphocyte Th1 system is especially evident. Like in depression, the role of viral infections has been pointed out (herpes, Borna, parvovirus B19). The oldest mood-stabilizing drug, lithium, has been shown to have strong action against herpes viruses. Molecular-genetic studies point to an association of some genes of the immunological system with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. An association of some genes with a predisposition to depression and efficacy of antidepressant drugs has also been shown. PMID:20449978

  17. Forecasting depression in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Moore, Paul J; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Geddes, John R; Goodwin, Guy M

    2012-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression and affects about 1% of the adult population. The condition can have a major impact on an individual's ability to function and is associated with a long-term risk of suicide. In this paper, we report on the use of self-rated mood data to forecast the next week's depression ratings. The data used in the study have been collected using SMS text messaging and comprises one time series of approximately weekly mood ratings for each patient. We find a wide variation between series: some exhibit a large change in mean over the monitored period and there is a variation in correlation structure. Almost half of the time series are forecast better by unconditional mean than by persistence. Two methods are employed for forecasting: exponential smoothing and Gaussian process regression. Neither approach gives an improvement over a persistence baseline. We conclude that the depression time series from patients with bipolar disorder are very heterogeneous and that this constrains the accuracy of automated mood forecasting across the set of patients. However, the dataset is a valuable resource and work remains to be done that might result in clinically useful information and tools. PMID:22855220

  18. Neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder: a comparison between bipolar I and II disorder and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits have been documented in patients with bipolar disorder. Further, it has been suggested that the degree and type of cognitive impairment differ between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder, but data is conflicting and remains inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the suggested differences in cognitive impairment between patients with bipolar I and II disorder in a relatively large, clinically stable sample while controlling for potential confounders. Methods 67 patients with bipolar I disorder, 43 with bipolar II disorder, and 86 randomly selected population-based healthy controls were compared. A number of neuropsychological tests were administered, assessing verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Patients were in a stable phase during testing. Results Patients with bipolar type I and type II were cognitively impaired compared to healthy controls, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two subtypes. The strongest predictor of cognitive impairment within the patient group was current antipsychotic treatment. Conclusions The present study suggests that the type and degree of cognitive dysfunction is similar in bipolar I and II patients. Notably, treatment with antipsychotics - but not a history of psychosis - was associated with more severe cognitive impairment. Given that patients with bipolar I disorder are more likely to be on antipsychotic drugs, this might explain why some previous studies have found that patients with type I bipolar disorder are more cognitively impaired than those with type II. PMID:23758923

  19. Harnessing denatured protein for controllable bipolar doping of a monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Ji-Ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-01-21

    In this work, we demonstrated tunable p- and/or n-type doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene with the use of protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a dopant. BSA undergoes protonation or deprotonation reaction subject to solution pH, thereby acting as either an electron donor or an electron acceptor on the graphene surface layered with denatured BSA through π-stacking interaction. This direct annealing of graphene with denatured BSA of amphoteric nature rendered facilitated fabrication of a p- and/or n-type graphene transistor by modulating pH-dependent net charges of the single dopant. Following AFM confirmation of the BSA/graphene interface assembly, the carrier transport properties of BSA-doped graphene transistors were assessed by I-V measurement and Raman spectra to show effective charge modulation of the graphene enabled by BSA doping at various pH conditions. The protein-mediated bipolar doping of graphene demonstrated in our work is simple, scalable, and straightforward; the proposed scheme is therefore expected to provide a useful alternative for fabricating graphene transistors of novel properties and promote their implementation in practice. PMID:25546483

  20. Planar, Al0.3Ga0.7As-passivated-base, heterojunction bipolar phototransistors.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G W; Kub, F J; Carruthers, T F; Papanicolaou, N A; Frankel, M Y; Katzer, D S; Modolo, J A; Tseng, W F

    1997-02-01

    New planar GaAs heterojunction bipolar phototransistors have been designed and demonstrated. The devices use a GaAs/Al(0.3)Ga(0.7) As molecular-beam-epitaxy materials system with an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7) As passivated, 10-nm-thick base; a depleted, high-low emitter; and a low emitter-base capacitance. Electrical contact to the emitter is made by a set of parallel, ohmic fingers and to the collector by an ohmic contact formed in a large, approximately 1.48-microm deep via. Rise times in response to impulse optical excitation at 810 nm were 747-891 ps except at the two lowest optical excitation powers measured. Photocurrent gains measured at 810 and 850 nm were 0.67-19, depending on experimental conditions. These devices are promising for use in heterodyne photodetector arrays for coherent optical processing channelizers requiring a 100-MHz bandwidth. PMID:18250735

  1. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  2. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.

  3. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko; ACT-C, JST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012

    2014-01-15

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.

  4. Attentional bias in euthymic bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the nature of the relation between information-processing biases and affective traits in bipolar disorder. The present study was designed to investigate whether attentional biases are evident in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder when they are in a positive mood state, and whether biases are related to indices of emotion regulation and to prior history of mood episodes. Ninety adults diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 81 controls with no lifetime mood disorder underwent a positive mood induction and then completed an emotion face dot-probe task; participants in the bipolar disorder group also completed a self-report measure of responses to positive affect. Attentional bias was not related to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder or to symptom severity. Consistent with hypotheses, analyses within the bipolar group indicated that greater dampening of positive affect related to significantly less attention paid to the positively valenced faces. Discussion focuses on the potential role of affective traits in shaping attentional bias in bipolar disorder. PMID:25757517

  5. The impact of structural parameters on the electrical characteristics of silicon nano wire transistor based on non equilibrium Green's function.

    PubMed

    Fatemeh-Karimi; Hamdam-Ghanatian; Morteza-Fathipour

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we have used a fully ballistic quantum mechanical transport approach to analyse electrical characteristics of rectangular silicon nanowire field effect transistor in 7 nm gate length. We have investigated the impact of structural parameters of Gate all around Silicon nano wire transistor (GAA-SNWT) on its electrical characteristics in subthreshold regime. In particular we have shown the effect of increasing the Source/Drain and channel length (L(S), L(D) and L(Ch)) on short channel effects as well as change in body thickness and independent back gate voltage. We also investigate the effect of increasing the gate underlap on the electrical characteristics and on the switching speed of device. We show that if the Lun is increased the gate capacitance and DIBL will reduce while the I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio is increased. PMID:22629907

  6. Recognising Bipolar Disorders in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Dietch, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, previously called 'Manic-depression', is a complex group of conditions characterised by recurrent changes in mood and energy. Crucially, the intensity and duration of these changes go beyond normal fluctuations and personality traits. Bipolar Disorder is a mental health disorder, but physical health manifestations (Smith 2013, Westman 2013, Fagiolini 2008, Young 2013) and complications are just as important. GPs have a key role in the recognition and management, in conjunction with secondary care colleagues. Diagnosis is often difficult and may take several years (Smith 2011, Angst 2005, Manning 2010), because patients usually seek help for anxiety, depression or fatigue, not hypomania/mania, which they may not recognise. Individuals with a first episode of mania are more likely to present directly to secondary care, sometimes via a third party alerting the emergency services. There is also debate around the classification, diagnosis and treatment of individuals with brief and milder mood changes ('bipolar spectrum disorder') (Faravelli 2009, Spence 2011). In the UK, the recent NICE Guidelines (2014) 1 only included Bipolar I and Bipolar II for these reasons. A particular challenge for GPs is that whilst most people who have Bipolar Disorder (and especially Bipolar II) are depressed, most people with depression within a Primary Care setting do not have Bipolar Disorder. Thus, a brief pragmatic screen is recommended in Primary care: ask about a family history of Bipolar Disorder and screen for a history of mania/hypomania in individuals with anxiety, depression or irritability, especially if there are recurrent episodes, suicidal thoughts or a previous suicide attempt. For suspected cases, formal diagnosis should not be made within Primary Care but individuals should be referred for Psychiatric assessment, ideally to a Mood Disorders specialist. PMID:26417759

  7. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent

  8. The four-gate transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, M. M.; Cristoveanu, S.; Allibert, F.; France, G.; Blalock, B.; Durfrene, B.

    2002-01-01

    The four-gate transistor or G4-FET combines MOSFET and JFET principles in a single SOI device. Experimental results reveal that each gate can modulate the drain current. Numerical simulations are presented to clarify the mechanisms of operation. The new device shows enhanced functionality, due to the combinatorial action of the four gates, and opens rather revolutionary applications.

  9. Ion-implanted high-microwave-power indium phosphide transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, R.

    1989-09-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) have demonstrated substantially higher output power density at microwave frequencies compared to gallium arsenide metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). Presented here are the microwave characteristics from an investigation of encapsulated rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the fabrication of InP power MISFETs with ion-implanted source, drain, and active channel regions. The MISFETs had a gate length of 1.4 microns. They were made with individual gate finger widths of 100 or 125 microns, and six to ten gate fingers per device were used to make MISFETs with total gate widths of 0.75, 0.8, or 1 mm. The source and drain contact regions and the channel region of the MISFETs were fabricated using silicon implants in semi-insulating InP at energies from 60 to 360 keV with doses from 10 to the 12th power to 5.6 x 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. The implants were activated using RTA at 700 C for 30 s in N2 or H2 ambients using a silicon nitride encapsulant. The channel region was chemically recessed prior to depositing approximately 1000 A of SiO2 for the gate insulator. The high power and high efficiency of InP MISFETs were characterized at 9.7 GHz, and the output microwave power density for the RTA conditions used was as high as 2.4 W/mm. For a 1 W input at 9.7 GHz gains up to 3.7 dB were observed, with an associated power-added efficiency of 29 percent. The output power density achieved was 70 percent greater than has been achieved with GaAs MESFETs.

  10. SEU In An Advanced Bipolar Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Secrest, Elaine C.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report summarizes investigation of single-event upsets (SEU) in bipolar integrated-circuit set of flip-flops (memory cells). Device tested made by advanced digital bipolar silicon process of Honeywell, Inc. Circuit chip contained 4 cells. Construction enabled study of effect of size on SEU behavior. Each cell externally biased so effect of bias current on SEU behavior. Results of study provides important information for optimal design of devices fabricated using buried-layer bipolar process operating in heavy-ion SEU environments. Designers use information to provide required levels of suppression of SEU in specific applications via combinations of size and/or cell-current scaling.

  11. Pharmaceutical treatment of acute bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of bipolar depression is one of the most challenging fields in contemporary psychiatry. The best data concern the antipsychotics quetiapine and the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. However, the usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression remains controversial; positive data are available for fluoxetine but negative results have been published for paroxetine. Accumulated knowledge so far suggests that bipolar patients need continuous administration of an antimanic agent even during the acute depressive phase. Although our knowledge is indeed limited, the development of guidelines for polypharmacy is necessary and should be done as soon as possible. PMID:20948837

  12. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  13. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  14. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or orphan treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice. PMID:23393416

  15. Comorbidity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gagan; Wilens, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis A growing literature shows the pervasiveness and importance of comorbidity in youth with bipolar disorder (BPD). For instance, up to 90% of youth with BPD have been described to manifest comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior disorders are the other most commonly reported comorbidities with BPD. Moreover, important recent data highlights the importance of obsessive compulsive and pervasive developmental illness in the context of BPD. Data suggests that not only special developmental relationships are operant in context to comorbidity, but also that the presence of comorbid disorders with BPD results in a more severe clinical condition. Moreover, the presence of comorbidity has therapeutic implications for the treatment response for both BPD and the associated comorbid disorder. Future longitudinal studies to address the relationship and the impact of comorbid disorders on course and therapeutic response over time are required in youth with BPD. PMID:19264265

  16. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  17. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  18. Optical pumping of hot phonons in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.L.; Yu, P.Y.

    1982-06-30

    Optical pumping of hot LO phonons in GaAs has been studied as a function of the excitation photon frequency. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model calculation which includes both inter- and intra-valley electron-phonon scatterings. The GAMMA-L and GAMMA-X intervalley electron-phonon interactions in GaAs have been estimated.

  19. Linearity of photoconductive GaAs detectors to pulsed electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, L.H.

    1995-12-31

    The response of neutron damaged GaAs photoconductor detectors to intense, fast (50 psec fwhm) pulses of 16 MeV electrons has been measured. Detectors made from neutron damaged GaAs are known to have reduced gain, but significantly improved bandwidth. An empirical relationship between the observed signal and the incident electron fluence has been determined.

  20. Radiation effects in GaAs FET devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zuleeg, R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper reviews the effects space and nuclear radiation have on GaAs devices utilized for integrated circuit design. The hardness capability of contemporary GaAs devices and logic circuits is presented in terms of four major nuclear and space radiation threat categories: total dose effects, dose rate effects, single particle phenomena, and neutron effects.

  1. White matter microstructure alterations in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bellani, Marcella; Perlini, Cinzia; Ferro, Adele; Cerruti, Stefania; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Isola, Miriam; Cerini, Roberto; Dusi, Nicola; Andreone, Nicola; Balestrieri, Matteo; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Tansella, Michele; Brambilla, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Genetic, neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings support the presence of diffuse white matter cytoarchitectural disruption in bipolar disorder. In this study, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was applied to study cortical white matter microstructure organisation in 24 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder and 35 matched normal controls. DWI images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined over regions of interest placed, bilaterally, in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter. Significantly increased ADC values were found in bipolar patients with respect to normal controls in the right temporal lobe, left parietal lobe and bilateral occipital lobes. ADC values did not associate significantly with age or with clinical variables (p>0.05). Diffuse cortical white matter alterations on DWI in bipolar disorder denote widespread disruption of white matter integrity and may be due to altered myelination and/or axonal integrity. PMID:22687164

  2. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

  3. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

  4. AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs pnp-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting transistor-lasers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Y; Reuterskild-Hedlund, C; Yu, X; Yang, C; Zabel, T; Hammar, M; Akram, M N

    2015-06-15

    We report on the design, fabrication and analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting transistor-lasers (T-VCSELs) based on the homogeneous integration of an InGaAs/GaAs VCSEL and an AlGaAs/GaAs pnp-heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Epitaxial regrowth confinement, modulation doping, intracavity contacting and non-conducting mirrors are used to ensure a low-loss structure, and a variety of design variations are investigated for a proper internal biasing and current injection to ensure a wide operating range. Optimized devices show mW-range output power, mA-range base threshold current and high-temperature operation to at least 60C with the transistor in its active mode of operation for base currents well beyond threshold. Current confinement schemes based on pnp-blocking layers or a buried tunnel junction are investigated as well as asymmetric current injection for reduced extrinsic resistances. PMID:26193547

  5. The use of bipolar technology in hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Stefania; DE Alberti, Davide; Garuti, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar technology was introduced in the hysteroscopic clinical use in 1999, by the design of both loop electrodes addressed to resectoscopic surgery and miniaturized electrodes adaptable to small-size hysteroscopes. The need of an electrolytic solution as distension medium and the spatial relationships between the active and return bipolar electrode avoid, by definition, the risks of severe electrolyte imbalance syndromes and unpredictable electrical burns, sometimes complicating monopolar surgery. The true revolution in the hysteroscopy care has achieved through the availability of mini-hysteroscopes not requiring cervical dilatation, thus limiting uterine wall damages and allowing surgeons to manage several endometrial pathologies by mini-invasive procedures using an effective electrosurgical bipolar instrumentation. Many surgical interventions, traditionally accomplished by the resectoscope in a surgical room theatre, can be now carried out in an outpatient setting without any support from anesthesia. The patients' avoidance of surgical room access and the quick return to daily activities lead to an obvious - but not fully demonstrated - improvement in the medical and social costs associated to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. In the field of resectoscopy, bipolar electrodes are clinically as effective as monopolar devices. Randomized trials showed that bipolar resectoscopic technology prevents the electrolyte imbalance observed after monopolar surgery. However, in daily clinical practice the assumedly safer profile of bipolar with respect to monopolar resectoscopy has not been demonstrated yet. PMID:26928415

  6. The development of lurasidone for bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Xu, Jane; Hsu, Jay; Cucchiaro, Josephine; Pikalov, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent illness that ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in the developed world. As the illness progresses, major depressive episodes increasingly predominate. However, few treatment options are available that have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in combination with mood stabilizers. Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that was initially developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. Since no previous atypical antipsychotic development program had proceeded directly from work on schizophrenia to bipolar depression, the decision to focus on this indication represented an innovation in central nervous system drug development and was designed to address a clinically significant unmet need. The current review summarizes key results of a clinical development program undertaken to characterize the efficacy and safety of lurasidone in patients diagnosed with bipolar depression. Lurasidone is currently the only treatment for bipolar depression approved in the United States as both a monotherapy and an adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate. The approval of lurasidone expands available treatment options for patients with bipolar depression and provides a therapy with an overall favorable risk-benefit profile. PMID:26771990

  7. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder. PMID:22738363

  8. Do mood instability symptoms in epilepsy represent formal bipolar disorder?

    PubMed

    Lau, Connie; Ettinger, Alan B; Hamberger, Sandra; Fanning, Kristina; Reed, Michael L

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to assess rates of bipolar symptoms versus bipolar disorder in epilepsy, and the effect of bipolar symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in epilepsy. Bipolar, disability, and QOL instruments were administered to 99 tertiary epilepsy center patients. Patients who scored positive on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) also completed depression scales and a structured psychiatric interview. Results indicated MDQ+ patients (10.1%) had worse QOL and more work, social, and family life disruptions. Most MDQ+ patients did not have bipolar disorder. There was close overlap between depressive and bipolar symptomatology. Based on results of this study, bipolar symptom is not synonymous with bipolar disorder. Symptoms picked up by the MDQ may be epilepsy-related depressive symptoms. Bipolar symptoms are associated with more disability, worse QOL, and may have treatment implications. PMID:22220741

  9. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111){sub B} substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin; Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072

    2013-02-11

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub B} substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {l_brace}113{r_brace}{sub B} faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  10. Principles of an atomtronic transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliga, Seth C.; Straatsma, Cameron J. E.; Zozulya, Alex A.; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2016-01-01

    A semiclassical formalism is used to investigate the transistor-like behavior of ultracold atoms in a triple-well potential. Atom current flows from the source well, held at fixed chemical potential and temperature, into an empty drain well. In steady-state, the gate well located between the source and drain is shown to acquire a well-defined chemical potential and temperature, which are controlled by the relative height of the barriers separating the three wells. It is shown that the gate chemical potential can exceed that of the source and have a lower temperature. In electronics terminology, the sourcegate junction can be reverse-biased. As a result, the device exhibits regimes of negative resistance and transresistance, indicating the presence of gain. Given an external current input to the gate, transistor-like behavior is characterized both in terms of the current gain, which can be greater than unity, and the power output of the device.

  11. A graphene-based hot electron transistor.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Sam; Lupina, Grzegorz; Henkel, Christoph; Smith, Anderson D; Ostling, Mikael; Dabrowski, Jarek; Lippert, Gunther; Mehr, Wolfgang; Lemme, Max C

    2013-04-10

    We experimentally demonstrate DC functionality of graphene-based hot electron transistors, which we call graphene base transistors (GBT). The fabrication scheme is potentially compatible with silicon technology and can be carried out at the wafer scale with standard silicon technology. The state of the GBTs can be switched by a potential applied to the transistor base, which is made of graphene. Transfer characteristics of the GBTs show ON/OFF current ratios exceeding 10(4). PMID:23488893

  12. Single-transistor-clocked flip-flop

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Peiyi; Darwish, Tarek; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2005-08-30

    The invention provides a low power, high performance flip-flop. The flip-flop uses only one clocked transistor. The single clocked transistor is shared by the first and second branches of the device. A pulse generator produces a clock pulse to trigger the flip-flop. In one preferred embodiment the device can be made as a static explicit pulsed flip-flop which employs only two clocked transistors.

  13. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  14. Implantation of carbon in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    Carbon implanted into GaAs and thermally annealed typically exhibits very low (<3%) electrical activity. It has been demonstrated that the electrical activity of C can be significantly enhanced by co-implantation with Ga. Improved activation may result from either additional damage of the crystal lattice or from stoichiometric changes, forcing the C atoms onto As sites. To determine the relative importance of each of these effects, I have undertaken a systematic study of carbon activation in GaAs. A range of co-implants have been used: group III (B, Ga), group V (N, P, As) and noble gases (Ar, Kr). The damage introduced to the substrate will depend on the mass of the ion implanted. The group III and group V co-implants will affect the crystal stoichiometry. The results indicate that both lattice damage and crystal stoichiometry are important for high electrical activity of C. Increasing the damage will increase the activation due to the increased number of As vacancies but maximum activation can be obtained only by a co-implant which not only damages the lattice but also forces the C to occupy an As site.

  15. MRFM based spectroscopy of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexson, Dimitri; Smith, Doran

    2011-03-01

    The apparent contradiction of how to perform NMR spectroscopy given the large magnetic field gradients present in MRFM is resolved by removing the magnetic field gradient while RF based NMR spectroscopic pulses are applied to the sample. This is accomplished by 1) shuttling (move) the sample away from the magnetic particle mounted on the cantilever, 2) apply RF spectroscopic pulse sequences to the sample, 3) store a component of the free induction decay along the z-axis, 4) shuttle the sample back to the cantilever, and 5) read out the magnetization stored on the z-axis with MRFM using an adiabatic rapid passage protocol (ARP). We will describe our progress on performing shuttle based spectroscopy of GaAs using MRFM. We will describe our measurements of T1 of Ga69 in GaAs with an inversion-recovery experiment. Using a single ARP sweep, the polarization is inverted and its recovery is monitored with a driven cantilever using the CERMIT protocol.

  16. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  17. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,

  18. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  19. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation.

    PubMed

    Deconto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Wilson, Paul A; Plike, Heiko; Lear, Caroline H; Pagani, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene epoch ( approximately 33.6 million years ago), followed by the onset of northern-hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene epoch, about 31 million years later. The pivotal early Oligocene event is characterized by a rapid shift of 1.5 parts per thousand in deep-sea benthic oxygen-isotope values (Oi-1) within a few hundred thousand years, reflecting a combination of terrestrial ice growth and deep-sea cooling. The apparent absence of contemporaneous cooling in deep-sea Mg/Ca records, however, has been argued to reflect the growth of more ice than can be accommodated on Antarctica; this, combined with new evidence of continental cooling and ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere during this period, raises the possibility that Oi-1 represents a precursory bipolar glaciation. Here we test this hypothesis using an isotope-capable global climate/ice-sheet model that accommodates both the long-term decline of Cenozoic atmospheric CO(2) levels and the effects of orbital forcing. We show that the CO(2) threshold below which glaciation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere ( approximately 280 p.p.m.v.) is much lower than that for Antarctica ( approximately 750 p.p.m.v.). Therefore, the growth of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere immediately following Antarctic glaciation would have required rapid CO(2) drawdown within the Oi-1 timeframe, to levels lower than those estimated by geochemical proxies and carbon-cycle models. Instead of bipolar glaciation, we find that Oi-1 is best explained by Antarctic glaciation alone, combined with deep-sea cooling of up to 4 degrees C and Antarctic ice that is less isotopically depleted (-30 to -35 per thousand) than previously suggested. Proxy CO(2) estimates remain above our model's northern-hemispheric glaciation threshold of approximately 280 p.p.m.v. until approximately 25 Myr ago, but have been near or below that level ever since. This implies that episodic northern-hemispheric ice sheets have been possible some 20 million years earlier than currently assumed (although still much later than Oi-1) and could explain some of the variability in Miocene sea-level records. PMID:18833277

  20. High-Speed Planar GaAs Nanowire Arrays with fmax > 75 GHz by Wafer-Scale Bottom-up Growth.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Chabak, Kelson; Zhang, Chen; Mohseni, Parsian K; Walker, Dennis; Li, Xiuling

    2015-05-13

    Wafer-scale defect-free planar III-V nanowire (NW) arrays with ?100% yield and precisely defined positions are realized via a patterned vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth method. Long and uniform planar GaAs NWs were assembled in perfectly parallel arrays to form double-channel T-gated NW array-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with DC and RF performance surpassing those for all field-effect transistors (FETs) with VLS NWs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), or graphene channels in-plane with the substrate. For a planar GaAs NW array-based HEMT with 150 nm gate length and 2 V drain bias, the on/off ratio (ION/IOFF), cutoff frequency (fT), and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are 10(4), 33, and 75 GHz, respectively. By characterizing more than 100 devices on a 1.5 1.5 cm(2) chip, we prove chip-level electrical uniformity of the planar NW array-based HEMTs and verify the feasibility of using this bottom-up planar NW technology for post-Si large-scale nanoelectronics. PMID:25494481

  1. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  2. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Robertson, Perry J.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  3. JANTX2N2369A transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes effects of power and temperature overstress on National Semiconductor and Raytheon transistors. Good junction quality was maintained. Gain losses predominated. Other failures are reported.

  4. Design Criterion and Operation Mechanism for 4.5 kV Injection Enhanced Gate Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Mitsuhiko; Nakagawa, Akio; Omura, Ichiro; Ohashi, Hiromichi

    1998-08-01

    This paper investigates the injection enhancement effect of a trench gate structure for a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) controlled power transistor called an injection enhanced gate transistor (IEGT). By virtue of the enhancement in effective electron injection efficiency, 4.5 kV IEGTs attain a thyristor-like carrier profile during the on-state, and hence achieve the same low on-state voltage drop as that of thyristors. The operation mode of the IEGT was studied using a two-dimensional numerical simulation, and verified by device fabrication. It was confirmed that the proposed novel trench gate geometry acts as an injection enhancer by restricting the hole diffusion current which flows from the n-type high-resistance base layer to the cathode electrode. It is shown for the first time that the effective electron injection efficiency of the n-ch insulated gate bipolar transistor increases to nearly 1. It is also shown that the new trench gate structure effectively decreases the forward voltage drop without degradation of turn-off capability.

  5. High-Power, High-Frequency Si-Based (SiGe) Transistors Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA, DOD, and commercial products will require electronic circuits that have greater functionality and versatility but occupy less space and cost less money to build and integrate than current products. System on a Chip (SOAC), a single semiconductor substrate containing circuits that perform many functions or containing an entire system, is widely recognized as the best technology for achieving low-cost, small-sized systems. Thus, a circuit technology is required that can gather, process, store, and transmit data or communications. Since silicon-integrated circuits are already used for data processing and storage and the infrastructure that supports silicon circuit fabrication is very large, it is sensible to develop communication circuits on silicon so that all the system functions can be integrated onto a single wafer. Until recently, silicon integrated circuits did not function well at the frequencies required for wireless or microwave communications, but with the introduction of small amounts of germanium into the silicon to make silicon-germanium (SiGe) transistors, silicon-based communication circuits are possible. Although microwavefrequency SiGe circuits have been demonstrated, there has been difficulty in obtaining the high power from their transistors that is required for the amplifiers of a transmitter, and many researchers have thought that this could not be done. The NASA Glenn Research Center and collaborators at the University of Michigan have developed SiGe transistors and amplifiers with state-of-the-art output power at microwave frequencies from 8 to 20 GHz. These transistors are fabricated using standard silicon processing and may be integrated with CMOS integrated circuits on a single chip. A scanning electron microscope image of a typical SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is shown in the preceding photomicrograph. This transistor achieved a record output power of 550 mW and an associated power-added efficiency of 33 percent at 8.4 GHz, as shown. Record performance was also demonstrated at 12.6 and 18 GHz. Developers have combined these state-of-the-art transistors with transmission lines and micromachined passive circuit components, such as inductors and capacitors, to build multistage amplifiers. Currently, a 1-W, 8.4-GHz power amplifier is being built for NASA deep space communication architectures.

  6. The development of integrated chemical microsensors in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; ASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER,EDWIN J.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,S.L.

    1999-11-01

    Monolithic, integrated acoustic wave chemical microsensors are being developed on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates. With this approach, arrays of microsensors and the high frequency electronic components needed to operate them reside on a single substrate, increasing the range of detectable analytes, reducing overall system size, minimizing systematic errors, and simplifying assembly and packaging. GaAs is employed because it is both piezoelectric, a property required to produce the acoustic wave devices, and a semiconductor with a mature microelectronics fabrication technology. Many aspects of integrated GaAs chemical sensors have been investigated, including: surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors; monolithic SAW delay line oscillators; GaAs application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for sensor operation; a hybrid sensor array utilizing these ASICS; and the fully monolithic, integrated SAW array. Details of the design, fabrication, and performance of these devices are discussed. In addition, the ability to produce heteroepitaxial layers of GaAs and aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) makes possible micromachined membrane sensors with improved sensitivity compared to conventional SAW sensors. Micromachining techniques for fabricating flexural plate wave (FPW) and thickness shear mode (TSM) microsensors on thin GaAs membranes are presented and GaAs FPW delay line and TSM resonator performance is described.

  7. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications. PMID:24030475

  8. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  10. Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Hannah J; Docherty, Callum J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Lloyd-Hughes, James; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2013-05-31

    We have performed a comparative study of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in a range of III-V nanowires using optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy. This versatile technique allows measurement of important parameters for device applications, including carrier lifetimes, surface recombination velocities, carrier mobilities and donor doping levels. GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires of varying diameters were measured. For all samples, the electronic response was dominated by a pronounced surface plasmon mode. Of the three nanowire materials, InAs nanowires exhibited the highest electron mobilities of 6000 cm V? s?, which highlights their potential for high mobility applications, such as field effect transistors. InP nanowires exhibited the longest carrier lifetimes and the lowest surface recombination velocity of 170 cm s?. This very low surface recombination velocity makes InP nanowires suitable for applications where carrier lifetime is crucial, such as in photovoltaics. In contrast, the carrier lifetimes in GaAs nanowires were extremely short, of the order of picoseconds, due to the high surface recombination velocity, which was measured as 5.4 10?? cm s?. These findings will assist in the choice of nanowires for different applications, and identify the challenges in producing nanowires suitable for future electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:23619012

  11. Electrode pattern design for GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyang, Chen; Jianhua, Yin; Darang, Li

    2011-08-01

    The sensitivities of betavoltaic batteries and photovoltaic batteries to series and parallel resistance are studied. Based on the study, an electrode pattern design principle of GaAs betavoltaic batteries is proposed. GaAs PIN junctions with and without the proposed electrode pattern are fabricated and measured under the illumination of 63Ni. Results show that the proposed electrode can reduce the backscattering and shadowing for the beta particles from 63Ni to increase the GaAs betavoltaic battery short circuit currents effectively but has little impact on the fill factors and ideal factors.

  12. Field dependent emission rates in radiation damaged GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Myers, S. M.; Wampler, W. R.; Lang, D. V.; Seager, C. H.; Campbell, J. M.

    2014-07-07

    We have measured the temperature and field dependence of emission rates from five traps in electron damaged GaAs. Four of the traps have previously been identified as radiation defects. One of the traps, seen in higher doped diodes, has not been previously identified. We have fit the data to a multiphonon emission theory that allows recombination in GaAs to be characterized over a broad range of temperature and electric field. These results demonstrate an efficient method to calculate field-dependent emission rates in GaAs.

  13. Photocurrent Spectroscopy of Single Wurtzite GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. C.; Ahtapodov, L.; Boe, A. B.; Moses, A. F.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.; Choi, J. W.; Ji, H.; Kim, G. T.

    2011-12-23

    Photocurrent of single wurtzite GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is measured at room and low temperature (10 K). At room temperature a high photo-response with more than two orders of magnitude increase of current is observed. The wavelength dependence of the photocurrent shows a sharp change near the zinc blende GaAs band gap. The absence of the free exciton peak in the low temperature photocurrent spectrum, and problems related to determining the exact position of the energy bandgap of wurtzite GaAs from the observed data are discussed.

  14. Ionizing radiation hardness of GaAs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Listvan, M.A.; Vold, P.J.; Arch, D.K.

    1987-12-01

    The radiation response of several GaAs technologies to ionizing radiation has been investigated. Self-aligned gate (SAG) E/D GaAs Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET), SAG AlGaAs/GaAs Modulation Doped FET (MODFET), and complementary-AlGaAs/GaAs Heterostructure Insulated Gate FET (C-HIGET) devices and circuits all demonstrated minimal sensitivity to total dose effects to 250 Mrad (GaAs). The heterostructure based technologies showed superior tolerance to high dose rate exposures, with upset levels exceeding 1 x 10/sup 10/ rads(GaAs)/s.

  15. The 4H-SiC npn power bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Williams, B. W.

    1999-12-01

    The static and dynamic performance of the power silicon carbide BJT is investigated and compared with the silicon carbide UMOSFET by employing a numerical semiconductor simulator. The silicon carbide BJT exhibits superior current handling ability to and switching speed comparable with the SiC MOSFET in the voltage range simulated (1 kV-4 kV). The high current gain of the SiC BJT redresses the base drive problem of the silicon power BJT. It is proposed that research be carried out on the power silicon carbide NPN BJT, since it does not have the premature gate oxide breakdown and low inversion layer mobility problems associated with SiC MOSFET technology.

  16. Correlation of hot-carrier stress and ionization induced degradation in bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L.; Kosier, S.L.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Combs, W.E.; DeLaus, M.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    The correlation of hot carrier stress and ionization induced gain degradation in npn BJTs was studied to determine if hot-carrier stress could be used as a hardness assurance tool for total dose. The correlation was measured at the wafer level and for several hardening variations for a single process technology. Additional experiments are planned and will be presented in the full paper. Based on a detailed physical analysis of the mechanisms for hot-carrier stress and ionization no correlation was expected. The results demonstrated the lack of correlation and indicate that hot-carrier stress degradation is not a predictor of total dose response.

  17. An insulated gate bipolar transistor with surface n-type barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengxuan, Jiang; John, Shen Z.; Jun, Wang; Zhikang, Shuai; Xin, Yin; Bingbing, Sun; Linyuan, Liao

    2015-12-01

    This letter proposes a novel IGBT structure with an n-type barrier (NB-IGBT) formed on the silicon surface to enhance the conductivity modulation effect with a relatively simple fabrication process. TCAD simulation indicates that the NB-IGBT offers a current density 49% higher and turn-off losses 25% lower than a conventional field-stop IGBT (FS-IGBT) with a similar breakdown voltage, turn-off time and avalanche energy. Furthermore, the NB-IGBT exhibits extremely large transconductance, which is favorable to turn-on and turn-off. Therefore, the proposed IGBT offers an attractive option for high-voltage and large-power electronics applications. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2014AA052601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277060).

  18. IGBT convertor with active snubber for soft switching. [Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masserant, B. J.; Shriver, J.; Stuart, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    This full bridge dc-dc convertor with IGBTs uses zero voltage switching (ZVS) for one leg of the bridge and zero current switching (ZCS) for the other. It is shown that an active snubber greatly improves the performance over previous methods. Experimental results are shown for a 6 kW circuit switching at 20 kHz.

  19. Novel reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor with anti-parallel MOS controlled thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liheng, Zhu; Xingbi, Chen

    2014-07-01

    Novel reverse-conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT) with anti-parallel MOS controlled thyristor (MCT) is proposed. Its major feature is the introduction of an automatically controlled MCT at the anode, by which the anode-short effect is eliminated and the voltage snapback problem is solved. Furthermore, the snapback-free characteristics can be realized in novel RC-IGBT by a single cell with a width of 10 ?m with more uniform current distribution. As numerical simulations show, compared with the conventional RC-IGBT, the forward conduction voltage is reduced by 35% while the reverse conduction voltage is reduced by 50% at J = 150 A/cm2.

  20. GaAs VLSI technology and circuit elements for DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, James M.

    1990-10-01

    Recent progress in digital GaAs circuit performance and complexity is presented to demonstrate the current capabilities of GaAs components. High density GaAs process technology and circuit design techniques are described and critical issues for achieving favorable complexity speed power and cost tradeoffs are reviewed. Some DSP building blocks are described to provide examples of what types of DSP systems could be implemented with present GaAs technology. DIGITAL GaAs CIRCUIT CAPABILITIES In the past few years the capabilities of digital GaAs circuits have dramatically increased to the VLSI level. Major gains in circuit complexity and power-delay products have been achieved by the use of silicon-like process technologies and simple circuit topologies. The very high speed and low power consumption of digital GaAs VLSI circuits have made GaAs a desirable alternative to high performance silicon in hardware intensive high speed system applications. An example of the performance and integration complexity available with GaAs VLSI circuits is the 64x64 crosspoint switch shown in figure 1. This switch which is the most complex GaAs circuit currently available is designed on a 30 gate GaAs gate array. It operates at 200 MHz and dissipates only 8 watts of power. The reasons for increasing the level of integration of GaAs circuits are similar to the reasons for the continued increase of silicon circuit complexity. The market factors driving GaAs VLSI are system design methodology system cost power and reliability. System designers are hesitant or unwilling to go backwards to previous design techniques and lower levels of integration. A more highly integrated system in a lower performance technology can often approach the performance of a system in a higher performance technology at a lower level of integration. Higher levels of integration also lower the system component count which reduces the system cost size and power consumption while improving the system reliability. For large gate count circuits the power per gate must be minimized to prevent reliability and cooling problems. The technical factors which favor increasing GaAs circuit complexity are primarily related to reducing the speed and power penalties incurred when crossing chip boundaries. Because the internal GaAs chip logic levels are not compatible with standard silicon I/O levels input receivers and output drivers are needed to convert levels. These I/O circuits add significant delay to logic paths consume large amounts of power and use an appreciable portion of the die area. The effects of these I/O penalties can be reduced by increasing the ratio of core logic to I/O on a chip. DSP operations which have a large number of logic stages between the input and the output are ideal candidates to take advantage of the performance of GaAs digital circuits. Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the I/O penalties encountered when converting from ECL levels to GaAs

  1. Gate-all-around poly-Si nanowire junctionless thin-film transistors with multiple channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, Chia-Tsung; Liu, Tung-Yu; Sheu, Jeng-Tzong

    2015-06-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) nanowire (NW) junctionless (JL) thin-film transistors composed of gate-all-around (GAA) and multiple channels were demonstrated and characterized. The high surface-to-volume ratio of the NW and a nominal gate length of 0.25 m lead to a clear improvement in electrical performance, including a steep subthreshold swing (SS; ?124 mV/decade), a virtual absence of drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL; 21 13 mV/V), and a high ION/IOFF current ratio (?1 109) under a relatively low voltage condition (VD = 0.3 V, VG = 5 V), resulting from the multiple-channel structure and small grain boundaries and defects under the gate area.

  2. Enhanced CAD model for gate leakage current in heterostructure field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y. |; Lund, B.; Ytterdal, T.; Robertson, J.; Shur, M.S.; Robertson, P.; Martinez, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    A simple and accurate circuit model for Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors (HFET`s) is proposed to simulate both the gate and the drain current characteristics accounting for hot-electron effects on gate current and the effect of the gate current on the channel current. An analytical equation that describes the effective electron temperature is developed in a simple form. This equation is suitable for implementation in circuit simulators. The model describes both the drain and gate currents at high gate bias voltages. It has been implemented in the circuit simulator AIM-Spice, and good agreement between simulated and measured results is achieved for enhancement-mode HFET`s fabricated in different laboratories. The proposed equivalent circuit and model equations are applicable to other compound semiconductor FET`s, i.e., GaAs MESFET`s.

  3. Localized corrosion of GaAs surfaces and formation of porous GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmuki, P.; Vitus, C.M.; Isaacs, H.S.; Fraser, J.; Graham, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The present work deals with pitting corrosion of p- and n-type GaAs (100). Pit growth can be electrochemically initiated on both conduction types in chloride-containing solutions and leads after extended periods of time to the formation of a porous GaAs structure. In the case of p-type material, localized corrosion is only observed if a passivating film is present on the surface, otherwise -- e.g. in acidic solutions -- the material suffers from a uniform attack (electropolishing) which is independent of the anion present. In contrast, pitting corrosion of n-type material can be triggered independent of the presence of an oxide film. This is explained in terms of the different current limiting factor for the differently doped materials (oxide film in the case of the p- and a space charge layer in the case of the n-GaAs). The porous structure was characterized by SEM, EDX and AES, and consists mainly of GaAs. From scratch experiments it is clear that the pit initiation process is strongly influenced by surface defects. For n-type material, AFM investigations show that light induced roughening of the order of several hundred nm occurs under non-passivating conditions. This nm- scale roughening however does not affect the pitting process.

  4. Pharmacogenetics of lithium response in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Alda, M

    1999-01-01

    Lithium is the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. In the past, genetic studies have attempted to identify factors associated with positive treatment response or side effects. Several research groups have shown that familial factors, family history of primary bipolar disorder, and negative family history of schizophrenia in particular, correlate well with prophylactic lithium response. Conversely, studies of lithium responsive patients and their families can assist genetic research of bipolar disorder. Lithium responders appear to suffer from a form of bipolar disorder that is more genetically based and more homogeneous. In a series of family studies, the author and his colleagues have confirmed the differences in family histories of lithium responders and nonresponders and shown that the mode of inheritance in lithium responders is compatible with a major-gene model. Subsequently, they initiated an international collaborative study to map the gene(s) predisposing to the illness or treatment response, or both, using both linkage and association strategies. To date, a sample of 32 families, 138 unrelated patients and 163 control subjects has been studied. In these studies, they found support for the role of phospholipase C in lithium responsive bipolar disorder. PMID:10212559

  5. A 'sticky' interhemispheric switch in bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, J D; Miller, S M

    1998-01-01

    Despite years of research into bipolar disorder (manic depression), its underlying pathophysiology remains elusive. It is widely acknowledged that the disorder is strongly heritable, but the genetics are complex with less than full concordance in monozygotic twins and at least four susceptibility loci identified. We propose that bipolar disorder is the result of a genetic propensity for slow interhemispheric switching mechanisms that become 'stuck' in one or the other state. Because slow switches are also 'sticky' when compared with fast switches, the clinical manifestations of bipolar disorder may be explained by hemispheric activation being 'stuck' on the left (mania) or on the right (depression). Support for this 'sticky' interhemispheric switching hypothesis stems from our recent observation that the rate of perceptual alternation in binocular rivalry is slow in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 18, median = 0.27 Hz) compared with normal controls (n = 49, median = 0.60 Hz, p < 0.0005). We have presented evidence elsewhere that binocular rivalry is itself an interhemispheric switching phenomenon. The rivalry alternation rate (putative interhemispheric switch rate) is robust in a given individual, with a test-retest correlation of more than 0.8, making it suitable for genetic studies. The interhemispheric switch rate may provide a trait-dependent biological marker for bipolar disorder. PMID:9872002

  6. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-15

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time.

  7. Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder and Fibromyalgia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain Divalproex —for manic phases of bipolar disorder Gabapentin —for fibromyalgia and nerve pain Lamotrigine —for depressive ... bipolar disorder; nerve pain Divalproex 125 mg tablet Gabapentin 100 mg capsule Generic Neurontin Three Three $66 $ ...

  8. FDA Approves New Drug for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154708.html FDA Approves New Drug for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder Vraylar is an atypical antipsychotic taken ... HealthDay News) -- A new antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in adults has been approved ...

  9. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Sibilski, Piotr; Lepczyńska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been given to determine risk factors for suicide among adults with bipolar disorder. Such studies concerning children and youths, which would also take into account the specificity of the developmental age, are still too few. The ability to identify risk factors for children and youths with mood disorders, as well as the possibility to monitor them, is an essential element in preventing suicidal behaviours. Previous studies have clearly indicated that in the group of patients with an early onset of the bipolar disorder the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and intentions were significantly increased. Identifying the risk of suicide is hindered further by the complexity of the phenomenon, which is a compound interaction of various factors: biological, environmental, sociological, psychological and clinical. This is especially true with young adults suffering from mental illness and presenting a number of other psychopathological symptoms. The following paper introduces and reviews the results of current studies, which analysed the risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum or already diagnosed with bipolar disorder. For this purpose we conducted the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide. PMID:26276916

  10. Electrodeionization Using Microseparated Bipolar Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald; Jackson, George; Andrews, Craig C.; Tennakoon, Charles L, K.; Singh, Waheguru; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Jabs, Harry; Chepin, James F.; Archer, Shivaun; Gonzalez-Martinez, Anukia; Cisar, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical technique for deionizing water, now under development, is intended to overcome a major limitation of prior electrically-based water-purification techniques. The limitation in question is caused by the desired decrease in the concentration of ions during purification: As the concentration of ions decreases, the electrical resistivity of the water increases, posing an electrical barrier to the removal of the remaining ions. In the present technique, this limitation is overcome by use of electrodes, a flowfield structure, and solid electrolytes configured to provide conductive paths for the removal of ions from the water to be deionized, even when the water has already been purified to a high degree. The technique involves the use of a bipolar membrane unit (BMU), which includes a cation-exchange membrane and an anion-exchange membrane separated by a nonconductive mesh that has been coated by an ionically conductive material (see figure). The mesh ensures the desired microseparation between the ion-exchange membranes: The interstices bounded by the inner surfaces of the membranes and the outer surfaces of the coated mesh constitute a flow-field structure that allows the water that one seeks to deionize (hereafter called "process water" for short) to flow through the BMU with a low pressure drop. The flow-field structure is such that the distance between any point in the flow field and an ionically conductive material is small; thus, the flow-field structure facilitates the diffusion of molecules and ions to and from the ion-exchange membranes. The BMU is placed between an anode and a cathode, but not in direct contact with these electrodes. Instead, the space between the anion-exchange membrane and the anode is denoted the anode compartment and is filled with an ionic solution. Similarly, the space between the cation-exchange membrane and the cathode is denoted the cathode compartment and is filled with a different ionic solution. The electrodes are made of titanium coated with platinum.

  11. Substituting transistor for diode improves rectifying means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. M.

    1966-01-01

    Unusual transistor connection that substitutes for a silicon diode and allows significantly higher repetition rates without increasing power loss rectifies an alternating current. Operation speed is improved by a factor of 10 or more when a given diode is replaced by this transistor circuit.

  12. Pass transistor implementations of multivalued logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, G.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple straight-forward Karnaugh map logic design procedure for realization of multiple-valued logic circuits is presented in this paper. Pass transistor logic gates are used to realize multiple-valued networks. This work is an extension of pass transistor implementations for binary-valued logic.

  13. A high transconductance accumulation mode electrochemical transistor.

    PubMed

    Inal, Sahika; Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Ferro, Marc; Ramuz, Marc; Brendel, Johannes C; Schmidt, Martina M; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Malliaras, George G

    2014-11-26

    An organic electrochemical transistor operates in accumulation mode with high transconductance. The channel comprises a thiophene-based conjugated polyelectrolyte, which is p-type doped by anions injected from a liquid electrolyte upon the application of a gate voltage. The use of ethylene glycol as a co-solvent dramatically improves the transconductance and the temporal response of the transistors. PMID:25312252

  14. Ventral Anterior Cingulate Connectivity Distinguished Nonpsychotic Bipolar Illness From Psychotic Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Anticevic, Alan; Savic, Aleksandar; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve; McKay, D. Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E.; Krystal, John H.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Glahn, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar illness is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a brain region thought to regulate emotional behavior. Although recent data-driven functional connectivity studies provide evidence consistent with this possibility, the role of vACC in bipolar illness and its pattern of whole brain connectivity remain unknown. Furthermore, no study has established whether vACC exhibits differential whole brain connectivity in bipolar patients with and without co-occurring psychosis and whether this pattern resembles that found in schizophrenia. We conducted a human resting-state functional connectivity investigation focused on the vACC seed in 73 remitted bipolar I disorder patients (33 with psychosis history), 56 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects, and 73 demographically matched patients with chronic schizophrenia. Psychosis history within the bipolar disorder group corresponded with significant between-group connectivity alterations along the dorsal medial prefrontal surface when using the vACC seed. Patients with psychosis history showed reduced connectivity (Cohens d = ?0.69), whereas those without psychosis history showed increased vACC coupling (Cohens d = 0.8) relative to controls. The vACC connectivity observed in chronic schizophrenia patients was not significantly different from that seen in bipolar patients with psychosis history but was significantly reduced compared with that in bipolar patients without psychosis history. These robust findings reveal complex vACC connectivity alterations in bipolar illness, which suggest differences depending on co-occurrence of lifetime psychosis. The similarities in vACC connectivity patterns in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder patients may suggest the existence of common mechanisms underlying psychotic symptoms in the two disorders. PMID:24782562

  15. Neuronal migration, apoptosis and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Ezequiel; Wix, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, like the majority of psychiatric disorders, is considered a neurodevelopment disease of neurodevelopment. There is an increased rate of neuronal birth and death during this development period. In the particular case of the processes that determine neuronal death, it is known that those neurons that establish connections have to be removed from the central nervous system. There is a deficit of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex in bipolar disorder, accompanied by overexpression of proapoptic genes. There is also an alteration in the expression of molecules that mediate in the migration of these neurons and their inclusion in functional synapsis during the foetal stage. The role of these molecules in the neuronal death pathways by apoptosis will be reviewed here in an attempt to establish biological hypotheses of the genesis of bipolar disorder. PMID:22854584

  16. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This 'pleasure deafferentation hypothesis' is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  17. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This ‘pleasure deafferentation hypothesis’ is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  18. Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Kaplan, Kate A.; Soehner, Adriane

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic disorder, ranked in the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Sleep disturbances are strongly coupled with inter-episode dysfunction and symptom worsening in bipolar disorder. Experimental studies suggest that sleep deprivation can trigger manic relapse. There is evidence that sleep deprivation can have an adverse impact on emotion regulation the following day. The clinical management of the sleep disturbances experienced by bipolar patients, including insomnia, hypersomnia delayed sleep phase and irregular sleep-wake schedule, may include medication approaches, psychological interventions, light therapies and sleep deprivation. Psychological interventions, as described here, are advantageous in that they are low in side effects, may be preferred by patients, are durable and have no abuse potential. PMID:25750600

  19. Simulation of silicon diffusion in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. M.; Velichko, O. I.

    2011-03-01

    The simulation of coupled diffusion of silicon atoms and point defects in GaAs has been carried out for diffusion at the temperatures of 1000 and 850 °C. The amphoteric behavior of silicon atoms in GaAs has been taken into account in the investigation of high concentration diffusion from silicon layer deposited on GaAs substrate. The calculated dopant profiles agree well with the experimental ones and they confirm the adequacy of the model of silicon diffusion used for simulation. A comparison with the experimental data has enabled this work to obtain the parameters of silicon effective diffusivity and other values describing high concentration silicon diffusion in GaAs.

  20. Characteristics of GaAs with inverted thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs crystals exhibiting inverted thermal conversion (ITC) of resistivity were investigated in conjunction with standard semiinsulating (SI) GaAs regarding characteristics important in device processing. It was established that dislocation density and Si implant activation are unaffected by transformation to the ITC state. However, in ITC GaAs the controlled increase of the EL2 (native midgap donor) concentration during annealing makes it possible to attain resistivities one order of magnitude greater (e.g., about 10 to the 9th ohm cm of 300 K) than those attained in standard SI GaAs (e.g., 10 to the 7th-10 to the 8th ohm cm).

  1. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  2. Crystal Growth of Device Quality Gaas in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. This effort is aimed at the essential ground-based program which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in near zero gravity environment. It is believed that this program addresses in a unique way materials engineering aspects which bear directly on the future exploitation of the potential of GaAs and related materials in device and systems applications.

  3. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  4. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  5. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  6. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  7. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  8. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,

  9. Anisotropic spin transport in (110) GaAs quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Couto, O D D; Iikawa, F; Rudolph, J; Hey, R; Santos, P V

    2007-01-19

    Mobile piezoelectric potentials are used to coherently transport electron spins in GaAs (110) quantum wells (QW) over distances exceeding 60 microm. We demonstrate that the dynamics of mobile spins under external magnetic fields depends on the direction of motion in the QW plane. This transport anisotropy is an intrinsic property of moving spins associated with the bulk inversion asymmetry of the underlying GaAs lattice. PMID:17358707

  10. Long-lifetime high-intensity GaAs photosource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, R.; Ciullo, G.; Guidi, V.; Lamanna, G.; Lenisa, P.; Maciga, B.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.

    1994-02-01

    We used a GaAs crystal operating in a negative electron affinity mode to produce an intense continuous electron beam by photoemission. The major drawback of photoemission from GaAs, i.e., rapid current decay, was overcome without continuously supplying cesium. After a little initial decay, the current remained constant at 1 mA over a few mm2, with no degradation. Seasoning of the vacuum chamber played a fundamental role in achieving this performance.

  11. Characterisation of semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Hole and electron mobilities as functions of temperature and ionised impurity concentration are calculated for GaAs. It is shown that these calculations, when used to analyse electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs, enable an assessment of the Fermi energy position and ionised impurity concentration to be made. In contrast to previous work, the analysis does not require any phenomenological assumptions.

  12. Heavy ion total fluence effects in GaAs devices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.T.; Knudson, A.R.; Roussos, J.A. ); Meulenberg, A.; Hung, H.L. ); Kiriakidis, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Heavy ion radiation effects were studied in GaAs FETs, MMICs, and HEMTs. Significant degradation occurred at 1 {times} 10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} to 6 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2} for GaAs MMICs depending on whether the irradiation was Si or H, respectively. HEMTs were found to withstand higher levels of irradiation than FETs or MMICs for the same degree of drain current degradation.

  13. A laterally graded junctionless transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Punyasloka; Ghosh, Bahniman; Mondal, Partha; Akram, M. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a laterally graded junctionless transistor taking peak doping concentration near the source and drain region, and a gradual decrease in doping concentration towards the center of the channel to improve the IOFF and ION/IOFF ratio. The decrease of doping concentration in the lateral direction of the channel region depletes a greater number of charge carriers compared to the uniformly doped channel in the OFF-state, which in turn suppresses the OFF state current flowing through the device without greatly affecting the ON state current.

  14. Field Dependent Dopant Deactivation in Bipolar Devices at Elevated irradiation Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    WITCZAK,STEVEN C.; LACOE,RONALD C.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; MAYER,DONALD C.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    Metal-oxide-silicon capacitors fabricated in a bi-polar process were examined for densities of oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated substrate acceptors following high-dose-rate irradiation at 100 C. Acceptor neutralization near the Si surface occurs most efficiently for small irradiation biases in depletion. The bias dependence is consistent with compensation and passivation mechanisms involving the drift of H{sup +} ions in the oxide and Si layers and the availability of holes in the Si depletion region. Capacitor data from unbiased irradiations were used to simulate the impact of acceptor neutralization on the current gain of an npn bipolar transistor. Neutralized acceptors near the base surface enhance current gain degradation associated with radiation-induced oxide trapped charge and interface traps by increasing base recombination. The additional recombination results from the convergence of carrier concentrations in the base and increased sensitivity of the base to oxide trapped charge. The enhanced gain degradation is moderated by increased electron injection from the emitter. These results suggest that acceptor neutralization may enhance radiation-induced degradation of linear circuits at elevated temperatures.

  15. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  16. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  17. Bipolar Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology for Spatial Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Isabelle

    Bipolarity is an important feature of spatial information, involved in the expressions of preferences and constraints about spatial positioning, or in pairs of opposite spatial relations such as left and right. Imprecision should also be taken into account, and fuzzy sets is then an appropriate formalism. In this paper, we propose to handle such information based on mathematical morphology operators, extended to the case of bipolar fuzzy sets. The potential of this formalism for spatial reasoning is illustrated on a simple example in brain imaging.

  18. Design optimization of GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiyanag; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Xuyuan

    2011-06-01

    GaAs junctions are designed and fabricated for betavoltaic batteries. The design is optimized according to the characteristics of GaAs interface states and the diffusion length in the depletion region of GaAs carriers. Under an illumination of 10 mCi cm-2 63Ni, the open circuit voltage of the optimized batteries is about ~0.3 V. It is found that the GaAs interface states induce depletion layers on P-type GaAs surfaces. The depletion layer along the P+PN+ junction edge isolates the perimeter surface from the bulk junction, which tends to significantly reduce the battery dark current and leads to a high open circuit voltage. The short circuit current density of the optimized junction is about 28 nA cm-2, which indicates a carrier diffusion length of less than 1 m. The overall results show that multi-layer P+PN+ junctions are the preferred structures for GaAs betavoltaic battery design.

  19. Design and fabrication of GaAs OMIST photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xuejun; Lin, ShiMing; Liao, Qiwei; Gao, Junhua; Liu, Shi'an; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Chunhui; Wang, Qiming

    1998-08-01

    We designed and fabricated GaAs OMIST (Optical-controlled Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Thyristor) device. Using oxidation of AlAs layer that is grown by MBE forms the Ultra- Thin semi-Insulating layer (UTI) of the GAAS OMIST. The accurate control and formation of high quality semi-insulating layer (AlxOy) are the key processes for fabricating GaAs OMIST. The device exhibits a current-controlled negative resistance region in its I-V characteristics. When illuminated, the major effect of optical excitation is the reduction of the switching voltage. If the GaAs OMIST device is biased at a voltage below its dark switching voltage Vs, sufficient incident light can switch OMIST from high impedance low current 'off' state to low impedance high current 'on' state. The absorbing material of OMIST is GaAS, so if the wavelength of incident light within 600 to approximately 850 nm can be detected effectively. It is suitable to be used as photodetector for digital optical data process. The other attractive features of GaAs OMIST device include suitable conducted current, switching voltage and power levels for OEIC, high switch speed and high sensitivity to light or current injection.

  20. PNPN latchup in bipolar LSI devices. Final report, 1 January 1980-1 October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L.; Alexander, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    PNPN latchup was studied both analytically and experimentally in several bipolar LSI technologies including integrated injection logic (I to the second power L), integrated Schottky logic (ISL), Schottky Transistor logic (STL) and emitter coupled logic (ECL). The latchup analysis procedure was expanded and applied to LSI microcircuits representing each of the technologies. This procedure consists of a) the identification of parasitic PNPN paths, b) the electrical characterization of the paths, c) detailed circuit analysis, and d) determination of worst case bias conditions for radiation testing. The identification was performed from chip photomicrographs and composite mask drawings. The characterization was performed experimentally by measuring parasitic transistor gains and SCR parameters on decoupled paths and analytically by using a semiconductor device physics code (PN code) in conjunction with doping profiles. The detailed circuit analysis was performed either by hand or with the circuit analysis code SPICE. Radiation testing was performed at the White Sands Missile Range LINAC facility. The results of the study were, a) latchup cannot occur in non-isolated I to the second power L, b) latchup cannot occur in the internal logic of ISL or STL without causing a problem with electrical performance, c) no latchable paths were found by analysis in the 93471 ECL 4kK RAM, the I/0 buffers on a ISL/STL gate array or the I to the second power L peripherals of the 9408 I to the 3rd power L microprogram sequencer.