Science.gov

Sample records for gain uniformity test

  1. Gas gain uniformity tests performed on multiwire proportional chambers for the LHCb muon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A.; de Andrade Filho, L. M.; Barbosa, A. F.; Graulich, J. S.; Guerrer, G.; Lima, H. P.; Mair, K.; Polycarpo, E.; Reis, A.; Rodrigues, F.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Schoch Vianna, C.

    2008-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and the results of the gas gain uniformity tests performed as part of the quality control of the multiwire proportional chambers produced at CERN for the LHCb muon system. The test provides a relative gas gain measurement over the whole chamber sensitive area. It is based on the analysis of the pulse height spectrum obtained when the chamber is exposed to a 241Am radioactive source. Since the measurement is normalized to the peak of a precise pulse generator, the gain uniformity can also be evaluated among different gas gaps and different chambers. In order to cope with the specific requirements related to the relatively high number of chambers and to their varying geometry, a standalone and compact data acquisition system has been developed which is programmable at the hardware level and may be applied to many other applications requiring precise time-to-digital and analog-to-digital conversion, in correlated or non-correlated mode.

  2. UNIFORMLY MOST POWERFUL BAYESIAN TESTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Valen E.

    2014-01-01

    Uniformly most powerful tests are statistical hypothesis tests that provide the greatest power against a fixed null hypothesis among all tests of a given size. In this article, the notion of uniformly most powerful tests is extended to the Bayesian setting by defining uniformly most powerful Bayesian tests to be tests that maximize the probability that the Bayes factor, in favor of the alternative hypothesis, exceeds a specified threshold. Like their classical counterpart, uniformly most powerful Bayesian tests are most easily defined in one-parameter exponential family models, although extensions outside of this class are possible. The connection between uniformly most powerful tests and uniformly most powerful Bayesian tests can be used to provide an approximate calibration between p-values and Bayes factors. Finally, issues regarding the strong dependence of resulting Bayes factors and p-values on sample size are discussed. PMID:24659829

  3. Uniform Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  4. Uniform peanut performance test 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  5. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 3 Georgia lines,...

  6. Uniform peanut performance test 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  7. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  8. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 7 Georgia lines,...

  9. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 4 Georgia lines,...

  10. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  11. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. In 1995, plant material transfer agreements were also accepted among all cooperators in the UPPT. The year 2012 completed...

  12. Desert Test Site Uniformity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerola, Dana X.; Bruegge, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Desert test sites such as Railroad Valley (RRV) Nevada, Egypt-1, and Libya-4 are commonly targeted to assess the on-orbit radiometric performance of sensors. Railroad Valley is used for vicarious calibration experiments, where a field-team makes ground measurements to produce accurate estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The Sahara desert test sites are not instrumented, but provide a stable target that can be used for sensor cross-comparisons, or for stability monitoring of a single sensor. These sites are of interest to NASA's Atmospheric Carbon Observation from Space (ACOS) and JAXA's Greenhouse Gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) programs. This study assesses the utility of these three test sites to the ACOS and GOSAT calibration teams. To simulate errors in sensor-measured radiance with pointing errors, simulated data have been created using MODIS Aqua data. MODIS data are further utilized to validate the campaign data acquired from June 22 through July 5, 2009. The first GOSAT vicarious calibration experiment was conducted during this timeframe.

  13. Desert test site uniformity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerola, Dana X.; Bruegge, Carol J.

    2009-08-01

    Desert test sites such as Railroad Valley (RRV) Nevada, Egypt-1, and Libya-4 are commonly targeted to assess the on-orbit radiometric performance of sensors. Railroad Valley is used for vicarious calibration experiments, where a field-team makes ground measurements to produce accurate estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The Sahara desert test sites are not instrumented, but provide a stable target that can be used for sensor cross-comparisons, or for stability monitoring of a single sensor. These sites are of interest to NASA's Atmospheric Carbon Observation from Space (ACOS) and JAXA's Greenhouse Gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) programs. This study assesses the utility of these three test sites to the ACOS and GOSAT calibration teams. To simulate errors in sensor-measured radiance with pointing errors, simulated data have been created using MODIS Aqua data. MODIS data are further utilized to validate the campaign data acquired from June 22 through July 5, 2009. The first GOSAT vicarious calibration experiment was conducted during this timeframe.

  14. Compression gain of spin wave signals in a magnonic YIG waveguide with thermal non-uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokoltsev, O.; Gómez-Arista, Ivan; Qureshi, N.; Acevedo, A.; Ordóñez-Romero, César L.; Grishin, A.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the observation of the compression gain of the signals carried by surface spin waves (MSSWs) in yittrium iron garnet films as a result of non-uniform optical heating of the spin wave medium. Efficient gain takes place if a frequency downshift of the spin wave spectrum induced by the heating is compensated by the corresponding non-uniformity of the bias magnetic field. It is proposed that the effect can be understood in part as an interaction between spin waves and a thermally induced potential well in the sample.

  15. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.W.

    1995-04-18

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible. 4 figs.

  16. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1995-01-01

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible.

  17. CCD Side 2 Gain Ratio Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Linda

    2002-07-01

    Observe a bright spectrophotometric standard star at the center of the detector with a wide slit {52x2} with the 3 low dispersion gratings at gain 1 and gain 4, so that the ratio of gain 4 to gain 1 can be measured. {This will be used to calibrate gain 4 relative to gain 1, which is already well measured.} Read out some additional exposures through non-default amplifier B, which is used for some calibration programs, so that the gains of amp B relative to amp D can be measured. Place the target at row 900, close to the D amplifier and far from the B amplifier, then take long and short exposures with G230LB with both amplifiers, so that CTE can be measured over a broad range of counts. With gain 4/1, amp B/D, and CTE known from these measurements, find the sensitivity at row 900 relative to the central row.

  18. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  19. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  20. Recent results of the GAINS test flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girz, C.

    A demonstration flight of the Global Atmosphere-ocean IN-situ System (GAINS) Prototype III balloon is scheduled to occur in early summer 2002. The 18-m diameter PIII superpressure balloon, built by GSSL, Inc., will float a 135-kg payload at 16 km. Performance of the SpectraTM envelope will be assessed over two day-night cycles. The payload consists of line-of-sight communications for transmitting GPS position, and monitored parameters on balloon and payload state and the internal and external thermal environments. Primary termination is by radio command with several independent backup termination systems. Safe operation of the balloon is ensured by an onboard transponder that keeps the balloon under active air traffic control. The balloon is tracked by an aircraft that will record communications from the balloon and instigate termination of the flight. Mobile ground stations positioned at the launch and recovery locations will also be capable of recording and terminating the flight. A suite of trajectory forecast tools has been developed based on radiosondes and winds from numerical weather models. A GPS surface reflection experiment for determining ocean surface winds will be tested on this platform. Physical and electronic integration of the radio and mechanical systems was completed over the last two years. Data and videos from the June flight will be presented.

  1. A novel compensation method for the anode gain non-uniformity of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Mi; Il Kwon, Sun; Ko, Guen Bae; Ito, Mikiko; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Hong, Seong Jong; Lee, Jae Sung

    2012-01-01

    The position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MA-PMT) is widely used in high-resolution scintillation detectors. However, the anode gain nonuniformity of this device is a limiting factor that degrades the intrinsic performance of the detector module. The aim of this work was to develop a gain compensation method for the MA-PMT and evaluate the resulting enhancement in the performance of the detector. The method employs a circuit that is composed only of resistors and is placed between the MA-PMT and a resistive charge division network (RCN) used for position encoding. The goal of the circuit is to divide the output current from each anode, so the same current flows into the RCN regardless of the anode gain. The current division is controlled by the combination of a fixed-value series resistor with an output impedance that is much larger than the input impedance of the RCN, and a parallel resistor, which detours part of the current to ground. PSpice simulations of the compensation circuit and the RCN were performed to determine optimal values for the compensation resistors when used with Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs. The intrinsic characteristics of a detector module consisting of this MA-PMT and a lutetium-gadolinium-oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystal array were tested with and without the gain compensation method. In simulation, the average coefficient of variation and max/min ratio decreased from 15.7% to 2.7% and 2.0 to 1.2, respectively. In the flood map of the LGSO-H8500 detector, the uniformity of the photopeak position for individual crystals and the energy resolution were much improved. The feasibility of the method was shown by applying it to an octagonal prototype positron emission tomography scanner. PMID:22156011

  2. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  3. Tensile testing grips ensure uniform loading of bimetal tubing specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscol, S. D.; Hunt, V.

    1968-01-01

    Tensile testing grip uniformly distributes stresses to the internal and external tube of bimetal tubing specimens. The grip is comprised of a slotted external tube grip, a slotted internal tube grip, a machine bolt and nut, an internal grip expansion cone, and an external grip compression nut.

  4. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  5. Evaporation of uniform antireflection coatings on hemispherical lenses to enhance infrared antenna gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slovick, Brian A.; Krenz, Peter M.; Zummo, Guy; Boreman, Glenn D.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared dipole-coupled bolometers receive radiation more efficiently when illuminated through a high permittivity, antireflection (AR) coated, hemispherical immersion lens. To maintain the enhanced responsivity for all illumination angles, the AR coating must be uniform over the hemispherical surface. An evaporation method for depositing a uniform AR coating on the hemispherical surface is presented. The lens is tilted relative to the source, which can be either electron-beam or thermal, and rotated throughout the deposition. Evaporation at an angle of 70° yields a uniform film with less than 10% thickness variation over a 120° full angle of the hemispherical surface. A theoretical model is developed and compared to profilometer measurements. In all cases, there is general agreement between theory and measurement. A single dipole is fabricated onto the flat surface of an AR-coated germanium immersion lens and the responsivity is measured for both substrate-side and air-side illumination. With a zinc sulfide (ZnS) single-layer AR coating, substrate-side illumination yields a broadside antenna response 49 ± 2.7 times greater than air-side illumination.

  6. Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

  7. MSFC solar simulator test plane uniformity measurement. [for testing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment and procedure used to measure the test plane uniformity produced by the MSFC 405 lamp solar simulator array are described along with details of the computer program used to analyze the measurement data. The results of the first measurement show the uniformity not to be as good as expected. The best uniformity obtained had a standared deviation of 4 percent with peak-to-peak values of + or - 11 percent.

  8. Reliable change on neuropsychological tests in the Uniform Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Ashendorf, Lee; Gurnani, Ashita S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal normative data obtained from a robust elderly sample (i.e., believed to be free from neurodegenerative disease) are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable change indices (RCIs) that can assist with interpretation of test score changes relative to a healthy sample of older adults (ages 50+). Method Participants were 4217 individuals who completed at least 3 annual evaluations at one of 34 past and present Alzheimer’s Disease Centers throughout the United States. All participants were diagnosed as cognitively normal at every study visit, which ranged from three to nine approximately annual evaluations. One-year RCIs were calculated for 11 neuropsychological variables in the Uniform Data Set by regressing follow-up test scores onto baseline test scores, age, education, visit number, post-baseline assessment interval, race, and sex in a linear mixed effects regression framework. In addition, the cumulative frequency distributions of raw score changes were examined to describe the base rates of test score changes. Results Baseline test score, age, education, and race were robust predictors of follow-up test scores across most tests. The effects of maturation (aging) were more pronounced on tests related to attention and executive functioning, whereas practice effects were more pronounced on tests of episodic and semantic memory. Interpretation of longitudinal changes on 11 cognitive test variables can be facilitated through the use of reliable change intervals and base rates of score changes in this robust sample of older adults. A web-based calculator is provided to assist neuropsychologists with interpretation of longitudinal change. PMID:26234918

  9. Reliable Change on Neuropsychological Tests in the Uniform Data Set.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E; Ashendorf, Lee; Gurnani, Ashita S

    2015-08-01

    Longitudinal normative data obtained from a robust elderly sample (i.e., believed to be free from neurodegenerative disease) are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable change indices (RCIs) that can assist with interpretation of test score changes relative to a healthy sample of older adults (ages 50+). Participants were 4217 individuals who completed at least three annual evaluations at one of 34 past and present Alzheimer's Disease Centers throughout the United States. All participants were diagnosed as cognitively normal at every study visit, which ranged from three to nine approximately annual evaluations. One-year RCIs were calculated for 11 neuropsychological variables in the Uniform Data Set by regressing follow-up test scores onto baseline test scores, age, education, visit number, post-baseline assessment interval, race, and sex in a linear mixed effects regression framework. In addition, the cumulative frequency distributions of raw score changes were examined to describe the base rates of test score changes. Baseline test score, age, education, and race were robust predictors of follow-up test scores across most tests. The effects of maturation (aging) were more pronounced on tests related to attention and executive functioning, whereas practice effects were more pronounced on tests of episodic and semantic memory. Interpretation of longitudinal changes on 11 cognitive test variables can be facilitated through the use of reliable change intervals and base rates of score changes in this robust sample of older adults. A Web-based calculator is provided to assist neuropsychologists with interpretation of longitudinal change. PMID:26234918

  10. Test-Anxiety Program and Test Gains with Nursing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ginger; Ramsey, Gary; Driscoll, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Nursing programs can be highly stressful, and nursing students have been found to be more test-anxious than other students. The present investigation examines a practical program to reduce test-anxiety impairment and improve academic performance for a significant number of highly anxious nursing students. Incoming nursing students were screened…

  11. Loss/gain on ignition testing for HC-21C

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-12-12

    The HC-21C thermal stabilization process stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing material for long term storage. A Loss On Ignition (LOI) analysis is performed on all materials that are stabilized in the muffle furnaces prior to being stored in the vaults to ensure suitability for vault storage. The material is required to have a LOI of less than 1% (OSD-184-00013 Limit). The LOI analysis is performed to assure that all volatiles that could potentially pressurize the sealed containers over long periods of time, like water, have been removed. It is possible, while performing LOI analysis to see a Gain On Ignition (GOI) due to additional oxidation of materials. In the current stabilization campaign, two items processed have had a positive LOI or GOI result. One concern with a GOI is that the weight gain may actually be masking a weight loss. (Reference 15530-94-WSL-156). Other concerns with a GOI result are that the removal of the oxygen could create a vacuum in the product can causing it to collapse during long term storage or the oxidation of material would increase the volume of the solids potentially bulging or rupturing the product container. In the past, GOIs have been seen on items that were processed through Hoskin`s pot furnaces located in glovebox HA-21I. This test plan provides instruction to test causes of a GOI and to ensure the processed material with a GOI result will not cause a problem during long term storage. Product cans that are sampled for LOI and have results showing a gain of weight will be the test items.

  12. A Statistical Test of Uniformity in Solar Cycle Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway David H.

    2012-01-01

    Several indices are used to characterize the solar activity cycle. Key among these are: the International Sunspot Number, the Group Sunspot Number, Sunspot Area, and 10.7 cm Radio Flux. A valuable aspect of these indices is the length of the record -- many decades and many (different) 11-year cycles. However, this valuable length-of-record attribute has an inherent problem in that it requires many different observers and observing systems. This can lead to non-uniformity in the datasets and subsequent erroneous conclusions about solar cycle behavior. The sunspot numbers are obtained by counting sunspot groups and individual sunspots on a daily basis. This suggests that the day-to-day and month-to-month variations in these numbers should follow Poisson Statistics and be proportional to the square-root of the sunspot numbers themselves. Examining the historical records of these indices indicates that this is indeed the case - even with Sunspot Area and 10.7 cm Radio Flux. The ratios of the RMS variations to the square-root of the indices themselves are relatively constant with little variation over the phase of each solar cycle or from small to large solar cycles. There are, however, important step-like changes in these ratios associated with changes in observer and/or observer system. Here we show how these variations can be used to construct more uniform datasets.

  13. Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2007-10-01

    There are orders of magnitude differences between the ~0.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of night vision (NV) goggle measurements. NIST developed a night vision radiometer calibration facility including NV radiometer transfer standards. The transfer standards, that propagate the radiance responsivity scale to the military primary standards laboratories, are calibrated against a NIST reference radiometer. The reference radiometer has been calibrated on the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) for spectral power and irradiance responsivities. Spectral considerations are discussed to lower the uncertainties of the radiance responsivity scale transfer to the test sets and then to the goggles. Since direct determination of the final uncertainties in goggle calibrations and measurements is difficult, models have been made to estimate the most important uncertainty components based on individual spectral measurements of the applied source distributions and radiometer spectral responsivities. It is also shown, that because of source spectral mismatch problems, the goggle measurement uncertainty at applications can be much higher than at calibration. A suggestion is being made to mimic the no-moon (stars only) night sky radiation distribution using several LEDs in the test-sets to decrease the large spectral mismatch errors. A broad-band correction factor has been developed to further decrease calibration uncertainty when the goggles to be used have different spectral responsivities than the standard. Geometrical considerations to optimize the radiance measurement angle and the out-of-target blocking are also discussed to decrease the uncertainty in the radiance responsivity transfer.

  14. Field Test of Room-to-Room Uniformity of Ventilation Air Distribution in Two New Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Anderson, Ren; Barley, Dennis; Rudd, Armin; Townsend, Aaron; Hancock, Ed

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a field test to characterize the uniformity of room-to-room ventilation air distribution under various operating conditions by examining multi-zone tracer gas decay curves and calculating local age-of-air.

  15. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Abellan, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R; Al Hasan, Naila; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel D

    2016-02-16

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale, such as catalytic activity. In this work, we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size in the sub-3 nm range using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with an in situ liquid stage. We use an aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene) as a solvent that is very resistant to high-energy electron irradiation, which creates a net reducing environment without the need for additives to scavenge oxidizing radicals. The primary reducing species is molecular hydrogen, which is a widely used reductant in the synthesis of supported metal catalysts. We propose a mechanism of particle formation based on the effect of tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) on size stabilization, relatively low production of radicals, and autocatalytic reduction of Pd(II) compounds. We combine in situ STEM results with insights from in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from alcohol-based synthesis, having similar reduction potential, in a customized microfluidic device as well as ex situ bulk experiments. This has allowed us to develop a fundamental growth model for the synthesis of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles and demonstrate the utility of correlating different in situ and ex situ characterization techniques to understand, and ultimately control, metal nanostructure synthesis. PMID:26741639

  16. Testing for uniformity of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) exhibit mainly an isotropic distribution with some small deviations in particular energy bins. In this paper, the Yakutsk array data are tested for circular uniformity of arrival directions in right ascension (RA) using two methods appropriate for the energy ranges below and above 1018 eV. No statistically significant deviation from uniformity is found in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) detected within the observation period 1974-2000.

  17. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and physical properties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  18. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2008: Shelling and Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breedinglines not formally released o...

  19. Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  20. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2005: Chemical, sensory and shelf-life properties by variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  1. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  2. The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

  3. Effects of Response Task and Accessory Stimuli on Redundancy Gain: Tests of the Hemispheric Coactivation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeff; Van Nes, Fenna

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions of the hemispheric coactivation model for redundancy gain (J. O. Miller, 2004). Simple reaction time was measured in divided attention tasks with visual stimuli presented to the left or right of fixation or redundantly to both sides. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that redundancy gain--the decrease in…

  4. Hypertelescopes: potential science gains, current testing and prospects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the way of giant dilute telescopes, the hypertelescope is a many-aperture interferometer, which provides direct high resolution images with efficient light concentration. Pending future versions in space, a prototype terrestrial hypertelescope is under test in a high valley of the southern Alps. A moving focal gondola, suspended 101 m above small static mirrors, is driven under computer control with millimeter accuracy. The coude focus at ground level has been qualified by observing a Vega image focused by one of the mirrors and transmitted through the gondola. Upgrades under way for multi-beam interference include full autoguiding, the installation of several cameras on the gondola and adaptive optics for cophasing. Science observing is expected to begin in a few years, and other potential sites are considered for a larger meta-aperture, in the kilometer range. Future space versions, utilizing a 10-1000 km flotilla of small mirrors, are also considered and proposed to NASA and ESA, but require different technical developments.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test...

  6. Accelerated Desensitization and Adaptive Attitudes Interventions and Test Gains with Academic Probation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Richard; Holt, Bruce; Hunter, Lori

    2005-01-01

    The study evaluates the test-gain benefits of an accelerated desensitization and adaptive attitudes intervention for test-anxious students. College students were screened for high test anxiety. Twenty anxious students, half of them on academic probation, were assigned to an Intervention or to a minimal treatment Control group. The Intervention was…

  7. Uniform engine testing program phase 7: NASA Lewis Research Center second entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Burkardt, L. A.; Abdelwahab, M.; Braithwaite, W. M.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Silver, D.

    1986-01-01

    The propulsion and Energetics Panel, Working Group 15, of the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) is sponsoring a Uniform Engine Testing Program (UETP). In this program, two jet engines were tested under identical conditions in certain NATO altitude and ground-level facilities as a means of correlating these facilities. With this second entry, NASA documented engine deterioration that may have occurred since inception of the UETP. Additionally, NASA investigated anomalies discovered during review of data from the five facilities which had participated in the program between the two NASA entries.

  8. Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

  9. Test plane uniformity analysis for the MSFC solar simulator lamp array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was made on the solar simulator lamp array. It is an array of 405 tungsten halogen lamps with Fresnel lenses to achieve the required spectral distribution and collimation. A computer program was developed to analyze lamp array performance at the test plane. Measurements were made on individual lamp lens combinations to obtain data for the computer analysis. The analysis indicated that the performance of the lamp array was about as expected, except for a need to position the test plane within 2.7 m of the lamp array to achieve the desired 7 percent uniformity of illumination tolerance.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform...

  11. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform...

  12. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit...

  13. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit...

  14. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water flow rate for faucets, expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) and liters per minute (L/min),...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water flow rate for faucets, expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) and liters per minute (L/min),...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform...

  18. Design, development and testing of the x-ray timing explorer High Gain Antenna System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecha, Javier; Woods, Claudia; Phan, Minh

    1995-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS), consisting of two High Gain Antenna Deployment Systems (HGADS) and two Antenna Pointing Systems (APS), is used to position two High Gain Antennas (HGA) on the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). A similar APS will be used on the upcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Both XTE and TRMM are NASA in-house satellites. The salient features of the system include the two-axis gimbal and control electronics of the APS and the spring deployment and latch/release mechanisms of the HGADS. This paper describes some of the challenges faced in the design and testing of this system and their resolutions.

  19. Measurement uncertainty for the Uniform Engine Testing Program conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahab, Mahmood; Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Silver, Dean

    1987-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis was conducted to determine the bias and precision errors and total uncertainty of measured turbojet engine performance parameters. The engine tests were conducted as part of the Uniform Engine Test Program which was sponsored by the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). With the same engines, support hardware, and instrumentation, performance parameters were measured twice, once during tests conducted in test cell number 3 and again during tests conducted in test cell number 4 of the NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The analysis covers 15 engine parameters, including engine inlet airflow, engine net thrust, and engine specific fuel consumption measured at high rotor speed of 8875 rpm. Measurements were taken at three flight conditions defined by the following engine inlet pressure, engine inlet total temperature, and engine ram ratio: (1) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.0, (2) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3, and (3) 20.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3. In terms of bias, precision, and uncertainty magnitudes, there were no differences between most measurements made in test cells number 3 and 4. The magnitude of the errors increased for both test cells as engine pressure level decreased. Also, the level of the bias error was two to three times larger than that of the precision error.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... before each test run. 2.6 Test cloths. 2.6.1 Energy test cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  2. A resampling approach to test stress-field uniformity from fault data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, Dario

    2000-03-01

    Several methods have been proposed to constrain the stress field from fault plane orientations and slip directions within a crustal volume characterized by brittle deformation. All the methods are based on the assumption that the stress field is uniform in the volume considered. If this hypothesis is not checked in advance, however, the methodology may lead to misleading conclusions. In this work, a procedure is defined to check stress-field uniformity by a statistical analysis of the available fault data. Since, in most cases, the statistical features of the uncertainties that affect such data are not well known, a distribution-free approach is proposed. It is based on a simple search algorithm, devoted to selecting stress configurations compatible with available data, combined with a bootstrap resampling approach. The test results are more conservative than the ones so far proposed in the literature. When the test allows stress heterogeneities to be safely excluded, approximate confidence intervals for the principal stress directions can be obtained; otherwise, the level of stress heterogeneity present in the volume under study can be assessed. An application of the proposed procedure to a sample of fault data deduced from seismological data is presented.

  3. Heat gain testing to energy balance protocol. Final report, August 1995-February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Knappmiller, K.; Schrock, D.

    1997-02-01

    Under sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, heat gain tests were conducted on gas and electric commercial cooking appliances, applying the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for the Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems, F1704-96. The commercial cooking appliances tested in this program were gas and electric: griddles, ranges, convection ovens, charbroilers, and fryers. These appliances were all tested under a wall canopy hood operating at a single exhaust rate appropriate for the particular cooking appliance.

  4. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test…

  5. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  6. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…

  7. A synopsis of test results and knowledge gained from the Phase-0 CSI evolutionary model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1993-01-01

    The Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) is a testbed for the study of space platform global line-of-sight (LOS) pointing. Now that the tests have been completed, a summary of hardware and closed-loop test experiences is necessary to insure a timely dissemination of the knowledge gained. The testbed is described and modeling experiences are presented followed by a summary of the research performed by various investigators. Some early lessons on implementing the closed-loop controllers are described with particular emphasis on real-time computing requirements. A summary of closed-loop studies and a synopsis of test results are presented. Plans for evolving the CEM from phase 0 to phases 1 and 2 are also described. Subsequently, a summary of knowledge gained from the design and testing of the Phase-0 CEM is made.

  8. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  9. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  10. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  11. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1 Energy test cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and consist of the following: (a) Pure... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D1 Appendix D1 to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) is required, at which time manufacturers must use appendix... test cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and consist of the following: (a) Pure finished... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  14. Uniform Foam Crush Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Impact Attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Byron W.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, four different Rohacell foams are tested at three different, uniform, strain rates (approximately 0.17, approximately 100, approximately 13,600%/s). The primary data analysis method uses a global data smoothing technique in the frequency domain to remove noise and system natural frequencies. The results from the data indicate that the filter and smoothing technique are successful in identifying the foam crush event and removing aberrations. The effect of strain rate increases with increasing foam density. The 71-WF-HT foam may support Mars Sample Return requirements. Several recommendations to improve the drop tower test technique are identified.

  15. The Alzheimer’s Disease Centers’ Uniform Data Set (UDS): The Neuropsychological Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Salmon, David; Mercaldo, Nathaniel; Ferris, Steven; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Chui, Helena; Cummings, Jeffrey; DeCarli, Charles; Foster, Norman L.; Galasko, Douglas; Peskind, Elaine; Dietrich, Woodrow; Beekly, Duane L.; Kukull, Walter A.; Morris, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropsychological test battery from the Uniform Data Set (UDS) of the Alzheimer’s Disease Centers (ADC) program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) consists of brief measures of attention, processing speed, executive function, episodic memory and language. This paper describes development of the battery and preliminary data from the initial UDS evaluation of 3,268 clinically cognitively normal men and women collected over the first 24 months of utilization. The subjects represent a sample of community-dwelling, individuals who volunteer for studies of cognitive aging. Subjects were considered “clinically cognitively normal” based on clinical assessment, including the Clinical Dementia Rating scale and the Functional Assessment Questionnaire. The results demonstrate performance on tests sensitive to cognitive aging and to the early stages of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a relatively well-educated sample. Regression models investigating the impact of age, education, and gender on test scores indicate that these variables will need to be incorporated in subsequent normative studies. Future plans include: 1) determining the psychometric properties of the battery; 2) establishing normative data, including norms for different ethnic minority groups; and 3) conducting longitudinal studies on cognitively normal subjects, individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and individuals with AD and other forms of dementia. PMID:19474567

  16. The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2010-04-01

    Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Dehumidifiers X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. X Appendix X to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption...

  2. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASTM F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray Valves.” (Incorporated by reference, see § 431... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  3. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ASTM F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray Valves.” (Incorporated by reference, see § 431... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  4. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ASTM F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray Valves.” (Incorporated by reference, see § 431... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Faucets and Showerheads S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  7. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  9. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  10. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix X1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers X1 Appendix X1 to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  12. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  15. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. P Appendix P...

  16. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy and water consumption of automatic commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures §...

  17. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.134 Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope....

  18. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part...

  20. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Test Procedures § 431.324 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of...

  1. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  2. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  3. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  4. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  5. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  6. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... certification and compliance testing unless and until this appendix and 10 CFR Part 431 are amended to... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full...

  8. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  9. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  10. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  11. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Battery Chargers Y Appendix Y to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix Y to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers 1. Scope: This appendix covers the test requirements used to measure battery charger...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Battery Chargers Y Appendix Y to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix Y to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers 1. Scope: This appendix covers the test requirements used to measure battery charger...

  15. Impact of uniform electrode current distribution on ETF. [Engineering Test Facility MHD generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    A basic reason for the complexity and sheer volume of electrode consolidation hardware in the MHD ETF Powertrain system is the channel electrode current distribution, which is non-uniform. If the channel design is altered to provide uniform electrode current distribution, the amount of hardware required decreases considerably, but at the possible expense of degraded channel performance. This paper explains the design impacts on the ETF electrode consolidation network associated with uniform channel electrode current distribution, and presents the alternate consolidation designs which occur. They are compared to the baseline (non-uniform current) design with respect to performance, and hardware requirements. A rational basis is presented for comparing the requirements for the different designs and the savings that result from uniform current distribution. Performance and cost impacts upon the combined cycle plant are discussed.

  16. Micelle-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of amlexanox in bioadhesive buccal tablets: application to content uniformity testing.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; Belal, F; Tolba, M M; Halawa, M I

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of Amlexanox (AMX) in its bioadhesive buccal tablets. The proposed method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of the methanolic solution of AMX at 400 nm after excitation at 242 nm in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 10) and 0.5% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The interaction of AMX with SDS was studied, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity was exploited to develop an assay method for the determination of AMX. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 5.0-80.0 ng/mL, with a lower detection limit of 0.57 ng/mL and a lower quantification limit of 1.74 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AMX in its commercial tablets. Moreover, content uniformity testing was conducted by applying official USP guidelines. Statistical evaluation and comparison of the data obtained using the proposed and comparison methods revealed good accuracy and precision for the proposed method. PMID:25611457

  17. Signal uniformity of mammography systems and its impact on test results from contrast detail phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaar, M.; Semturs, F.; Hummel, J.; Hoffmann, R.; Figl, M.

    2015-03-01

    Technical quality assurance (TQA) procedures for mammography systems usually include tests with a contrast-detail phantom. These phantoms contain multiple objects of varying dimensions arranged on a flat body. Exposures of the phantom are then evaluated by an observer, either human or software. One well-known issue of this method is that dose distribution is not uniform across the image area of any mammography system, mainly due to the heel effect. The purpose of this work is to investigate to what extent image quality differs across the detector plane. We analyze a total of 320 homogeneous mammography exposures from 32 radiology institutes. Systems of different models and manufacturers, both computed radiography (CR) and direct radiography (DR) are included. All images were taken from field installations operated within the nationwide Austrian mammography screening program, which includes mandatory continuous TQA. We calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for 15 regions of interest arranged to cover the area of the phantom. We define the 'signal range' of an image and compare this value categorized by technologies. We found the deviations of SNR greater in anterior-posterior than in lateral direction. SNR ranges are significantly higher for CR systems than for DR systems.

  18. Reverberation Chamber Uniformity Validation and Radiated Susceptibility Test Procedures for the NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory has developed a capability based on the RTCA/DO-160F Section 20 guidelines for radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing in reverberation chambers. Phase 1 of the test procedure utilizes mode-tuned stirrer techniques and E-field probe measurements to validate chamber uniformity, determines chamber loading effects, and defines a radiated susceptibility test process. The test procedure is segmented into numbered operations that are largely software controlled. This document is intended as a laboratory test reference and includes diagrams of test setups, equipment lists, as well as test results and analysis. Phase 2 of development is discussed.

  19. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities.

    PubMed

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev. 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev. 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf's law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, "fat" or "heavy" tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality. PMID:21517562

  20. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/0002828043052303 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/aer.99.4.1672 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf’s law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, “fat” or “heavy” tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality.

  1. 1/12-Scale scoping experiments to characterize double-shell tank slurry uniformity: Test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1994-10-01

    Million gallon double-shell tanks (DSTs) at Hanford are used to store transuranic, high-level, and low-level wastes. These wastes generally consist of a large volume of salt-laden solution covering a smaller volume of settled sludge primarily containing metal hydroxides. These wastes will be retrieved and processed into immobile waste forms suitable for permanent disposal. The current retrieval concept is to use submerged dual-nozzle pumps to mobilize the settled solids by creating jets of fluid that are directed at the tank solids. The pumps oscillate, creating arcs of high-velocity fluid jets that sweep the floor of the tank. After the solids are mobilized, the pumps will continue to operate at a reduced flow rate sufficient to maintain the particles in a uniform suspension. The objectives of these 1/12-scale scoping experiments are to determine how Reynolds number, Froude number, and gravitational settling parameter affect the degree of uniformity achieved during jet mixer pump operation in the full-scale double-shell tanks; develop linear models to predict the degree of uniformity achieved by jet mixer pumps operating in the full-scale double-shell tanks; apply linear models to predict the degree of uniformity that will be achieved in tank 241-AZ-101 and determine whether contents of that tank will be uniform to within {+-} 10% of the mean concentration; and obtain experimental concentration and jet velocity data to compared with the TEMPEST computational and modeling predictions to guide further code development.

  2. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL...

  3. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs...

  4. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... reference, see §§ 431.63 and 431.293). Energy Conservation Standards ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of...

  5. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions for Flavor Attributes of Breeding Lines in the Uniform Peanut Performance Test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flavor is influenced by several groups of factors: environmental, genetic, and interaction between them. In order to ascertain the relative contributions of these factors, data from the USDA-ARS program of sensory quality testing of samples from the multi-state Uniform Peanut Performance Te...

  6. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers. 431.64 Section 431.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND...

  7. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers. 431.64 Section 431.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND...

  8. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... not be performed to determine compliance with energy conservation standards for furnaces and...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... conservation standards for furnaces and boilers at this time. However, any representation related to...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... Efficiency of Residential Central Furnaces and Boilers” (with errata of October 24, 1996). 2.2ASHRAE...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... conservation standards for furnaces and boilers at this time. However, any representation related to...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... with energy conservation standards for furnaces and boilers at this time. However, any...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1 “Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  17. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Household Refrigerators and Household Wine Chillers,” and sections 5.1 through 5.3, “Method for... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy... method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and...

  18. Genotype-by-environment interactions for seed composition traits of breeding lines in the uniform peanut performance tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut composition is influenced by several groups of factors: environmental, genetic, and interactions between them. This study evaluated the relative contributions of these factors using data from the USDA-ARS program of quality testing of samples from the multi-state Uniform Peanut Performance ...

  19. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters 1. Definitions 1.1Cut-in means the time when or water temperature at which a water heater...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix H to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Power Consumption of Television Sets

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Power Consumption of Television Sets H Appendix H to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... 23, 2014, any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of televisions...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt....

  4. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt....

  5. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conservation standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) are amended to require mandatory compliance using... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  6. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  7. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  8. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  9. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  10. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  11. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  12. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  13. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  14. Testing CREATE at Community Colleges: An Examination of Faculty Perspectives and Diverse Student Gains

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Kristy L.; Onorato, Morgan E.; Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoque, Jamila; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2016-01-01

    CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science. PMID:26931399

  15. Testing CREATE at Community Colleges: An Examination of Faculty Perspectives and Diverse Student Gains.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Kristy L; Onorato, Morgan E; Gottesman, Alan J; Hoque, Jamila; Hoskins, Sally G

    2016-01-01

    CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science. PMID:26931399

  16. Design and testing of a uniformly solar energy TIR-R concentration lenses for HCPV systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Chang, S J; Yeh, C Y; Teng, P C

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, total internal reflection-refraction (TIR-R) concentration (U-TIR-R-C) lens module were designed for uniformity using the energy configuration method to eliminate hot spots on the surface of solar cell and increase conversion efficiency. The design of most current solar concentrators emphasizes the high-power concentration of solar energy, however neglects the conversion inefficiency resulting from hot spots generated by uneven distributions of solar energy concentrated on solar cells. The energy configuration method proposed in this study employs the concept of ray tracing to uniformly distribute solar energy to solar cells through a U-TIR-R-C lens module. The U-TIR-R-C lens module adopted in this study possessed a 76-mm diameter, a 41-mm thickness, concentration ratio of 1134 Suns, 82.6% optical efficiency, and 94.7% uniformity. The experiments demonstrated that the U-TIR-R-C lens module reduced the core temperature of the solar cell from 108 °C to 69 °C and the overall temperature difference from 45 °C to 10 °C, and effectively relative increased the conversion efficiency by approximately 3.8%. Therefore, the U-TIR-R-C lens module designed can effectively concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small solar cell, and the concentrated solar energy can be evenly distributed in the solar cell to achieve uniform irradiance and effectively eliminate hot spots. PMID:24514935

  17. Self-Reported Learning Gains: A Theory and Test of College Student Survey Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have asserted that self-reported learning gains (SRLG) are valid measures of learning, because gains in specific content areas vary across academic disciplines as theoretically predicted. In contrast, other studies find no relationship between actual and self-reported gains in learning, calling into question the validity of SRLG. I…

  18. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption..., App. G Appendix G to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of... controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply test...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption..., App. G Appendix G to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of... controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply test...

  20. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression. PMID:26154768

  1. Uniform Dust Distributor for Testing Radiative Emittance of Dust-Coated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller; Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2012-01-01

    This apparatus distributes dust (typical of the Martian surface) in a uniform fashion on the surface of multiple samples simultaneously. The primary innovation is that the amount of dust deposited on the multiple surfaces can be controlled by the time that the apparatus operates, and each sample will be subject to the same amount of dust deposition. The exact weight of dust that is added per unit of sample area is determined by the use of slides that can be removed sequentially after each dusting.

  2. Uniform engine testing program. Phase 1: NASA Lewis Research Center participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blesiadny, T.; Burkardt, L.; Braithwaite, W.

    1982-01-01

    Two jet engines were tested under identical conditions in a variety of altitude and ground level facilities as a means to correlating these facilities. Two J57-19W turbojet engines were tested in an altitude test facility. The test results are summarized.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water... previous step. The final water consumption value shall be rounded to one decimal place. b. The...

  4. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  5. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  6. A technique to achieve uniform stress distribution in compressive creep testing of advanced ceramics at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.C.; Stevens, C.O.; Brinkman, C.R.; Holshauser, N.E.

    1996-05-01

    A technique to achieve stable and uniform uniaxial compression is offered for creep testing of advanced ceramic materials at elevated temperatures, using an innovative self-aligning load-train assembly. Excellent load-train alignment is attributed to the inherent ability of a unique hydraulic universal coupler to maintain self-aligning. Details of key elements, design concept, and pricniples of operation of the self-aligning coupler are described. A method of alignment verification using a strain-gaged specimen is then discussed. Results of verification tests indicate that bending below 1.5% is routinely achievable usin the load-train system. A successful compression creep test is demonstrated using a dumbbell-shpaed Si nitride specimen tested at 1300 C for over 4000 h.

  7. Longitudinal uniformity, time performances and irradiation test of pure CsI crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelucci, M.; Atanova, O.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Miscetti, S.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.

    2016-07-01

    To study an alternative to BaF2, as the crystal choice for the Mu2e calorimeter, 13 pure CsI crystals from Opto Materials and ISMA producers have been characterized by determining their light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU), when read with a UV extended PMT. The crystals show a LY of ~100 p.e./MeV (~150 p.e./MeV) when wrapped with Tyvek and coupled to the PMT without (with) optical grease. The LRU is well represented by a linear slope that is on average δ~ -0.6%/cm. The timing performances of the Opto Materials crystal, read with a UV extended MPPC, have been evaluated with minimum ionizing particles. A timing resolution of ~330 ps (~ 440 ps) is achieved when connecting the photosensor to the MPPC with (without) optical grease. The crystal radiation hardness to a ionization dose has also been studied for one pure CsI crystal from SICCAS. After exposing it to a dose of 900 Gy, a decrease of 33% in the LY is observed while the LRU remains unchanged.

  8. Testing multistage gain and offset trimming in a single photon counting IC with a charge sharing elimination algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżanowska, A.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Maj, P.

    2015-12-01

    with experimental results and an algorithm for proper gain and offset trimming for better uniformity of the pixel matrix.

  9. Sensation Seeking as a Moderator of Gain- and Loss-Framed HIV-Test Promotion Message Effects.

    PubMed

    Hull, Shawnika J; Hong, Yangsun

    2016-01-01

    This study used an experiment (N = 504) to test whether the fit between sensation-seeking disposition and frame enhances the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed HIV test promotion messages. Gain- and loss-framed messages may be consistent with low and high sensation seekers' disposition with respect to risk behavior. We hypothesized that a loss-framed message would be more persuasive for high sensation seekers and that a gain-framed message should be more effective for low sensation seekers. We also expected elaboration to mediate the interaction. Results demonstrated the hypothesized interaction. When the message frame fit with the viewer's way of thinking, the persuasive power of the message was enhanced. The mediation hypothesis was not supported. Practical implications for targeting and message design are discussed. PMID:26308904

  10. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. An efficient algorithm for finding optimal gain-ratio multiple-split tests on hierarchical attributes in decision tree learning

    SciTech Connect

    Almuallim, H.; Akiba, Yasuhiro; Kaneda, Shigeo

    1996-12-31

    Given a set of training examples S and a tree-structured attribute x, the goal in this work is to find a multiple-split test defined on x that maximizes Quinlan`s gain-ratio measure. The number of possible such multiple-split tests grows exponentially in the size of the hierarchy associated with the attribute. It is, therefore, impractical to enumerate and evaluate all these tests in order to choose the best one. We introduce an efficient algorithm for solving this problem that guarantees maximizing the gain-ratio over all possible tests. For a training set of m examples and an attribute hierarchy of height d, our algorithm runs in time proportional to dm, which makes it efficient enough for practical use.

  12. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

  13. Implication of spatial uniformity on vicarious calibration using automated test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Buchanan, John H.

    2007-09-01

    A preferred method of ground-based vicarious calibration is the reflectance-based approach, which requires personnel to be present at a test site during sensor overpass. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona developed an instrumentation suite and methodology in 2004 to measure the surface and atmospheric characteristics in the absence of personnel. Field campaigns typically occur at a rate of once per month during the academic year, and increase during the summer months. The automated approach allows data to be collected during every overpass of large-footprint sensors such as Terra and Aqua MODIS, and AVHRR, which are continuously collecting data. The large-footprint-sensor site at Railroad Valley is 1 km2. In the absence of personnel, the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is measured using five nadir-viewing radiometers that are currently located at the site. Their locations are chosen based on the topography of the site in an effort to "completely" sample the 1-km2 area. This work quantifies the uncertainty in predicting the surface reflectance of the 1-km2 area based on the point measurements of the automated methodology. It also determines if the number of radiometers, and their positions, are suitable to characterize the site in a spatial sense. These uncertainties are determined through the use of portable spectroradiometers, and high-spatial-resolution QuickBird imagery.

  14. Angle: a FORTRAN-77 package to perform one-sample uniformity tests, two- and multisample tests on two-dimensional orientation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, N. M. S.

    ANGLE interprets measurements of either directional ( modulo 360) or axial ( modulo 180) orientation data on the circle, such as vertical dike azimuths, tectonic lineaments, glacial striae, crossbed directions, crystal or fossil orientations on foliation surfaces, etc. The user is allowed extensive selection of input-data formats, notations, etc. Single samples (sets of measurements) can be tested for a null hypothesis of uniformity (i.e. lack of preferred orientation), using the nonparametric Hodges-Ajne. Kuiper, and Watson U 2 tests and the parametric Rayleigh tests, against the following alternative hypotheses: (1) a single, unspecified preferred orientation; (2) a single, prespecified mean orientation; or (3) for directional data only, a preferred axial orientation (i.e. a bimodal distribution with two diagonal modes). Estimated mean directions and concentration parameters also are calculated for each input file, assuming a Von Mises distribution. For two or more samples, the nonparametric Mardia (uniform scores) and Watson U 2 tests, and the parametric Watson-Williams test can be used additionally to indicate whether the samples may come from populations with (1) equal mean directions, or (2) mean directions differing by a predetermined amount.

  15. Gain length dependence on phase shake in the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pflueger, J.; Pierini, P.

    1995-12-31

    The TTF VUV FEL, which is in its design stage at DESY, consists of a 30 m long SASE FEL which will radiate around 6 nm, driven by a superconducting linac with final energy of 1 GeV. One of the important issues in its design is the undulator performance, which is studied in this paper. The present setup, including FODO lattice, is discussed in this paper. Results of simulations, including the realistic wiggler field errors and beam stearing, are presented. Dependence of the performance, in particular the gain and saturation length as well as the saturation peak power, on the wiggler field errors is discussed.

  16. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, S.; Baselga, M.; Boscardin, M.; Christophersen, M.; Da Via, C.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Darbo, G.; Fadeyev, V.; Fleta, C.; Gemme, C.; Grenier, P.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A.; Nelist, C.; Parker, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Phlips, B.; Pohl, D.-L.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sicho, P.; Tsiskaridze, S.

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix J2 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... clothes washer with an adaptive control system. A waiver must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27 to... washing. The energy test cloth shall be clean and shall not be used for more than 60 test runs (after... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  18. Development and Pilot Testing of the Eating4two Mobile Phone App to Monitor Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Deborah Lee; Williams, Lauren; Davey, Rachel; Cox, Robert; Clarke, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30kg/m2 or more is increasing, which has important implications for antenatal care. Various resource-intensive interventions have attempted to assist women in managing their weight gain during pregnancy with limited success. A mobile phone app has been proposed as a convenient and cost-effective alternative to face-to-face interventions. Objective This paper describes the process of developing and pilot testing the Eating4Two app, which aims to provide women with a simple gestational weight gain (GWG) calculator, general dietary information, and the motivation to achieve a healthy weight gain during pregnancy. Methods The project involved the development of app components, including a graphing function that allows the user to record their weight throughout the pregnancy and to receive real-time feedback on weight gain progress and general information on antenatal nutrition. Stakeholder consultation was used to inform development. The app was pilot tested with 10 pregnant women using a mixed method approach via an online survey, 2 focus groups, and 1 individual interview. Results The Eating4Two app took 7 months to develop and evaluate. It involved several disciplines--including nutrition and dietetics, midwifery, public health, and information technology--at the University of Canberra. Participants found the Eating4Two app to be a motivational tool but would have liked scales or other markers on the graph that demonstrated exact weight gain. They also liked the nutrition information; however, many felt it should be formatted in a more user friendly way. Conclusions The Eating4Two app was viewed by participants in our study as an innovative support system to help motivate healthy behaviors during pregnancy and as a credible resource for accessing nutrition-focused information. The feedback provided by participants will assist with refining the current prototype for use in a clinical intervention

  19. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications.

  20. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications. PMID:26877244

  1. Evaluating conceptual gains in mechanics: A six thousand student survey of test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hake, Richard R.

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a survey of 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total number of students N=6542 using the Halloun-Hestenes conceptual Mechanics Diagnostic or more recent Force Concept Inventory test, and, where data is available, the problem-solving Mechanics Baseline test.

  2. An efficient, maintenance free and approved method for spectroscopic control and monitoring of blend uniformity: The moving F-test.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Rut; Damen, Michiel; Tran, Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh; van den Dries, Kaspar; Oostra, Wim; Gerich, Ad

    2015-10-10

    Dry powder mixing is a wide spread Unit Operation in the Pharmaceutical industry. With the advent of in-line Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy and Quality by Design principles, application of Process Analytical Technology to monitor Blend Uniformity (BU) is taking a more prominent role. Yet routine use of NIR for monitoring, let alone control of blending processes is not common in the industry, despite the improved process understanding and (cost) efficiency that it may offer. Method maintenance, robustness and translation to regulatory requirements have been important barriers to implement the method. This paper presents a qualitative NIR-BU method offering a convenient and compliant approach to apply BU control for routine operation and process understanding, without extensive calibration and method maintenance requirements. The method employs a moving F-test to detect the steady state of measured spectral variances and the endpoint of mixing. The fundamentals and performance characteristics of the method are first presented, followed by a description of the link to regulatory BU criteria, the method sensitivity and practical considerations. Applications in upscaling, tech transfer and commercial production are described, along with evaluation of the method performance by comparison with results from quantitative calibration models. A full application, in which end-point detection via the F-test controls the blending process of a low dose product, was successfully filed in Europe and Australia, implemented in commercial production and routinely used for about five years and more than 100 batches. PMID:26257268

  3. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  4. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  5. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1Waivers and Field Testing for Non-conventional Clothes Washers. Manufacturers of nonconventional clothes... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes Washers J1 Appendix J1 to Subpart B of Part 430...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1Waivers and Field Testing for Non-conventional Clothes Washers. Manufacturers of nonconventional clothes... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes Washers J1 Appendix J1 to Subpart B of Part 430...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... it appeared at 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, appendix S, in the 10 CFR parts 200 to 499 edition revised... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  9. 10 CFR Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q1 Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. Q1 Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of Part...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps W Appendix W to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps W Appendix W to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix O to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Vented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Vented Home Heating Equipment O Appendix O to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. O Appendix O to Subpart B of Part...

  2. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  3. Changes in self-reported HIV testing during South Africa's 2010/2011 national testing campaign: gains and shortfalls

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Lloyd, Neil; Bor, Jacob; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HIV counselling and testing is critical to HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Mass campaigns may be an effective strategy to increase HIV testing in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We assessed the self-reported uptake of HIV testing among individuals who had never previously tested for HIV, particularly those in high-risk populations, during the period of a national, multisector testing campaign in South Africa (April 2010 and June 2011). Design This study was a prospective cohort study. Methods We analyzed data from two waves (2010/2011, n=16,893; 2012, n=18,707) of the National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative cohort that enabled prospective identification of first-time testers. We quantified the number of adults (15 years and older) testing for the first time nationally. To assess whether the campaign reached previously underserved populations, we examined changes in HIV testing coverage by age, gender, race and province sub-groups. We also estimated multivariable logistic regression models to identify socio-economic and demographic predictors of first-time testing. Results Overall, the proportion of adults ever tested for HIV increased from 43.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.48, 45.96) to 65.2% (95% CI: 63.28, 67.10) over the study period, with approximately 7.6 million (95% CI: 6,387,910; 8,782,986) first-time testers. Among black South Africans, the country's highest HIV prevalence sub-group, HIV testing coverage improved among poorer and healthier individuals, thus reducing gradients in testing by wealth and health. In contrast, HIV testing coverage remained lower for men, younger individuals and the less educated, indicating persistent if not widening disparities by gender, age and education. Large geographic disparities in coverage also remained as of 2012. Conclusions Mass provision of HIV testing services can be effective in increasing population coverage of HIV testing. The geographic and socio

  4. Highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of doxazosin through derivatization with fluorescamine; Application to content uniformity testing.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Hammad, Mohamed A; Salman, Baher I; Derayea, Sayed M

    2016-03-15

    A highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of doxazosin mesylate in pure form, pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. The method is based on the reaction between doxazosin mesylate and fluorescamine in Teorell buffer solution (pH 3) to give highly fluorescent derivative that can be measured at 489 nm using excitation wavelength of 385 nm. Different experimental parameters affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The calibration plot was constructed over the concentration range of 16-400 ng mL(-1) with quantitation limit of 14.3 ng mL(-1). The developed procedure was validated according to ICH guidelines and the results were satisfactory. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the cited drug in its pharmaceutical preparations as well as for content uniformity testing. The results showed excellent agreement with the reported method with respect to precision and accuracy. In addition, the drug concentration was determined in the spiked human plasma by the suggested method with % recovery in the range of 96.2-98.3% (SD; 0.76-0.93, n=5). PMID:26716887

  5. Highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of doxazosin through derivatization with fluorescamine; Application to content uniformity testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Hammad, Mohamed A.; Salman, Baher I.; Derayea, Sayed M.

    2016-03-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of doxazosin mesylate in pure form, pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. The method is based on the reaction between doxazosin mesylate and fluorescamine in Teorell buffer solution (pH 3) to give highly fluorescent derivative that can be measured at 489 nm using excitation wavelength of 385 nm. Different experimental parameters affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The calibration plot was constructed over the concentration range of 16-400 ng mL- 1 with quantitation limit of 14.3 ng mL- 1. The developed procedure was validated according to ICH guidelines and the results were satisfactory. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the cited drug in its pharmaceutical preparations as well as for content uniformity testing. The results showed excellent agreement with the reported method with respect to precision and accuracy. In addition, the drug concentration was determined in the spiked human plasma by the suggested method with % recovery in the range of 96.2-98.3% (SD; 0.76-0.93, n = 5).

  6. Experimental design and sample size determination for testing synergism in drug combination studies based on uniform measures.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming; Fang, Hong-Bin; Tian, Guo-Liang; Houghton, Peter J

    2003-07-15

    In anticancer drug development, the combined use of two drugs is an important strategy to achieve greater therapeutic success. Often combination studies are performed in animal (mostly mice) models before clinical trials are conducted. These experiments on mice are costly, especially with combination studies. However, experimental designs and sample size derivations for the joint action of drugs are not currently available except for a few cases where strong model assumptions are made. For example, Abdelbasit and Plackett proposed an optimal design assuming that the dose-response relationship follows some specified linear models. Tallarida et al. derived a design by fixing the mixture ratio and used a t-test to detect the simple similar action. The issue is that in reality we usually do not have enough information on the joint action of the two compounds before experiment and to understand their joint action is exactly our study goal. In this paper, we first propose a novel non-parametric model that does not impose such strong assumptions on the joint action. We then propose an experimental design for the joint action using uniform measure in this non-parametric model. This design is optimal in the sense that it reduces the variability in modelling synergy while allocating the doses to minimize the number of experimental units and to extract maximum information on the joint action of the compounds. Based on this design, we propose a robust F-test to detect departures from the simple similar action of two compounds and a method to determine sample sizes that are economically feasible. We illustrate the method with a study of the joint action of two new anticancer agents: temozolomide and irinotecan. PMID:12820275

  7. Gain Evaluation of Micro-Channel-Plate Photomultipliers in the Upgraded High-B Test Facility at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Corinne; DIRC at EIC Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The High-B test facility at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility allows researchers to evaluate the gain of compact photon sensors, such as Micro-Channel-Plate Photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs), in magnetic fields up to 5 T. These ongoing studies support the development of a Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) to be used in an Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Here, we present our summer 2015 activities to upgrade and improve the facility, and we show results for MCP-PMT gain changes in high B-fields. To monitor the light stability delivered to the MCP-PMTs being tested, we implemented a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) in the setup and calibrated the ADC reading this sensor. A 405-nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) housed in an optical tube compatible with neutral density filters was also installed. The filters provide an alternative way of reducing the light output of the LED to operate the MCP-PMTs in a single-photon mode. We calibrated a set of filters by means of a photodiode and measured the photon flux at multiple positions relative to the LED. This information helped us to design 3D-printed holders unique to each MCP-PMT so that the photocathode receives the greatest amount of light. The improvements to the setup allow for more precise PMT gain evaluation. This team includes 7 collaborators/co-authors besides myself: Yordanka Ilieva, Kijun Park, Greg Kalicy, Carl Zorn, Pawel Nadel-Turonski, Tongtong Cao, and Lee.

  8. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.

  9. Cold test, spontaneous emission and gain in a rectangular Cerenkov amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Scharer, J.E.; Joe, J.; Booske, J.H.; Basten, M.; Kirolous, H.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present experimental results for the rectangular Cerenkov grating amplifier. This research is being carried out to develop a Ka-band (35 GHz), low voltage (10 kV), moderate power (10 kW) source. They have constructed a Ku-band grating structure to study a scaled version of this source. The tapered grating consists of two tapered Ku-band smooth wave guide sections and two 3.5-inch sections of five-step-tapered gratings. Both tapered and untapered grating structures have been cold tested utilizing the network analyzer measurements. They find that their taper design reduced the reflection coefficient from {minus}5 dB to less than {minus}20 dB over a 12--15 GHz bandwidth. Spontaneous emission results resulting from passing the circular electron beam from a Litton thermionic gun over the grating structure will be presented. They have theoretically investigated the sheet beam interaction with hybrid modes in a deep groove rectangular grating waveguide. A complex dispersion relation, which includes a finite axial energy spread of the beam, describing the interaction has been solved. The authors find that the instability is always convective in the forward wave mode regime.

  10. Gimbals Drive and Control Electronics Design, Development and Testing of the LRO High Gain Antenna and Solar Array Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernyakov, Boris; Thakore, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Launched June 18, 2009 on an Atlas V rocket, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration program and for a human return to the Moon. The spacecraft (SC) carries a wide variety of scientific instruments and provides an extraordinary opportunity to study the lunar landscape at resolutions and over time scales never achieved before. The spacecraft systems are designed to enable achievement of LRO's mission requirements. To that end, LRO's mechanical system employed two two-axis gimbal assemblies used to drive the deployment and articulation of the Solar Array System (SAS) and the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS). This paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) and Actuators for both the HGAS and SAS systems, as well as flight testing during the on-orbit commissioning phase and lessons learned.

  11. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT...

  12. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix J to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with an adaptive control system. Therefore, pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27, a waiver must be obtained to... adaptive control systems, must submit a petition for waiver pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix J to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with an adaptive control system. Therefore, pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27, a waiver must be obtained to... adaptive control systems, must submit a petition for waiver pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices as specified in subpart C of 47 CFR part 18. 1.5. DC control signal means a direct current (DC... technical standards for consumer RF lighting devices as specified in subpart C of 47 CFR part 18. 1.14. RMS..., App. Q1 Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... devices as specified in subpart C of 47 CFR part 18. 1.5. DC control signal means a direct current (DC... technical standards for consumer RF lighting devices as specified in subpart C of 47 CFR part 18. 1.14. RMS..., App. Q1 Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  17. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. PMID:22435844

  18. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  20. Instructional practices among science departments with high, moderate, and low gains on the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachergis, Theodora R.

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the instructional practices of performance-based, inquiry-based, and authentic-based learning strategies, and rubric use are related to improvement on the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test [CAPT], as indicated by CAPT gains from 1995--2001. Data were collected for this study by a survey/interview of 63 Connecticut high schools and their 118 certified biology teachers, who had participated in the science CAPT administration within that same school district during 1995--2001. Results from the analysis of the data indicate a significant relationship between strategy and rubric use and CAPT science score outputs. Those schools having the highest levels of strategy and rubric use also demonstrated high CAPT gains and increasing CAPT scores, over time. It was also determined that a strong relationship exists between the percentage of the ERG's goal for CAPT index and those ERGs, using strategies and/or rubrics proficiently. The major findings of the study reveal that teachers demonstrate a confusion of strategy/rubric meaning, as indicated by the low proficiency levels of their submitted strategy and rubric samples, despite high indicators of use for the three learning strategies and rubrics. In addition, rubrics are rated highly by the sample, but are not employed at the high levels of reported favorability. Further analysis determines that objective forms of assessment are used more frequently than strategy and rubric use, and may be implicated for the decreased use of rubrics. Although survey data indicate that 90% of the sample reported "Satisfactory" to "Excellent" levels of annual score updates within their respective districts, teachers requested a need for increased pre- and in-service professional development in the use of all three strategies and rubrics: particularly non-tenured teachers expressed a need for basic CAPT information and samples of strategy and rubric use, while

  1. Multisensor and multiscale survey and characterization for radiometric spatial uniformity and temporal stability of Railroad Valley Playa (Nevada) test site used for optical sensor calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannari, Abdou A.; Omari, K.; Teillet, Phillipe M.; Fedosejevs, Gunar

    2004-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed for the first time the potential of Getis statistics compared to the coefficient of variation for the study of the radiometric spatial uniformity and temporal stability of the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada (RVPN) test site. We evaluated multi-sensor and multi-scale image data acquired for the RVPN, including four SPOT HRV images acquired in 1997 and 1998, five NOAA AVHRR images acquired in 1999, and one Landsat TM image acquired in 1998. The results show the potential and the importance of the synergy generated by these two methods for analyzing the radiometric spatial uniformity and temporal stability of the RVPN site. Getis statistics provide an excellent spatial analysis of the site while the coefficient of variation provides complementary information on the temporal evolution of the site.

  2. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program...

  3. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program...

  4. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  5. Paternity Testing, a Poor Man’s Marker Assisted Breeding Strategy to Increase Selection Gains in Outbred Forage Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many methods to incorporate molecular markers into breeding programs have been proposed. Most existing marker assisted selection strategies use selection based on molecular marker linkage to achieve selection gains. Such strategies are often prohibitively expensive in forage breeding (Riday, 2007)...

  6. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  7. CHANGES IN OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION UNIFORMITY FOR PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLER TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note documents changes in the standard operating procedures used at the Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) aerosol testing wind tunnel facility for testing of particulate matter monitoring methods of PM2.5 and PM10. These changes are relative to the op...

  8. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, section 1, “Definitions,” and section 4, “Test Criteria... traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test... consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  9. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, section 1, “Definitions,” and section 4, “Test Criteria... traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test... consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... introduction of electrically generated heat into the washing chamber for the purpose of improving the drying... compact under-counter or under-sink dishwasher must be tested in a rectangular enclosure constructed of... dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2Non-soil-sensing dishwashers to be tested at...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix C1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of an off mode. 1.14 Power-dry feature means the introduction of electrically-generated heat into the... standard or compact under-counter or under-sink dishwasher must be tested in a rectangular enclosure... cycle without a test load if the dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... including the power-dry feature. 1.7 Power-dry feature means the introduction of electrically generated heat... manufacturer's instructions. A standard or compact under-counter or under-sink dishwasher must be tested in a... truncated normal cycle without a test load if the dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix D2 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... spray bottle. 2.7.2 Standard size dryer load. Prepare a bone-dry test load of energy cloths that weighs... spray bottle. 2.7.3 Method of loading. Load the energy test cloths by grasping them in the center... energy consumption per cycle, Ege, expressed in Btus per cycle and defined as: Egg = Etg × GEF...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performing the airflow test, measure ceiling fan power using a RMS sensor capable of measuring power with an accuracy of ±1 %. Prior to using the sensor and sensor software it has selected, the test laboratory shall verify performance of the sensor and sensor software. Measure power input at a point that includes...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... performing the airflow test, measure ceiling fan power using a RMS sensor capable of measuring power with an accuracy of ±1 %. Prior to using the sensor and sensor software it has selected, the test laboratory shall verify performance of the sensor and sensor software. Measure power input at a point that includes...

  16. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: accuracy and clinical value of the uniformly labelled 13C-Hiolein breath test.

    PubMed Central

    Lembcke, B; Braden, B; Caspary, W F

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The 13C-Hiolein breath test (98% [U-13C] labelled long chain triglyceride mixture (highly labelled triolein) was evaluated as a non-invasive, non-radioactive test for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Accuracy and clinical validity were examined with reference to both the secretin pancreozymin test and faecal fat analysis. METHODS: A secretin pancreozymin test and faecal fat analysis were performed in 46 patients, 30 with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and 16 with normal pancreatic function. In all of these patients and in seven healthy volunteers (controls), a 13C-Hiolein breath test was performed using 2 mg/kg [U-13C] labelled Hiolein with a standard risk snack (1.5 g/kg; 25% fat). 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment in the exhaled breath was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In patients with pancreatic steatorrhoea the 13CO2 response was below the 95% confidence interval of 13CO2 exhalation in the controls. These responses were also diminished (p < 0.001) compared with patients with impaired lipase output but normal fat excretion and with disease as well as healthy controls. There was a linear correlation between stimulated lipase output and the ratio of lipase output/13CO2 response (r = 0.95). Among the 40 patients in whom direct pancreatic function testing was clinically indicated, the sensitivity of the 13C-Hiolein test for detecting steatorrhoea was 91.7%, with a specificity of 85.7%. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with pancreatic disease the 13C-Hiolein breath test reflects impaired lipase output and indicates decompensated lipolysis. The 13C-Hiolein breath test is a convenient alternative to faecal fat analysis. PMID:9026480

  17. The Use of Congruence between the Items in a Norm-referenced Test and the Content in Compensatory Education Curricula in the Evaluation of Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Arlene Bonnie; Miller, Christine A.

    In the evaluation of Project Information Packages (PIPs), a content analysis was performed to detect congruence between items in a norm-referenced test and the content in six exemplary compensatory education program curricula. Gains on congruent items were used to assess the effectiveness of the programs. Preliminary results show that the amount…

  18. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs Test... measurement.” (Incorporated by reference, see § 431.203) Energy Conservation Standards...

  19. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy and water consumption of automatic commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commercial ice makers with capacities between 50 and 4,000 pounds of ice per 24 hours. (b) Testing and... factor by following the procedure specified in the “Procedure for Determining Ice Quality” in section A.3... water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix B1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Freezers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sensors shall be noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR... determining the energy consumption of a freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to... refer to 10 CFR 430.27....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix B1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Freezers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sensors shall be noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR... determining the energy consumption of a freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to... refer to 10 CFR 430.27....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Freezers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sensors shall be noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR... determining the energy consumption of a freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to... refer to 10 CFR 430.27....

  3. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and... section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any...

  4. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heaters). 431.106 Section 431.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial...) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the...

  5. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and... section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any...

  6. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heaters). 431.106 Section 431.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial...) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the...

  7. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heaters). 431.106 Section 431.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial...) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the...

  8. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heaters). 431.106 Section 431.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial...) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the...

  9. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and... section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any...

  10. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heaters). 431.106 Section 431.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial...) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conservation standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) are amended to require mandatory compliance using... of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  12. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy... reference; see § 430.3) and the fossil fuel energy consumption during the standby test, Qp, in Btu. Ambient... switch, the average electric power consumption during the off mode, PW,OFF = 0, and the fossil...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. P Appendix P to...: EF=BOH QIN+(POH−BOH)QP where: BOH=average number of burner operating hours=104 h POH=average...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by the American Society for Testing and Measurements and titled “Smoke Density in Flue Gases from... empty of water n r recovery efficiency p density of water τstby, 1 elapsed time between the time the... supplied to the resistive element(s) shall be metered separately from the electrical energy supplied to...

  15. Development and Validation of Stability-Indicating HPTLC Method for Estimation of Naratriptan Hydrochloride in Its Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Its Content Uniformity Testing.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Pintu B; Chotalia, Jagdish; Bodiwala, Kunjan B; Marolia, Bhavin P; Shah, Shailesh A

    2016-08-01

    The present research project involves development and validation of a stability-indicating HPTLC method for the estimation of naratriptan-HCl in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and its content uniformity testing. Naratriptan-HCl was subjected to alkaline, acidic, oxidative, neutral, thermal (dry heat) and photo-degradation conditions. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a precoated silica gel G 60 F254 TLC plate as the stationary phase and dichloromethane-toluene-methanol-triethylamine (4 : 4 : 2 : 1, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The spots of NRT-HCl and its degradation products were detected at 290 nm. The Rf value of NRT-HCl was found to be 0.60 ± 0.02. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100-500 ng/spot. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 6.07 ng/spot and 18.41 ng/spot, respectively. The percentage recovery was found in the range of 98.87-99.55%. NRT-HCl was degraded under acidic, alkaline and oxidative conditions while stable under photolytic, neutral and dry heat conditions. The developed method was applied for estimation of naratriptan-HCl in marketed formulations and its content uniformity testing. PMID:27406125

  16. Experimental Setup and Commissioning of a Test Facility for Gain Evaluation of Microchannel-Plate Photomultipliers in High Magnetic Field at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringley, Eric; Cao, Tongtong; Ilieva, Yordonka; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Park, Kijun; Zorn, Carl

    2014-09-01

    At the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) a research and development project for a Detector of Internally-Reflected Cherenkov light for the upcoming Electron Ion Collider is underway. One goal is the development of a compact readout camera that can operate in high magnetic fields. Small-size photon sensors, such as Microchannel-Plate Photomultipliers (MCP-PMT), are key components of the readout. Here we present our work to set up and commission a dedicated test facility at JLab where MCP-PMT gain is evaluated in magnetic fields of up to 5 T, and to develop a test procedure and analysis software to determine the gain. We operate the setup in a single-photon mode, where a light-emitting diode delivers photons to the sensor's photocathode. The PMT spectrum is measured with a flash Analog-to-Digital converter (fADC). We model the spectrum as a sum of an exponential background and a convolution of Poisson and Gaussian distributions of the pedestal and multiple photoelectron peaks, respectively. We determine the PMT's gain from the position of the single-photoelectron peak obtained by fitting the fADC spectrum to the model. Our gain uncertainty is <10%. The facility is now established and will have a long-lasting value for sensor tests and beyond-nuclear-physics applications.

  17. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 1. Single tube uniformly heated tests: Part 1, Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate flow instability in circular tubes under vertical down-flow conditions. The test section L/D ratio range was 86 to 270. The maximum test section surface heat flux was one million Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}. Over 1700 data points were obtained. The effect of flowrate, inlet temperature, exit pressure, and heat flux on the initiation of flow instability was determined. In addition, the data was used to evaluate various methods of predicting the onset of flow instability. Using the measured wall temperatures, surface temperatures and heat transfer coefficients have been obtained. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient along the tube under both single and two phase conditions were developed.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... done on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries. The test technician shall proceed directly to battery....(1) of this section. d. Batteries of chemistries other than lead-acid or lithium-ion that are known... Hydride (NiMH) 0.2 1.0 Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) 0.2 2.5 Lithium Polymer 0.2 2.5 Rechargeable Alkaline 0.2...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...,” Publication 705-1988 and Amendment 2—1993. (See 10 CFR 430.22) 1.6Normal nonoperating temperature means the... Amendment 2. (See 10 CFR 430.22) 2.2Energy supply. 2.2.1Electrical supply. Maintain the electrical supply to... Amendment 2. (See 10 CFR 430.22.) 3.3Recorded values. 3.3.1Record the test room temperature, TR, at...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix B1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Freezers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standard as a revision of ANSI B38.1-1970. 1.2“Anti-sweat heater” means a device incorporated into the... characteristics. 1.5“Standard cycle” means the cycle type in which the anti-sweat heater switch, when provided, is... controls are to be operative and the anti-sweat heater switch is to be “on” during one test and...

  1. Design and performance testing of an avalanche photodiode receiver with multiplication gain control algorithm for intersatellite laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaonan; Tong, Shoufeng; Dong, Yan; Song, Yansong; Hao, Shicong; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver for intersatellite laser communication links is proposed and its performance is experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, a series of analog circuits are used not only to adjust the temperature and control the bias voltage but also to monitor the current and recover the clock from the communication data. In addition, the temperature compensation and multiplication gain control algorithm are embedded in the microcontroller to improve the performance of the receiver. As shown in the experiment, with the change of communication rate from 10 to 2000 Mbps, the detection sensitivity of the APD receiver varies from -47 to -34 dBm. Moreover, due to the existence of the multiplication gain control algorithm, the dynamic range of the APD receiver is effectively improved, while the dynamic range at 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps is 38.7, 37.7, and 32.8 dB, respectively. As a result, the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions, and the receiver will improve the flexibility of the intersatellite links without increasing the cost.

  2. Blend uniformity evaluation during continuous mixing in a twin screw granulator by in-line NIR using a moving F-test.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; De Leersnyder, Fien; Besseling, Rut; Gerich, Ad; Oostra, Wim; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    This study focuses on the twin screw granulator of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line. Whereas powder dosing into the granulation unit is possible from a container of preblended material, a truly continuous process uses several feeders (each one dosing an individual ingredient) and relies on a continuous blending step prior to granulation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-line blending capacity of this twin screw granulator, equipped with conveying elements only. The feasibility of in-line NIR (SentroPAT, Sentronic GmbH, Dresden, Germany) spectroscopy for evaluating the blend uniformity of powders after the granulator was tested. Anhydrous theophylline was used as a tracer molecule and was blended with lactose monohydrate. Theophylline and lactose were both fed from a different feeder into the twin screw granulator barrel. Both homogeneous mixtures and mixing experiments with induced errors were investigated. The in-line spectroscopic analyses showed that the twin screw granulator is a useful tool for in-line blending in different conditions. The blend homogeneity was evaluated by means of a novel statistical method being the moving F-test method in which the variance between two blocks of collected NIR spectra is evaluated. The α- and β-error of the moving F-test are controlled by using the appropriate block size of spectra. The moving F-test method showed to be an appropriate calibration and maintenance free method for blend homogeneity evaluation during continuous mixing. PMID:27543030

  3. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  4. Monitoring of the manufacturing process for ambroxol hydrochloride tablet using NIR-chemometric methods: compression effect on content uniformity model and relevant process parameters testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqin; Liao, Xiaoxiang; Peng, Feng; Wang, Wan; Liu, Yanxin; Yan, Jin; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to monitor compaction pressure for simultaneously determining the tensile strength and content uniformity, as well as moisture and mean particle size of ambroxol hydrochloride tablets. The content uniformity, compression force and tensile strength of the laboratory samples were obtained by pressing a mixture of active principle and excipient components into tablets. To reduce the spectral baseline shift of the laboratory samples, the compaction pressure applied to the mixture was assessed by a variable pressure test. Production samples were added to the test and subjected to principal component analysis. The expanded partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model used to quantify the active content was more accurate than the model constructed from laboratory samples using the production tablets included in the calibration set. The model showed good predictability, with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9977. The validation and reliability of the content model were evaluated to determine trueness and reliability for the measurement of individual production tablets and the laboratory tablets with drug content ranging from 24 to 36 mg. The PLS calibration models for compression force and tensile strength were constructed using the same spectral set assuming both were highly related. These models yielded high R values (0.9955 and 0.9910). The R values of the moisture and mean particle size were 0.9994 and 0.9919, respectively. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques can be successfully used to quantitatively monitor the tablet manufacturing process in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25738811

  5. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment policy; (3)(i) Administer post-tests with a secure, parallel, equated form of the same test—either traditional paper and pencil or computer-administered instruments—for which forms are constructed prior...

  6. How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K-6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examines the relationship between teacher participation in a multi-year, K-6 professional development effort and the "high stakes" science test scores of different student groups in 33 rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The professional development program involved 1,269 elementary school teachers…

  7. Comparison of selected ultrasound performance tests with varying overall receiver gain and dynamic range, using conventional and magnified field of view.

    PubMed

    Kanal, K M; Kofler, J M; Groth, D S

    1998-05-01

    Most ultrasound (US) scanner vendors currently offer a feature that allows a region of the ultrasound image to be magnified or zoomed. Although the methods of magnification vary among vendors, the ability to "zoom in" on a selected portion of the image has gained clinical acceptance. However, using this feature introduces additional steps in the quality assurance (QA) measurement procedures. No studies exist that demonstrate the advantage of a magnified field of view (FOV) over the conventional FOV for QA purposes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a magnified versus nonmagnified FOV on various common QA performance tests as a function of the overall receiver gain and dynamic range. Additionally, since the performance tests are subject to variations caused by scanner settings, sets of QC tests were recorded using several different scanner settings to investigate any change in the sensitivity of the QC measurements with respect to the magnified and nonmagnified fields of view. The lateral and axial resolution, slice thickness, and caliper accuracy (vertical and horizontal) as a function of varying overall receiver gain and dynamic range, were obtained using conventional (no zoom) as well as a magnified (zoom) field of view (FOV). Each measurement was performed three times by a single observer using a 4 MHz "vector" format transducer on a single diagnostic medical ultrasound scanner. The results show no statistical significance in the variability of most recorded masurements when using the conventional versus the magnified FOV. However, in some cases, such as lateral resolution, the average value measured using the magnified FOV was typically 0.5 mm lower than when using a conventional FOV. PMID:9608473

  8. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  9. Accurately control and flatten gain spectrum of L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier based on suitable gain-clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiuru; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Chunyu

    2016-04-01

    The increasing traffic with dynamic nature requires the applications of gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, the weak or over clamping may lead the unexpected gain-compression and flatness-worsening. In this article, to enhance practicality, we modify the partly gain-clamping configuration and utilize a pair of C-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to non-uniformly compress the gain spectrum of L-band. Through a comprehensive test and comparison, the suitable gain-clamping region for the amplified signals is found, and the gain in L-band is accurately controlled and flattened under the matched central wavelength of FBGs. The experimental results show that, our designed L-band EDFA achieves a trade-off among the output gain, flatness and stability. The ±0.44 dB flatness and 20.2 dB average gain are together obtained in the range of 1570-1610 nm, with the ±0.1 dB stability of signals in over 30 dBm dynamic range.

  10. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  11. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  12. School Uniforms Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…

  13. Mandatory School Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Carl A.

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after implementing a mandatory school uniform policy, the Long Beach (California) Public Schools can boast 99% compliance and a substantial reduction in school crime. The uniforms can't be confused with gang colors, save parents money, and help identify outsiders. A sidebar lists ingredients for a mandatory uniform policy. (MLH)

  14. A novel non-uniformity correction method based on ROIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Yujue; Di, Chao; Wang, Xinxing; Cao, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) suffer from inherent low frequency and fixed patter noised (FPN). They are thus limited by their inability to calibrate out individual detector variations including detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain). To achieve high quality infrared image by mitigating the FPN of IRFPAs, we have developed a novel non-uniformity correction (NUC) method based on read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). The offset and gain correction coefficients can be calculated by function fitting for the linear relationship between the detector's output and a reference voltage in ROIC. We tested the purposed method using an infrared imaging system using the ULIS 03 19 1 detector with real nonuniformity. A set of 384*288 infrared images with 12 bits was collected to evaluate the performance. With the experiments, the non-uniformity was greatly eliminated. We also used the universe non-uniformity (NU) parameter to estimate the performance. The calculated NU parameters with the two-point calibration (TPC) and the purposed method imply that the purposed method has almost as good performance as TPC.

  15. Uniform Media Effects and Uniform Audience Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    The idea that mass communication effects may decrease diversity among people or societies exposed to it arises constantly. However, discussions of mass media effects do not highlight differences between mass communications that "affect" people uniformly and messages that members of audiences "respond to" in similar ways. A number of modern…

  16. Pixel response non-uniformity correction for multi-TDICCD camera based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofang

    2013-10-01

    A non-uniformity correction algorithm is proposed and implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware platform to solve a pixel response non-uniformity(PRNU) problem of multi Time Delay and Integration Charge Couple Device(TDICCD) camera. The non-uniformity are introduced and the synthetical correction algorithm is presented, in which the two-point correction method is used in a single channel, gain averaging correction method among multi-channel and the sceneadaptive correction method among multi-TDICCD. Then, the correction algorithm is designed. Finally, analyzing the FPGA ability for fix-point processing, the correction algorithm is optimized, and implemented on FPGA. Testing results indicate that the non-uniformity can be decreased from 8.27% to 0.51% for three TDICCDs camera's images with the proposed correction algorithm, proving that this correction algorithm is with high real-time performance, great engineering realization and satisfaction for the system requirements.

  17. School Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…

  18. Manual on School Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    In response to growing levels of violence in American schools, many communities are deciding to adopt school-uniform policies as part of an overall program to improve school safety and discipline. This document provides the following guidelines for parents, teachers, and school leaders who may consider adopting a school-uniform policy: (1) Get…

  19. Uniform magnesium oxide adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, J. G.; Ecke, R.; Stoltenberg, J.; Vilches, O. E.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Kr adsorption on MgO is used to characterize the surface uniformity of MgO smoke and thermally decomposed Mg(OH)2. It is found that initially heterogeneous samples develop progressively sharper stepwise isotherms with increasingly-high-temperature heat treatment, apparently due to the removal of imperfections and high-energy facets, leaving surfaces of highly uniform (100) planes.

  20. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  1. Development of a phantom and assessment of (141)Ce as a surrogate radionuclide for flood field uniformity testing of gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Malpani, Basant; Rakshit, Sutapa; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an indigenous method for development and deployment of rechargeable liquid filled phantom with newly proposed radionuclide (141)Ce for determination of extrinsic uniformity of gamma cameras. Details about design of phantom, neutron irradiation of cerium targets, chemical processing of (141)Ce, charging of phantom with (141)Ce solution and their performance evaluation are presented. Suitability of (141)Ce in quality assurance of gamma cameras used in in-vivo diagnostic imaging procedures has been amply demonstrated. PMID:27031297

  2. Random lasing with spatially nonuniform gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ting; Lü, Jiantao

    2016-07-01

    Spatial and spectral properties of random lasing with spatially nonuniform gain were investigated in two-dimensional (2D) disordered medium. The pumping light was described by an individual electric field and coupled into the rate equations by using the polarization equation. The spatially nonuniform gain comes from the multiple scattering of this pumping light. Numerical simulation of the random system with uniform and nonuniform gain were performed both in weak and strong scattering regime. In weak scattering sample, all the lasing modes correspond to those of the passive system whether the nonuniform gain is considered. However, in strong scattering regime, new lasing modes appear with nonuniform gain as the localization area changes. Our results show that it is more accurate to describe the random lasing behavior with introducing the nonuniform gain origins from the multiple light scattering.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coefficient calculation. 3.9 Test procedures for Frost Accumulation heating mode tests (the H2, H22, H2V, and... during cyclic tests and frost accumulation tests, if needed, to produce stabilized room air temperatures... system (see Definition 1.42), the manufacturer must specify the frosting interval to be used during...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... control system. Therefore, pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27, a waiver must be obtained to establish an acceptable...) before washing. The energy test cloth shall be clean and shall not be used for more than 60 test runs...) before washing. The energy stuffer cloth shall be clean and shall not be used for more than 60 test...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lower of the two whole numbers. (b) The test apparatus and instruction for testing pin-based fluorescent... fluorescent lamps packaged with ceiling fan light kits that have medium screw base sockets, measure the..., “CFL Requirements for Testing,” of the “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Compact Fluorescent...

  6. Radially uniform electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'

  7. Uniform random number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  8. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

  9. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply test pressure... no greater than one percent. Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled” natural gas of... actual higher heating value of the bottled natural gas has been determined with an error no greater...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heater with a normal inlet test pressure immediately ahead of all controls at 7 to 10 inches of water.... Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled” natural gas of a higher heating value within ±5 percent of 1,025 Btu's per standard cubic foot as long as the actual higher heating value of the...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix J2 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... clothes washer with an adaptive control system. A waiver must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27 to... cm by 86.4 ±1.3 cm) before washing. The energy test cloth shall be clean and shall not be used for... energy stuffer cloth shall be clean and shall not be used for more than 60 test runs...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR 429.14, and the...-freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure... refer to 10 CFR 430.27....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heating, refrigeration system waste heat, or heat from any other source, but excluding the transfer of air... sensors shall be noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR... waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure for each such product....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat (including resistive electric heating, refrigeration system waste heat, or heat from any other... noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR 429.14, and the... waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure for each such product....

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR 429.14, and the...-freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure... refer to 10 CFR 430.27....

  16. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27, a waiver must be obtained to establish an acceptable test procedure... 34 inches (55.9 cm by 86.4 cm) before washing. The energy test cloth shall be clean and shall not be.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting...

  17. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  18. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ahead of all controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply..., with an error no greater than one percent. Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled... the actual higher heating value of the bottled natural gas has been determined with an error...

  19. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... it is produced in its final chemical form. Foam produced inside of a panel (“foam-in-place”) must be... shall be tested after it is produced in its final chemical form. Foam produced inside of a panel (“foam... set forth in AHRI 1250 and recording the annual energy consumption term in the equation for...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for Testing” of DOE's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for CFLs,” Version 3.0, (Incorporated by... Products” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Light Fixtures,” Version 4.0..., “CFL Requirements for Testing,” of the “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Compact Fluorescent...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for Testing” of DOE's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for CFLs,” Version 3.0, (Incorporated by... Products” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Light Fixtures,” Version 4.0..., “CFL Requirements for Testing,” of the “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Compact Fluorescent...

  2. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage...

  3. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... control system. Therefore, pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27, a waiver must be obtained to establish an acceptable... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by... CFR 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure for that clothes washer. For these and...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heat (including resistive electric heating, refrigeration system waste heat, or heat from any other... waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an acceptable test procedure for each such product. Such... the criteria and procedures for obtaining a waiver, please refer to 10 CFR 430.27. Effective Date...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heat (including resistive electric heating, refrigeration system waste heat, or heat from any other... sensors shall be noted in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR... refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in the test data records maintained by the manufacturer in accordance with 10 CFR 429.14, and the... refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, a manufacturer must obtain a waiver under 10 CFR 430.27 to establish an... waiver, please refer to 10 CFR 430.27....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with an adaptive control system. Therefore, pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27, a waiver must be obtained to... cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and consist of the following: 2.6.1.1Pure finished bleached... adaptive control systems, must submit a petition for waiver pursuant to 10 CFR 430.27 to establish...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix O to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Vented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... condition. 1.9“Flue gases” means reaction products resulting from the combustion of a fuel with the oxygen... over. Maintain the average draft over the fire and in the flue during the steady-state performance test... the thermocouples could receive direct radiation from the fire, install radiation shields on the...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix O to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Vented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... products resulting from the combustion of a fuel with the oxygen of the air, including the inerts and any... over. Maintain the average draft over the fire and in the flue during the steady-state performance test... the thermocouples could receive direct radiation from the fire, install radiation shields on the...

  11. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on a multifactor test design to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; Lerman, A.; Ditmars, J.D.; Macdonald, D.D.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Was, G.S.; Harrison, W.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents Argonne National Laboratory's review of an internal technical memorandum prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) entitled Multifactor Test Design to Investigate Uniform Corrosion of Low-Carbon Steel in a Nuclear Waste Salt Repository Environment. The several major areas of concern identified by peer review panelists are important to the credibility of the test design proposed in the memorandum and are to adequately addressed there. These areas of concern, along with specific recommendations to improve their treatment, are discussed in detail in Sec. 2 of this report. The twenty recommendations, which were abstracted from those discussions, are presented essentially in the order in which they are introduced in Sec. 2.

  12. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  13. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

  14. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  15. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  16. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  17. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  18. Health gain versus equity.

    PubMed

    Scott-Samuel, A

    1992-05-01

    A new organisation, the Association for Public Health, has just been formed 'to help deliver real health gain for the population'. Alex Scott-Samuel suggests that the concept of 'health gain' is counter to health equality and needs wider debate. PMID:1624317

  19. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  20. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  1. Uniform quantized electron gas.

    PubMed

    Høye, Johan S; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-19

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies. PMID:27546166

  2. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  3. Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…

  4. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  5. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  6. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  7. Evaluating uniformity of IR reference sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Catherine; Violleau, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Infrared reference sources such as blackbodies are used to calibrate and test IR sensors and cameras.. Applications requiring a high thermal uniformity over the emissive surface become more and more frequent compared to the past applications. Among these applications are non uniformity correction of infrared cameras focused at short distance and simultaneous calibration of a set of sensor facing a large area blackbody. Facing these demanding applications requires to accurately measuring thee thermal radiation of each point of the emissive surface of the reference source. The use of an infrared camera for this purpose turns out to be absolutely inefficient since the uniformity off response of this camera is usually worse than the uniformity of thee source to bee measured. Consequently, HGH has developed a testing bench for accurate measurement of uniformity of infrared sources based on a low noise radiometer mounted of translating stages and using an exclusive drift correction method. This bench delivers a reliable thermal map of any kind of infrared reference source.

  8. A Preliminary Study of the Relevance of a Standardized Test for Measuring Achievement Gains in Innovative Arithmetic Programs. Project LONGSTEP Final Report. Volume II. Appendix Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Bruce E.

    The general emphasis of Project LONGSTEP was on the identification of changes in student achievement that occur as a result of exposure to intensive educational innovation. During the course of the project, questions were raised concerning (1) the relevance of the standardized achievement test utilized in the project to the stated objectives of…

  9. Testing Map Features Designed to Convey the Uncertainty of Cancer Risk: Insights Gained From Assessing Judgments of Information Adequacy and Communication Goals

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to communicating the uncertainty of environmental health risks include preferences for certain information and low numeracy. Map features designed to communicate the magnitude and uncertainty of estimated cancer risk from air pollution were tested among 826 participants to assess how map features influenced judgments of adequacy and the intended communication goals. An uncertain versus certain visual feature was judged as less adequate but met both communication goals and addressed numeracy barriers. Expressing relative risk using words communicated uncertainty and addressed numeracy barriers but was judged as highly inadequate. Risk communication and visual cognition concepts were applied to explain findings. PMID:26412960

  10. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  11. The Implementation of non-uniformity correction in multi-TDICCD imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofang; Cheng, Yun; Han, Zhixue; Wang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Abstract—a non-uniformity correction algorithm is proposed and implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware platform to solve a problem of pixel response non-uniformity(PRNU) for multiple Time Delay and Integration Charge Couple Device(TDICCD) camera. The non-uniformity is introduced and a synthetical correction algorithm is presented, in which the two-point correction method is applied to a single channel, gain averaging correction method among multi-channel and scene-adaptive correction method among multiple-TDICCD. Then, the correction algorithm is generated. Finally, the FPGA ability for fix-point processing is analyzed; the correction algorithm is optimized, and implemented on FPGA. Testing results indicate that the non-uniformity can be decreased from 8.27% to 0.51% for three TDICCDs camera's images with this proposed correction algorithm, proving that this correction algorithm is with high real-time performance, great engineering realization and satisfaction for the system requirements.

  12. Research of improved sparse grid non-uniformity correction technologies for infrared resistor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hui-jie; Zhao, Hong-ming; Gao, Yang; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.

  13. School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…

  14. Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2008-01-01

    We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically…

  15. Simulation of Time-Dependent Energy Modulation by Wake Fields and its Impact on Gain in the VUV free Electron Laser of the TESLA Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, S.; Schlarb, H.

    2000-05-01

    For shorter bunches and narrower undulator gaps the interaction between the electrons in the bunch and the wake fields becomes so large that the FEL amplification is affected. For a typical vacuum chamber of an X-ray or VUV Free Electron Laser three major sources of wake fields exist: a resistance of the beam pipe, a change in the geometric aperture and the surface roughness of the beam pipe. The generated wake fields, which move along with the electrons, change the electron energy and momentum, depending on the electron longitudinal and transverse position. In particular, the accumulated energy modulation shifts the electrons away from the resonance condition. Based on an analytic model the energy loss by the wake fields has been incorporated into the time-dependent FEL simulation code GENESIS 1.3. For the parameters of the TESLA Test Facility the influence of the bunch length, beam pipe diameter and surface roughness has been studied. The results are presented in this paper.

  16. WFC3 SMOV Proposal 11419: UVIS Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, S.; Borders, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the gain results obtained from the SMOV UVIS Detector Functional program, proposal #11419. Based on internal calibration flatfields, the gain at the nominal 1.5 setting was measured at 1.61, 1.61, 1.63, and 1.62 e-/DN, with errors <0.01 e- /DN, for quadrants A, B, C, and D, respectively. These values are ~3% higher than those measured in ground test images and to date have been stable on-orbit: a preliminary mea- surement of the recent Cycle 17 gain data (proposal 11906, PI Pavlovsky) yielded gains within 1% or better of the SMOV values. The off-nominal gain settings are restricted parameters and unavailable for general use, however, the SMOV proposal obtained data to check these settings on-orbit relative to the nominal 1.5 setting. The values for the off-nominal gains were measured at 1.04, 1.02, 1.04, 1.04 e-/DN and at 2.17, 2.12, 2.17, 2.16 e-/DN for the gain 1.0 and gain 2.0 settings. The exposure times for the gain 4.0 images were erroneously set too low to allow a determination of that setting; the observations were not repeated.

  17. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  18. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  19. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  20. Logical optimization for database uniformization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J.

    1984-01-01

    Data base uniformization refers to the building of a common user interface facility to support uniform access to any or all of a collection of distributed heterogeneous data bases. Such a system should enable a user, situated anywhere along a set of distributed data bases, to access all of the information in the data bases without having to learn the various data manipulation languages. Furthermore, such a system should leave intact the component data bases, and in particular, their already existing software. A survey of various aspects of the data bases uniformization problem and a proposed solution are presented.

  1. Uniform acceleration in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's (Gen Relativ Gravit 47:33, 2015) defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  2. Content uniformity and assay requirements in current regulations.

    PubMed

    Bánfai, Balázs; Ganzler, Katalin; Kemény, Sándor

    2007-07-13

    The acceptance of a tablet batch is based both on the content uniformity test and on the assay. It is shown that these two characteristics are not independent, and the acceptance criteria for them are not even consistent. For content uniformity range three methods of calculation are compared: the present European Pharmacopoeia method, a tolerance range method with improved k tolerance factor and a one-way random effects analysis of variance model. To resolve the inconsistency several options are discussed: applying the holistic content uniformity range alone; using content uniformity standard deviation and assay mean simultaneously or applying a criterion based on Taguchi's quadratic loss function. PMID:17109871

  3. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  4. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  5. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  6. Image coding with uniform and piecewise-uniform vector quantizers.

    PubMed

    Jeong, D G; Gibson, J D

    1995-01-01

    New lattice vector quantizer design procedures for nonuniform sources that yield excellent performance while retaining the structure required for fast quantization are described. Analytical methods for truncating and scaling lattices to be used in vector quantization are given, and an analytical technique for piecewise-linear multidimensional companding is presented. The uniform and piecewise-uniform lattice vector quantizers are then used to quantize the discrete cosine transform coefficients of images, and their objective and subjective performance and complexity are contrasted with other lattice vector quantizers and with LBG training-mode designs. PMID:18289966

  7. Ribbon Fiber with Multiple Antiguided Phase-Locked Gain Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R J; Feit, M D; Mitchell, S C; Cutter, K P; Dawson, J W; Payne, S A

    2002-11-20

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of a scalable fiber laser approach based on phase-locking multiple gain cores in an antiguided structure. A novel fabrication technology is used with soft glass components to construct the multiple core fiber used in our experiments. The waveguide region is rectangular in shape and comprised of a periodic sequence of gain and no-gain segments having nearly uniform refractive index. The rectangular waveguide is itself embedded in a lower refractive index cladding region. Experimental results confirm that our five-core Nd doped glass prototype structure runs predominantly in two spatial antiguided modes as predicted by our modeling.

  8. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  9. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  10. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement, (b) gains in…

  11. Experience Matters: Information Acquisition Optimizes Probability Gain

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan D.; McKenzie, Craig R.M.; Cottrell, Garrison W.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Deciding which piece of information to acquire or attend to is fundamental to perception, categorization, medical diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information—information gain, Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact—are equally consistent with extant data on human information acquisition. Three experiments, designed via computer optimization to be maximally informative, tested which of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experience-based learning to convey environmental probabilities, found that probability gain explained subjects’ information search better than the other statistical theories or the probability-of-certainty heuristic. Experiments 1 and 2 found that subjects behaved differently when the standard method of verbally presented summary statistics (rather than experience-based learning) was used to convey environmental probabilities. Experiment 3 found that subjects’ preference for probability gain is robust, suggesting that the other models contribute little to subjects’ search behavior. PMID:20525915

  12. Experience matters: information acquisition optimizes probability gain.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan D; McKenzie, Craig R M; Cottrell, Garrison W; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-07-01

    Deciding which piece of information to acquire or attend to is fundamental to perception, categorization, medical diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information-information gain, Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact-are equally consistent with extant data on human information acquisition. Three experiments, designed via computer optimization to be maximally informative, tested which of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experience-based learning to convey environmental probabilities, found that probability gain explained subjects' information search better than the other statistical theories or the probability-of-certainty heuristic. Experiments 1 and 2 found that subjects behaved differently when the standard method of verbally presented summary statistics (rather than experience-based learning) was used to convey environmental probabilities. Experiment 3 found that subjects' preference for probability gain is robust, suggesting that the other models contribute little to subjects' search behavior. PMID:20525915

  13. Cochlear gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel

    2005-03-01

    The nonlinear auditory phenomena of compression, suppression, and distortion are known to have a cochlear-mechanical origin. An instantaneous nonlinear transfer function is often assumed to underlie these phenomena, but there are experimental indications that auditory nonlinearity is sluggish rather than instantaneous. This study analyzes the consequences of such sluggishness, using automatic gain control (AGC) as a model noninstantaneous nonlinearity. The distinctive characteristic of AGC, its delayed action, is shown to produce a number of observable and measurable effects that distinguish AGC from instantaneous nonlinearities. A major class of such AGC-specific effects concerns the phase of aural distortion products. For example, the phase of the cancellation tone in the classical psychoacoustic cancellation paradigm is linearly related to the frequency spacing of the primary tones in an AGC, as opposed to the square-law relationship produced by an instantaneous nonlinearity. These and other predictions are confronted with experimental data from the literature. The impact of putative AGC-related delays on the interpretation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) is discussed. Detailed suggestions are made for experiments specifically aimed at determining whether cochlear nonlinearity is instantaneous or delayed. .

  14. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  15. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  16. Optimized Direct-Drive Uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Kessler, T. J.; Forties, R.; Kelly, J. A.; Waxer, L. J.

    2002-11-01

    The means of optimizing direct-drive illumination uniformity in laser fusion implosions will be discussed. To provide the most-uniform drive, the target must be illuminated by smooth single beams, symmetrically placed on target, with the optimum beam shape. On the 60-beam OMEGA laser system these near-optimum, direct-drive illumination conditions have been achieved by smoothing each beam with 1-THz smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), which incorporates distributed phase plates (DPP's) and polarization smoothing (PS), and by the modified soccer-ball orientation of the beams. The current beam smoothing provides for unprecedented levels of direct-drive uniformity, approaching σ_rms ˜ 2% up to ℓ = 200 after ˜300 ps. The sensitivity of the illumination to beam shape has been studied, and a new set of DPP's have been designed and are being built to further optimize the uniformity on OMEGA. Also, the sensitivity of the drive to beam balance, beam pointing, and target positioning has been studied both by calculation and by performing target implosions allowing quantitative limits to be placed on all contributors. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  17. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  18. Fluid mixing technique increases the gain and output power of carbon dioxide laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cool, T. A.

    1970-01-01

    High speed flowing gas system provides uniform mixing in short times compared to flow transit times and carbon dioxide vibrational relaxation times. This system minimizes the effects of surrounding surfaces and provides a uniformly high gain that is independent of dimensions transverse to the flow direction.

  19. Method for uniformly bending conduits

    DOEpatents

    Dekanich, S.J.

    1984-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

  20. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  1. Small Arms: Treated Uniforms for Personal Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permethrin-treatment of field-worn U.S. Military uniforms has been standard practice since 1991. The uniform fabric composition has changed significantly from 100% cotton to 50:50 nylon:cotton Battle Dress Uniforms (BDUs), to 50:50 nylon:cotton Army Combat Uniforms (ACUs) with wrinkle-free finish, a...

  2. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  3. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  4. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  5. Natural frequency of uniform and optimized tetrahedral truss platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Lake, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative estimates for the fundamental frequency of uniform and optimized tetrahedral truss platforms are determined. A semiempirical equation is developed for the frequency of free-free uniform trusses as a function of member material properties, truss dimensions, and parasitic (nonstructural) mass fraction Mp/Mt. Optimized trusses with frequencies approximately two times those of uniform trusses are determined by varying the cross-sectional areas of member groups. Trusses with 3 to 8 rings, no parasitic mass, and member areas up to 25 times the minimum area are optimized. Frequencies computed for ranges of both Mp/Mt and the ratio of maximum area to minimum area are normalized to the frequency of a uniform truss with no parasitic mass. The normalized frequency increases with the number of rings, and both frequency and the ratio of maximum area to minimum area decrease with increasing Mp/Mt. Frequency improvements that are achievable with a limited number of member areas are estimated for a 3-ring truss by using Taguchi methods. Joint stiffness knockdown effects are also considered. Comparison of optimized and baseline uniform truss frequencies indicates that tailoring can significantly increase structural frequency; maximum gains occur for trusses with low values of Mp/Mt. This study examines frequency trends for ranges of structural parameters and may be used as a preliminary design guide.

  6. Supernova remnant evolution in uniform and non-uniform media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, S. E. S.; de Jager, O. C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:In this work numerical simulations showing the time evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) in uniform and non-uniform interstellar medium (ISM) are presented. Methods: We use a hydrodynamic model including a kinematic calculation of the interstellar magnetic field. Important parameters influencing SNR evolution include the ejecta mass and energy of the remnant, as well as the ISM density and adiabatic index. Results: By varying these parameters we constructed an analytical expression giving the return time of the SNR reverse shock to the origin, in terms of these parameters. We also found that the reverse shock spends half of its time moving outward and the other half returning to the origin. Also computed is SNR evolution in non-uniform media where the blast wave moves from one medium into either a less or more dense medium. As the SNR moves into a medium of higher density a reflection wave is created at the interface between the two media which is driven back toward the center. This drives mass via a nonspherical flow away from the discontinuity. As this wave moves inward it also drags some of the ISM field lines (if the field is parallel with the interface) with it and heats the inside of the SNR resulting in larger temperatures in this region. When a SNR explodes in a medium with a high density and the blast wave propagates into a medium with a lower density, a cavity is being blown away changing the geometry of the high density region. Also, once the forward shock moves into the medium of less density a second reverse shock will start to evolve in this region.

  7. Gain-assisted transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hao, Jiaming; Tang, Xiaohong; Zouhdi, Said

    2011-04-25

    Loss severely degrades the cloaking effect of the device designed by traditional transformation. In this letter, we propose gain-assisted transformation optics to overcome the loss problem by introducing gain media into a spherical cloak. The gain media, which can amplify the electromagnetic fields, is controlled precisely to compensate the inherent loss in experimental realization of cloaks. We discuss the significance of controlling embedded gain materials in the context of the inverse design mechanism, which allows us to wisely select realizable materials with constant gain and loss along the radius. For practical realizations, isotropic spherical gain-assisted cloak is designed. Full-wave simulations validate the proposed design concept, which can be utilized to alleviate the inevitable loss problem in transformational optical devices. PMID:21643112

  8. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, E.

    1988-09-28

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Erik

    1988-09-01

    A 1985 to 1986 Review of the U.S. inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (approximately 1 to 10 percent of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (approximately 10 percent, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an approximately 100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (approximately 1 percent), and can control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that DOE is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade.

  10. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  11. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-08-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16234878

  12. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  13. User preference and reliability of bilateral hearing aid gain adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Mueller, H Gustav

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consistency and reliability of user adjustments to hearing aid gain and the resulting effects on speech understanding. Sixteen bilaterally aided individuals with hearing loss adjusted their hearing aid gain to optimize listening comfort and speech clarity while listening to speech in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Following these adjustments, participants readjusted their aids to optimize clarity and comfort while listening to speech in quiet. These final gain settings were recorded and compared to those provided by NAL-NL1 prescriptive targets. In addition, speech understanding was tested with the hearing aids set at target and user gain settings. Performance differences between the gain settings were then assessed. Study results revealed that although some listeners preferred more or less gain than prescribed, on average, user and prescribed gain settings were similar in both ears. Some individuals, however, made gain adjustments between ears resulting in "gain mismatches." These "mismatches" were often inconsistent across trials suggesting that these adjustments were unreliable. Speech testing results, however, showed no significant difference across the different gain settings suggesting that the gain deviations introduced in this study were not large enough to significantly affect speech understanding. PMID:18669129

  14. Intelligibility of time-compressed speech: the effect of uniform versus non-uniform time-compression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Anne; Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2014-03-01

    For assessing hearing aid algorithms, a method is sought to shift the threshold of a speech-in-noise test to (mostly positive) signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) that allow discrimination across algorithmic settings and are most relevant for hearing-impaired listeners in daily life. Hence, time-compressed speech with higher speech rates was evaluated to parametrically increase the difficulty of the test while preserving most of the relevant acoustical speech cues. A uniform and a non-uniform algorithm were used to compress the sentences of the German Oldenburg Sentence Test at different speech rates. In comparison, the non-uniform algorithm exhibited greater deviations from the targeted time compression, as well as greater changes of the phoneme duration, spectra, and modulation spectra. Speech intelligibility for fast Oldenburg sentences in background noise at different SNRs was determined with 48 normal-hearing listeners. The results confirmed decreasing intelligibility with increasing speech rate. Speech had to be compressed to more than 30% of its original length to reach 50% intelligibility at positive SNRs. Characteristics influencing the discrimination ability of the test for assessing effective SNR changes were investigated. Subjective and objective measures indicated a clear advantage of the uniform algorithm in comparison to the non-uniform algorithm for the application in speech-in-noise tests. PMID:24606289

  15. The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

    2000-01-01

    Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is: . The code instructs the browser to suppress the content of the refresh page and bring up the title page of the cited article instead. Citations would be succinct and predictable. An electronic journal would not need to alter its existing file hierarchy but would need to establish a distinct domain name and maintain a file of refresh pages. Utilization of the “shadow” URL would bring us one step closer to truly universal resource locators. PMID:10730598

  16. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  17. Fabrication of a thin silicon detector with excellent thickness uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, E.; Eronen, T.; Nenonen, S.; Andersson, H.; Miikkulainen, K.; Eränen, S.; Ronkainen, H.; Mäkinen, J.; Husu, H.; Lassila, A.; Punkkinen, R.; Hirvonen, M.

    2016-02-01

    We have fabricated and tested a thin silicon detector with the specific goal of having a very good thickness uniformity. SOI technology was used in the detector fabrication. The detector was designed to be used as a ΔE detector in a silicon telescope for measuring solar energetic particles in space. The detector thickness was specified to be 20 μm with an rms thickness uniformity of±0.5%. The active area consists of three separate elements, a round centre area and two surrounding annular segments. A new method was developed for measuring the thickness uniformity based on a modified Fizeau interferometer. The thickness uniformity specification was well met with the measured rms thickness variation of 43 nm. The detector was electrically characterized by measuring the I- V and C- V curves and the performance was verified using a 241Am alpha source.

  18. Reliability of Raw Gain, Residual Gain, and Estimated True Gain Scores: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachor, Robert E.; Cizek, Gregory J.

    The gain, or difference, score is defined as the difference between the posttest score and the pretest score for an individual. Gain scores appear to be a natural measure of growth for education and the social sciences, but they contain two sources of measurement error, error in either the pretest or posttest scores, and cannot be considered…

  19. An analysis of item gains and losses in retroactive interference.

    PubMed

    Burns, D J; Gold, D E

    1999-07-01

    The repeated-testing paradigm is used to study both retroactive interference and hypermnesia (the improvement in memory across repeated tests). Considerable theoretical progress has been made by separately analyzing the 2 components of hypermnesia: the recovery of previously unrecalled items on later tests (item gains) and the forgetting of previously recalled items on later tests (item losses). Item gains increase with increases in item-specific processing, whereas item losses decrease with increases in relational processing. The authors suggest that separate analysis of item gains and losses in retroactive interference research may also prove fruitful. Three experiments showed that an interpolated list affects item gains but not losses, whereas processing similarity between the target and interpolated lists affects losses but not gains. These results are interpreted within the relational-item-specific processing framework. PMID:10439504

  20. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  1. Attitudes of Parents about School Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Charles K.; Tidwell, Diane K.; Bomba, Anne K.; Elmore, Patsy Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Responses from 144 parents of fourth graders showed that 56% favored uniforms in public schools; most agreed that uniforms contributed to a conducive learning environment, promoted school spirit, and discouraged violence; and most disagreed that uniforms cost more than other types of clothing. (SK)

  2. 15 CFR 400.43 - Uniform treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform treatment. 400.43 Section 400... Zones and Administrative Requirements § 400.43 Uniform treatment. Pursuant to Section 14 of the FTZ Act... uniform treatment under like conditions. Treatment of zone participants within a zone...

  3. 15 CFR 400.43 - Uniform treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform treatment. 400.43 Section 400... Zones and Administrative Requirements § 400.43 Uniform treatment. Pursuant to Section 14 of the FTZ Act... uniform treatment under like conditions. Treatment of zone participants within a zone...

  4. Ejector Enhanced Pulsejet Based Pressure Gain Combustors: An Old Idea With a New Twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of pressure-gain combustion for gas turbine application is described. The test article consists of an off-the-shelf valved pulsejet, and an optimized ejector, both housed within a shroud. The combination forms an effective can combustor across which there is a modest total pressure rise rather than the usual loss found in conventional combustors. Although the concept of using a pulsejet to affect semi-constant volume (i.e., pressure-gain) combustion is not new, that of combining it with a well designed ejector to efficiently mix the bypass flow is. The result is a device which to date has demonstrated an overall pressure rise of approximately 3.5 percent at an overall temperature ratio commensurate with modern gas turbines. This pressure ratio is substantially higher than what has been previously reported in pulsejet-based combustion experiments. Flow non-uniformities in the downstream portion of the device are also shown to be substantially reduced compared to those within the pulsejet itself. The standard deviation of total pressure fluctuations, measured just downstream of the ejector was only 5.0 percent of the mean. This smoothing aspect of the device is critical to turbomachinery applications since turbine performance is, in general, negatively affected by flow non-uniformities and unsteadiness. The experimental rig will be described and details of the performance measurements will be presented. Analyses showing the thermodynamic benefits from this level of pressure-gain performance in a gas turbine will also be assessed for several engine types. Issues regarding practical development of such a device are discussed, as are potential emissions reductions resulting from the rich burning nature of the pulsejet and the rapid mixing (quenching) associated with unsteady ejectors.

  5. Gaining approval for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Vanessa; Srinivasan, Neil; Lambiase, Pier

    2016-07-01

    Set-up and delivery of a clinical research project can be complicated and difficult. This article introduces the regulatory processes involved in gaining approval for clinical research and discusses the obstacles that may be encountered. PMID:27388381

  6. Modal Analysis and Gain Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Interactive program yields eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and gains for feedback-control systems. Interactive Modal Analysis and Gain Estimation System (IMAGES) provides eigensystem synthesis capability to control-system engineer. IMAGES modular and flexible. Capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. IMAGES user-oriented, interactive program that frees engineer to concentrate on eigensystem synthesis. Engineer provided with scratch-pad capability that speeds control-system design.

  7. Designing divertor targets for uniform power load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2015-08-01

    Divertor design for next step fusion reactors heavily relies on 2D edge plasma modeling with codes as e.g. B2-EIRENE. While these codes are typically used in a design-by-analysis approach, in previous work we have shown that divertor design can alternatively be posed as a mathematical optimization problem, and solved very efficiently using adjoint methods adapted from computational aerodynamics. This approach has been applied successfully to divertor target shape design for more uniform power load. In this paper, the concept is further extended to include all contributions to the target power load, with particular focus on radiation. In a simplified test problem, we show the potential benefits of fully including the radiation load in the design cycle as compared to only assessing this load in a post-processing step.

  8. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  9. Measurement of image plane illumination uniformity of photoelectric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Deng-kui; Yang, Hong; Sha, Ding-guo; Jiang, Chang-lu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Xing-hui; Ma, Shi-bang; Yuan, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The image plane illumination nonuniformity caused by optical system or detector will affect the detection precision of photoelectric imaging system, especially in image guidance, positioning and recognition. An image plane illumination uniformity measurement device was set up, which was characteristiced of high uniformity and wide dynamic range. The device was composed of an asymmetric integrating sphere,the image collection and processing system, as well as the electrical control system.The asymmetric integrating sphere had two different radius,which was respectively 800mm and 1000mm.The spectral region was (0.4~1.1)μm, the illumination range was (1×10-4~2×104)lx. The image collection and processing system had two different acquisition card,which were respectively used for analog and digital signals. The software can process for dynamic image or static image. The TracePro software was used to make a internal ray tracing of integrating sphere, the illumination uniformity at the export was simulated for the size of 330mm×230mm and Φ 100mm export, the results were respectively 97.95% and 98.33%. Then,an illuminometer was used to measure the actual illumination uniformity of integrating sphere, the result was shown the actual illumination uniformity was 98.8%. Finally, a visible photoelectric imaging system was tested ,and three different uniformity indicators results were given.

  10. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  11. Nano-engineered ultra-high-gain microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, D. R.; Gorelikov, D.; de Rouffignac, P.; Saadatmand, K.; Stenton, K.; Sullivan, N.; Tremsin, A. S.

    2009-08-01

    Highly localized and very fast electron amplification of microchannel plates (MCPs) enables a large number of high-resolution and high-sensitivity detection technologies, which provide spatial and/or temporal information for each detected photon/electron/ion/neutron. Although there has been significant progress in photocathode and readout technologies the MCPs themselves have not evolved much from the technology developed several decades ago. Substantial increases in the gain of existing MCP technology have been accomplished by utilizing state-of-the-art processes developed for nano-engineered structures. The gain of treated MCPs with aspect ratio of 40:1 is reproducibly measured to reach unprecedented values of 2×10 5. This gain enhancement is shown to be stable during MCP operation. In addition, the initial experiments indicate improved stability of gain as a function of extracted charge and MCP storage conditions. We also present results from a fully independent thin-film process for manufacturing non-lead glass MCPs using engineered thin films for both the resistive and emissive layers. These substrate-independent MCPs show high gain, less gain degradation with extracted charge, and greater pore-to-pore and plate-to-plate uniformity than has been possible with conventional lead glass structures.

  12. Christiansen Revisited: Rethinking Quantification of Uniformity in Rainfall Simulator Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    patterns are consistent between experimental runs. Inclusion of these factors would allow a more descriptive and detailed understanding of uniformity but they are seldom included in analyses. Therefore, researchers must challenge whether their sampling methodologies provide a realistic representation uniformity across the entire plot surface. This paper will discuss the issues with relying on a single percentage value to represent uniformity across a surface plot underneath rainfall simulators and suggests that researchers should seek to utilise multiple methods to quantify and describe uniformity across a plot surface. These may include combining methods such as densograms and grid representations of descriptive statistics with uniformity coefficient values to create a more holistic understanding of uniformity. Additionally, this paper will present results from a series of spray nozzle rainfall simulator tests (positioned over a 9m2 plot surface) which were conducted to investigate the influence of sampling resolution on rainfall uniformity values. Alternative methods of expressing rainfall distribution will be presented, such as a grid representation of uniformity, generated by calculating the standard deviation from the mean volume of each individual measuring beaker, which is believed to provide a clear understanding of the spatial distribution of simulated precipitation and express areas which are under- and over-watered, when presented alongside other methods of uniformity quantification.

  13. Investigation of light output uniformity and performance using a UV transmitting glass optic for a multi-UV LED array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasenak, Brian; Willsey, Rachel; Willsey, Adam; Forish, James

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) adoption is accelerating; they are being used in new applications such as UV curing, germicidal irradiation, nondestructive testing, and forensic analysis. In many of these applications, it is critically important to produce a uniform light distribution and consistent surface irradiance. Flat panes of fused quartz, silica, or glass are commonly used to cover and protect multi-UV LED arrays. However, they don't offer the advantages of an optical lens design. An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a secondary glass optic on the uniformity of the light distribution and irradiance. Glass optics capable of transmitting UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C wavelengths can improve light distribution and intensity. In this study, a UV transmitting glass formulation and secondary linear optic were designed and manufactured to demonstrate their effects on achievable irradiance intensity and uniformity. Prismatic patterning on the light source surface of the lens was used to minimize reflection losses on the incident surface of the glass. Fresnel optics were molded into the opposite side of the UV transmitting glass to control the refraction of the light and to gain the desired light intensity distribution from two multi-UV LED arrays. A 20% increase in relative irradiance was observed while maintaining the same coverage area. This work discusses the optical design and the resulting benefits of controlled light output on UV LED systems, which include reduced driving current, decreased thermal deterioration, improved energy efficiency, and longer LED lifetime.

  14. BACKSCATTER GUAGE DESCRIPTION FOR INSPECTION OF NEUTRON ABSORBER AND UNIFORMITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Gibbs, K.; Couture, A.

    2012-05-23

    This paper describes design, calibration, and testing of a dual He-3 detector neutron backscatter gauge for use in the Savannah River Site Mixed Oxide Fuel project. The gauge is demonstrated to measure boron content and uniformity in concrete slabs used in the facility construction.

  15. High current gain transistor laser.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  16. High current gain transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  17. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  18. Analysis of Basis Weight Uniformity of Microfiber Nonwovens and Its Impact on Permeability and Filtration Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirnasr, Elham

    uniformity index of meltblown and spunbond samples was measured. Results for filtration test show some deviation between theoretical and experimental filtration efficiency by considering different types of fiber diameter. This deviation can occur due to variation in basis weight non-uniformity. So an appropriate theory is required to predict the variation of filtration efficiency with respect to non-uniformity of nonwoven filter media. And the results for air permeability test showed that uniformity index determined by quadrant method and measured properties have some relationship. In the other word, air permeability decreases as uniformity index on nonwoven web increase.

  19. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  20. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    PubMed

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse. PMID:10222879

  1. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others. PMID:20718526

  2. Yield gains in leafy vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield of all crops have increased during the past century through improved cultural practices and plant breeding. We reviewed gains in yield of lettuce and spinach in the U.S., principally California and Arizona. We proposed several genetic models for yield of lettuce based on the market type: whole...

  3. Mutual Gains Means Everyone Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bernard L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual gains negotiation is an innovative system that emphasizes interests instead of positions and problem solving instead of preconceived solutions. The process can reverse social disintegration, reverse worker alienation, and address a shifting educational environment. It can resolve difficult labor-management problems such as contracting out,…

  4. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  5. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  6. Transmission, reflection and localization of waves in one-dimensional amplifying media with nonlinear gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Phi; Kim, Kihong

    2014-06-01

    We study theoretically the influence of nonlinear gain effects on the transmission and the Anderson localization of waves in both uniform and random one-dimensional amplifying media by using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In uniform amplifying media with nonlinear gain, we find that the strong oscillatory behavior of the transmittance and the reflectance for odd and even values of the sample length disappears for large nonlinearities. The exponential decay rate of the transmittance in the asymptotic limit is found to be independent of nonlinear gain. In random amplifying media, we find that the maximum values of the disorder-averaged logarithmic transmittance and reflectance depend nonmonotonically on the strength of nonlinear gain. We also find that the localization length is independent of nonlinear gain. In other words, the Anderson localization is neither enhanced nor weakened due to nonlinear gain. In both the uniform and the random cases, the crossover length, which is the critical length for the amplification to be efficient, is strongly reduced by the nonlinear nature of the gain.

  7. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  8. Characterization of post-correction uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, John J.; Costanzo, Christopher R.; Kaplan, David R.

    1995-05-01

    With increased requirements for better performance being placed on thermal imaging systems, new characterization figures of merit are being developed to assess infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) attributes. Post correction uniformity (PCU) is a parameter that determines how successfully a thermal imaging system can eliminate spatial noise from scanning and staring focal plane arrays. Requirements on PCU, particularly for the more sensitive IRFPAs and applications, are quite rigorous. Test issues of l/f noise, drift, and repeatability become critical and require a rethinking of accepted methods. As infrared sensors have become more sensitive, the need to characterize these focal plane arrays under more controlled and realistic test conditions has emerged. The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic SEnsors Directorate (NVESD) has attempted to address these issues by developing a unique capability to measure the PCU of IR focal plane arrays using software algorithms and a specialized mechanical modulator. The modulator is a two foot diameter, two toothed (one reflective and one emissive) blade, which is used to facilitate the real-time collection of test, gain, and offset flux levels. This paper addresses (1) the significance of PCU from a system perspective, (2) discuss the limitations of various PCU measurement techniques, (3) present the NVESD approach for measuring PCU, and (4) report PCU data collected using these techniques.

  9. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  10. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  11. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  12. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  13. A School Uniform Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loesch, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    According to advocates, school uniforms reduce gang influence, decrease families' clothing expenditures, and help mitigate potentially divisive cultural and economic differences. Aiming to improve school climate, a California elementary school adopted uniforms as a source of pride and affiliation. This article describes the development of the…

  14. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and the…

  15. Uniform insulation applied-B ion diode

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, David B.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    An applied-B field extraction ion diode has uniform insulation over an anode surface for increased efficiency. When the uniform insulation is accomplished with anode coils, and a charge-exchange foil is properly placed, the ions may be focused at a point on the z axis.

  16. Uniformity, Diversity, and the "New Social Studies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Uses interpretations of educational historians to explain the uniformity that resulted from the New Social Studies (NSS) movement. Describes the origins of the NSS in two streams: the academic disciplines and citizenship education. Suggests that the uniformity and diversity of the profession is based on a central tendency that emphasizes…

  17. Radionic Non-Uniform Black Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, T.; Kanno, S.; Soda, J.

    Non-uniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a non-trivial hair of black strings. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using the catastrophe theory. The black strings are shown to be non-uniform.

  18. A uniform parametrization of moment tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl

    2015-09-01

    A moment tensor is a 3 × 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parametrization of the 5-D space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parametrization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parametrization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parametrization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favour double couples.

  19. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  20. Gain functionalization of silica microresonators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Vahala, K J

    2003-04-15

    Erbium-doped solgel films are applied to the surface of silica microspheres to create low-threshold microactivity lasers. This gain functionalization can be applied by use of a number of different dopants, thereby extending the wavelength range of this class of device. Also, by varying the doping concentration and thickness of the applied solgel layer, one can vary the laser dynamics so that both continuous-wave and pulsating modes of operation are possible. PMID:12703910

  1. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-09-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of filter cake increases linearly with filtration velocity. Residual pressure drop is almost constant, independent of upper pressure drop limit. The cake resistance at constant velocity fits to a second degree polynomial whereas it increases linearly with the velocity. A linear relation is reported here for all the cases. The resistance of filter cake decreases at higher upper pressure drop limit. PMID:24415803

  2. Study on the gain characteristic of dual MCP cascade system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jingjing; Zang, Yiqing; Li, Yang; Li, Ye

    2015-03-01

    The low gain of single micro-channel plate (MCP) detector system has a lot of restrictions. So the dual MCP system is widely applied in many fields. Many experiments showed the gain was proportional to initial electron energy in single MCP system. If we improve the initial energy that collide with the second MCP in dual MCP system, it may have beneficial influence on the system gain. In order to check these hypothesis, we use the "Secondary Electric Field Acceleration" cascade structure in experiments. The results show the correctness through the comparison test with conventional 'V' type cascade structure. In this paper, we describe the different between these two structure and discuss the influence factors in their system gain. It gives a reference in the cascade system that with high gain and it also takes a great significance on the weak-light-detection field.

  3. Threshold improvement and acoustic gain with hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Walden, B E; Kasten, R N

    1976-01-01

    Aided speech reception thresholds were obtained from 20 hearing-impaired listeners with three hearing aids adjusted to confort settings, and with the aids adjusted to deliver 40 dB of acoustic gain. The aided speech reception threshold under each condition was substracted from the unaided speech reception threshold to yield a measure of threshold improvement. Threshold improvement and acoustic gain comparisons revealed that, at comfort setting, these two measures were quite similar. However, at the 40-dB gain setting, acoustic gain exceeded threshold improvement by an average of 5.6 dB. For the high-gain condition, it appeared that the threshold improvement obtained by subjects with relatively good unaided sensitivity was limited by the ambient noise in the test chamber. PMID:938347

  4. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Robert Polizzi, Anthony

    2014-10-14

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  5. Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.

  6. High gain fusion in a Staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Paul; Rahman, Hafiz; Wessel, Frank; Presura, Radu

    2013-10-01

    The implosion of a Staged Z-pinch is simulated for the Sandia National Laboratories, ZR accelerator. The pinch is comprised of a silver (Ag) plasma shell, 3-mm outer radius, 0.01-cm thick, imploding onto a uniform fill (target) of deuterium-tritium (DT); the Z-R parameters are: 130 ns, 27 MA, 22 MJ; the 2-1/2 D, radiation-MHD code is MACH2. Magnetosonic shock waves generated during implosion propagate at different speeds in the liner and target, producing a shock front at the interface, and a conduction channel ahead of the liner. The interface remains stable even as the outer-surface of the liner is RT unstable. At peak compression target plasma hot spots trigger ignition with a fusion yield of 200 MJ and a net-energy gain approaching 10. The stability remains robust and the gain is unaffected for perturbations ranging from 2-5%.

  7. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-01

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers. PMID:17537359

  8. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  9. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  10. Detecting Sudden Gains during Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Cautions from a Monte Carlo Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden gains are relatively large, quick, stable drops in symptom scores during treatment of depression that may (or may not) signal important therapeutic events. We review what is known and unknown currently about the prevalence, causes, and outcomes of sudden gains. We argue that valid identification of sudden gains (vs. random fluctuations in symptoms and gradual gains) is prerequisite to their understanding. In Monte Carlo simulations, three popular criterion sets showed inadequate power to detect sudden gains and many false positives due to (a) testing multiple intervals for sudden gains, (b) finite retest reliability of symptom measures, and (c) failure to account for gradual gains. Sudden gains in published clinical datasets appear similar in form and frequency to false positives in the simulations. We discuss the need to develop psychometrically sound methods to detect sudden gains and to differentiate sudden from random and gradual gains. PMID:26478724

  11. INITIAL GAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A 800 NM SASE FEL, VISA.

    SciTech Connect

    FRIGOLA,P.; MUROKH,A.; ET AL; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; JOHNSON,E.; MALONE,R.

    2000-08-13

    The VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL is designed to obtain high gain at a radiation wavelength of 800nm. The FEL uses the high brightness electron beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), with energy of 72MeV. VISA uses a novel, 4 m long, strong focusing undulator with a gap of 6mm and a period of 1.8cm. To obtain large gain the beam and undulator axis have to be aligned to better than 50{micro}m. Results from initial measurements on the alignment, gain, and spectrum will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations and simulations.

  12. Initial Gain Measurements of a 800nm SASE FEL, VISA

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Roger

    2002-08-14

    The VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL is designed to obtain high gain at a radiation wavelength of 800nm. The FEL uses the high brightness electron beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), with energy of 72MeV. VISA uses a novel, 4 m long, strong focusing undulator with a gap of 6mm and a period of 1.8cm. To obtain large gain the beam and undulator axis have to be aligned to better than 50{micro}m. Results from initial measurements on the alignment, gain, and spectrum will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations and simulations.

  13. Initial Gain Measurements of a 800nmm SASE FEL, VISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, A.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Musumeci, P.; Pellegrini, C.

    2002-08-01

    The VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL is designed to obtain high gain at a radiation wavelength of 800nm. The FEL uses the high brightness electron beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), with energy of 72MeV. VISA uses a novel, 4 m long, strong focussing undulator with a gap of 6mm and a period of 1.8cm. To obtain large gain the beam and undulator axis have to be aligned to better than 50mm. Results from initial measurements on the alignment, gain, and spectrum will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations and simulations.

  14. Initial gain measurements of an 800 nm SASE FEL, VISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Musumeci, P.; Pellegrini, C.; Reiche, S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Tremaine, A.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Johnson, E.; Malone, R.; Rakowsky, G.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, X. J.; Van Bibber, K. A.; Bertolini, L.; Hill, J. M.; Le Sage, G. P.; Libkind, M.; Toor, A.; Carr, R.; Cornacchia, M.; Klaisner, L.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Ruland, R.; Nguyen, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    The Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) FEL is designed to obtain high gain at a radiation wavelength of 800 nm. The FEL uses the high brightness electron beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), with energy of 72 MeV. VISA uses a novel, 4 m long, strong focusing undulator with a gap of 6 mm and a period of 1.8 cm. To obtain large gain the beam and undulator axis have to be aligned to better than 5 μm. Results from initial measurements on the alignment, gain, and spectrum will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations and simulations.

  15. Electrode structure for uniform corona discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    Single corona-discharge needle is used to apply uniform charge to thermoplastic medium in holograph-storage system. Needle is connected to flat transparent electrode that is parallel to thermoplastic.

  16. Plasma uniformity of microwave ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tokiguichi, K.; Sakudo, N.; Suzuki, K.; Kanomata, I.

    1980-09-01

    The ion saturation current uniformities of two different type plasma sources, a coaxial and a Lisitano coil type, are investigated using a moveable Langmuir probe. They both operate under off-resonance microwave discharge. H/sub 2/ or Ar is used as the discharge gas. The coaxial source provides better uniformities for ion saturation current, electron temperature, and electon density than the Lisitano coil, independent of the discharge gas species. The ion saturation current with the coaxial source is uniform within approx.15% inside a 40-mm-diam circle for a 0.17 Pa H/sub 2/ discharge. However, with the Lisitano coil, uniformity is limited to a 20-mm-diam circle. Furthermore, the Lisitano coil easily suffers from heat distortion because of difficulties in realizing a cooled system. It is also experimentally confirmed that the coaxial-type source is more appropriate for obtaining high density plasma under continuous operation.

  17. Plasma uniformity of microwave ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokiguichi, K.; Sakudo, N.; Suzuki, K.; Kanomata, I.

    1980-10-01

    The ion saturation current uniformities of two different type plasma sources, a coaxial and a Lisitano coil type, are investigated using a moveable Langmuir probe. They both operate under off-resonance microwave discharge; H2 or Ar is used as the discharge gas. The coaxial source provides better uniformities for ion saturation current, electron temperature, and electron density than the Lisitano coil, independent of the discharge gas species. The ion saturation current with the coaxial source is uniform within about 15% inside a 40-mm-diam circle for a 0.17 Pa H2 discharge. However, with the Lisitano coil uniformity is limited to a 20-mm-diam circle and the coil is subject to heat distortion because of difficulties in realizing a cooled system

  18. 7 CFR 29.3563 - Uniformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... tobacco as it is prepared for market. Uniformity is expressed in grade specifications as a percentage....

  19. 7 CFR 29.3563 - Uniformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... tobacco as it is prepared for market. Uniformity is expressed in grade specifications as a percentage....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3563 - Uniformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... tobacco as it is prepared for market. Uniformity is expressed in grade specifications as a percentage....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3563 - Uniformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... tobacco as it is prepared for market. Uniformity is expressed in grade specifications as a percentage....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3563 - Uniformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... tobacco as it is prepared for market. Uniformity is expressed in grade specifications as a percentage....

  3. 7 CFR 54.31 - Uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.31 Uniforms. All meat... or meat product....

  4. 7 CFR 54.31 - Uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.31 Uniforms. All meat... or meat product....

  5. 7 CFR 54.31 - Uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.31 Uniforms. All meat... or meat product....

  6. 7 CFR 54.31 - Uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.31 Uniforms. All meat... or meat product....

  7. 7 CFR 54.31 - Uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.31 Uniforms. All meat... or meat product....

  8. Radiation Response of Emerging High Gain, Low Noise Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Farr, William H; Zhu, David Q.

    2007-01-01

    Data illustrating the radiation response of emerging high gain, low noise detectors are presented. Ionizing dose testing of silicon internal discrete avalanche photodiodes, and 51-MeV proton testing of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode are discussed.

  9. Coupled Serial and Parallel Non-uniform SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Longhini, Patrick; In, Visarath; Berggren, Susan; Palacios, Antonio; Leese de Escobar, Anna

    2011-04-19

    In this work we numerical model series and parallel non-uniform superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array. Previous work has shown that series SQUID array constructed with a random distribution of loop sizes, (i.e. different areas for each SQUID loop) there exists a unique 'anti-peak' at the zero magnetic field for the voltage versus applied magnetic field (V-B). Similar results extend to a parallel SQUID array where the difference lies in the arrangement of the Josephson junctions. Other system parameter such as bias current, the number of loops, and mutual inductances are varied to demonstrate the change in dynamic range and linearity of the V-B response. Application of the SQUID array as a low noise amplifier (LNA) would increase link margins and affect the entire communication system. For unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), size, weight and power are limited, the SQUID array would allow use of practical 'electrically small' antennas that provide acceptable gain.

  10. Information gains from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandis, S.; Seehars, S.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Nicola, A.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the `surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat ΛCDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter w. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 bits). The other cosmological probes, including weak lensing (1.7 bits) and {H0} measures (1.7 bits), have contributed information but at a lower level. Furthermore, we do not find any significant surprise when updating the constraints of WMAP9 with any of the other experiments, meaning that they are consistent with WMAP9. However, when we choose Planck15 as the prior, we find that, accounting for the full multi-dimensionality of the parameter space, the weak lensing measurements of CFHTLenS produce a large surprise of 4.4 bits which is statistically significant at the 8 σ level. We discuss how the relative entropy provides a versatile and robust framework to compare cosmological probes in the context of current and future surveys.

  11. Evaluating Center Pivot Distribution Uniformity from Catch Can Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Center pivot irrigation is an important irrigation method in Missouri. However, only about half of the pivots in Missouri are the “typical”, full-circle, seven-span pivots. The other half are partial circles and/or have shorter or longer span lengths. Both items significantly impact the economics...

  12. Assessment of MODIS RSB Detector Uniformity Using Deep Convective Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    For satellite sensor, the striping observed in images is typically associated with the relative multiple detector gain difference derived from the calibration. A method using deep convective cloud (DCC) measurements to assess the difference among detectors after calibration is proposed and demonstrated for select reflective solar bands (RSBs) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Each detector of MODIS RSB is calibrated independently using a solar diffuser (SD). Although the SD is expected to accurately characterize detector response, the uncertainties associated with the SD degradation and characterization result in inadequacies in the estimation of each detector's gain. This work takes advantage of the DCC technique to assess detector uniformity and scan mirror side difference for RSB. The detector differences for Terra MODIS Collection 6 are less than 1% for bands 1, 3-5, and 18 and up to 2% for bands 6, 19, and 26. The largest difference is up to 4% for band 7. Most Aqua bands have detector differences less than 0.5% except bands 19 and 26 with up to 1.5%. Normally, large differences occur for edge detectors. The long-term trending shows seasonal oscillations in detector differences for some bands, which are correlated with the instrument temperature. The detector uniformities were evaluated for both unaggregated and aggregated detectors for MODIS band 1 and bands 3-7, and their consistencies are verified. The assessment results were validated by applying a direct correction to reflectance images. These assessments can lead to improvements to the calibration algorithm and therefore a reduction in striping observed in the calibrated imagery.

  13. Assessment of MODIS RSB detector uniformity using deep convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-05-01

    For satellite sensor, the striping observed in images is typically associated with the relative multiple detector gain difference derived from the calibration. A method using deep convective cloud (DCC) measurements to assess the difference among detectors after calibration is proposed and demonstrated for select reflective solar bands (RSBs) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Each detector of MODIS RSB is calibrated independently using a solar diffuser (SD). Although the SD is expected to accurately characterize detector response, the uncertainties associated with the SD degradation and characterization result in inadequacies in the estimation of each detector's gain. This work takes advantage of the DCC technique to assess detector uniformity and scan mirror side difference for RSB. The detector differences for Terra MODIS Collection 6 are less than 1% for bands 1, 3-5, and 18 and up to 2% for bands 6, 19, and 26. The largest difference is up to 4% for band 7. Most Aqua bands have detector differences less than 0.5% except bands 19 and 26 with up to 1.5%. Normally, large differences occur for edge detectors. The long-term trending shows seasonal oscillations in detector differences for some bands, which are correlated with the instrument temperature. The detector uniformities were evaluated for both unaggregated and aggregated detectors for MODIS band 1 and bands 3-7, and their consistencies are verified. The assessment results were validated by applying a direct correction to reflectance images. These assessments can lead to improvements to the calibration algorithm and therefore a reduction in striping observed in the calibrated imagery.

  14. Quantitative multi-pinhole small-animal SPECT: uniform versus non-uniform Chang attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; de Jong, J. R.; Gratama van Andel, H. A.; van der Have, F.; Vastenhouw, B.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O. C.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Beekman, F. J.

    2011-09-01

    Attenuation of photon flux on trajectories between the source and pinhole apertures affects the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We propose a Chang-based non-uniform attenuation correction (NUA-CT) for small-animal SPECT/CT with focusing pinhole collimation, and compare the quantitative accuracy with uniform Chang correction based on (i) body outlines extracted from x-ray CT (UA-CT) and (ii) on hand drawn body contours on the images obtained with three integrated optical cameras (UA-BC). Measurements in phantoms and rats containing known activities of isotopes were conducted for evaluation. In 125I, 201Tl, 99mTc and 111In phantom experiments, average relative errors comparing to the gold standards measured in a dose calibrator were reduced to 5.5%, 6.8%, 4.9% and 2.8%, respectively, with NUA-CT. In animal studies, these errors were 2.1%, 3.3%, 2.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Differences in accuracy on average between results of NUA-CT, UA-CT and UA-BC were less than 2.3% in phantom studies and 3.1% in animal studies except for 125I (3.6% and 5.1%, respectively). All methods tested provide reasonable attenuation correction and result in high quantitative accuracy. NUA-CT shows superior accuracy except for 125I, where other factors may have more impact on the quantitative accuracy than the selected attenuation correction.

  15. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  16. A uniform parameterization of moment tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, C.; Tape, W.

    2015-12-01

    A moment tensor is a 3 x 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parameterization of the five-dimensional space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parameterization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parameterization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parameterization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favor double couples. An appropriate choice of a priori moment tensor probability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation. As a seemingly sensible choice, we consider the homogeneous probability, in which equal volumes of moment tensors are equally likely. We believe that it will lead to improved characterization of source processes.

  17. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  18. Perceptual metrics and visualization tools for evaluation of page uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Jessome, Renee; Astling, Steve; Maggard, Eric; Nelson, Terry; Shaw, Mark; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    Uniformity is one of the issues of most critical concern for laser electrophotographic (EP) printers. Typically, full coverage constant-tint test pages are printed to assess uniformity. Exemplary nonuniformity defects include mottle, grain, pinholes, and "finger prints". It is a real challenge to make an overall Print Quality (PQ) assessment due to the large coverage of a letter-size, constant-tint printed test page and the variety of possible nonuniformity defects. In this paper, we propose a novel method that uses a block-based technique to analyze the page both visually and metrically. We use a grid of 150 pixels × 150 pixels ( ¼ inch × ¼ inch at 600-dpi resolution) square blocks throughout the scanned page. For each block, we examine two aspects: behavior of its pixels within the block (metrics of graininess) and behavior of the blocks within the printed page (metrics of nonuniformity). Both ΔE (CIE 1976) and the L* lightness channel are employed. For an input scanned page, we create eight visual outputs, each displaying a different aspect of nonuniformity. To apply machine learning, we train scanned pages of different 100% solid colors separately with the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. We use two metrics as features for the SVM: average dispersion of page lightness and standard deviation in dispersion of page lightness. Our results show that we can predict, with 83% to 90% accuracy, the assignment by a print quality expert of one of two grades of uniformity in the print.

  19. Temperature uniformity in hyperthermal tumor therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. H.; Robinson, J. E.; Samaras, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumors heated by water bath or by microwave-induced hyperthermia exhibit a response that varies sharply with treatment temperature; therefore, uniform heating of the tumor is essential to quantitate the biological response as a function of temperature. C3H tumors implanted on the mouse flank were easily heated to uniformities within 0.1 C by using water baths. Cold spots up to 1 C below the desired treatment temperature were observed in the same tumors implanted on the hind leg. These cold spots were attributed to cooling by major blood vessels near the tumor. In this case temperature uniformity was achieved by the deposition of 2450 MHz microwave energy into the tumor volume by using parallel-opposed applicators.

  20. Uniform sunlight concentration reflectors for photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Rabady, Rabi Ibrahim

    2014-03-20

    Sunlight concentration is essential to reach high temperatures of a working fluid in solar-thermal applications and to reduce the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation systems. Commonly, sunlight concentration is realized by parabolic or cylindrical reflectors, which do not provide uniform concentration on the receiver finite surface. Uniform concentration of sunlight is favored especially for the PV conversion applications since it not only enhances the conversion efficiency of sunlight but also reduces the thermal variations along the receiving PV cell, which can be a performance and life-span limiting factor. In this paper a reflector profile that uniformly infiltrates the concentrated sunlight into the receiving unit is attempted. The new design accounts for all factors that contribute to the nonuniform concentration, like the reflector curvature, which spatially reflects the sunlight nonuniformly, and the angular dependency of both the reflector reflectivity and the sunlight transmission through the PV cell. PMID:24663464

  1. Uniform distortion of a heated turbulent wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawall, J. G.; Keffer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Digital sampling and processing techniques are used to assess the effect of a uniform and constant strain rate on a slightly heated cylinder-generated wake which had undergone a prestrain development distance of 115 cylinder diameters. The wake is generated by a circular heating element (6.6-mm-diam cylinder) mounted horizontally in the center of a low-speed open return wind tunnel. The strain field is produced by a distortion duct oriented in such a way as to accentuate any periodic interface structure which might be present in the undistorted wake. Interface statistics are presented for both the undistorted (near) wake and the uniformly strained wake, and conditional (point) averages of the streamwise velocity and passive temperature fields of the strained wake. The results suggest that the interface thickness is fairly uniform along the back but decreases along the front with distance from the wake center.

  2. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  3. Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted

  4. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  5. Uniform color space is not homogeneous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2002-06-01

    Historical data of chroma scaling and hue scaling are compared and evidence is shown that we do not have a reliable basis in either case. Several data sets indicate explicitly or implicitly that the number of constant sized hue differences between unique hues as well as in the quadrants of the a*, b* diagram differs making what is commonly regarded as uniform color space inhomogeneous. This problem is also shown to affect the OSA-UCS space. A Euclidean uniform psychological or psychophysical color space appears to be impossible.

  6. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

  7. Capacity achieving nonbinary LDPC coded non-uniform shaping modulation for adaptive optical communications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changyu; Zou, Ding; Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-08-01

    A mutual information inspired nonbinary coded modulation design with non-uniform shaping is proposed. Instead of traditional power of two signal constellation sizes, we design 5-QAM, 7-QAM and 9-QAM constellations, which can be used in adaptive optical networks. The non-uniform shaping and LDPC code rate are jointly considered in the design, which results in a better performance scheme for the same SNR values. The matched nonbinary (NB) LDPC code is used for this scheme, which further improves the coding gain and the overall performance. We analyze both coding performance and system SNR performance. We show that the proposed NB LDPC-coded 9-QAM has more than 2dB gain in symbol SNR compared to traditional LDPC-coded star-8-QAM. On the other hand, the proposed NB LDPC-coded 5-QAM and 7-QAM have even better performance than LDPC-coded QPSK. PMID:27505775

  8. Non-uniformity effects of the inter-foil distance on GEM detector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huang; Han, YI; Zhi-Gang, Xiao; Zhao, Zhang; Wen-Jing, Cheng; Li-Ming, Lü; Wei-Hua, Yan; Ren-Sheng, Wang; Hong-Jie, Li; Yan, Zhang; Li-Min, Duan; Rong-Jiang, Hu; Chen-Gui, Lu; He-Run, Yang; Peng, Ma; Hai-Yan, Gao

    2016-04-01

    The non-uniformity effect of the inter-foil distance has been studied using a gaseous electron multiplication (GEM) detector with sensitive area of 50mm × 50mm. A gradient of the inter-foil distance is introduced by using spacers with different heights at the two ends of the foil gap. While the cluster size and the intrinsic spatial resolution show insignificant dependence on the inter-foil distance, the gain exhibits an approximately linear dependence on the inter-foil distance. From the slope, a quantitative relationship between the change of the inter-foil distance and the change of the gain is derived, which can be used as a method to evaluate the non-uniformity of the foil gap in the application of large-area GEM detectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375094, U1332207, 11120101004), and by Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program

  9. Noise power spectrum measurements under nonuniform gains and their compensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Eun; Shin, Choul Woo

    2016-03-01

    The fixed pattern noise, which is due to the nonuniform amplifier gains and scintillator sensitivities, should be alleviated in radiography imaging and should have less influence on measuring the noise power spectrum (NPS) of the radiography detector. In order to reduce the influence, background trend removing methods, which are based on low-pass filtering, polynomial fitting, and subtracting the average image of the uniform exposure images, are traditionally employed in the literature. In terms of removing the fixed pattern noise, the subtraction method shows a good performance. However, the number of images to be averaged is practically finite and thus the noise contained in the average image contaminates the image difference and inflates the NPS curve. In this paper, an image formation model considering the nonuniform gain is constructed and two measuring methods, which are based on the subtraction and gain correction, respectively, are considered. In order to accurately measure a normalized NPS (NNPS) in the measuring methods, the number of images to be averaged is considered for NNPS compensations. For several flat-panel radiography detectors, the NNPS measurements are conducted and compared with conventional approaches, which have no compensation stages. Through experiments it is shown that the compensation can provide accurate NNPS measurements less influenced by the fixed pattern noise.

  10. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  11. Is Curriculum Quality Uniform? Evidence from Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rachana; Koedel, Cory; Lehmann, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    We construct a large panel dataset of schools and districts in Florida to evaluate curricular effectiveness in elementary mathematics. A key innovation of our study is that we allow for curriculum quality to be non-uniform across various mathematics subtopics. We find evidence of variability in curricular effectiveness across different subtopics…

  12. School Uniform Revisited: Procedure, Pressure and Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Damian; Sinclair, Adele

    2006-01-01

    The House of Lords' decision in "R. (on the application of Begum) v. The Headteacher and Governors of Denbigh High School" considered whether a particular school uniform policy infringed a student's right to manifest her religion under Article 9. This paper analyses the content of this decision, and explores how schools should approach the issue…

  13. Uniforms: Are They a Good Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    In an era where some parents seem unwilling or unable to draw the "clothes" line with their children, where pop culture influences kids' clothing choices as never before, and school safety--including gang violence--is at the top of everyone's minds, school uniforms and dress codes can play a significant role. What that role should be, however, is…

  14. Uniform reflective films deposited on large surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Specially designed baffle which intercepts varying amounts of the vapor stream from an evaporant source, vacuum deposits films of uniform thickness on large substrates, using a single small area evaporation source. A mirror coated by this method will have a reflectance as high as 82 percent at 1216 angstroms with a variation of only plus/minus 2 percent over the surface.

  15. Electroformed screens with uniform hole size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R.

    1968-01-01

    Efficient method electroforms fine-mesh nickel screens, or plagues, with uniform hole size and accurate spacing between holes. An electroformed nickel mandrel has nonconducting silicone rubber projections that duplicate the desired hole size and shape in the finished nickel screen.

  16. Mandatory School Uniforms and Freedom of Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vopat, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    On 10 December 2007 the Akron City School Board--following the precedent set by many school systems across the United States and the world--instituted a policy of mandatory school uniforms for all students in grades K-8. The measure was met with mixed reviews. While many parents supported the measure, a small group of parents from a selective,…

  17. Temperature Distribution in a Uniformly Moving Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Joseph D.; Petrov, Nikola P.

    2009-01-01

    We apply several physical ideas to determine the steady temperature distribution in a medium moving with uniform velocity between two infinite parallel plates. We compute it in the coordinate frame moving with the medium by integration over the "past" to account for the influence of an infinite set of instantaneous point sources of heat in past…

  18. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  19. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  20. Apparatus and method for controlling plating uniformity

    DOEpatents

    Hachman Jr., John T.; Kelly, James J.; West, Alan C.

    2004-10-12

    The use of an insulating shield for improving the current distribution in an electrochemical plating bath is disclosed. Numerical analysis is used to evaluate the influence of shield shape and position on plating uniformity. Simulation results are compared to experimental data for nickel deposition from a nickel--sulfamate bath. The shield is shown to improve the average current density at a plating surface.

  1. Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, Frida; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2007-12-01

    Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/ D followed by picking out every D th sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every D th sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.

  2. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  3. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ge

    2015-10-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)—an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents—could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST.

  4. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)-an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents-could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST. PMID:26507314

  5. Perceptual uniformity of commonly used color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanaki, Ali; Espig, Kathryn; Kimpe, Tom; Xthona, Albert; Marchessoux, Cedric; Rostang, Johan; Piepers, Bastian

    2014-03-01

    Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. Color information is essential for applications such as ophthalmology, dermatology and clinical photography. Use of color at least brings benefits for other applications such as endoscopy, laparoscopy and digital pathology. Remarkably, as of today, there is no agreed standard on how color information needs to be visualized for medical applications. This lack of standardization results in large variability of how color images are visualized and it makes quality assurance a challenge. For this reason FDA and ICC recently organized a joint summit on color in medical imaging (CMI). At this summit, one of the suggestions was that modalities such as digital pathology could benefit from using a perceptually uniform color space (T. Kimpe, "Color Behavior of Medical Displays," CMI presentation, May 2013). Perceptually uniform spaces have already been used for many years in the radiology community where the DICOM GSDF standard provides linearity in luminance but not in color behavior. In this paper we quantify perceptual uniformity, using CIE's ΔE2000 as a color distance metric, of several color spaces that are typically used for medical applications. We applied our method to theoretical color spaces Gamma 1.8, 2.0, & 2.2, standard sRGB, and DICOM (correction LUT for gray applied to all primaries). In addition, we also measured color spaces (i.e., native behavior) of a high-end medical display (Barco Coronis Fusion 6MP DL, MDCC-6130), and a consumer display (Dell 1907FP). Our results indicate that sRGB & the native color space on the Barco Coronis Fusion exhibit the least non-uniformity within their group. However, the remaining degree of perceptual non-uniformity is still significant and there is room for improvement.

  6. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  7. Relationship Between Infant Weight Gain and Later Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ian M.; Camera, Lindsay; Zeiger, Robert S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Taussig, Lynn M.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Covar, Ronina A.; Krawiec, Marzena; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Mauger, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Like obesity, the prevalence of asthma has increased over the past several decades. Accelerated patters of infant growth have been associated with obesity and its co-morbidities. We aimed to determine if infant weight gain pattern is associated with asthma development later in childhood. Birth weight, growth, pulmonary function, and symptom data were collected in a trial of 2–3 year old children at-risk for asthma randomized to a two-year treatment with inhaled corticosteroids or placebo followed by a one year observation period off study medication. Patterns of infant weight gain between birth and study enrollment were categorized as accelerated, average, or decelerated. Regression analyses were used to test the effects of infant weight gain pattern prior to study enrolment on outcomes during the observation year and at study conclusion while adjusting for demographics, baseline symptom severity, study treatment, and atopic indicators. Among the 197 study participants, early life weight gain pattern was not associated with daily asthma symptoms or lung function at the study’s conclusion. However, both prednisone courses (P=.01) and urgent physician visits (P<.001) were significantly associated with weight gain pattern with fewer exacerbations occurring amongst those with a decelerated weight gain pattern. We conclude that early life patterns of weight change were associated with subsequent asthma exacerbations, but were not associated with asthma symptoms or pulmonary function during the preschool years for these children at-risk for asthma. PMID:19725894

  8. The parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) produces genetically uniform offspring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peer; Kohlmann, Klaus; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Genetically identical animals are very much in demand as laboratory objects because they allow conclusions about environmental and epigenetic effects on development, structures, and behavior. Furthermore, questions about the relative fitness of various genotypes can be addressed. However, genetically identical animals are relatively rare, in particular, organisms that combine a high reproduction rate and a complex organization. Based on its exclusively parthenogenetic reproduction mode, it has been suggested that the Marmorkrebs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida), a recently discovered crayfish, is an excellent candidate for research addressing the aforementioned questions. However, until now, a study using molecular markers that clearly proves the genetic uniformity of the offspring has been lacking. Here, with this first molecular study, we show that this crayfish indeed produces genetically uniform clones. We tested this with 19 related individuals of various generations of a Marmorkrebs population by means of six different microsatellite markers. We found that all examined specimens were identical in their allelic composition. Furthermore, half of the analyzed loci were heterozygous. These results and the absence of meioses in previous histological studies of the ovaries lead us to conclude the Marmorkrebs propagates apomictically. Thus, a genetically uniform organism with complex morphology, development, and behavior is now available for various laboratory studies.

  9. Uniform Sampling Table Method and its Applications II--Evaluating the Uniform Sampling by Experiment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new method of uniform sampling is evaluated in this paper. The items and indexes were adopted to evaluate the rationality of the uniform sampling. The evaluation items included convenience of operation, uniformity of sampling site distribution, and accuracy and precision of measured results. The evaluation indexes included operational complexity, occupation rate of sampling site in a row and column, relative accuracy of pill weight, and relative deviation of pill weight. They were obtained from three kinds of drugs with different shape and size by four kinds of sampling methods. Gray correlation analysis was adopted to make the comprehensive evaluation by comparing it with the standard method. The experimental results showed that the convenience of uniform sampling method was 1 (100%), odds ratio of occupation rate in a row and column was infinity, relative accuracy was 99.50-99.89%, reproducibility RSD was 0.45-0.89%, and weighted incidence degree exceeded the standard method. Hence, the uniform sampling method was easy to operate, and the selected samples were distributed uniformly. The experimental results demonstrated that the uniform sampling method has good accuracy and reproducibility, which can be put into use in drugs analysis. PMID:26525264

  10. PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain. PMID:20133152

  11. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  12. Exact Harmonic Metric for a Uniformly Moving Schwarzschild Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guan-Sheng; Lin, Wen-Bin

    2014-02-01

    The harmonic metric for Schwarzschild black hole with a uniform velocity is presented. In the limit of weak field and low velocity, this metric reduces to the post-Newtonian approximation for one moving point mass. As an application, we derive the dynamics of particle and photon in the weak-field limit for the moving Schwarzschild black hole with an arbitrary velocity. It is found that the relativistic motion of gravitational source can induce an additional centripetal force on the test particle, which may be comparable to or even larger than the conventional Newtonian gravitational force.

  13. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  14. Non-Uniform Thickness Electroactive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electroactive device comprises at least two layers of material, wherein at least one layer is an electroactive material and wherein at least one layer is of non-uniform thickness. The device can be produced in various sizes, ranging from large structural actuators to microscale or nanoscale devices. The applied voltage to the device in combination with the non-uniform thickness of at least one of the layers (electroactive and/or non-electroactive) controls the contour of the actuated device. The effective electric field is a mathematical function of the local layer thickness. Therefore, the local strain and the local bending/ torsion curvature are also a mathematical function of the local thickness. Hence the thinnest portion of the actuator offers the largest bending and/or torsion response. Tailoring of the layer thicknesses can enable complex motions to be achieved.

  15. An optical RIE process uniformity control sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.C.; Pruka, W.; Holloway, J.P.; Brake, M.

    1997-12-31

    Radial etch process measurement techniques have been compared using a GEC reference cell for Argon sputter etching of silicon oxide. Post process reflectometry measurements. Langmuir probe studies, and optical tomography results were used to study the process uniformity at various set points. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the ability of a small window plasma tomography sensor to function as a process diagnostic, allowing in situ process monitoring and an alternative uniformity measurement to post process wafer measurements. An overview of the sensor geometry, signal reconstruction, and comparison to Langmuir probe and reflectometry measurements will be presented. Future work will include similar optical analysis for more complex plasma chemistries and industrial reactors.

  16. Ising antiferromagnet on the 2-uniform lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2016-08-01

    The antiferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on the twenty 2-uniform lattices using the Monte Carlo method based on the Wang-Landau algorithm and the Metropolis algorithm to study the geometric frustration effect systematically. Based on the specific heat, the residual entropy, and the Edwards-Anderson freezing order parameter, the ground states of them were determined. In addition to the long-range-ordered phase and the spin ice phase found in the Archimedean lattices, two more phases were found. The partial long-range order is long-range order with exceptional disordered sites, which give extensive residual entropy. In the partial spin ice phase, the partial freezing phenomenon appears: A majority of sites are frozen without long-range order, but the other sites are fluctuating even at zero temperature. The spin liquid ground state was not found in the 2-uniform lattices.

  17. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  18. 48 CFR 14.201-1 - Uniform contract format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform contract format applies shall include Parts I, II, III, and IV. If any section of the uniform... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform contract format... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-1 Uniform contract...

  19. 7 CFR 1131.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... months until the handler has made full payment of outstanding monthly obligations. (a) Uniform butterfat price. The uniform butterfat price per pound, rounded to the nearest one-hundredth cent, shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1007.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... months until the handler has made full payment of outstanding monthly obligations. (a) Uniform butterfat price. The uniform butterfat price per pound, rounded to the nearest one-hundredth cent, shall...